Mammalian cDNA Library from the NIH Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) | Office of Cancer Genomics
The MGC provides the research community full-length clones for most of the defined (as of 2006) human and mouse genes, along with selected clones of cow and rat genes. Clones were designed to allow easy transfer of the ORF sequences into nearly any type of expression vector. MGC provides protein ‘expression-ready’ clones for each of the included human genes. MGC is part of the ORFeome Collaboration (OC).
Shelef, Assaf; Mashiah, Moty; Schumacher, Ilana; Shine, Ofir; Baruch, Yehuda
2011-12-01
Over the past several years, there is an increased demand and use of medical grade cannabis (MGC) in Israel and around the world. Regulation of cannabis growth, use and distribution has been a subject for many discussions in the Israeli medical system, parliament and the media. The increased demand for this kind of treatment, which is considered to be safe and effective in various indications, caused increased interest in the MGC approval mechanisms. Some countries have created regulation and control mechanisms for MGC. The United Nation convention of 1961 defines the medical legal use of narcotic substances. The convention demands full governmental control of the stock of narcotic substances, including cannabis and a governmental mechanism which will license, supervise, control, document and report the yield and consumption. In the Netherlands there is full accordance with the United Nations requirements and there is a special office for MGC which approves growth, production and marketing. MGC is prescribed in the Netherlands and supplied by a pharmacist as a regular drug. In Canada, after a long legal struggle, patients pressured the government to begin a federal program of MGC. In the U.S.A there are differences in cannabis authorization policy between some of the states and the federal government, which opposes MGC use and therefore, places numerous obstacles. Currently in Israel, the Director General of the Ministry of Health, appoints a representative to certify MGC and approve marijuana growers. MGC is directly supplied by the marijuana growers. This is a problematic model which lacks separation between the growers and the patients. Another problem is that the United Nations requirements are not fulfilled. In this review we present the advantages and drawbacks of the current model and propositions for future models for control and regulation of MGC.
INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN GASTRIC CARCINOMA CELL LINE MGC-803 BY MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY PD4
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Hai; Dong Zhiwei; Shou Chengchao
1998-01-01
Objective: To study the effect of McAb PD4 on the cell cycle and on cell injury in the gastric carcinoma cell line,MGC-803. Methods: The effects of McAb PD4 on cell proliferation cycle and cell injury of MGC-803 cells were examined by flow cytometry analysis, DNA electrophoresis and terminal deoxynucle otidyl transferase assay. Fas antigen was investigated by ELISA.Results: McAb PD4 inhibited tumor-growth of MGC-803cells in nude mice by inducing apoptosis. Conclusion:P40 is a tumor-associated antigen distinct from the Fas antigen. Molecular cloning of P40 will define the pathway and mechanism of apoptosis induced by McAb PD4.Induction of apoptosis by McAb PD4 may be a useful therapeutic approach in treating cancer.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田学军; 孟麟; 寿成超; 董志伟
2000-01-01
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is an angiogenic factor playing an important role in tumor growth. VEGF/VPF interacts with endothelial cells by way of two high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinases: flt-1 and KDR. The vast majority of published studies have described expression of the VPF/VEGF receptors specifically in endothelial cells. To elucidate the further function of VEGF in solid tumor development, the coex-pression of VEGF and KDR in gastric adenocarcinoma MGC803 cell lines was shown by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The MGC803 tumor cells could also be strongly immunostained for KDR by immunocytochemistry. It was further demonstrated that exogenous VEGF-165 can stimulate the MGC803 cell growth in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Furthermore, anti-VEGF165 monoclonal antibody and anti-KDR monoclonal antibody could dose-dependently block the VEGF166-induced cell growth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩银淑
2014-01-01
目的 本文通过研究染料木素(Gen)对体外培养MGC-803细胞增殖以及PKA活性的影响,探讨Gen抑制MGC-803细胞系增殖的分子机制.方法 光镜下观察经Gen处理后人胃癌MGC-803细胞形态学改变;应用MTT法检测Gen对体外培养的人胃癌MGC-803细胞增殖影响;PepTag法检测Gen对MGC-803细胞PKA活性的调节.结果 与空白对照组比较,经Gen处理后MGC-803细胞外形呈不规则状、细胞间隙增大、折光性差;MTT实验发现Gen能够抑制体外培养的MGC-803细胞增殖,并且抑制作用呈现时间及浓度依赖性;浓度为40 μg/mL的Gen可以显著上调MGC-803细胞的PKA活性(P＜0.01).结论 Gen对人胃癌细胞系MGC-803细胞的增殖有抑制作用,上调PKA活性可能是Gen抑制人胃癌MGC-803细胞增殖的机制之一.
Approximations for the waiting time distribution in an M/G/c priority queue
Al Hanbali, A.M.; Alvarez, E.M.; Heijden, van der M.C.
2013-01-01
We investigate the use of priority mechanisms when assigning service engineers to customers as a tool for service differentiation. To this end, we analyze a non-preemptive M/G/c priority queue with various customer classes. For this queue, we present various accurate and fast methods to estimate the
Expression of Mitochondrial Transcripts in Gastric MGC803 Cell Line Subjected by Hypoxia
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chengbo Han; Jietao Ma; Huawei Zhou
2009-01-01
OBJECTIVE To determine the transcriptional expression of mitochondrial genome(mtDNA)in MGC803 cell lines subjected by various time-phase hypoxic dispositions,and further to discuss the influence of mtDNA transcripts on hypoxic resistance to irradiation.METHODS The MGC803 cells exposed to anoxic environment were divided into control group(0 h),hypoxic group(2h,8h,16h,24h)and irradiated group after exposing the hypoxia.RTPCR was applied to detect the transcripts of cytochrome oxidase subunit I(COI),NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4(ND4),ND5,cytochrome b(cyt-b)and ATPase6(ATP-6)in MGC803 cell lines at various time-phases of hypoxic,and after X-ray irradiation.Flow cvtometry and colony formation assay were conducted to evaluate the cell cycle phase and survival fraction.RESULTS COI and ND4 transcripts of MGC803 cell lines were influenced remarkably by hypoxia.COI transcripts were decreased remarkably with the elongation time of exposing the hypoxic,and reduced to one fourth of its original amount of prehypoxia 24 h after exposing the hypoxia.ND4 transcripts were increased initially,and elevated to two folds 8 h after exposing the hypoxia,and then reduced to one second 24 h after exposing the hypoxia.Hypoxia resulted in G1 phase blockage,especially after hypoxia for 16 h.The survival fraction of MGC803 cells exposing the hvpoxia in irradiated group showed that as the time of exposing the hypoxic before irradiation is prolonged,the survival fraction of MGC803 cells may have an elevated tendency.CONCLUSION The tumor cells with lower expression levels of the COI and the ND4 after exposing the hypoxic have stronger resistance to the radiation,which indicates that increasing the expression levels of the COI and the ND4 might be advantageous to enhance the sensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells to the radiotherapy.
雅致放射状毛霉MGC317菌株对发酵腐乳性能的影响%Study on Properties of Actinomucor elegans MGC317 on Sufu Fermentation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李达娜
2011-01-01
Study on process of sufu fermentation by Actinomucor elegans MGC317 with Mucor mucedo MHC-7 and Actinomucor elegans M3118 as standard control was conducted to perfect the brewing mechanism. The results showed that with these three strains protease activities on primary fermentation stage were all high and reach their maximums at 48h (59. 55 ～ 69. 10U/mL). During the post fermentation, the proteinase activity of MGC317 reached its maximum 4. 7U/mL at 20 d. Total acid content and free amino-nitrogen raised especially with MGC317. It reached 1.55 g/100 g and 0.6 g/100 g at 70d respectively. But crude protein content and viscosity gradual declined during this period. Sufu fermented by MGC317 with the least mixed bacterium. These data indicated that sufu fermented with MGC317 had its own characteristics such as special flavor, short post-ripening period, anti-hybrid bacteria and so on.%为完善腐乳的酿造机制,以雅致放射状毛霉M3118和高大毛霉菌MHC-7为对照,对分离鉴定的雅致放射状毛霉菌株MGC317发酵腐乳过程进行了研究.结果表明:3个菌株前期发酵阶段产蛋白酶活力都较高,48 h达到最大值,为59.55～69.10 U/mL;后发酵过程中,MGC317发酵腐乳20 d时,蛋白酶活力达到最大值,为4.70 U/mL.3个菌株发酵腐乳的总酸和游离氨基酸态氮含量呈逐渐增加的趋势,其中,以MGC317较为明显,70d时达1.55 g/100 g和0.6 g/100g;而粗蛋白和黏度呈逐渐下降趋势;MGC317发酵成熟的腐乳,杂菌数最少.表明,MGC317菌株发酵腐乳具有风味独特、后熟期短、抗杂菌能力强等特点.
新型光敏药物对胃癌MGC803细胞的光动力学治疗研究%A new photodynamic therapy drug toward gastric cancer MGC803 cell
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈靖京; 魏武; 纪爱芳; 刘天军
2012-01-01
Objective To investigate the treatment efficiency of a new photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) drug synthesized by our laboratory toward MGC803 cells and related mechanisms.Methods Bleaching method was used to evaluate the photostability of drug upon repetitive illumination.MTT assay was used to determine the ability of new drug killing MGC803 cells after PDT.Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was applied to investigate the subcellular localization of drug in MGC803 cells (mitochondria and/or lysosomes).Hoechst staining and flow cytometry (Annexin V/PI double-staining)were performed to detect the death mode of MGC803 cells after PDT.Results This new PDT drug had good stability to light irradiation after repetitive illumination.MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity towards MGC803 cells only by drug or only by irradiation(P＞0.05),but intense lethal effect was observed with drug and light combination (P＜0.05).The phototoxicity of medicine increased with the elevation of concentration,the LD50 was 1.74 μmol/L,and reaching plateau at the concentration of 3.12 μmol/L,even incr easing the concentration.LSCM found that drug localized in lysosomes of MGC803 cells.Hoechst staining showed that the death mode of cells was mainly necrosis and Annexin V/PI doublestaining proved this result further.Conclusion This new PDT drug is an effective PDT sensitizer for MGC803 cells and the death mode of cells is mainly necrosis.%目的 探讨一种新型光敏药物对人胃癌细胞MGC803的光动力学治疗(PDT)作用及其机制.方法 采用bleaching光漂白法评价中国医学科学院生物医学工程研究所纳米与分子设计实验室合成的新型光敏药物(药物A)的光稳定性；MTT法检测药物A对MGC803细胞的杀伤作用；共聚焦激光显微镜(LSCM)观察药物在MGC803细胞内定位情况；Hoechst染色和流式细胞术(Annexin V/PI双染)检测PDT后细胞死亡方式.结果 光照实验表明,药物A对光比较稳定；MTT结果显示,药物A自身对MGC
吐温化合物对人胃癌MGC803细胞生长的影响%Effect of Tween Compounds on Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line MGC803 in Vitro
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张良运; 彭军; 宋颖; 周建国; 梁晓秋; 苏琦
2004-01-01
目的研究吐温化合物对人胃癌MGC803细胞生长的影响,确定诱导分化剂二烯丙基二硫(DADS)的溶媒.方法采用MTT比色、生长曲线分析、细胞活力检测和流式细胞仪观察溶媒Tween 20、Tween 80与二烯炳基二硫(DADS)对MGC803细胞生长的影响.结果 Tween 80稀释浓度由1 000倍～16 000倍时,其他浓度组均具有抑制作用,并呈浓度依赖性(IR 6.2%～92.6%,P0.05),而以此作为溶媒的不同浓度DADS具有抑制MGC803细胞生长的效果,与对照组和Tween 80组的差异均具有显著性(P<0.05),抑制率呈现时间-效应依赖关系(P<0.05),对细胞群体倍增时间延长(P<0.05),并且可阻滞MGC803细胞于G2/M期.结论 Tween 80具有抑制MGC803细胞生长作用,而Tween20对MGC803细胞具有促生长作用.选择Tween 80稀释浓度32 000作为DADS溶媒,用于DADS对人胃癌MGC803细胞影响的研究比较合适.
Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Ling; Liu, Dong-Wu; Tang, Guang-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Yu
2014-09-01
This study aims at evaluating the anticancer effects of berberine hydrochloride (berberine) and d-limonene, alone and in combination, on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 to determine whether berberine and d-limonene work synergistically and elucidate their mechanisms. MGC803 cells were treated with berberine and d-limonene, alone and in combination, for 24-48 h. The inhibitory effects of these drugs on growth were determined by MTT assay. The combination index and drug reduction index were calculated with the Chou-Talalay method based on the median-effect principle. Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy were employed to evaluate the effects of both drugs on cell-cycle perturbation and apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in MGC803 cells. Berberine or d-limonene alone can inhibit the growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine and d-limonene at a combination ratio of 1:4 exhibited a synergistic effect on anti-MGC803 cells. The two drugs distinctly induced intracellular ROS generation, reduced the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced the expression of caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. The combination of berberine and d-limonene showed more remarkable effects compared with drugs used singly in MGC803 cells. The combination of berberine and d-limonene exerted synergistic anticancer effects on MGC803 cells by cell-cycle arrest, ROS production, and apoptosis induction through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway.
Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth
Hansson, Bill S.; Ljungberg, Hakan; Hallberg, Eric; Lofstedt, Christer
1992-05-01
The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). Each glomerulus making up the MGC has a specific functional identity, initially processing information about one specific pheromone component. This indicates that, at least through the first stage of synapses, olfactory information moves through labeled lines.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
塗洪斌; 鄒東霆; 陳維潔; 蔣義國
2004-01-01
目的探討赤魟IPL基因的生物學功能.方法將赤魟IPL基因轉染入人胃癌MGC-801細胞内,觀察細胞形態學變化和FACS分析.結果轉染組MGC-801細胞出現皺縮、破裂等細胞死亡的形態學變化,螢光染色觀察到細胞染色質凝聚成塊、凋亡小體和質膜空泡等現象,凋亡率為18.08%.結論轉染赤魟IPL基因可誘導人胃癌MGC-801細胞凋亡,初步說明赤魟IPL基因是一個功能活性基因.
Combinational Treatment of Curcumin and Quercetin against Gastric Cancer MGC-803 Cells in Vitro
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Jian-Ye Zhang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains a major health problem worldwide. Natural products, with stronger antitumor activity and fewer side effects, are potential candidates for pharmaceutical development as anticancer agents. In this study, quercetin and curcumin were chosen for testing and were applied separately and in combination to human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell growth inhibition. Annexin V-FITC/PI was carried out to measure apoptosis rate. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze mitochondrial membrane potential levels. Western blots were applied to detect expression of cytochrome c, total and phosphorylated ERK and AKT. Combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, release of cytochrome c and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These results indicate that the combination of curcumin and quercetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Notably, effect of combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin on gastric cancer MGC-803 cells is stronger than that of individual treatment, indicating that curcumin and quercetin combinations have potential as anti-gastric cancer drugs for further development.
Combinational Treatment of Curcumin and Quercetin against Gastric Cancer MGC-803 Cells in Vitro.
Zhang, Jian-Ye; Lin, Min-Ting; Zhou, Meng-Jia; Yi, Tao; Tang, Yi-Na; Tang, Si-Li; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao
2015-06-22
Gastric cancer remains a major health problem worldwide. Natural products, with stronger antitumor activity and fewer side effects, are potential candidates for pharmaceutical development as anticancer agents. In this study, quercetin and curcumin were chosen for testing and were applied separately and in combination to human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell growth inhibition. Annexin V-FITC/PI was carried out to measure apoptosis rate. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze mitochondrial membrane potential levels. Western blots were applied to detect expression of cytochrome c, total and phosphorylated ERK and AKT. Combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These results indicate that the combination of curcumin and quercetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Notably, effect of combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin on gastric cancer MGC-803 cells is stronger than that of individual treatment, indicating that curcumin and quercetin combinations have potential as anti-gastric cancer drugs for further development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-03-01
One of the main subjects for further conserving energy by enhancing efficiency of gas turbine system for power generation, etc. is the heightening of operation temperature. The development is urgently needed of heat-resistant ultra-high temperature members which make high-reliable operation under ultra-high temperature possible. Therefore, an introductory study was made aiming at using MGC materials which does not reduce strength even at high temperature and also has plastic deformability as large-size structure members of gas turbine system for power generation use. In FY 1998, the following were studied: (1) basic study to get material design guidelines for making efficiency of MGC materials higher; (2) construction of the basic data for elucidating the manifestation mechanism of high temperature characteristics of MGC materials; (3) setting of gas turbine specifications which are to be the basis of study work in and after FY 1999; (4) setting of parameters to be evaluated, evaluation criteria, etc., and definition of the evaluation criteria for possibility of establishing an MGC ultra-high efficiency gas turbine system. (NEDO)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chun-Hong Zhao; Qi-Fu Li
2005-01-01
AIM: To find and identify specific nuclear matrix proteins associated with proliferation and differentiation of carcinoma cells, which will be potential markers for cancer diagnosis and targets in cancer therapy.METHODS: Nuclear matrix proteins were selectively extracted from MGc80-3 cells treated with or without hexamethylamine bisacetamide (HMBA), and subjected to 2-D gel electrophoresis. The resulted protein patterns were analyzed by Melanie software. Spots of nuclear matrix proteins differentially expressed were excised and subjected to in situ digestion with trypsin. Peptide masses were obtained by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis and submitted for database searching using Mascot tool.RESULTS: The MGc80-3 cells were induced into differentiation by HMBA. There were 22 protein spots which changed remarkably in the nuclear matrix, from differentiation of MGc80-3 cells compared to control.Eleven of which were identified. Seven proteins -actin, prohibitin, porin 31HL, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, vimentin, ATP synthase, and heatshock protein 60 were downregulated, whereas three proteins - heat shock protein gp96, heat shock protein 90-beta, and valosin-containing protein were upregulated,and the oxygen-regulated protein was only found in the differentiated MGc80-3 cells.CONCLUSION: The induced differentiation of carcinoma cells is accompanied by the changes of nuclear matrix proteins. Further characterization of those proteins will show the mechanism of cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as cancer differentiation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韦尉元
2013-01-01
Objective To observe the in vitro effects of 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) combined Compound Ginseng and Astragalus(CGA) on the biological behaviors such as the proliferation,the cloning,apoptosis and migration of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. Methods The cell proliferation inhibition rate was detected by MTT assay,
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li-Feng Qi; Zi-Rong Xu; Yan Li; Xia Jiang; Xin-Yan Han
2005-01-01
AIM: To investigate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles on proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 in vitro and the possible mechanisms involved.METHODS: Chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and morphology. After treatment with various concentrations of chitosan nanoparticles (25, 50, 75, 100 μg/mL) at various time intervals, cell proliferation, ultrastructural changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP),cell cycle phase distribution and apoptotic peaks of MGC803 cells were analyzed by MTT assay, electron microscopy,DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry.RESULTS: Chitosan nanoparticles exhibited a small particle size as 65 nm and a high surface charge as 52 mV.Chitosan nanoparticles markedly inhibited cell proliferation of MGC803 cells with an IC50 value of 5.3 μg/mL 48 h after treatment. After treatment with chitosan nanoparticles,the typical necrotic cell morphology was observed by electron microscopy, a typical DNA degradation associated with necrosis was determined by DNA agarose electrophoresis.Flow cytometry showed the loss of MMP and occurrence of apoptosis in chitosan nanoparticles-treated cells.CONCLUSION: Chitosan nanoparticles effectively inhibit the proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 in vitro through multiple mechanisms, and may be a beneficial agent against human carcinoma.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘洪明; 费洪新; 卢长方; 陈刚; 张可勇
2012-01-01
Objective To observe the effects of curcumin nanoparticle on apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 in vitro. Methods MTT assay was used to establish the dose-effect curves. The changes of cells were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. Flow eytometry was used to analyze MGC803 cell cycle changes. Immunohisto-chemical staining was used for detecting expression status of apoptosis-related Bcl-2 protein. Results MTT results showed that curcumin nanoparticle could inhibit the proliferation of gastric carcinoma cell lines MGC803 in vitro, and it showed dose-time dependence. Damage of cell was lighter in the curcumin nanoparticle group, which were observed by light microscope, while electron microscope observation showed thai perinuclear space of MGC803 cell was clear and had more synaptic vesicle. Flow cytometry showed that curcumin nanoparticle inhibited MGC803 cell in G2/M phase. Immunohisto-chemical staining showed that curcumin nanoparticle made the expression of Bcl-2 protein decrease in MGC803 cell. Conclusion Curcumin nanoparticle induces the apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cell MGC803, which can prolong the drug action time against gastric carcinoma MGC803 cell.%目的 观察姜黄素纳米微粒对人胃癌MGC803细胞凋亡机制的影响.方法 MTT法建立细胞剂量效应曲线,光镜和电镜下观察细胞形态变化,流式细胞仪分析MGC803细胞周期改变,免疫组化法检测凋亡相关Bcl-2蛋白表达.结果 MTT法显示,姜黄素纳米微粒抑制胃癌MGC803细胞增殖,呈现剂量-时间依赖性;光镜观察姜黄素纳米微粒组细胞损伤较轻,电镜下核周隙清晰,突触小泡较多;流式细胞仪法显示,姜黄素纳米微粒使胃癌MGC803细胞阻滞于G2/M期;免疫组织化学法显示,姜黄素纳米微粒使凋亡相关Bcl-2蛋白表达下调.结论 姜黄素纳米微粒诱导人胃癌细胞MGC803凋亡并且延长药物对胃癌MGC803细胞作用时间.
Development in the design and performance of gas avalanche microdetectors (MSGC, MGC, and MDOT)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Hyo-Sung [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Enginering
1997-12-01
There has been continuing development of generic classes of microstrip gas chambers (MSGCs), microgap gas chambers (MGCs) and microdot gas chambers (MDOTs) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past few years, to improve such detectors beyond their present capabilities, to produce detectors suitable for use in current or upcoming experiments, and to allow a basis for new R&D developments which may incorporate these detectors as part of the system. All of these new detectors are collectively referred to as "gas avalanche microdetectors". The MSGC, which was motivated by the pioneering work of A. Oed, has many attractive features, especially excellent spatial resolution (~30 μm rms at normal incidence) and high rate capability (~10^{6} mm^{-2}∙s^{-1}). Moreover, the MGC seems to have certain advantages over the MSGC in speed, stability and simplicity, and the MDOT has larger gain (>10^{4}) and the intrinsic advantages of two-dimensional readout. Because of these attractive properties, they have received a great deal of attention for nuclear and high energy physics experiments, medical X-ray imaging and many other fields requiring radiation detection and measurement.
Cheng, Rubin; Chen, Jianzhen; Wang, Yiqi; Ge, Yuqing; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Guangji
2016-12-01
Dihydrotanshinone (DHT), a natural compound from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae), showed higher cytotoxic potential compared with other tanshinones. Its effect and mechanism on gastric cancer have not been investigated. This study evaluates the effects of DHT on cell proliferation and apoptosis on gastric cancer cells, and elucidates its molecular mechanisms. Human gastric cancer MGC803 and SGC7901 cells were treated with various concentrations of DHT (0-15 μM) for 24 and 48 h, and cell growth was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry and DAPI staining. Western blots were performed to investigate changes in the level of apoptosis related genes in gastric cancer cell. DHT exhibited obvious inhibition of the survival of gastric cancer cells. The IC50 values in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells were 9.14 and 5.39 μM for 24 h, respectively. Cells treated with 6 μM DHT resulted in 41.3% and 35.4% apoptotic cell fractions in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells, respectively, significantly higher than that of the control. Hallmarks of apoptosis were observed in gastric cancer cells after DHT exposure. DHT enhanced the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerases. Furthermore, DHT increased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells. DHT induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, involving activation of caspase proteins and the JNK/p38 signaling pathway. The results indicated that DHT has a promising chemotherapeutic potential for human gastric cancer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Sui
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of 2,4,3′,4′-tetramethoxy-biphenyl (TMBP on human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells were investigated. The molecular mechanisms of TMBP-mediated tumor cell death were detected by clonogenic assay, staining with Hoechst 33258, DNA fragmentation assay, Western blot analysis and flow cytometry assay. Studies on MGC-803 cells treated with TMBP showed that TMBP inhibited the proliferation of MGC-803 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis by TMBP was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, cytochrome C release and activation of caspase cascade, resulting in the cleavage of some specific substrates for caspase-3 such as poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. In conclusion, these findings showed that TMBP may induce the apoptosis of MGC-803 through a mitochondrial/caspase pathway, suggesting its possible use for treating human cancers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谭宇蕙; 李燕红; 陈蔚文; 周本杰; 陈冠林; 郭淑杰
2001-01-01
【目的】探讨比较中药连黛片及其主要单体成分在诱导癌细胞凋亡及引起DNA损伤方面的不同药理作用。【方法】用复方连黛片的大鼠药物血清，以及黄连的主要药效成分小檗碱、青黛的主要药效成分靛玉红分别作用于人胃癌细胞株MGC803，观察药物对细胞生长和凋亡的影响，及其对细胞DNA损伤的作用。【结果】连黛片血清高低剂量组及小檗碱各剂量组细胞与相应对照组细胞生长形态相比较差异较大；甲基绿—派诺宁染色后，细胞表现出典型的凋亡形态；对细胞生长率均有明显抑制。靛玉红各浓度组对细胞生长抑制不明显。琼脂糖凝胶电泳分析表明：小檗碱各浓度组可使细胞DNA裂成大片段；连黛片血清各浓度组对MGC803细胞染色质DNA的损伤作用较小檗碱各浓度组小；靛玉红在实验浓度下对细胞的DNA无损伤作用。【结论】中药连黛片大鼠药物血清与小檗碱一样均能抑制癌细胞生长及诱导细胞凋亡，但其作用比小檗碱弱，对DNA的损伤程度也较轻，这可能是连黛片血清组中由于血清影响了细胞对小檗碱的吸收所致。%【Objective】To compare the pharmacological actions of Li andaiTablet(L T) and its main active components on apoptosis of gastric cancer cells and DNA d amage.【Methods】Effects of Liandai Tablet(LT) and its main active components,be rberine and indirubin,on growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cell strain MGC -803 were explored and their effects on DNA damage were also studied.【Results】LT serum in high and low dosages and berberine could inhibit the growth of MGC-803 as com pared with the control group,and typical morphological features of apoptosis wer e found in the MGC-803 by methyl green pyronin stain assay.But indirubin at vari ous concentrations showed no obvious inhibitory effects. Agarose gel electrophor esis assay revealed that the MGC-803 cell DNA was split
Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru
2003-06-01
MYC, ERBB2, MET, FGFR2, CCNE1, MYCN, WNT2, CD44, MDM2, NCOA3, IQGAP1 and STK6 loci are amplified in human gastric cancer. It has been reported that the gene corresponding to EST H16094 is co-amplified with ERBB2 gene in human gastric cancer. Here, we identified and characterized the gene corresponding to EST H16094 by using bioinformatics. BLAST programs revealed that EST H16094 was derived from the uncharacterized MGC9753 gene. Two ORFs were predicted within human MGC9753 mRNA, and ORF1 (nucleotide position 18-980 of NM_033419.1) was predicted as the coding region of human MGC9753 mRNA based on comparative genomics. Nucleotide sequence of mouse Mgc9753 mRNA was next determined in silico by modification of AK052486 cDNA (deleting C at the nucleotide position 37). Human MGC9753 and mouse Mgc9753 proteins were 320-amino-acid seven-transmembrane receptors with the N-terminal six-cysteine domain and an N-glycosylation site (85.0% total-amino-acid identity). Human MGC9753 protein showed 90.6% total-amino-acid identity with human CAB2 aberrant protein, which lacked the third-transmembrane domain of MGC9753 due to frame shifts within ORF. Human MGC9753 gene, consisting of eight exons, were clustered with PPP1R1B, STARD3, TCAP, PNMT, ERBB2, MGC14832 and GRB7 genes within the 120-kb region. PPP1R1B, STARD3, MGC9753, ERBB2 and GRB7 genes are co-amplified in several cases of gastric cancer. This is the first report on comprehensive characterization of the amplicon around the PPP1R1B-STARD3-TCAP-PNMT-MGC9753-ERBB2-MGC14832-GRB7 locus on human chromosome 17q12.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁军; 宋晓玉; 刘志新; 李月珍
2011-01-01
目的 观察五味子乙素诱导人胃癌细胞株MGC-803凋亡作用.方法 用10、50、100、200 μmol/L浓度五味子乙素作用胃癌细胞株48 h,倒置显微镜下观察细胞增殖情况;MTT法检测五味子乙素对细胞增殖的抑制作用;电镜观察、判定凋亡细胞;凋亡检测试剂盒检测细胞凋亡.结果 倒置显微镜下,随着五味子乙素作用浓度升高,细胞增殖能力随之下降;MTT法亦检测到上述结果;当五味子乙素作用浓度是100 μmol/L时,可检测到明显的凋亡细胞.结论 高浓度的五味子乙素可剂量依赖性地诱导胃癌细胞株MGC-803细胞的凋亡.%Objective To observe the effects of Schisandrin B on apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Methods The gastric cancer cells were treated with 10, 50, 100 and 200 μmol/L Schisandrin B 48 h, and the cells were observed under inverted microscope. MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Schisandrin B on the cancer cells. Observation and assessing apoptosis cells were under electron microscope. Apoptosis detective kit was used to detect the apoptosis. Results With the increasing of drug concentration, the proliferation of thc cells decreased; The same result was gotten by MTT assay. When the cells were treated with 100 μmol/L Schisandrin B, apoptosis cells were detected. Conclusions High concentration Schisandrin B can induce the apoptosis in gastric cancer cell line MGC-803, which is in concentration-dependent manner.
Nie, Chao; Zhou, Jie; Qin, Xiaokang; Shi, Xianming; Zeng, Qingqi; Liu, Jia; Yan, Shihai; Zhang, Lei
2016-02-01
Proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are widely present in the skin and seeds of various plants, with the highest content in grape seeds. Many experiments have shown that proanthocyanidins have antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro. Autophagy and apoptosis of tumor cells induced by drugs are two of the major causes of tumor cell death. However, reports on the effect of autophagy induced by drugs in tumor cells are not consistent and suggest that autophagy can have synergistic or antagonistic effects with apoptosis. This research was aimed at investigating whether proanthocyanidins induced autophagy and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 cells and to identify the mechanism of proanthocyanidins action to further determine the effect of proanthocyanidins-induced autophagy on apoptosis. MTT assay was used to examine the proanthocyanidin cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining were used to detect autophagy. Annexin V APC/7-AAD double staining and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were used to explore apoptosis. Western blotting was used to determine expression of proteins related to autophagy and apoptosis. Real-time quantitative PCR technology was used to determine the mRNA level of Beclin1 and BCL-2. The results showed that proanthocyanidins exhibit a significant inhibitory effect on the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 proliferation in vitro and simultaneously activate autophagy and apoptosis to promote cell death. Furthermore, when proanthocyanidin-induced autophagy is inhibited, apoptosis increases significantly, proanthocyanidins can be used together with autophagy inhibitors to enhance cytotoxicity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuejun Shi; Shicang Su; Jian Long; Bing Mei; Yajun Chen
2011-01-01
As a family of post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression,the microRNAs (miRNAs) control a wide array of biological processes including cell differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis,and the dysregulation of miRNAs is a hallmark of cancer.Here,we found that the microRNA-191 (miR-191) was at a high-expression level in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line MGC803 and human gastric cancer tissues.The results of 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assays showed that miR-191 could promote cell growth and suppress apoptosis of MGC803 cells.The N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1) was confirmed to be a direct target gene of miR-191 by enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter experiment.The mRNA and protein levels of NDST1 were inversely correlated with miR-191 in MGC803 cells,suggesting the negative regulation of NDST1 by miR-191.Furthermore,NDST1 played an inhibitory role and could suppress MGC803 cell proliferation.Our findings suggested that miR-191 could act as an oncogene in MGC803 cells,and the cellular function was partially due to its negative regulation of NDST1.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-03-01
To further enhance energy efficiency by improving on the gas turbine system, it is necessary, first of all, to develop superhigh-temperature materials to allow the system to operate at higher temperatures. Described in this report are studies on the application of MGC (melt-growth composite) materials which retain strength and plastic deformation capability even at high temperatures. Various compositions are explored for improvement on fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YAG system is investigated for the study of relations between microstructural control and fracture toughness. Literature on the development of nanocomposites is surveyed, and a preliminary experiment is discussed for improvement on purity by zone melting crystallization. In a study for an advanced manufacture of larger crystals, technologies of crystal growth condition setting and optimization, quality stabilization, productivity improvement, and crystal size enlargement are taken up. Casting and machining technologies are studied to enable crystals to assume complicated shapes. For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the occurrence of properties proper to high temperatures, a study is made on the evaluation of mechanical and physical properties and on the mechanism and control of crystal growth. Also studied are systems (gas turbine cycle, combustor, etc.) to which MGC materials may be applied. (NEDO)
Liske, J; Driver, S P; Cross, N J G; Couch, W J
2003-01-01
The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue (MGC) is a 37.5 deg^2, medium-deep, B-band imaging survey along the celestial equator, taken with the Wide Field Camera on the Isaac Newton Telescope. The survey region is contained within the regions of both the Two Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release (SDSS-EDR). The survey has a uniform isophotal detection limit of 26 mag arcsec^-2 and it provides a robust, well-defined catalogue of stars and galaxies in the range 16 < B_MGC < 24 mag. Here we describe the survey strategy, the photometric and astrometric calibration, source detection and analysis, and present the galaxy number counts which connect the bright and faint galaxy populations within a single survey. We argue that these counts represent the state of the art and use them to constrain the normalisations (phi*) of a number of recent estimates of the local galaxy luminosity function. We find that the 2dFGRS, SDSS-EDR, SSRS2, Durham/UKST, ESO Slice Project...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
廖淳杰; 覃怡; 唐小曼; 谢玉波
2012-01-01
Objective To observe the effects of fentanyl on the proliferation of human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells and the expression of E2F-1 and p53 genes. Methods MGC-803 cells were incubated with fentanyl 10-4 μmol/L (fentanyl group) or not (control group). Seven days later, the proliferation of MGC-803 cells was determined; the ultrastructure of MGC-803 cells was observed; and the expression of E2F-1 and p53 genes in MGC-803 cells was determined Results Compared with control group, the proliferation of MGC-803 cells was slow with fewer cloning rate of MGC-803 cells in fentanyl group; morphological changes of apoptosis such as nuclear shrinkage and chromosomal DNA fragmentation were shown in fentanyl group; and E2F-1 mRNA upregulation and p53 mRNA downregulation were observed in fentanyl group. Conclusion Fentanyl 10-4 μmol/L may inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis and alter the expression of E2F-1 and p53 genes of carcinoma MGC-803 cells.%目的 观察芬太尼对人胃癌MGC-803细胞生长增殖及E2F-1、p53基因表达的影响.方法 芬太尼10-4 μmol/L与胃癌MGC-803细胞共同孵育为芬太尼组,未加入芬太尼的胃癌MGC-803细胞孵育为对照组.7d后检测胃癌MGC-803细胞生长增殖的变化,观察细胞超微结构的变化,检测细胞E2F-1、p53基因的表达.结果 与对照组相比,芬太尼组MGC-803细胞生长增殖缓慢,细胞克隆形成率更低(P＜0.05)；细胞胞质深染、细胞核固缩、染色质碎裂,出现明显的凋亡表现；细胞E2F-1基因表达增加、p53基因表达减少.结论 10-4 μmol/L芬太尼可抑制胃癌MGC-803细胞的生长增殖,促进细胞的凋亡,并改变E2F-1、p53基因的表达.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Wang; Chang-Lin Li
2016-01-01
Objective:To study the inhibitory effect of silibinin combined with 5-FU treatment on malignant biological behaviors of gastric cancer cell lines MGC803.Methods:Gastric cancer cell lines MGC803 were cultured, divided into NC group, 5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group and treated with different conditions, and then the number of apoptotic cells, the number of invasive cells as well as the expression of proliferation and invasion-related genes were detected.Results:At 6 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h after treatment, the number of apoptotic cells of 5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group was significantly more than that of NC group, the number of invasive cells was significantly less than that of NC group, the number of apoptotic cells of SB+5-Fu group was significantly more than that of 5-Fu group, and the number of invasive cells was significantly less than that of 5-Fu group; mRNA contents of Vav3, PTP1B, GOLPH3, RUNX3, Sipa1, UbcH10, NEDD9, Mig-7, CD157, AEP and Galectin-1 of 5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group were lower than those of NC group; mRNA contents of Vav3, PTP1B, GOLPH3, UbcH10, NEDD9, Mig-7, CD157, AEP and Galectin-1 of SB+5-Fu group were lower than those of 5-Fu group, and mRNA contents of RUNX3 and Sipa1 were not different from those of 5-Fu group. Conclusion:Compared with single 5-FU treatment, silibinin combined with 5-FU treatment can more effectively promote gastric cancer cell apoptosis, inhibit gastric cancer cell invasion and regulate the expression of proliferation and invasion-related genes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈靖京; 王玉茂; 刘天军
2011-01-01
目的 观察本实验室自行合成的新型卟啉类光敏药物对2种人胃癌细胞HGC27和MGC803的光动力学治疗(PDT)作用及作用机制.方法 以人胃癌细胞HGC27和MGC803为实验细胞株.实验分为4组:空白对照组(无药物孵育、无光照),单纯光敏药物组(药物孵育、无光照),单纯光照组(无药物孵育、有光照),光敏药物+光照组(药物孵育,同时有光照).本实验采用光漂白法(bleaching法)测定了该新型光敏药物随着光照时间延长自身的稳定性;采用MTT法检测了光动力学作用后肿瘤细胞的存活率;通过共聚焦激光显微镜(LSCM)观察了该光敏药物在HGC27和MGC803细胞内的具体定位(线粒体或者溶酶体).结果 随着光照时间的延长,该新型卟啉类光敏药物自身稳定性较好;无光照条件下对HGC27和MGC803细胞生长无任何影响(P>0.05);光照存在时对HGC27和MGC803细胞具有强烈的杀伤作用(P0.05), while intense lethal effect was observed upon light illumination (P<0.05). The peak efficacy appeared when concentration is 3.12 μmol/L for both HGC27 and MGC803 cells and the new porphyrin-typed PDT drug localizes in lysosome other than traditional mitochondrion. Conclusion New porphyrin-typed PDT drug is a good photodynamic therapeutic sensitizer for HGC27 and MGC803 tumor cells.
Jarriault, David; Gadenne, Christophe; Lucas, Philippe; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia
2010-10-01
How information is transformed along synaptic processing stages is critically important to understand the neural basis of behavior in any sensory system. In moths, males rely on sex pheromone to find their mating partner. It is essential for a male to recognize the components present in a pheromone blend, their ratio, and the temporal pattern of the signal. To examine pheromone processing mechanisms at different levels of the olfactory pathway, we performed single-cell recordings of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna and intracellular recordings of central neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the antennal lobe of sexually mature Agrotis ipsilon male moths, using the same pheromone stimuli, stimulation protocol, and response analyses. Detailed characteristics of the ORN and MGC-neuron responses were compared to describe the transformation of the neuronal responses that takes place in the MGC. Although the excitatory period of the response is similar in both neuron populations, the addition of an inhibitory phase following the MGC neuron excitatory phase indicates participation of local interneurons (LN), which remodel the ORN input. Moreover, MGC neurons showed a wider tuning and a higher sensitivity to single pheromone components than ORNs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng-Xuan Wu
2016-01-01
Objective:To study the effect of artemisinin combined with cisplatin intervention on epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and ATP generation in MGC-803 gastric cancer cell lines.Methods: MGC-803 gastric cancer cell lines were cultured and divided into control group, cisplatin group, artemisinin group, cisplatin + artemisinin group, cisplatin + artemisinin + NAC group and NAC group, and after different conditions of treatment, cell viability, apoptosis rate as well as levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules, angiogenesis molecules and ATP were determined.Results: Cell viability, ATP generation as well as VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, N-cadherin and Vimentin levels of cisplatin group, artemisinin group and cisplatin + artemisinin group were lower than those of control group, and early apoptosis rate, late apoptosis rate and E-cadherin levels were higher than those of control group; cell viability, ATP generation as well as VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, N-cadherin and Vimentin levels of cisplatin + artemisinin group were lower than those of cisplatin group and artemisinin group, and early apoptosis rate, late apoptosis rate and E-cadherin level were higher than those of cisplatin group and artemisinin group. E-cadherin level of cisplatin + artemisinin + NAC group was lower than that of cisplatin + artemisinin group, and ATP generation as well as VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, N-cadherin and Vimentin levels were higher than those of cisplatin + artemisinin group.Conclusion:Artemisinin combined with cisplatin intervention can synergistically exert the inhibitory effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and ATP generation in MGC-803 gastric cancer cell lines, and the inhibiting effect is partially realized by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species.
Suzuki, H; Akita, K; Yoshioka, Y; Waku, Y
2003-01-01
Melt Growth Composite material (MGC) consists of multiple single crystal with fine entangled in three dimensional network structures. The MGCs are thermally stable and have higher creep resistance. Furthermore, the flexural strength at room temperature can be maintained almost up to the melting point. In this study, in order to discuss the generation mechanism of residual stress in an Al sub 2 O sub 3 /Y sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 1 sub 2 (YAG) binary MGC, the residual stresses of YAG phase were measured by X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. We used a method for stress determination of single crystal by using a position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) system and a specimen-oscillating device. Lattice strains of left brace 4 6 10 right brace in the YAG phase were measured. The residual stresses were from 40 to 120 MPa in tension in the longitudinal direction which corresponds to the solidification direction, 80MPa in compression in the thickness direction, and 70MPa in tension in the width direction. Si...
Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei
2016-06-17
Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
覃怡; 唐小曼; 廖淳杰; 谢玉波
2010-01-01
Objective To investigate the effect of morphine on the expression of p53 mRNA and E2F-1 mRNA in human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC-803 .Methods The human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 was purchased from Cell Biology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and cultured in DMEM liquid culture mediun. The cells were seeded in 6-well plates (1 × 103/ml or 2 × 105/ml, 1 ml/well) and divided into 2 groups (n = 18 wells each):group Ⅰ normal control (group C); group Ⅱ was exposed to 10 μmol/L morphine (group M). The proliferation of the cells was determined by colony formation assay at 7 day of incubation with morphine. The expression of p53 mRNA and E2F-1 mRNA was detected and the ulrastructure of the cells examined with transmission electron microscope after being incubated with morphine for 24 h. Results The proliferation of the cells and E2F-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower and p53 mRNA expression was significantly higher in group M than in group C (P ＜ 0.05). The nuclear evelope was intact and the nucleolus and chromosomes were clearly visible in group C, while in group M fragmentation of nuclear envelope and nucleolus and apoptotic bodies were observed. Conclusion Morphine can inhibit the proliferation of the cells and accelerate the cell apoptosis through up-regulating the expression of p53 gene and down-regulating the expression of E2F-1gene in human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC-803.%目的 探讨吗啡对人胃癌MGC-803细胞p53 mRNA和E2F-1 mRNA表达的影响.方法 人胃癌MGC-803细胞以1×103/ml或2×105/ml密度接种于6孔培养板中,1 ml/孔,随机分为2组(n=18),正常对照组(C组)不作任何处理,吗啡组(M组)加入吗啡,使其终浓度为10μmol/L.于吗啡孵育7 d时应用克隆形成实验测定细胞增殖情况,于吗啡孵育24 h时测定细胞中p53 mRNA、E2F-1 mRNA的表达情况,并采用透射电子显微镜观察细胞超微结构.结果 与C组比较,M组克隆形成率降低,p53 m
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
俞静; 孙丽; 孙晓仙; 陈志红; 钱晖; 许文荣; 朱伟
2016-01-01
目的:运用CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑技术,建立IL-15基因敲除的MGC-803胃癌细胞株.方法:针对IL-15基因作用的功能域,设计了靶向IL-15基因Exon2的gRNA.构建PX458-gRNA重组质粒并转化感受态细胞Stbl3,筛选出重组子后进行测序,通过测序确认了所设计的gRNA的有效性.并进一步通过流式细胞分选以及ELISA法检测筛选出的MGC-803胃癌细胞株IL-15基因的表达水平.结果:测序结果显示敲除质粒构建成功,与阴性对照组相比,转染PX458-IL-15-gRNA质粒组IL-15的表达水平明显低于阴性对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P＜ 0.001).结论:利用CRISPR-Cas9系统成功构建了IL-15基因敲除的MGC-803细胞,为后续研究IL-15在肿瘤中的作用机制和功能奠定了基础.
Synthesis of B{sub 4}C from Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}+Mg+C by SHS Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, G J; Xu, J Y [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China); Zhuang, H R; Li, W L, E-mail: guojianjiang@sit.edu.cn [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)
2011-05-15
This paper deals with the formation of Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) powders from Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}+Mg+C system by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. B{sub 4}C without impurities could be obtained after the acid enrichment and distilled water washing. The reaction mechanism of SHS of B{sub 4}C was proposed: the synthesis of B{sub 4}C is a process involving the decomposition of Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} into the intermediate phase B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which reacts with Mg and Carbon to form B{sub 4}C.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan, E-mail: moonsonlife@yahoo.com; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei, E-mail: doctorlife@126.com
2016-06-17
Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. -- Highlights: •Blockage of glycolysis might be a novel way to anticancer. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate could inhibit glycolysis and regulate mitochondrial pathway in cancer cells. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate would be the novel agents on treatment of gastric cancer.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐玲; 曲秀娟; 刘云鹏; 刘静; 丁小娣; 侯科佐; 张晔
2011-01-01
目的:明确5-FU处理胃癌MGC803细胞后自噬的存在,并探讨自噬在5-FU诱导凋亡中的作用.方法:5-FU处理胃癌MGC803细胞.MTT检测细胞增殖能力.流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡.Western blot检测蛋白表达.荧光显微镜观察自噬的发生.结果:0.1-1000mg/L的5-FU作用MGC803细胞48h,抑制细胞增殖50%的药物浓度(IC50)为2.07mg/L±1.14mg/L.2mg/L和5mg/L的5-FU作用细胞48h,细胞凋亡率分别为22.46%±3.21%和32.27%±4.52%.同时,5-FU诱导细胞自噬的发生,观察到LC3的点状聚集和LC3-Ⅱ蛋白的提高.并且,5-FU抑制了PI3K/Akt/mTOR通路的活性.用氯喹抑制自噬明显提高了5-FU诱导的细胞调亡(P<0.05).结论:5-FU诱导保护性自噬并阻止了胃癌MGC803细胞的凋亡.5-FU和自噬抑制剂的联合应用可能是很有希望的胃癌治疗策略.%AIM: To investigate whether 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)induces autophagy in human gastric cancer cell line MGC803 and to identify the role of autophagy in 5-FU -induced cell apoptosis.METHODS: After cultured MGC803 ceils were treated with 5-FU, cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay; cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry; protein expression was detected by Western blot; and autophagy was observed by fluorescent microscopy.RESULTS: The concentration of 5-FU inducing a 50％ inhibition of cell proliferation (IC50) was 2.07 mg/L ± 1.14 mg/L in MGC803 cells. After treatment with 2 and 5 mg/L 5-FU for 48 h, the rates of cell apoptosis were 22.46％ ± 3.21％ and 32.27％ ± 4.52％, respectively. Autophagy, characterized by an increase in the number of punctate LC3 dots and the level of LC3-Ⅱ protein,was observed in cells treated with 5-FU. The activity of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was inhibited by 5-FU treatment. Inhibition of autophagy with chlorochine significantly enhanced 5-FU -induced apoptosis (P ＜ 0.05).CONCLUSION: 5-FU-induced protective autophagy prevents MGC803 cells from apoptosis.Combination therapy with 5-FU and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
柳舟; 董卫国; 张韵婷; 马静静; 夏虹
2016-01-01
目的：百里醌（thymoquinone，TQ）是具多种生物活性的天然生物单体，参与多种肿瘤细胞增殖、凋亡及转移过程。MGC-803细胞株为常见的低分化胃黏液腺癌细胞。本研究探讨 TQ 对胃癌 MGC-803细胞增殖和凋亡的影响及其可能的信号通路。方法以终浓度分别为0、10、25、50、75、100和125μmol／L TQ 处理 MGC-803细胞12、24和36 h， MTT 法检测其对增殖的影响，Hoechst 染色观察细胞凋亡，蛋白质印迹法分析 Bax、Bcl-2、survivin、Cyclin D1、caspase-3、caspase-9、PTEN、AKT、P-AKT、聚腺苷酸二磷酸核糖转移酶（poly ADP-ribose polymerase，PARP）、cleaved caspase-3及cleaved caspase-9的表达，流式细胞仪检测细胞周期及凋亡。结果 MTT 结果显示，10～125μmol／L TQ 抑制胃癌MGC-803细胞，呈现明显的剂量-时间依赖性。流式结果显示，0、25、50和75μmol／L TQ 作用 MGC-803细胞24 h，凋亡率分别为（1．59±1．04）％、（4．26±0．35）％、（8．37±0．67）％和（21．73±1．71）％，F ＝209．76，P ＜0．001；G2／M 期细胞分别为（4．18±1．09）％、（6．81±0．28）％、（8．68±0．15）％和（12．26±1．46）％，F＝80．388，P ＜0．001。蛋白质印迹结果显示，PTEN 信号通路相关蛋白 PTEN 及凋亡相关蛋白 Bax、cleaved caspase-3及 cleaved caspase-9表达上调，抑凋亡相关蛋白 Bcl-2、caspase-3、caspase-9、survivin 和 PARP 表达下降。结论PTEN 信号通路参与 TQ 抑制胃癌 MGC-803细胞增殖、诱导其凋亡的过程。%OBJECTIVE Thymoquinone is a natural plant monomer which has biological activity,involved in the process of proliferation,apoptosis and metastasis of tumor cells.MGC-803 cells line is a comman poorly differentiated ad-enocarcinoma of gastric mucons cell.The objective of this study was explore the proliferation and apoptosis effects of thy-moquinone on human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells and the
Gershenson, Carlos
2011-01-01
The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
CLEMENT O BEWAJI
Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.
Seniuk, Olga F; Gorovoj, Leontiy F; Beketova, Galina V; Savichuk, Hatalia O; Rytik, Petr G; Kucherov, Igor I; Prilutskay, Alla B; Prilutsky, Alexandr I
2011-01-01
The goal of this investigation was to comparatively study the efficiency of traditionally used anti-infective drugs and biopolymer complexes originated from the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius (L.:Fr.) Fr.: 1) water-soluble melanin-glucan complex (MGC; -80% melanins and -20% beta-glucans) and 2) insoluble chitin-glucan-melanin complex (ChGMC; -70% chitin, -20% beta-glucans, and -10% melanins). Infectious materials (Helicobacter pylori, Candida albicans, and Herpes vulgaris I and HIV-1(zmb) were used in pure cultures of in vitro and in vivo models on experimental animals. Comparison studies of fungal biopolymers and effective modern antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral drugs were used in in vitro models. The comparative clinical efficiency of ChGMC and of etiotropic pharmaceuticals in models of H. pylori, C. albicans, and H. vulgaris I infection contamination were studied. Using in vitro models, it was established that MGC completely depresses growth of C. albicans. MGC had an antimicrobial effect on H. pylori identical to erythromycin in all concentrations, and had a stronger action on this bacterium than other tested antibiotics. Tested MGC possesses simultaneously weak toxicity and high anti-HIV-1 activity in comparison with zidovudine (Retrovir). The obtained results show that CLUDDT therapy in Wistar rats with the application of ChGMC is, on average, 1.35-1.43 times as effective as a traditional one. Considering the absence of MGC and ChGMC toxic properties on blood cells even in very high concentrations, these complexes may be used as a source of biopolymers for the creation of essentially new agents for wide application in infectious pathology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王阳; 李昌林
2016-01-01
目的：：研究水飞蓟宾联合5-FU 处理对胃癌细胞株 MGC803恶性生物学行为的抑制作用.方法：培养胃癌细胞株 MGC803,分为 NC 组、5-Fu 组、SB＋5-Fu 组并用不同条件进行处理,检测凋亡细胞数目、侵袭细胞数目以及增殖、侵袭相关基因的表达量.结果：处理后6h、12h、18h、24h 时,5-Fu 组、SB＋5-Fu 组凋亡细胞的数目显著多于 NC 组、侵袭数目显著少于 NC 组,SB＋5-Fu 组凋亡细胞的数目显著多于5-Fu 组、侵袭数目显著少于5-Fu 组(P ＜0．05)；5-Fu 组、SB＋5-Fu 组细胞中 Vav3、PTP1B、GOLPH3、RUNX3、Sipa1、UbcH10、NEDD9、Mig-7、CD157、AEP、Galectin-1的 mRNA 含量低于 NC组(P ＜0．05)；SB＋5-Fu 组细胞中 Vav3、PTP1B、GOLPH3、UbcH10、NEDD9、Mig-7、CD157、AEP、Galectin-1的 mRNA 含量低于5-Fu 组(P ＜0．05),RUNX3、Sipa1的 mRNA 含量与5-Fu 组差异无统计学意义(P ＞0．05).结论：与5-FU 单药处理相比,水飞蓟宾联合5-FU 处理能够更为有效的促进胃癌细胞凋亡、抑制胃癌细胞侵袭、调节增殖和侵袭相关基因的表达.%Objective:To study the inhibitory effect of silibinin combined with 5-FU treatment on malignant biological behaviors of gastric cancer cell lines MGC803.Methods:Gastric cancer cell lines MGC803 were cultured,divided into NC group,5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group and treated with different conditions,and then the number of apoptotic cells,the num-ber of invasive cells as well as the expression of proliferation and invasion-related genes were detected.Results:6 h,12 h,18 h and 24 h after treatment,the number of apoptotic cells of 5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group was significantly more than that of NC group,the number of invasive cells was significantly less than that of NC group,the number of apoptotic cells of SB+5-Fu group was significantly more than that of 5-Fu group,and the number of invasive cells was significantly less than that of 5-Fu group;mRNA contents of Vav3
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱显军; 邓海军; 叶耿泰; 沈智勇; 李风萍; 郭伟洪; 杨庆斌; 刘浩; 李国新
2016-01-01
目的：利用TALEN技术敲除人胃癌细胞系MGC803细胞株MYH9基因，观察MYH9基因沉默后细胞周期及凋亡改变。方法根据斯丹赛FastTALETM TALEN试剂盒说明书，设计并构建靶向MYH9基因的TALEN质粒对。通过质粒转染、DNA测序、RT-PCR和Western blot等检测质粒活性，成功挑取MYH9基因敲低单克隆株，并对构建好的细胞株进行周期和凋亡检测。结果成功挑选的MGC803单克隆细胞株未检测到MYH9基因完全敲除；MYH9基因敲低后，MGC803细胞周期受阻于G2/M期（P<0.05），早期凋亡增加（P<0.05）。结论利用TALEN技术成功构建MGC803细胞MYH9基因敲低单克隆株，该模型有助于后期深入探讨胃癌MYH9基因功能。%Objective To construct a MYH9 gene knockout model in MGC803 cell line using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and observe its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Methods According to FastTALETM TALEN Kit, we designed TALEN pairs and constructed the plasmids targeting to MYH9 gene. After detecting their activity in MGC803 cells by plasmid transfection, DNA sequencing, RT-PCR and western blot, we selected the monoclonal cells and studied the changes in the cell cycle and apoptosis. Results MYH9 gene could not be knocked out but knocked down in selected MGC803 monoclonal cells, which caused cell cycle arrested at G2/M phase (P<0. 05) and a significant increase in the cell number with early apoptosis (P<0. 01). Conclusion We successfully generated a MYH9 knockdown model in MGC803 cell lines by TALEN, which could be in favor of MYH9 function study in gastric cancer.
Dupuy, Fabienne; Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel
2017-01-01
Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited. Volatile plant compounds (VPCs) are detected by other functional types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) projecting in another area of the antennal lobe. However, Phe-ORNs also respond to some VPCs. Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with the detection and processing of sex pheromone information. As interference between the different odor sources might depend on the spatial and temporal features of the two types of stimuli, we investigated here behavioral and neuronal responses to a brief sex pheromone blend pulse in a VPC background as compared to a control background in the male noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. We observed male orientation behavior in a wind tunnel and recorded responses of Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons to a brief sex pheromone pulse within a background of individual VPCs. We also recorded the global input signal to the MGC using in vivo calcium imaging with the same stimulation protocol. We found that VPCs eliciting a response in Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons masked responses to the pheromone and decreased the contrast between background odor and the sex pheromone at both levels, whereas α-pinene did not interfere with first order processing. The calcium signal produced in response to a VPC background was tonic, lasting longer than the VPC stimulus duration, and masked entirely the pheromone response
基于M/G/C排队模型的地铁人行通道宽度设置%Determined Method of Subway Footway Width Based on M/G/C Gueuing Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金瑞俊; 陈京荣; 尉陇亮; 崔笑川
2013-01-01
通过分析地铁人行通道内的客流特性,依据行人流将整个通道划分为相反方向的2个独立通道,每个通道构成一个排队系统.分析排队系统的参数特性,建立M/G/C排队优化模型,得出地铁通道宽度的设置方法.利用专业的Simio仿真软件,建立地铁通道内的客流仿真模型,并对所建立的排队优化模型进行验证,使得对满足最大客流需求的地铁通道的设置具有理论依据和实际操作性.%The footway is divided into 2 channels whose directions are opposite based on passenger flow by analyzing the characteristics of passenger flow in subway, and each channel was described as a queuing system. The M/G/C queuing optimization model was built based on the analysis of parameter characteristics of queuing system, and an approach for determining subway footway width was obtained. A simulation model was built by using professional Simio simulation software, which was proposed to testify the queuing optimization model, and it makes the approach for determining subway footway width which meets the maximum value of passenger flow with theoretical basis and practical operation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
DFT/BLYP method is used to theoretically investigate the electron transfer (ET) reactions between M (Li, Na, Mg)-C6H6 and M+-C6H6 complexes in the gas phase. The geometry optimization of the precursor complexes and the transition state in the process of ET reaction was performed at 6-31G basis set level. The activation energy, the coupling matrix element and the rate constant of the ET reaction are calculated at semi-quantitative level.
Xu, Meng; Dong, Jun-Feng; Wu, Han; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu
2017-01-01
Hybridization of sympatric closely related species may sometimes lead to introgression and speciation. The sister species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta both use (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal as sex pheromone components but in reversed ratios. Female H. armigera and male H. assulta could hybridize and produce fertile male hybrids, which can then backcross with females of the two parent species to get backcross lines in the laboratory. In this study, we compared the olfactory responses to pheromone compounds in the periphery and in the antennal lobes (ALs) of males of the two species, as well as of their hybrids and backcrosses. Single-sensillum recordings were carried out to explore characteristics of male-specific sensilla on the antennae, and in vivo calcium imaging combined with digital 3D-reconstruction was used to describe what happens in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the AL. The results show that the population ratio of the two male-specific types of olfactory sensory neurons responding to two sex pheromone components are controlled by a major gene, and that the allele of H. armigera is dominant. Consistently, the study of the representative areas activated by sex pheromone components in the ALs further support the dominance of H. armigera. However, the topological structure of the MGC in the hybrid was similar but not identical to that in H. armigera. All subtypes of male-specific sensilla identified in the two species were found in the male hybrids and backcrosses. Moreover, two new subtypes with broader response spectra (the expanded A subtype and the expanded C subtype) emerged in the hybrids. Based on the inheritance pattern of the pheromone sensory system, we predict that when hybridization of female H. armigera and male H. assulta occurs in the field, male hybrids would readily backcross with female H. armigera, and introgression might occur from H. assulta into H. armigera through repeated backcrossing. PMID:28119570
Montgomery, Stephen H; Ott, Swidbert R
2015-04-15
Interspecific comparisons of brain structure can inform our functional understanding of brain regions, identify adaptations to species-specific ecologies, and explore what constrains adaptive changes in brain structure, and coevolution between functionally related structures. The value of such comparisons is enhanced when the species considered have known ecological differences. The Lepidoptera have long been a favored model in evolutionary biology, but to date descriptions of brain anatomy have largely focused on a few commonly used neurobiological model species. We describe the brain of Godyris zavaleta (Ithomiinae), a member of a subfamily of Neotropical butterflies with enhanced reliance on olfactory information. We demonstrate for the first time the presence of sexually dimorphic glomeruli within a distinct macroglomerular complex (MGC) in the antennal lobe of a diurnal butterfly. This presents a striking convergence with the well-known moth MGC, prompting a discussion of the potential mechanisms behind the independent evolution of specialized glomeruli. Interspecific analyses across four Lepidoptera further show that the relative size of sensory neuropils closely mirror interspecific variation in sensory ecology, with G. zavaleta displaying levels of sensory investment intermediate between the diurnal monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), which invests heavily in visual neuropil, and night-flying moths, which invest more in olfactory neuropil. We identify several traits that distinguish butterflies from moths, and several that distinguish D. plexippus and G. zavaleta. Our results illustrate that ecological selection pressures mold the structure of invertebrate brains, and exemplify how comparative analyses across ecologically divergent species can illuminate the functional significance of variation in brain structure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐玲; 曲秀娟; 刘云鹏; 刘静; 张晔; 侯科佐; 姜又红
2011-01-01
Objective Gastric cancer cells are insensitive to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). To sensitize gastric cancer cells to TRAIL, we treated gastric cancer MGC803 cells with TRAIL and cisplatin. Methods Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Expression of proteins was analyzed by Western blot. The distribution of lipid rafts and death receptors was analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. MGC803 cells were pretreated with 50 mg/L nystatin for 1 h, and followed by the treatment of cisplatin and TRAIL. Results 100 μg/L TRAIL resulted in (8.51±3.45)% inhibition of cell proliferation and caused (3.26±0.89)% cell apoptosis in MGC803 cells. Compared with the treatment with cisplatin alone, treatment with TRAIL (100 μg/L) and cisplatin (8.49 mg/L, IC50 dose of 24 h) led to a dramatic increase in both inhibition of cell proliferation [(52.58±4.57)% vs. (76.43±5.35)%, P＜0.05]and cell apoptosis [(23. 10±3. 41)% vs. (42.56±4.11)%, P＜0.05]. Moreover, cleavage of caspase-8 and caspase-3 was detected. TRAIL (100 μg/L) did not induce obvious lipid rafts aggregation and death receptor 4 (DR4) clustering, while cisplatin (8.49 mg/L) significantly promoted the localization of DR4 in aggregated lipid rafts. Pretreatment with 50 mg/L nystatin, a cholesterol-sequestering agent, triggered (3.66±0.52)% cell apoptosis after 24 h. Pretreatment with nystatin for 1 h before the addition of 8.49 mg/L cisplatin for 24 h caused a decreased tendency to cell apoptosis [(25.74±3.28)% vs. (22.76±2.97)%]. While, pretreatment with nystatin before the addition of cisplatin and TRAIL, the proportion of apoptotic cells decreased from (43. 16±4.26)% to (31.52 ± 3.99)% (P＜0.05). Conclusion Cisplatin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer MGC803 cells through clustering death receptors into lipid rafts.%目的 探讨顺铂影响胃癌细胞对肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李月珍; 武庚; 张际绯; 金秀东; 赵富生
2014-01-01
Objective:To investigate the effects of Schisandrin B (Sch B)on the proliferation, migration and MMP-9 expression in human gastric cancer cells and to discuss the possible mechanism .Methods:CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell relative viability af-ter treatment with Sch B for different concentration (50、100、200、400和800μmol/L).The morphologic changes of gastric cancer cells were observed and the mitosis index was assessed by inverted light microscope .Cell migration was determined by scratch assay when the cells treated with 200μmol/L Sch B.Quantitative PCR was applied to examination of the mRNA of MMP -9 in human gastric cancer cells .Results:CCK-8 assay showed that Sch B , in a dose-and time dependent manner , inhibited the growth of MGC -803 cells.After 24、48、72 h treated with Sch B , a large number of shrinkage cells can be seen under light microscope , accompanied with nuclear envelope disappears , nuclear chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation , and the mitosis index decreased with a dose-and time dependent manner .The scratch assay showed that, the migration rates were(39.57 ±9.14)%, (56.57 ±10.04)% and (68.21 ±11.43) %respectively after 24、48、72 h treated with 200μmol/L Sch B,which were significantly slower than those in the control group (P<0.05).PCR results showed that MMP-9 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in gastric cancer cells after treated with 200μmol/L Sch B for 24, 48 and 72 h.Conclusion:Sch B inhibits gastric cancer cells proliferation in a dose -and time dependent manner , and dreases the migration ability , which may be attributed to the down -regulation of the MMP-9 mRNA expres-sion.%目的：观察五味子乙素B（ Schisandrin B ， Sch B）对人胃癌细胞MGC－803增殖、迁移能力及基质金属蛋白酶－9（matrix metalloproteinase 9， MMP－9）mRNA表达的影响，并探讨其可能的分子机制。方法：采用CCK－8法检测50、100、200、400和800μmol／L Sch B对胃
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢娟; 李强; 朱玉芬; 卢方安
2010-01-01
目的 观察肉桂酸(CINN)和1,25-二羟维生素D3(1,25-(OH)2D3)联合用药对人胃腺癌MGC-803细胞的诱导分化作用.方法 1,25-(OH)2D3和CINN联合用药(2mmol/L CINN+10-6mmol/L 1,25-(OH)2D3、1mmol/L CINN+10-5mmol/L 1,25-(OH)2D3)及单独用药作用于MGC-803细胞48h后,应用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法测定细胞增殖能力,平板克隆试验测定细胞集落形成率,流式细胞仪测定细胞周期,TRAP-银染法测定端粒酶活性.结果 1,25-(OH)2D3和CINN联合用药后胃腺癌细胞生长明显受抑制,细胞周期出现向G0/G1期移行的特征性动力学改变,端粒酶活性明显受到抑制.细胞集落形成率明显下降.结论 CINN和1,25-(OH)2D3联合用药对人胃腺癌细胞的诱导分化具有协同作用.
Li, Mei; kong, Lin Lin; Gou, Yi; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong
2014-07-01
A novel binuclear copper(II) complex (complex 1) with taurine Schiff base and imidazole has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Single-crystal analysis revealed that 1 displays the sulfonate-bridged dinuclear copper(II) centers. Both copper atoms are five-coordinated and exhibit slightly distorted square pyramidal geometries. Each of copper atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from different taurine Schiff base ligands, and one nitrogen atom from one imidazole ligand. The interaction between 1 and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results indicated that 1 could bind to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode and show efficient cleavage activity. In addition, 1 showed an antitumor effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MGC-803 cells were arrested in the S phase after treatment with 1. Fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that 1 could induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells.
Li, Mei; Kong, Lin Lin; Gou, Yi; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong
2014-07-15
A novel binuclear copper(II) complex (complex 1) with taurine Schiff base and imidazole has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Single-crystal analysis revealed that 1 displays the sulfonate-bridged dinuclear copper(II) centers. Both copper atoms are five-coordinated and exhibit slightly distorted square pyramidal geometries. Each of copper atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from different taurine Schiff base ligands, and one nitrogen atom from one imidazole ligand. The interaction between 1 and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results indicated that 1 could bind to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode and show efficient cleavage activity. In addition, 1 showed an antitumor effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MGC-803 cells were arrested in the S phase after treatment with 1. Fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that 1 could induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells.
Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens
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Pablo ePregitzer
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe, we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC, where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that, plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization.
Petri Net Modeling and Performance Analyzing for MGC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANGYongfeng; LIXing; ZHANGKe
2004-01-01
This article analyses the advantages of disassembled gateway based on its functions, and introduces the processing of signaling and media streams. Moreover, a function-separated gateway is designed and implemented, which consists of media gateway controller and media gateway. So we propose originally the Stochastic Petri-net model of media gateway controller, and educe the mathematical relationship between load of gateway controller and other factors such as rate of call initialing, delay of call setup, and delay of call release. Lastly, we summarize some important factors which affect performances of gateway, and make a conclusion that decreasing the delay of call setup will improve Media gateway controller efficiency.
... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...
Franceschet, Massimo
2014-01-01
Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...
Erdi, Peter
2008-01-01
This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.
Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian
2012-01-01
In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...
Communication complexity and information complexity
Pankratov, Denis
Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information
Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan
2013-06-01
In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An anillin-Ect2 complex stabilizes central spindle microtubules at the cortex during cytokinesis.
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Paul Frenette
Full Text Available Cytokinesis occurs due to the RhoA-dependent ingression of an actomyosin ring. During anaphase, the Rho GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ect2 is recruited to the central spindle via its interaction with MgcRacGAP/Cyk-4, and activates RhoA in the central plane of the cell. Ect2 also localizes to the cortex, where it has access to RhoA. The N-terminus of Ect2 binds to Cyk-4, and the C-terminus contains conserved DH (Dbl homologous and PH (Pleckstrin Homology domains with GEF activity. The PH domain is required for Ect2's cortical localization, but its molecular function is not known. In cultured human cells, we found that the PH domain interacts with anillin, a contractile ring protein that scaffolds actin and myosin and interacts with RhoA. The anillin-Ect2 interaction may require Ect2's association with lipids, since a novel mutation in the PH domain, which disrupts phospholipid association, weakens their interaction. An anillin-RacGAP50C (homologue of Cyk-4 complex was previously described in Drosophila, which may crosslink the central spindle to the cortex to stabilize the position of the contractile ring. Our data supports an analogous function for the anillin-Ect2 complex in human cells and one hypothesis is that this complex has functionally replaced the Drosophila anillin-RacGAP50C complex. Complexes between central spindle proteins and cortical proteins could regulate the position of the contractile ring by stabilizing microtubule-cortical interactions at the division plane to ensure the generation of active RhoA in a discrete zone.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gys M. Loubser
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Tenreiro Machado
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...
Simons, J.
2008-01-01
This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives, puz
Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S
2010-01-01
Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.
Leemput, van de I.A.
2016-01-01
In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior
Huang, Ke-Bin; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Wang, Meng; Wei, Jian-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Jian-Lian; Hu, Kun; Liang, Hong
2013-01-01
Three new copper(II) complexes of 5-pyridin-2-yl-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinoline (PYP), i.e. [Cu₂(PYP)₂Cl₄] (1), [Cu₄(PYP)₄(ClO₄)₂(H₂O)₂](ClO₄)₂·2H₂O (2), and [Cu₂(PYP)2Cl4]n (3), were synthesized and fully characterized. In comparison to free PYP, complexes 1-3 exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity against tested human tumor cell lines BEL-7404, SK-OV-3, A549, A375, MGC-803 and NCI-H460, with IC₅₀ values ranging from 0.31 to 30.76 μM. Complexes 1-3 exhibited lower cytotoxicity to HL-7702 than them to cancer cells. Complex 1 induced apoptotic death of BEL-7404, which involved mitochondria in the process. Caspase-3 activation assay indicated that 1 could be an efficient activator of caspase-3. DNA binding studies by UV-vis, DNA-melting, competitive binding, CD, viscosity measurement and agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed that intercalation might be the most likely binding mode of 1 with DNA.
Fisher, Stephen D
1999-01-01
The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia
2013-01-01
This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dut...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....
African Journals Online (AJOL)
yellow power was collected as polydatin-lecithin complex. ... performed on an Agilent 1260 HPLC system. The injection volume .... rabbits. Biomed. Pharmacother 2009; 63: 457-462. 4. Liu B, Du J, Zeng J, Chen C, Niu S. Characterization and.
Freitag, Eberhard
2005-01-01
The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...
Solvent dependence of the solid-state structures of salicylaldiminate magnesium amide complexes.
Rood, Jeffrey A; Landis, Ashley M; Forster, Daniel R; Goldkamp, Timothy; Oliver, Allen G
2016-12-01
There are challenges in using magnesium coordination complexes as reagents owing to their tendency to adopt varying aggregation states in solution and thus impacting the reactivity of the complexes. Many magnesium complexes are prone to ligand redistribution via Schlenk equilibrium due to the ionic character within the metal-ligand interactions. The role of the supporting ligand is often crucial for providing stability to the heteroleptic complex. Strategies to minimize ligand redistribution in alkaline earth metal complexes could include using a supporting ligand with tunable sterics and electronics to influence the degree of association to the metal atom. Magnesium bis(hexamethyldisilazide) was reacted with salicylaldimines [(1)L = N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)salicylaldimine and (2)L = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)salicylaldimine] in either nondonor (toluene) or donor solvents [tetrahydrofuran (THF) or pyridine]. The structures of the magnesium complexes were studied in the solid state via X-ray diffraction. In the nondonor solvent, i.e. toluene, the heteroleptic complex bis{μ-2-[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)iminomethyl]phenolato}-κ(3)N,O:O;κ(3)O:N,O-bis[(hexamethyldisilazido-κN)magnesium(II)], [Mg2(C19H22NO)2(C6H18NSi2)2] or [(1)LMgN(SiMe3)2]2, (1), was favored, while in the donor solvent, i.e. pyridine (pyr), the formation of the homoleptic complex {2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)iminomethyl]phenolato-κ(2)N,O}bis(pyridine-κN)magnesium(II) toluene monosolvate, [Mg(C27H38NO)2(C5H5N)2]·C5H5N or [{(2)L2Mg2(pyr)2}·pyr], (2), predominated. Heteroleptic complex (1) was crystallized from toluene, while homoleptic complexes (2) and the previously reported [(1)L2Mg·THF] [Quinque et al. (2011). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. pp. 3321-3326] were crystallized from pyridine and THF, respectively. These studies support solvent-dependent ligand redistribution in solution. In-situ (1)H NMR experiments were carried out to further probe the solution behavior of
Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta
2013-01-01
In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...
Complex chemistry with complex compounds
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Eichler Robert
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.
2004-08-01
Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.
Taylor, Joseph L
2011-01-01
The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively
Flanigan, Francis J
2010-01-01
A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion
Carleson, Lennart
1993-01-01
Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...
Mather, John C.
2012-01-01
What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and
Mather, John C.
2012-01-01
What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and
Synthese und Struktur von Basen-Addukten des Magnesiumindenids
Behrens, Ulrich
2009-01-01
Abstract Abstract. An improved X-ray structure determination of magnesium indenide (Mg(C9H7)2, 1) at low temperature was carried out. Four donor-acceptor complexes of Mg(C9H7)2 (1) with O- and N-donor Lewis bases have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray structure analysis. With dioxane and tetramethylethylenediamine (tmeda) two simple monomeric complexes, [Mg(C9H7)2(dioxane)2] ? 1.5 dioxane (2a) and [Mg(C9H7)2(tmeda)] (3), were formed. With the O-donors tetrahydrofuran (thf...
Research and Implementation of Interworking between MGC and MGC%软交换设备之间互通的研究和实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱木成; 晏宪华; 袁鑫昌
2004-01-01
首先简要介绍了软交换的定义和功能,接着阐明了软交换设备的组网结构、实现软交换设备互通的两种协议,即:SIP-T和BICC,并对其进行了分析和比较,然后给出了用SIP-T实现软交换设备间互通的典型流程以及ISUP和SIP在消息级和参数级的映射和转化方法.
Qin, Jiao-Lan; Shen, Wen-Ying; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Zhao, Li-Fang; Qin, Qi-Pin; Yu, Yan-Cheng; Liang, Hong
2017-01-01
Three new oxoaporphine Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes 1–3 have been synthesized and fully characterized. 1–3 have similar mononuclear structures with the metal and ligand ratio of 1:2. 1–3 exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the OD ligand and cisplatin against HepG2, T-24, BEL-7404, MGC80–3 and SK-OV-3/DDP cells, with IC50 value of 0.23−4.31 μM. Interestingly, 0.5 μM 1–3 significantly caused HepG2 arrest at S-phase, which was associated with the up-regulation of p53, p21, p27, Chk1 and Chk2 proteins, and decrease in cyclin A, CDK2, Cdc25A, PCNA proteins. In addition, 1–3 induced HepG2 apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrion pathway as evidenced by p53 activation, ROS production, Bax up-regulation and Bcl-2 down-regulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, 3 inhibited tumor growth in HepG2 xenograft model, and displayed more safety profile in vivo than cisplatin. PMID:28436418
Influence of Milling Conditions on the Hydriding Properties of Mg-C Nanocomposites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hristina Stoyadinova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Mg75 at.%, CB25 at.% (CB: carbon black composites were synthesized at different ball milling conditions (milling energy, milling duration, and environment and their hydriding properties were characterized by high-pressure DSC. The SEM observations revealed that the samples consist of 5–15 μm Mg particles, surrounded and in some cases coated by carbon particles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the Mg phase of all as-obtained composite powders is nanocrystalline with average crystallite size in the range 20–30 nm, depending on the milling conditions. The best hydriding properties, expressed in low-temperature hydriding (below 150°C and improved cycle life, showed the composites milled at dry conditions. This is obviously due mainly to the successful Mg surface protection by the carbon. Additional decrease of the hydriding temperature (<100°C was achieved applying higher-energy milling, but at the same time the cycling stability deteriorated, due to the extremely fine particles and microstructure achieved under these conditions. The composites milled in the presence of heptane showed rapid capacity decline during cycling as well. The observed difference in the hydriding behavior of the Mg-CB composites is attributed to the different coating efficiency of the carbon milled under different conditions with Mg, which is supposed to protect magnesium from oxidation and plays a catalytic role for the hydriding reaction.
Some Physicochemical Phenomena Observed During Fabrication of Mg-C Cast Composites
Olszówka-Myalska, Anita
2016-08-01
Some effects acquired in composites processed under industrial conditions were presented. Glassy carbon particles (GCp) and short carbon fibers were applied in magnesium matrix composites fabricated by suspension casting. As the matrix magnesium alloys with Al and without Al but with Zn, Zr and rare earth elements (RE) were used. The main interest was focused on the behavior of the reinforcing components, depending on the magnesium alloying elements. The observation of the stirred suspensions during their industrial processing detected an effect of carbon components' migration to the top of the crucible, suggesting segregation processes. Experiments with unmixed suspensions performed by way of remelting the composites with uniformly distributed reinforcement showed that the segregation effect depends on the magnesium matrix composition. In the case of the alloy with Al, two zones with (top) and without reinforcement can be formed. For the alloys with Zn, Zr, and RE, an additional zone of segregated carbon reinforcement can appear directly at the bottom of the crucible. The SEM/EDS examination also showed some differences in the influence of the magnesium matrix on the carbon reinforcement dependent on the applied alloying elements. The most destructive effect was detected for the Al-containing alloy and minor defects in GCp were formed when Gd with Nd were applied.
Tan, Shanguang
2007-01-01
A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.
Complex networks analysis of language complexity
Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002
2013-01-01
Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...
Zheng, Fangyang
2002-01-01
The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...
Radioisotope trithiol complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.
2016-08-30
The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.
Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection
Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's ...
Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection
Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...
Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection
Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...
Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection
Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...
Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.
2002-01-18
Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.
Evolution of biological complexity
Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Travis C. Collier
2000-01-01
In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...
Complexity, Systems, and Software
2014-08-14
complex ( Hidden issues; dumbs down operator) 11 Complexity, Systems, and Software Sarah Sheard August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie...August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Addressing Complexity in SoSs Source: SEBOK Wiki System Con truer Strateglc Context
Halyo, Edi
2015-01-01
We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.
Quaternionic versus complex maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asorey, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Scolarici, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Solombrino, L [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)
2007-11-15
We discuss the relation between completely positive quaternionic maps and the corresponding complex maps obtained via projection operation. In order to illustrate this formalism, we reobtain the (complex) qubit subdynamics of maximally entangled Bell states, as complex projection of unitary dynamics between quaternionic pure states.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun
2004-01-01
Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.
Complex variables I essentials
Solomon, Alan D
2013-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r
Complexity Through Nonextensivity
Bialek, W; Tishby, N; Bialek, William; Nemenman, Ilya; Tishby, Naftali
2001-01-01
The problem of defining and studying complexity of a time series has interested people for years. In the context of dynamical systems, Grassberger has suggested that a slow approach of the entropy to its extensive asymptotic limit is a sign of complexity. We investigate this idea further by information theoretic and statistical mechanics techniques and show that these arguments can be made precise, and that they generalize many previous approaches to complexity, in particular unifying ideas from the physics literature with ideas from learning and coding theory; there are even connections of this statistical approach to algorithmic or Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, a set of simple axioms similar to those used by Shannon in his development of information theory allows us to prove that the divergent part of the subextensive component of the entropy is a unique complexity measure. We classify time series by their complexities and demonstrate that beyond the `logarithmic' complexity classes widely anticipated in...
Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty
2012-11-01
Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.
[Gastrointestinal myoelectric complex].
Aeberhard, P
1977-03-01
Complexes of high amplitude action potentials have been shownn to occur in the stomach and duodenum of fasting dogs. These complexes recur at regular intervals as long as the animal is fasting, and they are propagated aborally over the whole lenght of the small bowel. The cyclical pattern is replaced by the digestive of "fed" pattern of activity upon feeding. Therefore the pattern has been known as the interdigestive myoelectrical complex. Studies in herbivorous species however, in which the flow of digesta is more or less continous have show that cyclically recurring migrating complexes can be demonstrated in these species as well. Thus, the term "migratory myoelectrical complex" may be more appropriate. Propagation of the complex is not dependent upon continuity of the bowel wall nor movement of luminal contents. Replacement of the complex by the digestive pattern of activity upon feeding and the restitution of the interdigestive pattern at the end of the digestive phase seem to be under nervous as well as hormonal control. The interdigestive complex in the dog has been looked upon as a "housekeeper" which sweeps the bowel clear of contents at the end of the digestive phase. Aspects of possible physiological significance of the complex are: periodic elimination of refluxed duodenal contents from the stomach and prevention of bacterial colonization of the small bowel by the colonic flora. The existence of propagated complexes has not been demonstrated in man, but there is increasing evidence for cyclical activity which fits the pattern.
Simplicial complexes of graphs
Jonsson, Jakob
2008-01-01
A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Goertzel
1992-01-01
Full Text Available The concept of pattern is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's logical depth, Koppel's sophistication', and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--orders of complexity and levels of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the structural complexity, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwer Khurshid
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.
Complex networks and computing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG
2009-01-01
@@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.
Complex Systems and Dependability
Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw
2012-01-01
Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth
Recognizing dualizing complexes
Jorgensen, Peter
2003-01-01
Let A be a noetherian local commutative ring and let M be a suitable complex of A-modules. This paper proves that M is a dualizing complex for A if and only if the trivial extension A \\ltimes M is a Gorenstein Differential Graded Algebra. As a corollary follows that A has a dualizing complex if and only if it is a quotient of a Gorenstein local Differential Graded Algebra.
Motulsky, Arno G
2006-02-01
Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶郁; 张璞
2003-01-01
In this paper we generalize the Koszul complexes and Koszul algebras, and introduce the higherKoszul (t-Koszul) complexes and higher Koszul algebras, where t ≥ 2 is an integer. We prove that an algebra ist-Koszul if and only if its t-Koszul complex is augmented, i.e. the higher degree (≥ 1) homologies vanish. Forarbitrary t-Koszul algebra , we also give a description of the structure of the cohomology algebra Ext ( 0, 0)by using the t-Koszul complexes, where the 0 is the direct sum of the simples.
Adaptive Leadership: Fighting Complexity with Complexity
2014-06-01
complex tasks.30 An astonishing level of sophistication arises out of the intricate combination of these simple insect minds. 23 Snowden and Boone, “A...system: individuals, with little or no central oversight, perform simple tasks: posting Web pages and linking to other Web pages…and the co- evolutionary ...existence today. 31 Bert Hölldobler and Edward Osborne Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York, NY
Complexity and valued landscapes
Michael M. McCarthy
1979-01-01
The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...
Williams, R.M.; Verhoeven, J.M.
1994-01-01
In the recent paper by Atwood et al. (Nature 368, 229-231, 1994) on a purification procedure for C60 and C70 by selective complexation with calixarenes, it was implied that we had previously studied the complexation of C60 with cyclodextrins (Williams, R. M. & Verhoeven, J. W., Recl. Trav. Chim.
Complexity, Robustness, and Performance
B. Visser (Bauke)
2002-01-01
textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not
Silverman, Richard A
1984-01-01
A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.
Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G
1996-01-01
We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells cor
Trombly, Christopher E.
2014-01-01
As schools, districts, and the overall education system are complex entities, both the approaches taken to improve them and the methods used to study them must be similarly complex. Simple solutions imposed with no regard for schools' or districts' unique contexts hold little promise, while seemingly insignificant differences between those…
Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth
2013-01-01
A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…
Donderi, Don C.
2006-01-01
The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…
Complexity, Robustness, and Performance
B. Visser (Bauke)
2002-01-01
textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not nec
Conducting metal dithiolate complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;
1985-01-01
Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...
Complexity dimensions and learnability
S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); M. Polman (Mark)
1992-01-01
textabstractA stochastic model of learning from examples has been introduced by Valiant [1984]. This PAC-learning model (PAC = probably approximately correct) reflects differences in complexity of concept classes, i.e. very complex classes are not efficiently PAC-learnable. Blumer et al. [1989
Leading healthcare in complexity.
Cohn, Jeffrey
2014-12-01
Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.
Supporting complex search tasks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo
2015-01-01
There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is fragme......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together...
Comments on Holographic Complexity
Carmi, Dean; Rath, Pratik
2016-01-01
We study two recent conjectures for holographic complexity: the complexity=action conjecture and the complexity=volume conjecture. In particular, we examine the structure of the UV divergences appearing in these quantities, and show that the coefficients can be written as local integrals of geometric quantities in the boundary. We also consider extending these conjectures to evaluate the complexity of the mixed state produced by reducing the pure global state to a specific subregion of the boundary time slice. The UV divergences in this subregion complexity have a similar geometric structure, but there are also new divergences associated with the geometry of the surface enclosing the boundary region of interest. We discuss possible implications arising from the geometric nature of these UV divergences.
Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonzalo Guirado
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Meisenheimer complexes are important intermediates in Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (SNAr. They are formed by the addition of electron rich species to polynitro aromatic compounds or aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups. It is possible to distinguish two types of Meisenheimer or ÃÂƒ-complexes, the ÃÂƒHcomplex or ÃÂƒX-complex (also named ipso, depending on the aromatic ring position attacked by the nucleophile (a non-substituted or substituted one, respectively. Special examples of ÃÂƒX- or ipso-complexes are formed through intermediate spiro adducts, via intramolecular SNAr. Some of these spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes, a type of ÃÂƒXcomplex, are exceptionally stable in solution and/or as solids. They can be isolated and characterized using X-ray, and various spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, UV-Vis, IR, and fluorescence. A few of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes are zwitterionic and exhibit interesting photophysical and redox properties. We will review recent advances, synthesis and potential applications of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes.
Selenophene transition metal complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
1994-07-27
This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η^{5}- and the η^{1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The ^{77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η^{1}(S)-bound thiophenes, η^{1}(S)-benzothiophene and η^{1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η^{1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh_{3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O_{3}SCF_{3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η^{1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.
Controllability of Complex Systems
Slotine, Jean-Jacques
2013-03-01
We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Idamarie Leth
2017-01-01
The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society...... in the form of 7 individual vignette interviews with municipal mid-level managers and professional consultants in five Danish municipalities. The study finds that the regulation is more complex than it looks, and that the complexity is handled through simplifying decision-making patterns that can be seen...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张帆; 林秋月; 郑博雯; 胡益丹; 郑晓诗
2012-01-01
溶液法合成了二(去甲基斑蝥酸根)合钴(Ⅱ)酸二(2-氨基吡啶鎓)配合物(Hapy)2[Co(DCA)2]·6H2O(DCA＝去甲基斑蝥酸根,C8H8O5; Hapy=2-氨基吡啶鎓,C5H7N2).通过元素分析、摩尔电导、红外光谱、热重分析和X-射线单晶衍射对配合物进行了结构表征.该配合物为三斜晶系P(1)空间群,中心离子配位数为6.利用荧光光谱法和粘度法对配合物与DNA之间的相互作用进行了研究.结果表明,配合物以部分插入模式与DNA键合,猝灭常数Ksq为0.18.同时,利用荧光光谱研究了配合物与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)的相互作用.结果显示,配合物能与BSA发生较强的键合作用,键合常数Ka=3.88× 106 L· mol-1.体外抗增值活性结果显示,配合物对人肝癌细胞(SMMC-7721)和人胃癌细胞(MGC80-3)的抑制活性均强于去甲基斑蝥酸钠.%A cobalt (Ⅱ) complex (Hapy)2[Co (DCA)2] · 6H2O (DCA =demethylcantharate,7-oxabicyclo [2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylate,C8H8O5; Hapy＝2-aminopyridinum,C5H7N2) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis,molar conductance,infrared spectra,thennogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction.The complex crystallized in the triclinic crystal system,P1 space group,with a=0.662 23(7) nm,b=1.016 41(11) nm,c=1.194 60(12)nm,V=0.792 49(14) nm3,Z=1,Dc=1.520 g·cm-3,Mr=725.57,λ(Mo Kc)=0.071 073 nm,F(000)=381,R=0.028 3 and wR =0.082 1 (Ⅰ＞2σ (1)).The coordination number of metal ion was six and DCA ions were tridentate ligand.DNA binding property of the complex was investigated by fluorescence spectra and viscosity measurements.Results indicated the complex could bind to DNA via partial intercalation mode.The value of quenching constant Ksq was 0.18.The interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also studied by fluorescence spectra.The results suggested that the complex could quench the fluorescence of BSA with the binding constant Ka of 3.88×106 L·mo1-1.The antiproliferative activity test
Berthiaume, A; Laplante, S; Berthiaume, Andre; Dam, Wim van; Laplante, Sophie
2000-01-01
In this paper we give a definition for quantum Kolmogorov complexity. In the classical setting, the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of the shortest program that can produce this string as its output. It is a measure of the amount of innate randomness (or information) contained in the string. We define the quantum Kolmogorov complexity of a qubit string as the length of the shortest quantum input to a universal quantum Turing machine that produces the initial qubit string with high fidelity. The definition of Vitanyi (Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Annual Conference on Computational Complexity, 2000) measures the amount of classical information, whereas we consider the amount of quantum information in a qubit string. We argue that our definition is natural and is an accurate representation of the amount of quantum information contained in a quantum state.
Complexity for Artificial Substrates (
Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.
2014-01-01
Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss)
On scattered subword complexity
Kása, Zoltán
2011-01-01
Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.
Complexity for Artificial Substrates (
Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.
2014-01-01
Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o
Beyond complex Langevin equations
Wosiek, Jacek
2016-01-01
A simple integral relation between a complex weight and the corresponding positive distribution is derived by introducing a second complex variable. Together with the positivity and normalizability conditions, this sum rule allows to construct explicitly equivalent pairs of distributions in simple cases. In particular the well known solution for a complex gaussian distribution is generalized to an arbitrary complex slope. This opens a possibility of positive representation of Feynman path integrals directly in the Minkowski time. Such construction is then explicitly carried through in the second part of this presentation. The continuum limit of the new representation exists only if some of the additional couplings tend to infinity and are tuned in a specific way. The approach is then successfully applied to three quantum mechanical examples including a particle in a constant magnetic field -- a simplest prototype of a Wilson line. Further generalizations are shortly discussed and an amusing interpretation of ...
Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...
Complex coacervate core micelles.
Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A
2009-01-01
In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
none,
2012-05-01
This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.
Moore, Cristopher
2011-11-01
In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.
DNA complexes: Durable binders
Urbach, Adam R.
2011-11-01
A tetra-intercalator compound that threads through a DNA double-helix to form a remarkably stable complex exhibits an unusual combination of sequence specificity and rapid association yet slow dissociation.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
CLEMENT O BEWAJI
Key Words : Histidine, complex compound, acetylacetone, stability constant, ... of a class of chemical compounds called amino acids, which are organic .... Synthesis and techniques in inorganic chemistry W. B. Saunders campany, 2nd Edition.
Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan
2014-01-01
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leleur, Steen
. Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...
Supporting complex search tasks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;
2015-01-01
There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...
complexes containing isocyanide and
African Journals Online (AJOL)
MR. S. O. OWALUDE
Synthesis of new ruthenium(II) complexes containing isocyanide and labile nitrile ligands. Owalude,* S. O. ... both compounds has distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Key words: Nitrile ... commercial product from Acros Organics. All.
Complex and unpredictable Cardano
Ekert, Artur
2008-08-01
This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.
Network Complexity of Foodwebs
Standish, Russell K
2010-01-01
In previous work, I have developed an information theoretic complexity measure of networks. When applied to several real world food webs, there is a distinct difference in complexity between the real food web, and randomised control networks obtained by shuffling the network links. One hypothesis is that this complexity surplus represents information captured by the evolutionary process that generated the network. In this paper, I test this idea by applying the same complexity measure to several well-known artificial life models that exhibit ecological networks: Tierra, EcoLab and Webworld. Contrary to what was found in real networks, the artificial life generated foodwebs had little information difference between itself and randomly shuffled versions.
Microsolvation in molecular complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pasquini, M; Schiccheri, N; Piani, G; Pietraperzia, G; Becucci, M; Castellucci, E [European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: gianni.pietraperzia@unifi.it
2008-11-15
In this paper, we report the results of our study of the microsolvation process involving the anisole molecule. We are able to study bimolecular complexes of different compositions. Changing the second partner molecule bound to anisole, we observed complexes of different geometries, because of the large variety of interactions possible for the anisole. High-resolution electronic spectroscopy is the best tool to reveal the correct vibrationally (zero-point) averaged geometry of the complex. That is done by analysing the rovibronic structure of the electronic spectra, which are related to the equilibrium geometry of the complex as well as dynamical processes, both in the ground and in the excited state. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by high-level quantum calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)
2004-08-13
Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)
Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres
Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M.; Sindelar, R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.
2016-12-01
Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).
Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M. [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Sindelar, R. [University of Applied Science Hannover, Faculty II (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry (Germany); Renz, F., E-mail: renz@acd.uni-hannover.de [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)
2016-12-15
Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).
Chuang, W; Tomasiello, A; Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2005-01-01
We construct a class of symplectic non--Kaehler and complex non--Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten--dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)--structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.
Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity
2014-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are a central pillar of modern computational complexity theory. This survey provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity, which includes the study of quantum constraint satisfaction problems. Over the past decade and a half, this field has witnessed fundamental breakthroughs, ranging from the establishment of a "Quantum Cook-Levin Theorem" to deep insights into the structure of 1D low-temperature quantum systems via s...
Conversation, coupling and complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador;
We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....
Provability, complexity, grammars
Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai
1999-01-01
The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.
Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil
2010-01-01
Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.
Advances in network complexity
Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank
2013-01-01
A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian STAN
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钟霞; 安平; 张俊清; 黄剑; 陈年根
2012-01-01
合成了两种吲哚醌类Schiff碱配体及其过渡金属Cu(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Co(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)的配合物,并用电子光谱、红外光谱、1H NMR加以表征.采用MTT比色法测定了配合物的体外抗肿瘤活性.经电子光谱、红外光谱、1H NMR所研究的结构与所预测的基本一致,并获得了L1·Zn、L2·Cu、L2·Zn、L2·Mn、L2·Co、L2·Ni等配合物的体外抗肿瘤活性测试结果.L1·Zn配合物对肺癌细胞SPCA-1、舌癌细胞Tb、胃癌细胞MGC以及白血病细胞K562的抑制作用较弱,吲哚醌单Schiff碱配体及金属Zn均可能是导致L1·Zn配合物抗肿瘤活性较弱的因素.L2的配合物对癌细胞都有一定的杀伤作用,尤其是Cu(Ⅱ)的配合物,其对这几种细胞的抑制作用明显好于其他配合物.%Several schiff base ligands and their transition metal Cu(Ⅱ) >Zn(Ⅱ) >Mn(Ⅱ) .Co(Ⅱ) .Ni( Ⅱ)complexes were prepared and characterized by UV-Vis, IR and 'H NMR. Antitumor activities of the complexes in vitro were studied by the method of MTT. Structures studied by UV-Vis, IR and ' H NMR were basically in accordance with our prediction. Test results of L1 · Zn complex's antitumor activity in vitro had been acquired. Complex L1 · Zn showed a weak inhibition effect on tumor cells SPCA-1 ,Tb, MGC and K562, potentially because of indoledione single-Schiff base ligand and metal Zn. The complexes of L2 had antitumor activity. Among the five complexes,the Cu(Ⅱ)complex had the novel highest antitumor activity.
Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm
Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying
2007-01-01
This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...
Turbulent complex (dusty) plasma
Zhdanov, Sergey; Schwabe, Mierk
2017-04-01
As a paradigm of complex system dynamics, solid particles immersed into a weakly ionized plasma, so called complex (dusty) plasmas, were (and continue to be) a subject of many detailed studies. Special types of dynamical activity have been registered, in particular, spontaneous pairing, entanglement and cooperative action of a great number of particles resulting in formation of vortices, self-propelling, tunneling, and turbulent movements. In the size domain of 1-10 mkm normally used in experiments with complex plasmas, the characteristic dynamic time-scale is of the order of 0.01-0.1 s, and these particles can be visualized individually in real time, providing an atomistic (kinetic) level of investigations. The low-R turbulent flow induced either by the instability in a complex plasma cloud or formed behind a projectile passing through the cloud is a typical scenario. Our simulations showed formation of a fully developed system of vortices and demonstrated that the velocity structure functions scale very close to the theoretical predictions. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative and turbulent particle motions are present in many physical, astrophysical, and biological systems. Therefore, experiments with turbulent wakes and turbulent complex plasma oscillations are a promising mean to observe and study in detail the anomalous transport on the level of individual particles.
Complexity and Dynamical Depth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terrence Deacon
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.
Complexity: The bigger picture
Vicsek, Tamás
2010-01-01
If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...
Algorithmic Relative Complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniele Cerra
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.
Complexity of Economical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. P. Pavlos
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.
Projectively related complex Finsler metrics
Aldea, Nicoleta
2011-01-01
In this paper we introduce in study the projectively related complex Finsler metrics. We prove the complex versions of the Rapcs\\'{a}k's theorem and characterize the weakly K\\"{a}hler and generalized Berwald projectively related complex Finsler metrics. The complex version of Hilbert's Fourth Problem is also pointed out. As an application, the projectiveness of a complex Randers metric is described.
Emergy and ecosystem complexity
Ulgiati, Sergio; Brown, Mark T.
2009-01-01
The question "What drives complexity?" is addressed in this paper. To answer this question, we explore the way energy and material resources of different quality flow through ecosystems and support, directly and indirectly, ecosystems growth and development. Processes of resource transformation throughout the ecosystem build order, cycle materials, generate and sustain information. Energy drives all these processes and energetic principles explain much of what is observed, including energy degradation according to the laws of thermodynamics. Emergy, a quantitative measure of the global environmental work supporting ecosystem dynamics, is used here in order to provide a deeper understanding of complexity growth and decline in ecosystems. Ecosystem complexity is discussed in this paper in relation to changes in structure, organization and functional capacity, as explained by changes in emergy, empower, and transformity.
Introduction to Complex Plasmas
Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick
2010-01-01
Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.
Emergent Complex Network Geometry
Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra
2014-01-01
Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...
Boccara, Nino
2010-01-01
Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).
Bender, Carl M.
1999-07-01
This talk proposes a generalization of conventional quantum mechanics. In conventional quantum mechanics one imposes the condition H †=H , where † represents complex conjugation and matrix transpose, to ensure that the Hamiltonian has a real spectrum. By replacing this mathematical condition with the weaker and more physical requirement H ‡=H , where ‡= PT represents combined parity reflection and time reversal, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex-phase space. This talk describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical and quantum-field-theoretic models.
Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....
2011-01-01
The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...
Viral quasispecies complexity measures.
Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban
2016-06-01
Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Svatos
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.
Nonergodic complexity management
Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo
2016-06-01
Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.
Synchronization in complex networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.
2007-12-12
Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.
Management of complex fisheries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system....... This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total...
Dettman, John W
1965-01-01
Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun
Complex HVPT and hyperasymptotics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)
2006-08-25
Complex hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is applied to the problem of a harmonic oscillator with a perturbation gx{sup 3}exp(i{psi}), for which the traditional Rayleigh-Schodinger perturbation theory has to be supplemented by hyperasymptotics for obtaining accurate resonance energies in the negative {psi} region. Complex HVPT gives accurate results for positive {psi} and for negative {psi} up to about vertical bar {phi} vertical bar = {pi}/24. The case of a quartic perturbed oscillator is also treated. (letter to the editor)
Introduction to complex analysis
Priestley, H A
2003-01-01
Complex analysis is a classic and central area of mathematics, which is studied and exploited in a range of important fields, from number theory to engineering. Introduction to Complex Analysis was first published in 1985, and for this much awaited second edition the text has been considerably expanded, while retaining the style of the original. More detailed presentation is given of elementary topics, to reflect the knowledge base of current students. Exercise sets have beensubstantially revised and enlarged, with carefully graded exercises at the end of each chapter.This is the latest additi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlberg, Rasmus
2015-01-01
This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP
2005-10-28
We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.
Sarason, Donald
2007-01-01
Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co
Jacobians with complex multiplication
Carocca, Angel; Rodriguez, Rubi E
2009-01-01
We construct and study two series of curves whose Jacobians admit complex multiplication. The curves arise as quotients of Galois coverings of the projective line with Galois group metacyclic groups $G_{q,3}$ of order $3q$ with $q \\equiv 1 \\mod 3$ an odd prime, and $G_m$ of order $2^{m+1}$. The complex multiplications arise as quotients of double coset algebras of the Galois groups of these coverings. We work out the CM-types and show that the Jacobians are simple abelian varieties.
Brown, Adam R; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2015-01-01
We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in AdS, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Complex variables II essentials
Solomon, Alan D
2013-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a
DiMario, Francis J; Sahin, Mustafa; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius
2015-06-01
Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia and tissue dysplasia. The genetic cause is mutations in the TSC1 gene, found on chromosome 9q34, and TSC2 gene, found on chromosome 16p13. The clinical phenotypes resulting from mutations in either of the 2 genes are variable in each individual. Herein, advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms in tuberous sclerosis complex are reviewed, and current guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and management are summarized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, T.W.
2010-11-15
The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)
Nonlinear dynamics and complexity
Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin
2014-01-01
This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.
Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes
Raymond, Kenneth N [Berkeley, CA; Corneillie, Todd M [Campbell, CA; Xu, Jide [Berkeley, CA
2012-05-08
The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.
Theories of computational complexity
Calude, C
1988-01-01
This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.
Complex logistics audit system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuzana Marková
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Complex logistics audit system is a tool for realization of logistical audit in the company. The current methods for logistics auditare based on “ad hok” analysis of logisticsl system. This paper describes system for complex logistics audit. It is a global diagnosticsof logistics processes and functions of enterprise. The goal of logistics audit is to provide comparative documentation for managementabout state of logistics in company and to show the potential of logistics changes in order to achieve more effective companyperformance.
Salen complexes with dianionic counterions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.
2016-08-02
The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.
Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…
Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes
Vangone, Anna
2017-04-12
Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.
Debating complexity in modeling
Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao
1999-01-01
Complexity in modeling would seem to be an issue of universal importance throughout the geosciences, perhaps throughout all science, if the debate last year among groundwater modelers is any indication. During the discussion the following questions and observations made up the heart of the debate.
Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities
Naus, H.W.L.
2008-01-01
A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic
Brun, Guillaume
The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾燕梅
2007-01-01
Being as one figurative form of language, metaphor plays the most complicated role to make language colorful and vivid.Demonstrating the types and the features of metaphor, this article will focus on the point that metaphor is a complex language phenomenon heavily loaded with the factor of culture.
Christiane Lefèvre
2008-01-01
The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Mads
1989-01-01
One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...
2012-01-01
fundamental challenge for the millennial genera- tion. Complexity, it appears, is all the rage. We challenge these declarations and assumptions—not...arrested as a Soviet spy. • On 14 February 1950, the Soviets signed a Treaty of Friendship , Alliance and Mutual Assistance with the Chinese government
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edna Lemes Martins Pereira
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Economic globalization affects different countries on the globe, has positive effects mainly related to access to communication, which promotes the exchange of ideas, information, products and quality of life. However, extends numerous negative aspects such as marginalization, economic dependencies, political, cultural, scientific, educational accentuate social inequalities and cultural conflicts and territorial. In this article it is a dialogue with authors (Cunha 2009; BARNETT 2005; MORIN 1999, 2006, among others, who understand these changes in society from the contemporary world as conceived as the "Complexity era" or "supercomplexity". To understand and cope with this reality, they propose a paradigm that is able to overcome the fragmentation and reductionism of knowledge and to relate the multiple approaches and visions to meet the complexity of reality. Although this paper presents proposals to the aforementioned authors point to education and the university found in this tangle of interconnected global transformations, given the need to be subject to act in a complex reality that requires critical and self-critical professionals, able to think about their own ability to think, understand and act within this complex context.
De Melis, Cinzia
2016-01-01
The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.
Fratalocchi, Andrea
2014-12-01
Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.
Complex Digital Visual Systems
Sweeny, Robert W.
2013-01-01
This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…
Transformations, Dynamics and Complexity
Glazunov, Nikolaj
2011-01-01
We review and investigate some new problems and results in the field of dynamical systems generated by iteration of maps, {\\beta}-transformations, partitions, group actions, bundle dynamical systems, Hasse-Kloosterman maps, and some aspects of complexity of the systems.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
of complex formation of Group(lV) metal halides with .... significant of these extra bands are a second (C1-N) stretching (17) and a second. (C-=8) band (6). However ... Lower electron density on the tin atom (and thus greater contribution of the ...
Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Lee, T. H.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.
2002-06-01
A range of elegant tubular and conical nanostructures has been created by template growth of (WS 2) n layers on the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. The structures exhibit remarkably perfect straight segments together with interesting complexities at the intersections, which are discussed here in detail in order to enhance understanding of the structural features governing tube growth.
Haffner, Julie
2013-01-01
The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.
Psychopathology and complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Y. Álvarez R
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hamann, S; Zeuthen, T; La Cour, M
1998-01-01
Multiple physiological fluid movements are involved in vision. Here we define the cellular and subcellular sites of aquaporin (AQP) water transport proteins in human and rat eyes by immunoblotting, high-resolution immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3 is abundant in bulbar conj......, predicting specific roles for each in the complex network through which water movements occur in the eye....
Complex Interfaces Under Change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosbjerg, Dan
and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...
Complex Digital Visual Systems
Sweeny, Robert W.
2013-01-01
This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…
Mobs, Esma Anais
2016-01-01
The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.
1981-05-01
try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nashed, Gamal G.L. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Mathematics Dept.
2010-09-15
We show that the definition of the energy-momentum complex given by Moeller using Weitzenboeck spacetime in the calculations of gravitational energy gives results which are different from those obtained from other definitions given in the framework of general relativity. (author)
Tevatron's complex collider cousins
Fischer, W
2004-01-01
Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)
Schuurmans, F.J.P.
1999-01-01
In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable refra
Electromeric rhodium radical complexes
Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.
2010-01-01
Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast equilib
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Yusupova
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.
The Colletotrichum acutatum complex
Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.
2012-01-01
Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously
Managing Complex Dynamical Systems
Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.
2011-01-01
Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.
Complexity in Managing Modularization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi
2011-01-01
In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective modulari......In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....
Sensitivity of Complex Networks
Angulo, Marco Tulio; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László
2016-01-01
The sensitivity (i.e. dynamic response) of complex networked systems has not been well understood, making difficult to predict whether new macroscopic dynamic behavior will emerge even if we know exactly how individual nodes behave and how they are coupled. Here we build a framework to quantify the sensitivity of complex networked system of coupled dynamic units. We characterize necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of new macroscopic dynamic behavior in the thermodynamic limit. We prove that these conditions are satisfied only for architectures with power-law degree distributions. Surprisingly, we find that highly connected nodes (i.e. hubs) only dominate the sensitivity of the network up to certain critical frequency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Miles PhD
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.
Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....
Hazelett, Dennis J.; Conti, David V.; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 20151,2 from our groups. PMID:26771711
Polystochastic Models for Complexity
Iordache, Octavian
2010-01-01
This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...
Stable generalized complex structures
Cavalcanti, Gil R
2015-01-01
A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.
Complexes Tickling the $ubject
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Gildersleeve
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This article continues my earlier work of reading Jung with Lacan. This article will develop Zizek’s work on Lacan’s concept of objet petit a by relating it to a phenomenological interpretation of Jung. I use a number of different examples, including Zizek’s interpretation of Francis Bacon, Edvard Munch, Hans Holbein and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to describe the objet petit a and its relationship to a phenomenological interpretation of complexes. By integrating other Lacanian concepts, such as subject, drive, fantasy, jouissance, gaze, desire, and ego as well as the imaginary, symbolic and Real, this work also highlights how Hegel and Heidegger can elucidate the relationship between objet petit a and complexes. Jung’s transcendent function and the Rosarium Philosophorum also elucidate the relationship between Jung and Lacan.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlberg, Rasmus
2015-01-01
This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and......, finally, by presenting the Cynefin Framework for Sense-Making as a tool of explicatory potential that has already shown its usefulness in several contexts. I further emphasize linking the two concepts into a common and, hopefully, useful concept. Furthermore, I argue that a resilient system is not merely...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...
Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...
Sporadic meteoroid complex: Modeling
Andreev, V.
2014-07-01
The distribution of the sporadic meteoroids flux density over the celestial sphere is the common form of representation of the meteoroids distribution in the vicinity of the Earth's orbit. The determination of the flux density of sporadic meteor bodies is Q(V,e,f) = Q_0 P_e(V) P(e,f) where V is the meteoroid velocity, e,f are the radiant coordinates, Q_0 is the meteoroid flux over whole celestial sphere, P_e(V) is the conditional velocity distributions and P(e,f) is the radiant distribution over the celestial sphere. The sporadic meteoroid complex model is analytical and based on heliocentric velocities and radiant distributions. The multi-mode character of the heliocentric velocity and radiant distributions follows from the analysis of meteor observational data. This fact points to a complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of the parent bodies and the origin mechanisms of the meteoroids. The meteoroid complex was divided into four groups for that reason and with a goal of more accurate modelling of velocities and radiant distributions. As the classifying parameter to determine the meteoroid membership in any group, we adopt the Tisserand invariant relative to Jupiter T_J = 1/a + 2 A_J^{-3/2} √{a (1 - e^2)} cos i and the meteoroid orbit inclination i. Two meteoroid groups relate to long-period and short-period comets. One meteoroid group is related to asteroids. The relationship to the last, fourth group is a problematic one. Then, we construct models of radiant and velocity distributions for each group. The analytical model for the whole sporadic meteoroid complex is the sum of the ones for each group.
Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W
2005-01-01
Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.
Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A.; Greiner, W.
2005-01-01
Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined.
Complex and Fractional Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Tenreiro Machado
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Complex systems (CS are pervasive in many areas, namely financial markets; highway transportation; telecommunication networks; world and country economies; social networks; immunological systems; living organisms; computational systems; and electrical and mechanical structures. CS are often composed of a large number of interconnected and interacting entities exhibiting much richer global scale dynamics than could be inferred from the properties and behavior of individual elements. [...
2016-01-01
We propose an entropy function for simplicial complices. Its value gives the expected cost of the optimal encoding of sequences of vertices of the complex, when any two vertices belonging to the same simplex are indistinguishable. We show that the proposed entropy function can be computed efficiently. By computing the entropy of several complices consisting of hundreds of simplices, we show that the proposed entropy function can be used in the analysis of the large sequences of simplicial com...
Nakatoh, Tetsuya; Omori, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Sachio
2003-01-01
We are developing a search system DAISEn which integrates multiple search engines and generates a metasearch engine automatically. The target search engines of DAISEn are not general search engines, but are search engines specialized in some area. Integration of such engines yields efficiency and quality. There are search engines of new type which accept complex query and return structured data. Integration of such search engines is much harder than that of simple search engines which accept ...
Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds
Lange, Herbert
1989-01-01
It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ekman, Ulrik
2015-01-01
This brief article presents the everyday cultural use of the Snapchat instant messaging application for video chats as an exemplary case of the challenges confronting studies of cinematics in an epoch marked by the rise in network societies of ubiquitous mobile and social media and technics....... It proffers and begins to detail the argument that snap video chats cannot be denigrated as mere ‘shorts’ but must be approached as spatiotemporally and experientally complex....
Complexity in Dynamical Systems
Moore, Cristopher David
The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.
The Complex Information Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edwina Taborsky
2000-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems.
The Complex Information Process
Taborsky, Edwina
2000-09-01
This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems.
Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P
1998-03-01
Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features.
Carnevale, Mario
2013-04-01
Non-destructive testing of structures composed of various types of materials is performed using a variety of methods. Most commonly, electromagnetic and acoustic methods are used to perform this task. Advances in computer software and electro-mechanical hardware have resulted in semi-automated systems for performing simple low-cost in-situ concrete testing. These systems are designed to be operated by anyone who can read a manual and push the right buttons. Although useful in many circumstances, we ask: "What happens when concrete structures are not simple and are too complex to be analyzed by these semi-automated systems and, most importantly, by minimally trained operators?" Many infrastructure projects are boldly pushing the limit of traditional engineering design. As structures become more complex, the methods and techniques used to evaluate these structures must also evolve. A first step towards adapting geophysical methods to evaluate complex structures is to develop pre-investigation conceptual models of possible responses that structures will have to available geophysical methods. This approach is important for designing the geometry and data acquisition parameters necessary for achieving the desired results. Examples of case by case assessments of the application of GPR to concrete investigations are examined. These include complex concrete wall structures, soil tunnel structures, and airport runways. HGI's adaption of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods for assessing the substrate of a heavily reinforced concrete structure up to seven feet thick is reviewed. A range of GPR antenna frequencies were used to image the concrete and the underlying material. Time and frequency domain GPR analyses where used in the assessment. A multi-channel seismic survey using a roll-along data collection technique was used to assess the resonant frequency of the concrete structure, the nature of the underlying medium, and behavior of the structural system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob
2009-01-01
The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....
Xu, Lei; Bergés, Alexis; Lu, Peter J.; Studart, André R.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Oki, Hidekazu; Davies, Simon; Weitz, David A.
2010-01-01
We investigate the 3D structure and drying dynamics of complex mixtures of emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, using confocal microscopy. Air invades and rapidly collapses large emulsion droplets, forcing their contents into the surrounding porous particle pack at a rate proportional to the square of the droplet radius. By contrast, small droplets do not collapse, but remain intact and are merely deformed. A simple model coupling the Laplace pressure to Darcy's law correctly estimates ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tirshu M.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available It is presented the technological scheme of complex biopower installation for manufacture of the electric power, hot water and gas at use as raw material of manure, birds dung and firm organic waste products. The suggested technical solution provides practically 100 % use of energy of burnt gas due to the introduced feedback between power station and a bioreactor. Recommendations for the best use of installation in Republics Moldova are developed as well.
Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective
Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali
2017-01-01
Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…
Classification of Software Projects' Complexity
Fitsilis, P.; Kameas, A.; Anthopoulos, L.
Software project complexity is a subject that has not received detailed attention. The purpose of this chapter is to present a systematic way for studying and modeling software project complexity. The proposed model is based on the widely known and accepted Project Management Body of Knowledge and it uses a typology for modeling complexity based on complexity of faith, fact, and interaction.
Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences
2016-11-29
Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO_{2} and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.
Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo
2001-01-01
The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...
Watanabe, Osamu
2013-04-01
Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).
Advanced complex trait analysis.
Gray, A; Stewart, I; Tenesa, A
2012-12-01
The Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) software package can quantify the contribution of genetic variation to phenotypic variation for complex traits. However, as those datasets of interest continue to increase in size, GCTA becomes increasingly computationally prohibitive. We present an adapted version, Advanced Complex Trait Analysis (ACTA), demonstrating dramatically improved performance. We restructure the genetic relationship matrix (GRM) estimation phase of the code and introduce the highly optimized parallel Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library combined with manual parallelization and optimization. We introduce the Linear Algebra PACKage (LAPACK) library into the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis stage. For a test case with 8999 individuals and 279,435 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we reduce the total runtime, using a compute node with two multi-core Intel Nehalem CPUs, from ∼17 h to ∼11 min. The source code is fully available under the GNU Public License, along with Linux binaries. For more information see http://www.epcc.ed.ac.uk/software-products/acta. a.gray@ed.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Ormerod, Paul
In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.
Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Gao
2010-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.
Electrochemical behaviour of platinum at polymer-modified glassy carbon electrodes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Carmem L P S Zanta; C A Martínez-Huitle
2007-07-01
In this paper, the preparations and voltammetric characteristics of chitosan-modified glassy carbon (Ct-MGC) and platinum electrodes are studied. Ct-MGC can be used for pre-concentration and quantification of trace amounts of platinum in solution. At low pH medium, the complex of Pt with protonated group -NH3+ in the chitosan molecule has been confirmed by FT-IR spectra studies.
Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin
2012-09-01
Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L(2) norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory.
Complex adaptive systems ecology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommerlund, Julie
2003-01-01
In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...
Sodha, Mahendra Singh
2014-01-01
The presentation in the book is based on charge balance on the dust particles, number and energy balance of the constituents and atom-ion-electron interaction in the gaseous plasma. Size distribution of dust particles, statistical mechanics, Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on dust particles and nonlinear interaction of complex plasmas with electric and electromagnetic fields have been discussed in the book. The book introduces the reader to basic concepts and typical applications. The book should be of use to researchers, engineers and graduate students.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille
2012-01-01
A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
Complexity in Managing Modularization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi
2011-01-01
modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we......In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...
Fluorido complexes of technetium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari
2013-07-04
Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The
Complex fermion coherent states
Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Oliver, W D; Tyc, Tomas; Hamilton, Brett; Sanders, Barry C.; Oliver, William D.
2005-01-01
Whereas boson coherent states provide an elegant, intuitive and useful representation, we show that the desirable features of boson coherent states do not carry over very well to fermion fields unless one is prepared to use exotic approaches such as Grassmann fields. Specifically, we identify four appealing properties of boson coherent states (eigenstate of annihilation operator, displaced vacuum state, preservation of product states under linear coupling, and factorization of correlators) and show that fermion coherent states, and approximations to fermion coherent states, defined over the complex field, do not behave well for any of these four criteria.
Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...
Macroevolution of complex retroviruses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael
2009-01-01
Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy vir...... are the products of macroevolutionary conflict played out over a geological time scale....... viruses were infecting mammals more than 100 million years ago and codiverged with their hosts across an entire geological era. Our analysis highlights the role of evolutionary constraint in maintaining viral genome structure and indicates that accessory genes and mammalian mechanisms of innate immunity...
Characterizing biomaterial complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.A. Clifton
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Biomaterials research will always require a range of techniques to examine structure and function on a range of length scales and in a range of settings. Neutron scattering provides a unique way of disentangling the molecular and structural complexity of biomaterials through study of the constituent components. We examine how the technique has been used to study surface immobilized proteins and lipid films, floating lipid bilayers as mimics of in vitro planar membranes, and formation of fibres from solution by insects and spiders.
Complex and Unpredictable Cardano
Ekert, Artur
2008-01-01
This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers. The paper is dedicated to Giuseppe Castagnoli on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Back in the early 1990s, Giuseppe instigated a series of meetings at Villa Gualino, in Torino, which brought together few scattered individuals interested in the physics of computation. By doing so he effectively created and consolidated a vibrant and friendly community of researchers devoted to quantum information science. Many thanks for that!
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Mads
1989-01-01
One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...... interpretation. The semantics-based setting makes it possible to prove the correctness of the time bound function. The system can analyse programs in a first-order subset of Lisp and we show how the system also can be used to analyse programs in other languages....
STUDYING COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
John H. Holland
2006-01-01
Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.
Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)
1995-09-01
Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.
Canonical metrics on complex manifold
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAU Shing-Tung
2008-01-01
@@ Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the Coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations. For example, Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds. In order to understand complex manifolds, it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure. In general, we should have a pair (M, ds2M) where ds2M is the metric. The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries. Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.
Canonical metrics on complex manifold
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAU; Shing-Tung(Yau; S.-T.)
2008-01-01
Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations.For example,Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds.In order to understand complex manifolds,it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure.In general,we should have a pair(M,ds~2_M)where ds~2_M is the metric.The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries.Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.
Shapes of interacting RNA complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian
2014-01-01
Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....
Dawson, T
2000-04-01
This paper examines the possible psychological implications of two adaptations of the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, both of which were completed in 1997. The first is by a man: 'Deconstructing Harry', a film by Woody Allen. The second is by a woman: 'Eurydice in the Underworld', a short story written by Kathy Acker in the last year of her life. The paper argues that there are only four 'necessary events' in the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. It defines the sequence of these events as a 'mythic pattern' that represents the experience of loss, unconscious yearning, depression, and psychological inflation. The film is examined as an expression of an 'Orpheus complex', the short story as an expression of an 'Eurydice complex'. The paper suggests a possible reason for the persistence of interest in the myth throughout the twentieth century. Although it notes that women appear to find it easier to free themselves from identification with the mythic pattern, it also provides reasons for thinking that men may be about to do the same.
Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.
Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.
Organometallic Complexes of Graphene
Sarkar, Santanu; Bekyarova, Elena; Haddon, Robert C
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the organometallic hexahapto complexation of chromium with graphene, graphite and carbon nanotubes. All of these extended periodic pi-electron systems exhibit some degree of reactivity toward the reagents CrCO)6 and (eta6-benzene)Cr(CO)3, and we are able to demonstrate the formation of (eta6-rene)Cr(CO)3 or (eta6-arene)2Cr, where arene = single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), exfoliated graphene (XG), epitaxial graphene (EG) and highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). We find that the SWNTs are the least reactive presumably as a result of the effect of curvature on the formation of the hexahapto bond; in the case of HOPG, (eta6-HOPG)Cr(CO)3 was isolated while the exfoliated graphene samples were found to give both (eta6-graphene)2Cr, and (eta6-graphene)Cr(CO)3 structures. We report simple and efficient routes for the mild decomplexation of the graphene-chromium complexes which appears to restore the original pristine graphene state. This study represents the first example of the use of graph...
Henske, Elizabeth P; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Sampson, Julian R; Thiele, Elizabeth A
2016-05-26
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2. The disorder can affect both adults and children. First described in depth by Bourneville in 1880, it is now estimated that nearly 2 million people are affected by the disease worldwide. The clinical features of TSC are distinctive and can vary widely between individuals, even within one family. Major features of the disease include tumours of the brain, skin, heart, lungs and kidneys, seizures and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which can include autism spectrum disorder and cognitive disability. TSC1 (also known as hamartin) and TSC2 (also known as tuberin) form the TSC protein complex that acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which in turn plays a pivotal part in regulating cell growth, proliferation, autophagy and protein and lipid synthesis. Remarkable progress in basic and translational research, in addition to several randomized controlled trials worldwide, has led to regulatory approval of the use of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas, brain subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but further research is needed to establish full indications of therapeutic treatment. In this Primer, we review the state-of-the-art knowledge in the TSC field, including the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, medical management, major knowledge gaps and ongoing research towards a cure.
Stehr, N; Grundmann, R
2001-06-01
The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable.
Complexity in language acquisition.
Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom
2013-01-01
Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.
Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J S Virdi; F Chand; C N Kumar; S C Mishra
2012-08-01
Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex potentials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by $x = x_{1} + ip_{3}. y = x_{2} + ip_{4}, p_{x} = p_{1} + ix_{3}, p_{y} = p_{2} + ix_{4}$. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. THe obtained invariants may be useful for studying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems.
Theoretical research progress in complexity of complex dynamical networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Jinqing
2007-01-01
This article reviews the main progress in dynamical complexity of theoretical models for nonlinear complex networks proposed by our Joint Complex Network Research Group (JCNRG). The topological and dynamical properties of these theoretical models are numerically and analytically studied. Several findings are useful for understanding and deeply studying complex networks from macroscopic to microscopic levels and have a potential of applications in real-world networks.
Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane
O'Dell, Robin S.
2014-01-01
The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…
From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan
2004-01-01
We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.
Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection
Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...
A NEW PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH GRADE GRAPHITE FOR USE IN MANUFACTURING Mg-C BRICKS IN STEEL MAKING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Y.Z. Lan; S. Zhang; G.Y. Wu; Q.R. Tang
2006-01-01
Based on the characteristics of graphite ore from Panzhihua district, the present research tried to find a new technology to increase the purity of the graphite carbon from 93% to 97%. Study was conducted on leaching agents, time, temperature, stirring speed and concentration of leaching solution affecting the process. The technological parameters chosen were: L/S=3:1, reaction time 30min, 5% concentration of sulfuric acid, reaction temperature 70℃, stirring speed 200rev/min.The results of the continuing tests with one kilogram showed that the graphite content can be increased from 93% to 97%, which reaches the requirement for high grade graphite. When waste acid from coke making is used to leach graphite, the result is also satisfactory, but the treatment of waste solution containing organic substances has to be further investigated.
Deformable Simplicial Complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof
In this dissertation we present a novel method for deformable interface tracking in 2D and 3D|deformable simplicial complexes (DSC). Deformable interfaces are used in several applications, such as fluid simulation, image analysis, reconstruction or structural optimization. In the DSC method......, the interface (curve in 2D; surface in 3D) is represented explicitly as a piecewise linear curve or surface. However, the domain is also subject to discretization: triangulation in 2D; tetrahedralization in 3D. This way, the interface can be alternatively represented as a set of edges/triangles separating...... demonstrate those strengths in several applications. In particular, a novel, DSC-based fluid dynamics solver has been developed during the PhD project. A special feature of this solver is that due to the fact that DSC maintains an explicit interface representation, surface tension is more easily dealt with...
Complexity Science for Simpletons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feinstein C. A.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem and Wolfram’s notion of “computational irreducibility” are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus
2004-01-01
Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell proteins...... are degraded via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway where an elaborate enzyme system recognises the protein substrates and marks them for destruction by attachment of a chain of ubiquitin. The substrates are then bound to 26S proteasomes, unfolded, and threaded into the cylindrical central part of the 26S...... the substrates or release ubiquitin and glycans from them during degradation, stabilise proteasomes, regulate their cellular localisation, and modify their activity. It therefore appears that proteasomes are centres in macromolecular clusters, which degrade cell proteins in a tightly regulated manner....
Shiffman, Bernard
2010-01-01
We introduce several notions of `random fewnomials', i.e. random polynomials with a fixed number f of monomials of degree N. The f exponents are chosen at random and then the coefficients are chosen to be Gaussian random, mainly from the SU(m + 1) ensemble. The results give limiting formulas as N goes to infinity for the expected distribution of complex zeros of a system of k random fewnomials in m variables. When k = m, for SU(m + 1) polynomials, the limit is the Monge-Ampere measure of a toric Kaehler potential on CP^m obtained by averaging a `discrete Legendre transform' of the Fubini-Study symplectic potential at f points of the unit simplex in R^m.
Complex dynamics in nanosystems.
Ni, Xuan; Ying, Lei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Do, Younghae; Grebogi, Celso
2013-05-01
Complex dynamics associated with multistability have been studied extensively in the past but mostly for low-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems. A question of fundamental interest is whether multistability can arise in high-dimensional physical systems. Motivated by the ever increasing widespread use of nanoscale systems, we investigate a prototypical class of nanoelectromechanical systems: electrostatically driven Si nanowires, mathematically described by a set of driven, nonlinear partial differential equations. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm to solve the equations. Our finding is that multistability and complicated structures of basins of attraction are common types of dynamics, and the latter can be attributed to extensive transient chaos. Implications of these phenomena to device operations are discussed.
Geometric Complexity Theory: Introduction
Sohoni, Ketan D Mulmuley Milind
2007-01-01
These are lectures notes for the introductory graduate courses on geometric complexity theory (GCT) in the computer science department, the university of Chicago. Part I consists of the lecture notes for the course given by the first author in the spring quarter, 2007. It gives introduction to the basic structure of GCT. Part II consists of the lecture notes for the course given by the second author in the spring quarter, 2003. It gives introduction to invariant theory with a view towards GCT. No background in algebraic geometry or representation theory is assumed. These lecture notes in conjunction with the article \\cite{GCTflip1}, which describes in detail the basic plan of GCT based on the principle called the flip, should provide a high level picture of GCT assuming familiarity with only basic notions of algebra, such as groups, rings, fields etc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Ophir
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The process of making complex and controversial decisions, that is, dealing with moral or ethical dilemmas, have intrigued people and inspired writers from time immemorial. Dilemmas give both color and depth to characters in good literary works. But beyond literary fiction, dilemmas occupy society in every day issues such as in introducing legislation or solving current political problems. One example of a current political dilemma is how to deal with Iran’s quest for nuclear weapons. If it were possible to assess and quantify each of the alternative solutions for a given problem, the process of decision making would be much easier. If a problem involves only two optional solutions, game theory techniques can be used. However, real life problems are usually multi-unit, multi-optional problems, as in Iran
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars
2014-01-01
Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during...... the transition process. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple, longitudinal case study method is used to examine the transition towards PCP. The study deploys rich qualitative data sets by combining semi-structured interviews, focus group meetings and organisational reports and documents. Findings...... – The transition towards PCP can be best described as a learning process which cumulates the knowledge and experience in the client-supplier interaction accompanied by changing contractual and relational capabilities. In public infrastructure this process is not initially motivated by the benefits of value co...
Kollár, János
1997-01-01
This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.
Bountis, Tassos
2012-01-01
This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems. The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...
Segmentation of complex document
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Souad Oudjemia
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.I.Arbab
2013-01-01
A unified complex model of Maxwell's equations is presented.The wave nature of the electromagnetic field vector is related to the temporal and spatial distributions and the circulation of charge and current densities.A new vacuum solution is obtained,and a new transformation under which Maxwell's equations are invariant is proposed.This transformation extends ordinary gauge transformation to include charge-current as well as scalar-vector potential.An electric dipole moment is found to be related to the magnetic charges,and Dirac's quantization is found to determine an uncertainty relation expressing the indeterminacy of electric and magnetic charges.We generalize Maxwell's equations to include longitudinal waves.A formal analogy between this formulation and Dirac's equation is also discussed.
Complex singularities and PDEs
Caflisch, R E; Sammartino, M; Sciacca, V
2015-01-01
In this paper we give a review on the computational methods used to characterize the complex singularities developed by some relevant PDEs. We begin by reviewing the singularity tracking method based on the analysis of the Fourier spectrum. We then introduce other methods generally used to detect the hidden singularities. In particular we show some applications of the Pad\\'e approximation, of the Kida method, and of Borel-Polya method. We apply these techniques to the study of the singularity formation of some nonlinear dispersive and dissipative one dimensional PDE of the 2D Prandtl equation, of the 2D KP equation, and to Navier-Stokes equation for high Reynolds number incompressible flows in the case of interaction with rigid boundaries.
Kahle, Matthew
2009-01-01
We study the expected topological properties of Cech and Vietoris-Rips complexes built on randomly sampled points in R^d. These are, in some cases, analogues of known results for connectivity and component counts for random geometric graphs. However, an important difference in this setting is that homology is not monotone in the underlying parameter. In the sparse range, we compute the expectation and variance of the Betti numbers, and establish Central Limit Theorems and concentration of measure. In the dense range, we introduce Morse theoretic arguments to bound the expectation of the Betti numbers, which is the main technical contribution of this article. These results provide a detailed probabilistic picture to compare with the topological statistics of point cloud data.
Complex pendulum biomass sensor
Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.
2007-12-25
A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.
Invitation to complex analysis
Boas, Ralph P
2010-01-01
Ideal for a first course in complex analysis, this book can be used either as a classroom text or for independent study. Written at a level accessible to advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, the book is suitable for readers acquainted with advanced calculus or introductory real analysis. The treatment goes beyond the standard material of power series, Cauchy's theorem, residues, conformal mapping, and harmonic functions by including accessible discussions of intriguing topics that are uncommon in a book at this level. The flexibility afforded by the supplementary topics and applications makes the book adaptable either to a short, one-term course or to a comprehensive, full-year course. Detailed solutions of the exercises both serve as models for students and facilitate independent study. Supplementary exercises, not solved in the book, provide an additional teaching tool. This second edition has been painstakingly revised by the author's son, himself an award-winning mathematical expositor...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.
1998-01-01
Thermodynamics has always been a remarkable science in that it studies macroscopic properties that are only partially determined by the properties of individual molecules. Entropy and free energy only exist in constellations of more than a single molecule (degree of freedom). They are the so......-called emergent properties. Tendency towards increased entropy is an essential determinant for the behaviour of ideal gas mixtures, showing that even in the simplest physical/chemical systems, (dys)organisation of components is crucial for the behaviour of systems. This presentation aims at illustrating...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...
Divergences in holographic complexity
Reynolds, Alan; Ross, Simon F.
2017-05-01
We study the UV divergences in the action of the ‘Wheeler-de Witt patch’ in asymptotically AdS spacetimes, which has been conjectured to be dual to the computational complexity of the state of the dual field theory on a spatial slice of the boundary. We show that including a surface term in the action on the null boundaries which ensures invariance under coordinate transformations has the additional virtue of removing a stronger than expected divergence, making the leading divergence proportional to the proper volume of the boundary spatial slice. We compare the divergences in the action to divergences in the volume of a maximal spatial slice in the bulk, finding that the qualitative structure is the same, but subleading divergences have different relative coefficients in the two cases.
Recent Advances in Complex Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Dramatic advances in the field of complex networks have been witnessed in the past few years. This paper reviews some important results in this direction of rapidly evolving research, with emphasis on the relationship between the dynamics and the topology of complex networks. Basic quantities and typical examples of various complex networks are described. Robustness of connectivity and epidemic dynamics in complex networks are evaluated.
Complex wounds Feridas complexas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcus Castro Ferreira
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.
Kolmogorov complexity as a language
Shen, Alexander
2011-01-01
The notion of Kolmogorov complexity (=the minimal length of a program that generates some object) is often useful as a kind of language that allows us to reformulate some notions and therefore provide new intuition. In this survey we provide (with minimal comments) many different examples where notions and statements that involve Kolmogorov complexity are compared with their counterparts not involving complexity.
Managing complexity of aerospace systems
Tamaskar, Shashank
Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not
Complexity, Information and Biological Organisation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Attila Grandpierre
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Regarding the widespread confusion about the concept and nature of complexity, information and biological organization, we look for some coordinated conceptual considerations corresponding to quantitative measures suitable to grasp the main characteristics of biological complexity. Quantitative measures of algorithmic complexity of supercomputers like Blue Gene/L are compared with the complexity of the brain. We show that both the computer and the brain have a more fundamental, dynamic complexity measure corresponding to the number of operations per second. Recent insights suggest that the origin of complexity may go back to simplicity at a deeper level, corresponding to algorithmic complexity. We point out that for physical systems Ashby’s Law, Kahre’s Law and causal closure of the physical exclude the generation of information, and since genetic information corresponds to instructions, we are faced with a controversy telling that the algorithmic complexity of physics is much lower than the instructions’ complexity of the human DNA: I_algorithmic(physics ~ 10^3 bit << I_instructions(DNA ~ 10^9 bit. Analyzing the genetic complexity we obtain that actually the genetic information corresponds to a deeper than algorithmic level of complexity, putting an even greater emphasis to the information paradox. We show that the resolution of the fundamental information paradox may lie either in the chemical evolution of inheritance in abiogenesis, or in the existence of an autonomous biological principle allowing the production of information beyond physics.
Complexity a very short introduction
Holland, John H
2014-01-01
The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...
Complexity of Formation in Holography
Chapman, Shira; Myers, Robert C
2016-01-01
It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the `complexity of formation' (arXiv:1509.07876, arXiv:1512.04993), i.e., the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions $d>2$, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case $d=2$, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.
Complexity of formation in holography
Chapman, Shira; Marrochio, Hugo; Myers, Robert C.
2017-01-01
It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the `complexity of formation' [1, 2], i.e. the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions d > 2, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case d = 2, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Talha Khan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.
Complex emergencies in Indonesia.
Bradt, D A; Drummond, C M; Richman, M
2001-01-01
Recently, Indonesia has experienced six major provincial, civil, armed conflicts. Underlying causes include the transmigration policy, sectarian disputes, the Asian economic crisis, fall of authoritarian rule, and a backlash against civil and military abuses. The public health impact involves the displacement nationwide of > 1.2 million persons. Violence in the Malukus, Timor, and Kalimantan has sparked the greatest population movements such that five provinces in Indonesia each now harbor > 100,000 internally displaced persons. With a background of government instability, hyperinflation, macroeconomic collapse, and elusive political solutions, these civil armed conflicts are ripe for persistence as complex emergencies. Indonesia has made substantial progress in domestic disaster management with the establishment of central administrative authority, strategic planning, and training programs. Nevertheless, the Indonesian experience reveals recurrent issues in international humanitarian health assistance. Clinical care remains complicated by absences of treatment protocols, inappropriate drug use, high procedural complication rates, and variable referral practices. Epidemiological surveillance remains complicated by unsettled clinical case definitions, non-standardized case management of diseases with epidemic potential, variable outbreak management protocols, and inadequate epidemiological analytic capacity. International donor support has been semi-selective, insufficient, and late. The militia murders of three UN staff in West Timor prompted the withdrawal of UN international staff from West Timor for nearly a year to date. Re-establishing rules of engagement for humanitarian health workers must address security, public health, and clinical threats.
Complexity of Ising Polynomials
Kotek, Tomer
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the partition function of the Ising model from statistical mechanics, which is used to study phase transitions in physical systems. A special case of interest is that of the Ising model with constant energies and external field. One may consider such an Ising system as a simple graph together with vertex and edge weight values. When these weights are considered indeterminates, the partition function for the constant case is a trivariate polynomial Z(G;x,y,z). This polynomial was studied with respect to its approximability by L. A. Goldberg, M. Jerrum and M. Patersonin 2003. Z(G;x,y,z) generalizes a bivariate polynomial Z(G;t,y), which was studied in by D. Andr\\'{e}n and K. Markstr\\"{o}m in 2009. We consider the complexity of Z(G;t,y) and Z(G;x,y,z) in comparison to that of the Tutte polynomial, which is well-known to be closely related to the Potts model in the absence of an external field. We show that Z(G;\\x,\\y,\\z) is #P-hard to evaluate at all points in $mathbb{Q}^3$, except those in ...
Information Complexity and Biology
Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio
Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.
It is complicated! - misunderstanding the complexities of 'complex'.
Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Katerndahl, David A
2017-04-01
Terminology matters - as Lakoff emphasised, words and phrases evoke powerful images and frames of understanding. It is for that reason that we need to discern and use appropriately the term complex/complexity in the health science/professional/policy domain. Complex is the fashionable term used when in reality one means 'complicated', 'difficult to understand' or 'multiple simultaneous actions'. However, this is not what complex means. The Latin term means 'entwined/interwoven' - a structural characteristic describing systems. Complexity arises from the interactions between structurally connected entities - a functional characteristic of a system. The basis of scientific rigor is a clear understanding of a discipline's epistemology. Complexity refers to the emergence of outcomes from the interactions of a system's constituent components (and thus has nothing in common with the colloquial meaning of complicatedness). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Almost complex connections on almost complex manifolds with Norden metric
Teofilova, Marta
2011-01-01
A four-parametric family of linear connections preserving the almost complex structure is defined on an almost complex manifold with Norden metric. Necessary and sufficient conditions for these connections to be natural are obtained. A two-parametric family of complex connections is studied on a conformal K\\"{a}hler manifold with Norden metric. The curvature tensors of these connections are proved to coincide.
Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.
Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio
2015-01-01
In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.
Complexity management in projects between rational momentum and complex conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper
This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity management...... is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can benefit from...... incorporating complexity management....
Complexity Management In Projects Between Rational Momentum And Complex Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper
2015-01-01
Abstract: This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity...... management is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can...... benefit from incorporating complexity management....
Bertherat, Jérôme
2006-06-06
The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65% of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80% of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bertherat Jérôme
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing
Canine immune complex diseases.
Plechner, A J
1976-11-01
Though not conclusive, our primary findings indicate that a feature common to many of our tumor and ICD patients is depressed cortisol production. Additionally, the response to ACTH adrenal cortex stimulation tests, at 2-hour intervals between rest and stimulation, have ranged from negative to substantially less than would be expected in normal subjects. Peripheral plasma cortisol values for dogs, at rest and 2 hours after ACTH stimulation, respectively, have been reported as 2-10 and 25-30 mug/dl, 3-8 and 7.5-18 mug/dl, and 1-12.5 and 9.5-22 mug/dl. For representative patients, our resting values have been 1.2-5.2 mug/dl, vs 1.2-7.6 mug after ACTH stimulation (Table 2). Altogether we have studied 42 cases in detail, and we feel that a post-ACTH level of 8.0 mug/dl or less is a conservative indication of adrenocortical insufficiency; all levels have been between 1 and 8 mug/dl. We believe these low cortisol levels indicate either a genetically-induced adrenal cortical insufficiency (evident at 2 months to 1 year of age) or an immune complex adrenal cortical suppression (occurring after 1 year of age in association with other immunodeficiency disorders). Our studies demonstrate a need for biphasic therapy. We have found it necessary to not only initiate cortisone acetate therapy to support the deficient adrenal cortical secretion, but also use other immunosuppressive drugs to control the ICD. If the target organ has been suppressed or destroyed, the need for supplementation is obvious. However, other immune-injury moieties must be suppressed also, eg, ANA, anti-IgG antibodies, etc.
Spatiotemporal Imaging of Complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Ellis Robinson
2013-01-01
Full Text Available What are the functional neuroimaging measurements required for more fully characterizing the events and locations of neocortical activity? A prime assumption has been that modulation of cortical activity will inevitably be reflected in changes in energy utilization (for the most part changes of glucose and oxygen consumption. Are such a measures complete and sufficient? More direct measures of cortical electrophysiological activity show event or task-related modulation of amplitude or band-limited oscillatory power. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, these measures have been shown to correlate well with energy utilization sensitive BOLD fMRI. In this paper, we explore the existence of state changes in electrophysiological cortical activity that can occur independently of changes in averaged amplitude, source power or indices of metabolic rates. In addition, we demonstrate that such state changes can be described by applying a new measure of complexity, rank vector entropy (RVE, to source waveform estimates from beamformer-processed MEG. RVE is a non-parametric symbolic dynamic informational entropy measure that accommodates the wide dynamic range of measured brain signals while resolving its temporal variations. By representing the measurements by their rank values, RVE overcomes the problem of defining embedding space partitions without resorting to signal compression. This renders RVE independent of absolute signal amplitude. In addition, this approach is robust, being relatively free of tunable parameters. We present examples of task-free and task dependent MEG demonstrating that RVE provides new information by uncovering hidden dynamical struc-ture in the apparent turbulent (or chaotic dynamics of spontaneous cortical activity.
van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P
2015-07-01
The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.
ON COMPLEX DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Daizhan
2003-01-01
This paper presents some recent works on the control of dynamic systems, which have certain complex properties caused by singularity of the nonlinear structures, structure-varyings, or evolution process etc. First, we consider the structure singularity of nonlinear control systems. It was revealed that the focus of researches on nonlinear control theory is shifting from regular systems to singular systems. The singularity of nonlinear systems causes certain complexity. Secondly, the switched systems are considered. For such systems the complexity is caused by the structure varying. We show that the switched systems have significant characteristics of complex systems. Finally, we investigate the evolution systems. The evolution structure makes complexity, and itself is a proper model for complex systems.
Increasing complexity with quantum physics.
Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline
2011-09-01
We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.
Ecological thinking, education and complexity
Karol Herian
2008-01-01
The article reflects contemporary discussions on formation of ecological thinking and educational theory and praxis, all of which is related to the development of complex sciences - from two points of view: The first deals with ecological thinking with regard to meta-scientific implications of the disciplines dealing with organized complexity; the second concentrates on the relevance and impact of complexity science for transformation processes in the field of education (paradigms and institu...
Report: Genetics of complex diseases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MOTULSKY Arno G.
2006-01-01
Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.
On the interaction meteor complex
Rajchl, J.
An approach to the problem of a meteoric complex called the interaction meteor complex (IMC) is applied and discussed, generalizing the idea of the interaction layer (Rajchl 1969). The role of an extended interaction of meteoroids is emphasized, both with planet surfaces and/or their satellites and with planet atmospheres, elastic or inelastic in form. The dissipation and related formative aspect are joined in one complex and compared with a topological compact. Examples of these types of interaction are presented.
Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2015-01-01
This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...
SYNCHRONIZATION IN COMPLEX DYNAMICAL NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiaofan; CHEN Guanrong
2003-01-01
In the past few years, the discovery of small-world and scale-free properties of many natural and artificial complex networks has stimulated increasing interest in further studying the underlying organizing principles of various complex networks. This has led to significant advances in understanding the relationship between the topology and the dynamics of such complex networks. This paper reviews some recent research works on the synchronization phenomenon in various dynamical networks with small-world and scalefree connections.
Xie, Hang
The theme of this thesis is the study of wave phenomena in complex systems. In particular, the following three topics constitute the foci of my research. The first topic involves the generalization of an electronic transport mechanism commonly observed in disordered media, fluctuation induced tunneling conduction, by considering tunneling through not just insulating potential barriers, but also narrow conducting channels. Here the wave nature of the electron implies that a narrow conduction channel can act as an electronic waveguide, with a cutoff transverse dimension that is half the Fermi wavelength. My research involves the study of electronic transport through finite-length conducting channels with transverse dimensions below the cutoff. Such narrow conduction channel may be physically realized by chains of single conducting atoms, for example. At small voltage bias across the conduction channel, only tunneling transport is possible at zero temperature. But at finite temperatures some of the electrons with energies above the Fermi level can ballistically transport across the channel. By considering both tunneling and thermal activation mechanisms, with thermally-generated (random) voltage bias across the narrow channel, we obtained a temperature-dependent conductivity behavior that is in good agreement with the measured two-lead conductance of RuO2 and IrO2 nanowires. Furthermore, by considering high applied voltage across the nano conduction channels, our model predicts interesting electronic Fabry-Perot behavior whose experimental verification is presently underway. The second topic involves the study of the Hall effect in mesoscopic samples. In particular, we are interested in the possibility of enhancing the Hall effect by nano-patterning samples of 2D electron gas. Through numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation in the presence of a magnetic field, mesoscopic transport behavior is obtained for samples with given geometric patterns of the
Complexity leadership: a healthcare imperative.
Weberg, Dan
2012-01-01
The healthcare system is plagued with increasing cost and poor quality outcomes. A major contributing factor for these issues is that outdated leadership practices, such as leader-centricity, linear thinking, and poor readiness for innovation, are being used in healthcare organizations. Complexity leadership theory provides a new framework with which healthcare leaders may practice leadership. Complexity leadership theory conceptualizes leadership as a continual process that stems from collaboration, complex systems thinking, and innovation mindsets. Compared to transactional and transformational leadership concepts, complexity leadership practices hold promise to improve cost and quality in health care. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilja Holub
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.
Kolmogorov Complexity, Causality And Spin
Shayda, Dara O
2012-01-01
A novel topological and computational method for 'motion' is described. Motion is constrained by inequalities in terms of Kolmogorov Complexity. Causality is obtained as the output of a high-pass filter, passing through only high values of Kolmogorov Complexity. Motion under the electromagnetic field described with immediate relationship with Subscript[G, 2] Holonomy group and its corresponding dense free 2-subgroup. Similar to Causality, Spin emerges as an immediate and inevitable consequence of high values of Kolmogorov Complexity. Consequently, the physical laws are nothing but a low-pass filter for small values of Kolmogorov Complexity.
Structural complexity of quantum networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siomau, Michael [Physics Department, Jazan University, P.O.Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2016-06-10
Quantum network is a set of nodes connected with channels, through which the nodes communicate photons and classical information. Classical structural complexity of a quantum network may be defined through its physical structure, i.e. mutual position of nodes and channels connecting them. We show here that the classical structural complexity of a quantum network does not restrict the structural complexity of entanglement graphs, which may be created in the quantum network with local operations and classical communication. We show, in particular, that 1D quantum network can simulate both simple entanglement graphs such as lattices and random graphs and complex small-world graphs.
Cyclomatic Complexity: theme and variations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian Henderson-Sellers
1993-11-01
Full Text Available Focussing on the "McCabe family" of measures for the decision/logic structure of a program, leads to an evaluation of extensions to modularization, nesting and, potentially, to object-oriented program structures. A comparison of rated, operating and essential complexities of programs suggests two new metrics: "inessential complexity" as a measure of unstructuredness and "product complexity" as a potential objective measure of structural complexity. Finally, nesting and abstraction levels are considered, especially as to how metrics from the "McCabe family" might be applied in an object-oriented systems development environment.
Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.
2017-09-01
We consider the holographic complexity conjectures for de-Sitter invariant states in a quantum field theory on de Sitter space, dual to asymptotically anti-de Sitter geometries with de Sitter boundaries. The bulk holographic duals include solutions with or without a horizon. If we compute the complexity from the spatial volume, we find results consistent with general expectations, but the conjectured bound on the growth rate is not saturated. If we compute complexity from the action of the Wheeler–de Witt patch, we find qualitative differences from the volume calculation, with states of smaller energy having larger complexity than those of larger energy, even though the latter have bulk horizons.
Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))
1993-01-01
Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).
Complex Constructivism: A Theoretical Model of Complexity and Cognition
Doolittle, Peter E.
2014-01-01
Education has long been driven by its metaphors for teaching and learning. These metaphors have influenced both educational research and educational practice. Complexity and constructivism are two theories that provide functional and robust metaphors. Complexity provides a metaphor for the structure of myriad phenomena, while constructivism…
Complexity regularized hydrological model selection
Pande, S.; Arkesteijn, L.; Bastidas, L.A.
2014-01-01
This paper uses a recently proposed measure of hydrological model complexity in a model selection exercise. It demonstrates that a robust hydrological model is selected by penalizing model complexity while maximizing a model performance measure. This especially holds when limited data is available.
Complex multiplication of abelian surfaces
Streng, Theodorus Cornelis
2010-01-01
The theory of complex multiplication makes it possible to construct certain class fields and abelian varieties. The main theme of this thesis is making these constructions explicit for the case where the abelian varieties have dimension 2. Chapter I is an introduction to complex multiplication
Bauerlein, Mark
2011-01-01
High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…
Multi-Timescale Complex Adaptation
2006-03-01
interconnected gene and biochemical regulatory networks. Attempts at reverse engineering the gene regulatory networks from microarray data alone...are considered as potentially regulating all the other genes and the suboptimal and nonunique results are subsequently pruned either by setting...postulate that systems engineering techniques developed for complex chemical processes may be applicable to complex cell biological processes is very
Complexity and Education: Vital Simultaneities
Davis, Brent
2008-01-01
This article explores the place of complexity science within education and educational research. The discussion begins with the suggestion that educational research has a history of adopting interpretive frames from other domains with little adaptation. Complexity science is argued to compel a different sort of positioning, one that requires…
Teacher Knowledge: A Complex Tapestry
Adoniou, Misty
2015-01-01
Teachers need to know a great deal, in many areas and in multiple ways. Teacher knowledge is a complex tapestry, and teachers must successfully weave the multiple threads. In this article, I present a conceptualisation of teacher knowledge that provides a framework for describing the complexity of teacher knowledge. The framework describes three…
Electrochemical analysis of metal complexes.
Jong, de H.G.
1987-01-01
The present study is concerned with the electroanalytical chemistry of complexes of metals with large ligands. The main purpose was to develop quantitative descriptions of the voltammetric current-potential relation of metal complex systems with different diffusion coefficients of the species involv
Complexity Results in Epistemic Planning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm; Schwarzentruber, Francois
2015-01-01
Epistemic planning is a very expressive framework that extends automated planning by the incorporation of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL). We provide complexity results on the plan existence problem for multi-agent planning tasks, focusing on purely epistemic actions with propositional preconditions......-hardness of the plan verification problem, which strengthens previous results on the complexity of DEL model checking....
Holistic education and complexity thinking
Jörg, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069806365
2007-01-01
Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a
Complexity regularized hydrological model selection
Pande, S.; Arkesteijn, L.; Bastidas, L.A.
2014-01-01
This paper uses a recently proposed measure of hydrological model complexity in a model selection exercise. It demonstrates that a robust hydrological model is selected by penalizing model complexity while maximizing a model performance measure. This especially holds when limited data is available.
Copper complexes as chemical nucleases
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Akhil R Chakravarty; Pattubala A N Reddy; Bidyut K Santra; Anitha M Thomas
2002-08-01
Redox active mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes have been prepared and structurally characterized. The complexes have planar N-donor heterocyclic bases like 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq) and dipyridophenazine (dppz) ligands that are suitable for intercalation to B-DNA. Complexes studied for nuclease activity have the formulations [Cu(dpq)2(H2O)] (ClO4)2.H2O (1), [{CuL(H2O)}2(-ox)](ClO4)2 (L = bpy, 2; phen, 3; dpq, 4; and dppz, 5) and [Cu(L)(salgly)] (L = bpy, 6; phen, 7; dpq, 8; and dppz, 9), where salgly is a tridentate Schiff base obtained from the condensation of glycine and salicylaldehyde. The dpq complexes are efficient DNA binding and cleavage active species. The dppz complexes show good binding ability but poor nuclease activity. The cleavage activity of the bis-dpq complex is significantly higher than the bis-phen complex of copper(II). The nuclease activity is found to be dependent on the intercalating nature of the complex and on the redox potential of the copper(II)/copper(I) couple. The ancillary ligand plays a significant role in binding and cleavage activity.
How to lead complex situations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Pingel
2013-01-01
The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...
Complex Variables in Secondary Schools
Dwyer, Jerry; Moskal, Barbara; Duke, Billy; Wilhelm, Jennifer
2007-01-01
This article describes the work of outreach mathematicians introducing the topic of complex variables to eighth and ninth grade students (13- to 15-year-olds) in the US. Complex variables is an area of mathematics that is not typically studied at secondary level. The authors developed seven lessons designed to stimulate students' interest in…
Holistic education and complexity thinking
Jörg, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069806365
2007-01-01
Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a chal
The Algebra of Complex Numbers.
LePage, Wilbur R.
This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…
Holistic education and complexity thinking
Jörg, T.
2007-01-01
Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a chal
Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2016-01-15
We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.
Improve Reading with Complex Texts
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
2015-01-01
The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…
Team dynamics in complex projects
Oeij, P.; Vroome, E.E.M. de; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.
2012-01-01
Complexity of projects is hotly debated and a factor which affects innovativeness of team performance. Much attention in the past is paid to technical complexity and many issues are related to natural and physical sciences. A growing awareness of the importance of socioorganisational issues is annou
Team dynamics in complex projects
Oeij, P.; Vroome, E.E.M. de; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.
2012-01-01
Complexity of projects is hotly debated and a factor which affects innovativeness of team performance. Much attention in the past is paid to technical complexity and many issues are related to natural and physical sciences. A growing awareness of the importance of socioorganisational issues is
Complex Data: Mining using Patterns
Siebes, A.P.J.M.; Struzik, Z.R.
2002-01-01
There is a growing need to analyse sets of complex data, i.e., data in which the individual data items are (semi-) structured collections of data themselves, such as sets of time-series. To perform such analysis, one has to redefine familiar notions such as similarity on such complex data types. One
Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.
2009-01-01
, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...
European Conference on Complex Systems
Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela
2016-01-01
This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.
Game interpretation of Kolmogorov complexity
Muchnik, Andrej A; Shen, Alexander; Vereshchagin, Nikolay
2010-01-01
The Kolmogorov complexity function K can be relativized using any oracle A, and most properties of K remain true for relativized versions. In section 1 we provide an explanation for this observation by giving a game-theoretic interpretation and showing that all "natural" properties are either true for all sufficiently powerful oracles or false for all sufficiently powerful oracles. This result is a simple consequence of Martin's determinacy theorem, but its proof is instructive: it shows how one can prove statements about Kolmogorov complexity by constructing a special game and a winning strategy in this game. This technique is illustrated by several examples (total conditional complexity, bijection complexity, randomness extraction, contrasting plain and prefix complexities).
Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications
Helbing, Dirk
2007-01-01
Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.
Innovation in a complex environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Pellissier
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Background: As our world becomes more global and competitive yet less predictable, the focus seems to be increasingly on looking to innovation activities to remain competitive. Although there is little doubt that a nation’s competitiveness is embedded in its innovativeness, the complex environment should not be ignored. Complexity is not accounted for in balance sheets or reported in reports; it becomes entrenched in every activity in the organisation. Innovation takes many forms and comes in different shapes.Objectives: The study objectives were, firstly, to establish the determinants for complexity and how these can be addressed from a design point of view in order to ensure innovation success and, secondly, to determine how this changes innovation forms and applications.Method: Two approaches were offered to deal with a complex environment – one allowing for complexity for organisational innovation and the other introducing reductionism to minimise complexity. These approaches were examined in a qualitative study involving case studies, open-ended interviews and content analysis between seven developing economy (South African organisations and seven developed economy (US organisations.Results: This study presented a proposed framework for (organisational innovation in a complex environment versus a framework that minimises complexity. The comparative organisational analysis demonstrated the importance of initiating organisational innovation to address internal and external complexity, with the focus being on the leadership actions, their selected operating models and resultant organisational innovations designs, rather than on technological innovations.Conclusion: This study cautioned the preference for technological innovation within organisations and suggested alternative innovation forms (such as organisational and management innovation be used to remain competitive in a complex environment.
Complex coacervation: A field theoretic simulation study of polyelectrolyte complexation
Lee, Jonghoon; Popov, Yuri O.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.
2008-06-01
Using the complex Langevin sampling strategy, field theoretic simulations are performed to study the equilibrium phase behavior and structure of symmetric polycation-polyanion mixtures without salt in good solvents. Static structure factors for the segment density and charge density are calculated and used to study the role of fluctuations in the electrostatic and chemical potential fields beyond the random phase approximation. We specifically focus on the role of charge density and molecular weight on the structure and complexation behavior of polycation-polyanion solutions. A demixing phase transition to form a ``complex coacervate'' is observed in strongly charged systems, and the corresponding spinodal and binodal boundaries of the phase diagram are investigated.
Intermittency in Complex Flows
Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Redondo, Jose M.
2017-04-01
Experimental results of the complex turbulent wake of a cilinder in 2D [1] and 3D flows [2] were used to investigate the scaling of structure functions, similar research was also performed on wave propagation and breaking in the Ocean [3], in the the stratified Atmosphere (ABL) [4] and in a 100large flume (UPC) for both regular and irregular waves, where long time series of waves propagating and generating breaking turbulence velocity rms and higher order measurements were taken in depth. [3,5] by means of a velocimeter SONTEK3-D. The probability distribution functions of the velocity differences and their non Gaussian distribution related to the energy spectrum indicate that irregularity is an important source of turbulence. From Kolmogorov's K41 and K61 intermittency correction: the p th-order longitudinal velocity structure function δul at scale l in the inertial range of three-dimensional fully developed turbulence is related by ⟨δup⟩ = ⟨(u(x+ l)- u(x))p⟩ ˜ ɛp0/3lp/3 l where ⟨...⟩ represents the spatial average over flow domain, with ɛ0 the mean energy dissipation per unit mass and l is the separation distance. The importance of the random nature of the energy dissipation led to the K62 theory of intermittency, but locality and non-homogeneity are key issues. p p/3 p/3 ξd ⟨δul⟩ ˜ ⟨ɛl ⟩l ˜ l and ξp = p 3 + τp/3 , where now ɛl is a fractal energy dissipation at scale l, τp/3 is the scaling of and ξp is the scaling exponent of the velocity structure function of order p. Both in K41 and K62, the structure functions of third order related to skewness is ξ3 = 1. But this is not true either. We show that scaling exponents ξp do deviate from early studies that only investigated homogeneous turbulence, where a large inertial range dominates. The use of multi-fractal analysis and improvements on Structure function calculations on standard Enhanced mixing is an essential property of turbulence and efforts to alter and to control
Akdim, Mohamed Reda
2003-09-01
Nowadays plasmas are used for various applications such as the fabrication of silicon solar cells, integrated circuits, coatings and dental cleaning. In the case of a processing plasma, e.g. for the fabrication of amorphous silicon solar cells, a mixture of silane and hydrogen gas is injected in a reactor. These gases are decomposed by making a plasma. A plasma with a low degree of ionization (typically 10_5) is usually made in a reactor containing two electrodes driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power source in the megahertz range. Under the right circumstances the radicals, neutrals and ions can react further to produce nanometer sized dust particles. The particles can stick to the surface and thereby contribute to a higher deposition rate. Another possibility is that the nanometer sized particles coagulate and form larger micron sized particles. These particles obtain a high negative charge, due to their large radius and are usually trapped in a radiofrequency plasma. The electric field present in the discharge sheaths causes the entrapment. Such plasmas are called dusty or complex plasmas. In this thesis numerical models are presented which describe dusty plasmas in reactive and nonreactive plasmas. We started first with the development of a simple one-dimensional silane fluid model where a dusty radio-frequency silane/hydrogen discharge is simulated. In the model, discharge quantities like the fluxes, densities and electric field are calculated self-consistently. A radius and an initial density profile for the spherical dust particles are given and the charge and the density of the dust are calculated with an iterative method. During the transport of the dust, its charge is kept constant in time. The dust influences the electric field distribution through its charge and the density of the plasma through recombination of positive ions and electrons at its surface. In the model this process gives an extra production of silane radicals, since the growth of dust is
Complex Convexity of Orlicz Modular Sequence Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lili Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The concepts of complex extreme points, complex strongly extreme points, complex strict convexity, and complex midpoint locally uniform convexity in general modular spaces are introduced. Then we prove that, for any Orlicz modular sequence space lΦ,ρ, lΦ,ρ is complex midpoint locally uniformly convex. As a corollary, lΦ,ρ is also complex strictly convex.
Three Types of Network Complexity Pyramid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong; LIU; Qiang
2012-01-01
<正>Exploring the complexity and diversity of complex networks have been very challenging issues in network science and engineering. Among them exploring the network complexity pyramids (NCP) are one of important expressions in network complexity. So far as we have proposed the three types of the network complexity pyramid (NCP). The first type of NCP is the network model complexity pyramid with
Formulation of Complex Action Theory
Nagao, Keiichi
2011-01-01
We formulate the complex action theory from a fundamental level so that we can deal with a complex coordinate $q$ and a complex momentum $p$. We extend $| q >$ and $| p>$ to complex $q$ and $p$ by utilizing coherent states of harmonic oscillators. Introducing a philosophy to keep the analyticity in parameter variables of Feynman path integral, we define a modified set of complex conjugate, real and imaginary parts, hermitian conjugates and bras. They enable us to have both orthogonality and completeness relations for $|q >$ and $|p >$ with complex $q$ and $p$. We also pose a theorem on the relation between functions and operators to make it clear to some extent. Furthermore, extending our previous work \\cite{Nagao:2010xu} to the complex coordinate case, we study a system defined by a diagonalizable non-hermitian bounded Hamiltonian, and show that a hermitian Hamiltonian is effectively obtained after a long time development by introducing a proper inner product. If the hermitian Hamiltonian is given in a local...
3D complex: a structural classification of protein complexes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emmanuel D Levy
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Most of the proteins in a cell assemble into complexes to carry out their function. It is therefore crucial to understand the physicochemical properties as well as the evolution of interactions between proteins. The Protein Data Bank represents an important source of information for such studies, because more than half of the structures are homo- or heteromeric protein complexes. Here we propose the first hierarchical classification of whole protein complexes of known 3-D structure, based on representing their fundamental structural features as a graph. This classification provides the first overview of all the complexes in the Protein Data Bank and allows nonredundant sets to be derived at different levels of detail. This reveals that between one-half and two-thirds of known structures are multimeric, depending on the level of redundancy accepted. We also analyse the structures in terms of the topological arrangement of their subunits and find that they form a small number of arrangements compared with all theoretically possible ones. This is because most complexes contain four subunits or less, and the large majority are homomeric. In addition, there is a strong tendency for symmetry in complexes, even for heteromeric complexes. Finally, through comparison of Biological Units in the Protein Data Bank with the Protein Quaternary Structure database, we identified many possible errors in quaternary structure assignments. Our classification, available as a database and Web server at http://www.3Dcomplex.org, will be a starting point for future work aimed at understanding the structure and evolution of protein complexes.
Complexity in physics and technology
Garrido, Manuel S
1992-01-01
A system is loosely defined as complex if it is composed of a large number of elements, interacting with each other, and the emergent global dynamics is qualitatively different from the dynamics of each one of the parts. The global dynamics may be either ordered or chaotic and among the most interesting emergent global properties are those of learning and adaptation.Complex systems, in the above sense, appear in many fields ranging from physics and technology to life and social sciences. Research in complex systems involves therefore a wide range of topics, studied in seemingly disparate field
Quantum Tunneling and Complex Trajectories
Meynig, Max; Haggard, Hal
2017-01-01
In general, the semiclassical approximation of quantum mechanical tunneling fails to treat tunneling through barriers if real initial conditions and trajectories are used. By analytically continuing classical dynamics to the complex plane the problems encountered in the approximation can be resolved. While, the complex methods discussed here have been previously explored, no one has exhibited an analytically solvable case. The essential features of the complex method will be discussed in the context of a novel, analytically solvable problem. These methods could be useful in quantum gravity, with applications to the tunneling of spacetime geometries.
Advances in computational complexity theory
Cai, Jin-Yi
1993-01-01
This collection of recent papers on computational complexity theory grew out of activities during a special year at DIMACS. With contributions by some of the leading experts in the field, this book is of lasting value in this fast-moving field, providing expositions not found elsewhere. Although aimed primarily at researchers in complexity theory and graduate students in mathematics or computer science, the book is accessible to anyone with an undergraduate education in mathematics or computer science. By touching on some of the major topics in complexity theory, this book sheds light on this burgeoning area of research.
Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.
2009-01-01
Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...
Complexity and Shock Wave Geometries
Stanford, Douglas
2014-01-01
In this paper we refine a conjecture relating the time-dependent size of an Einstein-Rosen bridge to the computational complexity of the of the dual quantum state. Our refinement states that the complexity is proportional to the spatial volume of the ERB. More precisely, up to an ambiguous numerical coefficient, we propose that the complexity is the regularized volume of the largest codimension one surface crossing the bridge, divided by $G_N l_{AdS}$. We test this conjecture against a wide variety of spherically symmetric shock wave geometries in different dimensions. We find detailed agreement.
Epidemic Diffusion on Complex Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Xiao-Yan; LIU Zong-Hua
2007-01-01
Boyh diffusion and epidemic are well studied in the stochastic systems and complex networks,respetively.Here we combine these two fields and study epidemic diffusion in complex networks.Instead of studying the threshold of infection,which was focused on in previous works,we focus on the diffusion.behaviour.We find that the epidemic diffusion in a complex network is an anomalous superdiffusion with varyingg diffusion exponext γand that γ is influenced seriously by the network structure,such as the clustering coefficient and the degree distribution.Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.
Scattering methods in complex fluids
Chen, Sow-Hsin
2015-01-01
Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.
Hydrophysical laser-interference complex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey V. Yakovenko
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A new hydrophysical measuring complex has been developed on the basis of a laser instrument for measuring hydrospheric pressure variations. The complex was previously engineered and experimentally verified. This equipment allows to investigate the amplitude-phase variations of hydrospheric vibrations and waves in the low-frequency range. All performance data of the complex was considerably improved by virtue of the operating experience obtained previously. Radically new opportunities of the equipment were provided since the apparatus was rigged with new sensors for accompanying measurements and a container which allowed working independently. The new hydrophysical measuring complex is easier to operate and maintain, ensures higher quality of the data obtained and new spheres of application.
Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces
2012-01-01
The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...
Challenges in Complex Systems Science
Miguel, Maxi San; Kertesz, Janos; Kaski, Kimmo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; MacKay, Robert S; Loreto, Vittorio; Erdi, Peter; Helbing, Dirk
2012-01-01
FuturICT foundations are social science, complex systems science, and ICT. The main concerns and challenges in the science of complex systems in the context of FuturICT are laid out in this paper with special emphasis on the Complex Systems route to Social Sciences. This include complex systems having: many heterogeneous interacting parts; multiple scales; complicated transition laws; unexpected or unpredicted emergence; sensitive dependence on initial conditions; path-dependent dynamics; networked hierarchical connectivities; interaction of autonomous agents; self-organisation; non-equilibrium dynamics; combinatorial explosion; adaptivity to changing environments; co-evolving subsystems; ill-defined boundaries; and multilevel dynamics. In this context, science is seen as the process of abstracting the dynamics of systems from data. This presents many challenges including: data gathering by large-scale experiment, participatory sensing and social computation, managing huge distributed dynamic and heterogeneou...
Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns
Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.
2015-01-01
Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.
Making the Tent Function Complex
Sprows, David J.
2010-01-01
This note can be used to illustrate to the student such concepts as periodicity in the complex plane. The basic construction makes use of the Tent function which requires only that the student have some working knowledge of binary arithmetic.
Complex systems: physics beyond physics
Holovatch, Yurij; Thurner, Stefan
2016-01-01
Complex systems are characterized by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behavior. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical world. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicist's point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualized in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representatio...
Project Dynamics and Emergent Complexity
Schlick, Christopher M
2011-01-01
The present paper presents theoretical and empirical analyses of project dynamics and emergent complexity in new product development (NPD) projects. A model-driven approach was taken and a vector autoregression (VAR) model of cooperative task processing was formulated. The model is explained and validated based on an empirical study carried out in a industrial company. Furthermore, concepts and measures of complex systems science were reviewed and applied to project management. To evaluate emergent complexity in NPD projects, an information-theory quantity -termed "effective measure complexity" (EMC)- was selected, because it can be derived from first principles and therefore has high construct validity. Furthermore, EMC can be calculated efficiently from generative models of task processing or purely from historical data, without intervening models. EMC measures the mutual information between the infinite past and future histories of a stochastic process. According to this principle, it is particularly inter...
Synchronization in uncertain complex networks
Chen, Maoyin; Zhou, Donghua
2006-03-01
We consider the problem of synchronization in uncertain generic complex networks. For generic complex networks with unknown dynamics of nodes and unknown coupling functions including uniform and nonuniform inner couplings, some simple linear feedback controllers with updated strengths are designed using the well-known LaSalle invariance principle. The state of an uncertain generic complex network can synchronize an arbitrary assigned state of an isolated node of the network. The famous Lorenz system is stimulated as the nodes of the complex networks with different topologies. We found that the star coupled and scale-free networks with nonuniform inner couplings can be in the state of synchronization if only a fraction of nodes are controlled.
Anomaly Detection for Complex Systems
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In performance maintenance in large, complex systems, sensor information from sub-components tends to be readily available, and can be used to make predictions about...
Complex Terrain and Wind Lidars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bingöl, Ferhat
This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed...... in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar....... The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be noted as a limitation of the model. As the general conclusion of the study, it was stated that the lidars can be used in complex...
Goyal, Philip; Skilling, John
2009-01-01
Complex numbers are an intrinsic part of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory, and are perhaps its most mysterious feature. In this paper, we show that it is possible to derive the complex nature of the quantum formalism directly from the assumption that a pair of real numbers is associated to each sequence of measurement outcomes, and that the probability of this sequence is a real-valued function of this number pair. By making use of elementary symmetry and consistency conditions, and without assuming that these real number pairs have any other algebraic structure, we show that these pairs must be manipulated according to the rules of complex arithmetic. We demonstrate that these complex numbers combine according to Feynman's sum and product rules, with the modulus-squared yielding the probability of a sequence of outcomes.
Formulation of Complex Action Theory
Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech
2011-01-01
We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum $\\hat{q}$ and $\\hat{p}$ being replaced with non-hermitian operators $\\hat{q}_{new}$ and $\\hat{p}_{new}$, and their eigenstates ${}_m
ZIRCONIUM (IV) COMPLEXES WITH SOME ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR. AMINU
infrared spectra, elemental analysis and other properties suggest that the complexes are six coordinate. The schiff ... paper reports the synthesis and partial characterization of ... filtered, dried in a desiccator over phosphorus(v) oxide and yield ...
Genetics Home Reference: Carney complex
... cortisol (hypercortisolism) can lead to the development of Cushing syndrome. This syndrome causes weight gain in the face ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Cushing's Syndrome Educational Resources (7 links) Disease InfoSearch: Carney Complex ...
Coarse-graining complex dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sibani, Paolo
2013-01-01
Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat-tailed distribu......Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat......-law and logarithmic relaxation behaviors ubiquitous in complex dynamics, together with the sub-diffusive time dependence of the Mean Square Displacement characteristic of single particles moving in a complex environment....
Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vikner, Sten
2005-01-01
Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian.......Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...
Unitarity and Complex Mass Fields
Bollini, C. G.; Oxman, L. E.
We consider a field obeying a simple higher order equation with a real mass and two complex conjugate mass parameters. The evaluation of vacuum expectation values leads to the propagators, which are (resp.) a Feynman causal function and two complex conjugate Wheeler-Green functions (half retarded plus half advanced). By means of the computation of convolutions, we are able to show that the total self-energy has an absorptive part which is only due to the real mass. In this way it is shown that this diagram is compatible with unitarity and the elimination of free complex-mass asymptotic states from the set of external legs of the S-matrix. It is also shown that the complex masses act as regulators of ultraviolet divergences.
ON COMPLEXITY OF POWER SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Jin; CHENG Daizhan; HONG Yiguang; SUN Yuanzhang
2003-01-01
The power system is a classical example of complex systems. In this paper it is shown that the power industry in China is facing a tremendous challenge. The complexity in power systems is investigated as follows. First, the cascade failure in power systems is analyzed, and compared with sand-pile model. Next, we show that the agent-based modelling is a proper way for power network. Mathematically, the geometric dynamics and differential inclusion are useful tools for the stability analysis of large scale power systems. As for power market, the game theory and generalized control system model are proposed. For a complex power system, an evolutive model may be more accurate in description and analysis. Finally, certain newly developed numerical methods in the power system computation are introduced. Overall, we are convinced that the theorem of complexity, combined with modern control theory, may be the right way to answer the challenges faced by the power industry in China.
Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender
Stalder, Daniel R.
Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.
Liquid-crystalline lanthanide complexes
Binnemans, Koen
1999-01-01
The paper describes the recent developments in the field of liquid-crystalline lanthanide complexes. The role of trivalent lanthanide ions as the central metal ion in metallomesogens is considered. An outlook for the future is given.
Association theories for complex thermodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani
2013-01-01
Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... promising direction for a general and useful for engineering purposes modeling of complex thermodynamics is via the use of association theories e.g. those based on chemical theory (like APACT), or on the lattice theory (like NRHB) or those based on perturbation theory (like SAFT and CPA). The purpose...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...
Management recommendations: Benton Lake Complex
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Benton Lake Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...
Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....
Statistical mechanics of complex networks
Rubi, Miguel; Diaz-Guilera, Albert
2003-01-01
Networks can provide a useful model and graphic image useful for the description of a wide variety of web-like structures in the physical and man-made realms, e.g. protein networks, food webs and the Internet. The contributions gathered in the present volume provide both an introduction to, and an overview of, the multifaceted phenomenology of complex networks. Statistical Mechanics of Complex Networks also provides a state-of-the-art picture of current theoretical methods and approaches.
Boolean complexes and boolean numbers
Tenner, Bridget Eileen
2017-01-01
International audience; The Bruhat order gives a poset structure to any Coxeter group. The ideal of elements in this poset having boolean principal order ideals forms a simplicial poset. This simplicial poset defines the boolean complex for the group. In a Coxeter system of rank n, we show that the boolean complex is homotopy equivalent to a wedge of (n-1)-dimensional spheres. The number of these spheres is the boolean number, which can be computed inductively from the unlabeled Coxeter syste...
Evolving Complexity, Cognition, and Consciousness
Liljenström, H.
2012-12-01
All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing
Septin pairs, a complex choreography.
Ewers, Helge
2011-06-13
Septins form a filamentous collar at the mother-bud neck in budding yeast. In cytokinesis, this collar splits into two rings and the septin complexes undergo a dramatic reorientation. Using fluorescence polarization microscopy, DeMay et al. (2011. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201012143) now demonstrate that septin complexes assemble as paired filaments in vivo and reveal new insights into septin organization during cytokinesis.
Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity
Hao, Bai-Lin; Zheng, Wei-Mou
The following sections are included: * Formal Languages and Their Complexity * Formal Language * Chomsky Hierarchy of Grammatical Complexity * The L-System * Regular Language and Finite Automaton * Finite Automaton * Regular Language * Stefan Matrix as Transfer Function for Automaton * Beyond Regular Languages * Feigenbaum and Generalized Feigenbaum Limiting Sets * Even and Odd Fibonacci Sequences * Odd Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Kneading Map * Even Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Distinct Excluded Blocks * Summary of Results
Complex numbers in quantum theory
Maynard, Glenn
In 1927, Nobel prize winning physicist, E. Schrodinger, in correspondence with Ehrenfest, wrote the following about the new theory: "What is unpleasant here, and indeed directly to be objected to, is the use of complex numbers. Psi is surely fundamentally a real function." This seemingly simple issue remains unexplained almost ninety years later. In this dissertation I elucidate the physical and theoretical origins of the complex requirement. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Progress in Computational Complexity Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin-Yi Cai; Hong Zhu
2005-01-01
We briefly survey a number of important recent achievements in Theoretical Computer Science (TCS), especially Computational Complexity Theory. We will discuss the PCP Theorem, its implications to inapproximability on combinatorial optimization problems; space bounded computations, especially deterministic logspace algorithm for undirected graph connectivity problem; deterministic polynomial-time primality test; lattice complexity, worst-case to average-case reductions;pseudorandomness and extractor constructions; and Valiant's new theory of holographic algorithms and reductions.
Complexity, Action, and Black Holes
Brown, Adam; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2015-01-01
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are fastest computers in nature.
Complexity, action, and black holes
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-01
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Servitization, Services and Managing Complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harjo, Ieva; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana
This paper explores how seemingly complex servitized solutions can become tradable in a customer–supplier relationship by objectification and abbreviation. The key argument is that the complexity of product-service solutions can be reduced by abbreviation of the reality in written form of contracts...... and agreements that allow for customization while making the offer more comprehensible for customers and more manageable for suppliers. Preliminary results from an exploratory case study are presented....
Complex hybrid inflation and baryogenesis.
Delepine, David; Martínez, Carlos; Ureña-López, L Arturo
2007-04-20
We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.
Quantum Complexity and Negative Curvature
Brown, Adam R; Zhao, Ying
2016-01-01
As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k-local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system: classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.
Conforming Morse-Smale Complexes.
Gyulassy, Attila; Günther, David; Levine, Joshua A; Tierny, Julien; Pascucci, Valerio
2014-12-01
Morse-Smale (MS) complexes have been gaining popularity as a tool for feature-driven data analysis and visualization. However, the quality of their geometric embedding and the sole dependence on the input scalar field data can limit their applicability when expressing application-dependent features. In this paper we introduce a new combinatorial technique to compute an MS complex that conforms to both an input scalar field and an additional, prior segmentation of the domain. The segmentation constrains the MS complex computation guaranteeing that boundaries in the segmentation are captured as separatrices of the MS complex. We demonstrate the utility and versatility of our approach with two applications. First, we use streamline integration to determine numerically computed basins/mountains and use the resulting segmentation as an input to our algorithm. This strategy enables the incorporation of prior flow path knowledge, effectively resulting in an MS complex that is as geometrically accurate as the employed numerical integration. Our second use case is motivated by the observation that often the data itself does not explicitly contain features known to be present by a domain expert. We introduce edit operations for MS complexes so that a user can directly modify their features while maintaining all the advantages of a robust topology-based representation.
Fluoroquinolone-Gyrase-DNA Complexes
Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M.; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R.; Kerns, Robert J.; Berger, James M.; Drlica, Karl
2014-01-01
DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys466 gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly81 and GyrB-Glu466 residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases. PMID:24497635
Complexity analysis of angiogenesis vasculature
Mahadevan, Vijay; Tyrell, James A.; Tong, Ricky T.; Brown, Edward B.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Roysam, Badrinath
2005-04-01
Tumor vasculature has a high degree of irregularity as compared to normal vasculature. The quantification of the morphometric complexity in tumor images can be useful in diagnosis. Also, it is desirable in several other medical applications to have an automated complexity analysis to aid in diagnosis and prognosis under treatment. e.g. in diabetic retinopathy and in arteriosclerosis. In addition, prior efforts at segmentation of the tumor vasculature using matched filtering, template matching and splines have been hampered by the irregularity of these vessels. We try to solve both problems by introducing a novel technique for vessel detection, followed by a tracing-independent complexity analysis based on a combination of ideas. First, the vessel cross-sectional profile is modeled using a continuous and everywhere differentiable family of super-Gaussian curves. This family generates rectangular profiles that can accurately localize the vessel boundaries in microvasculature images. Second, a robust non-linear regression algorithm based on M-estimators is used to estimate the parameters that optimally characterize the vessel"s shape. A framework for the quantitative analysis of the complexity of the vasculature based on the vessel detection is presented. A set of measures that quantify the complexity are proposed viz. Squared Error, Entropy-based and Minimum Description Length-based Shape Complexities. They are completely automatic and can deal with complexities of the entire vessel unlike existing tortuousity measures which deal only with vessel centerlines. The results are validated using carefully constructed phantom and real image data with ground truth information from an expert observer.
Simply complexity a clear guide to complexity theory
Johnson, Neil
2009-01-01
What do traffic jams, stock market crashes, and wars have in common? They are all explained using complexity, an unsolved puzzle that many researchers believe is the key to predicting and ultimately solvingeverything from terrorist attacks and pandemic viruses right down to rush hour traffic congestion.Complexity is considered by many to be the single most important scientific development since general relativity and it promises to make sense of no less than the very heart of the Universe. Using it, scientists can find order emerging from seemingly random interactions of all kinds, from som
Actinide cation-cation complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoyer, Nancy Jane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-12-01
The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO_{2}^{+}) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO_{2}^{+}; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO_{2}^{+} cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO_{2}^{+}•UO_{2}^{2+}, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO_{2}^{+} species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO_{2}^{+} have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO_{2}^{+} cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe^{3+} and Cr^{3+} and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO_{2}^{+}•UO_{2}^{2+}, NpO_{2}^{+}•Th^{4+}, PuO_{2}^{+}•UO_{2}^{2+}, and PuO_{2}^{+}•Th^{4+} at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ~0.8 M^{-1}.
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex MR Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Hassan Mostafavi
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Interpretation of MR imaging of the wrist may be difficult because of the small size of this joint, its complex anatomy, and its sometimes poorly unders-tood pathologic lesions. A recent study revealed that MR imaging of the wrist influences clinicians' diagnoses and management plans in most patients. "nWhich structures make up the triangular fibrocarti-lage complex (TFCC are not universally agreed upon. In most descriptions, however, the TFCC is composed of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC, the meniscus homolog, the ulnar collateral ligament, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments and the sheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments may also be considered as part of the TFCC. These structures are a complex unit that function as a stabilizing element in the pivot movement of the radius and ulna and limit the lateral deviation of the carpus. The distal radioulnar joint is primarily stabilized by the TFCC. The TFC functions as a cushion between the ulnar head and carpal bones. Many of the structures that make up the complex are connected by fibrous bands. "nThis presentation summarizes the current diagnostic criteria that can be useful in interpreting abnormalities of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC of the wrist in this difficult topic in joint MR imaging
Complex solitons with real energies
Cen, Julia; Fring, Andreas
2016-09-01
Using Hirota’s direct method and Bäcklund transformations we construct explicit complex one and two-soliton solutions to the complex Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the complex modified KdV (mKdV) equation and the complex sine-Gordon equation. The one-soliton solutions of trigonometric and elliptic type turn out to be { P }{ T }-symmetric when a constant of integration is chosen to be purely imaginary with one special choice corresponding to solutions recently found by Khare and Saxena. We show that alternatively complex { P }{ T }-symmetric solutions to the KdV equation may also be constructed alternatively from real solutions to the mKdV by means of Miura transformations. The multi-soliton solutions obtained from Hirota’s method break the { P }{ T }-symmetric, whereas those obtained from Bäcklund transformations are { P }{ T }-invariant under certain conditions. Despite the fact that some of the Hamiltonian densities are non-Hermitian, the total energy is found to be positive in all cases, that is irrespective of whether they are { P }{ T }-symmetric or not. The reason is that the symmetry can be restored by suitable shifts in space-time and the fact that any of our N-soliton solutions may be decomposed into N separate { P }{ T }-symmetrizable one-soliton solutions.
Quotient Complexity of Regular Languages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janusz Brzozowski
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The past research on the state complexity of operations on regular languages is examined, and a new approach based on an old method (derivatives of regular expressions is presented. Since state complexity is a property of a language, it is appropriate to define it in formal-language terms as the number of distinct quotients of the language, and to call it "quotient complexity". The problem of finding the quotient complexity of a language f(K,L is considered, where K and L are regular languages and f is a regular operation, for example, union or concatenation. Since quotients can be represented by derivatives, one can find a formula for the typical quotient of f(K,L in terms of the quotients of K and L. To obtain an upper bound on the number of quotients of f(K,L all one has to do is count how many such quotients are possible, and this makes automaton constructions unnecessary. The advantages of this point of view are illustrated by many examples. Moreover, new general observations are presented to help in the estimation of the upper bounds on quotient complexity of regular operations.
Complex systems: physics beyond physics
Holovatch, Yurij; Kenna, Ralph; Thurner, Stefan
2017-03-01
Complex systems are characterised by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behaviour. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical worlds. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicists' point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualised in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representation of texts as evolutionary objects. We discuss why these areas form complex systems in the above sense. We argue that there exists plenty of new ground for physicists to explore and that methodical and conceptual progress is needed most.
Cortical complexity in cetacean brains.
Hof, Patrick R; Chanis, Rebecca; Marino, Lori
2005-11-01
Cetaceans (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) have a long, dramatically divergent evolutionary history compared with terrestrial mammals. Throughout their 55-60 million years of evolution, cetaceans acquired a compelling set of characteristics that include echolocation ability (in odontocetes), complex auditory and communicative capacities, and complex social organization. Moreover, although cetaceans have not shared a common ancestor with primates for over 90 million years, they possess a set of cognitive attributes that are strikingly convergent with those of many primates, including great apes and humans. In contrast, cetaceans have evolved a highly unusual combination of neurobiological features different from that of primates. As such, cetacean brains offer a critical opportunity to address questions about how complex behavior can be based on very different neuroanatomical and neurobiological evolutionary products. Cetacean brains and primate brains are arguably most meaningfully conceived as alternative evolutionary routes to neurobiological and cognitive complexity. In this article, we summarize data on brain size and hemisphere surface configuration in several cetacean species and present an overview of the cytoarchitectural complexity of the cerebral cortex of the bottlenose dolphin.
Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.
Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R
2012-02-01
The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.
Control principles of complex systems
Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László
2016-07-01
A reflection of our ultimate understanding of a complex system is our ability to control its behavior. Typically, control has multiple prerequisites: it requires an accurate map of the network that governs the interactions between the system's components, a quantitative description of the dynamical laws that govern the temporal behavior of each component, and an ability to influence the state and temporal behavior of a selected subset of the components. With deep roots in dynamical systems and control theory, notions of control and controllability have taken a new life recently in the study of complex networks, inspiring several fundamental questions: What are the control principles of complex systems? How do networks organize themselves to balance control with functionality? To address these questions here recent advances on the controllability and the control of complex networks are reviewed, exploring the intricate interplay between the network topology and dynamical laws. The pertinent mathematical results are matched with empirical findings and applications. Uncovering the control principles of complex systems can help us explore and ultimately understand the fundamental laws that govern their behavior.
Chemical complexity in galactic nuclei
Martin-Pintado, Jesus
2007-12-01
In recent years our knowledge of the chemical complexity in the nuclei of galaxies has dramatically changed. Recent observations of the nucleus of the Milky Way, of the starburst galaxy NGC253 and of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp220 have shown large abundance of complex organic molecules believed to be formed on grains. The Galactic center appears to be the largest repository of complex organic molecule like aldehydes and alcohols in the galaxy. We also measure large abundance of methanol in starburst galaxies and in ULIRGs suggesting that complex organic molecules are also efficiently produced in the central region of galaxies with strong star formation activity. From the systematic observational studies of molecular abundance in regions dominated by different heating processes like shocks, UV radiation, X-rays and cosmic rays in the center of the Milky Way, we are opening the possibility of using chemistry as a diagnostic tool to study the highly obscured regions of galactic centers. The templates found in the nucleus of the Milky Way will be used to establish the main mechanisms driving the heating and the chemistry of the molecular clouds in galaxies with different type of activity. The role of grain chemistry in the chemical complexity observed in the center of galaxies will be also briefly discussed.
The fifth adaptor protein complex.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer Hirst
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Adaptor protein (AP complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and causes the cell to form swollen endosomal structures with emanating tubules. AP-5 subunits can be found in all five eukaryotic supergroups, but they have been co-ordinately lost in many organisms. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis provides robust resolution, for the first time, into the evolutionary order of emergence of the adaptor subunit families, showing AP-3 as the basal complex, followed by AP-5, AP-4, and AP-1 and AP-2. Thus, AP-5 is an evolutionarily ancient complex, which is involved in endosomal sorting, and which has links with hereditary spastic paraplegia.
On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Stephan Rosebrock
2010-02-01
We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph L. McCauley
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Deterministic chaos, and even maximum computational complexity, have been discovered within Newtonian dynamics. Economists assume that prices and price changes can also obey abstract mathematical laws of motion. Sociologists and other postmodernists advertise that physics and chemistry have outgrown their former limitations, that chaos and complexity provide new holistic paradigms for science, and that the boundaries between the hard and the soft sciences, once impenetrable, have disappeared like the Berlin Wall. Three hundred years after the deaths of Galileo, Descartes, and Kepler, and the birth of Newton, reductionism appears to be on the decline, with holistic approaches to science on the upswing. We therefore examine the evidence that dynamical laws of motion may be discovered from empirical studies of chaotic or complex phenomena, and also review the foundation of reductionism in invariance principles.
Complexity, cognition and the city
Portugali, Juval
2011-01-01
Complexity, Cognition and the City aims at a deeper understanding of urbanism, while invoking, on an equal footing, the contributions both the hard and soft sciences have made, and are still making, when grappling with the many issues and facets of regional planning and dynamics. In this work, the author goes beyond merely seeing the city as a self-organized, emerging pattern of some collective interaction between many stylized urban "agents" – he makes the crucial step of attributing cognition to his agents and thus raises, for the first time, the question on how to deal with a complex system composed of many interacting complex agents in clearly defined settings. Accordingly, the author eventually addresses issues of practical relevance for urban planners and decision makers. The book unfolds its message in a largely nontechnical manner, so as to provide a broad interdisciplinary readership with insights, ideas, and other stimuli to encourage further research – with the twofold aim of further pushing ba...
THE COMPLEXITY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Nelson
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also commonalities across contexts by examining language learning through the lenses of emergence, distribution, and embodiment. These lenses underscore the perspective that language learning emerges from unique interactions, is distributed across social networks, and is embodied in individuals. Consequently, this paper concludes that it is not sufficient to study cognitive processes, activities, and situated learning alone; in addition, research must consider how learners’ interactions and adaptations are embodied, distributed, and emergent in ecologies of complex systems.
Quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calhoun, Tessa R.; Fleming, Graham R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2011-04-15
The initial steps of photosynthesis require the absorption and subsequent transfer of energy through an intricate network of pigment-protein complexes. Held within the protein scaffold of these complexes, chromophore molecules are densely packed and fixed in specific geometries relative to one another resulting in Coulombic coupling. Excitation energy transfer through these systems can be accomplished with near unity quantum efficiency [Wraight and Clayton, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 333, 246 (1974)]. While replication of this feat is desirable for artificial photosynthesis, the mechanism by which nature achieves this efficiency is unknown. Recent experiments have revealed the presence of long-lived quantum coherences in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes spanning bacterial and plant species with a variety of functions and compositions. Its ubiquitous presence and wavelike energy transfer implicate quantum coherence as key to the high efficiency achieved by photosynthesis. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Articulation Points in Complex Networks
Tian, Liang; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu
2016-01-01
An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, e.g. the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a novel perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process is associated with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions with a rich phase diagram. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.
Articulation points in complex networks
Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu
2017-01-01
An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.
Emergence: complexity pedagogy in action.
Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Mitchell, Gail; Cross, Nadine
2015-01-01
Many educators are looking for new ways to engage students and each other in order to enrich curriculum and the teaching-learning process. We describe an example of how we enacted teaching-learning approaches through the insights of complexity thinking, an approach that supports the emergence of new possibilities for teaching-learning in the classroom and online. Our story begins with an occasion to meet with 10 nursing colleagues in a three-hour workshop using four activities that engaged learning about complexity thinking and pedagogy. Guiding concepts for the collaborative workshop were nonlinearity, distributed decision-making, divergent thinking, self-organization, emergence, and creative exploration. The workshop approach considered critical questions to spark our collective inquiry. We asked, "What is emergent learning?" and "How do we, as educators and learners, engage a community so that new learning surfaces?" We integrated the arts, creative play, and perturbations within a complexity approach.
Manipulating complex light with metamaterials.
Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N; Litchinitser, Natalia M
2013-10-02
Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for "engineering" space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing.
Characterization of complex renal cysts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth
2010-01-01
Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically ...... of this "new" classification strategy is, however, still missing. Data on other imaging modalities are too limited for conclusions to be drawn.......Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically...... available data on the Bosniak classification. Material and methods. All publications from an Entrez Pubmed search were reviewed, focusing on clinical applicability and the use of imaging modalities other than CT to categorize complex renal cysts. Results. Fifteen retrospective studies were found. Most...
Complexity hints for economic policy
Salzano, Massimo
2007-01-01
This volume extends the complexity approach to economics. This complexity approach is not a completely new way of doing economics, and that it is a replacement for existing economics, but rather the integration of some new analytic and computational techniques into economists’ bag of tools. It provides some alternative pattern generators, which can supplement existing approaches by providing an alternative way of finding patterns than be obtained by the traditional scientific approach. On this new kind of policy hints can be obtained. The reason why the complexity approach is taking hold now in economics is because the computing technology has advanced. This advance allows consideration of analytical systems that could not previously be considered by economists. Consideration of these systems suggested that the results of the "control-based" models might not extend easily to more complicated systems, and that we now have a method—piggybacking computer assisted analysis onto analytic methods—to start gen...
Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.
Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H
2016-06-07
Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.
Complex Wavelet Based Modulation Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luneau, Jean-Marc; Lebrun, Jérôme; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2008-01-01
because only the magnitudes are taken into account and the phase data is often neglected. We remedy this problem with the use of a complex wavelet transform as a more appropriate envelope and phase processing tool. Complex wavelets carry both magnitude and phase explicitly with great sparsity and preserve well...... polynomial trends. Moreover an analytic Hilbert-like transform is possible with complex wavelets implemented as an orthogonal filter bank. By working in an alternative transform domain coined as “Modulation Subbands”, this transform shows very promising denoising capabilities and suggests new approaches for joint...
Hierarchy measure for complex networks
Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás
2012-01-01
Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks...
Articulation points in complex networks
Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu
2017-01-01
An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks. PMID:28139697
Complex Autocatalysis in Simple Chemistries.
Virgo, Nathaniel; Ikegami, Takashi; McGregor, Simon
2016-01-01
Life on Earth must originally have arisen from abiotic chemistry. Since the details of this chemistry are unknown, we wish to understand, in general, which types of chemistry can lead to complex, lifelike behavior. Here we show that even very simple chemistries in the thermodynamically reversible regime can self-organize to form complex autocatalytic cycles, with the catalytic effects emerging from the network structure. We demonstrate this with a very simple but thermodynamically reasonable artificial chemistry model. By suppressing the direct reaction from reactants to products, we obtain the simplest kind of autocatalytic cycle, resulting in exponential growth. When these simple first-order cycles are prevented from forming, the system achieves superexponential growth through more complex, higher-order autocatalytic cycles. This leads to nonlinear phenomena such as oscillations and bistability, the latter of which is of particular interest regarding the origins of life.
McCauley, J L
1997-01-01
Deterministic chaos, and even maximum computational complexity, have been discovered within Newtonian dynamics. Economists assume that prices and price changes can also obey abstract mathematical laws of motion. Sociologists and other postmodernists advertise that physics and chemistry have outgrown their former limitations, that chaos and complexity provide new holistic paradigms for science, and that the boundaries between the hard and soft sciences, once impenetrable, have disappeared like the Berlin Wall. Three hundred years after the deaths of Galileo, Descartes, and Kepler, and the birth of Newton, reductionism appears to be on the decline, with holistic approaches to science on the upswing. We therefore examine the evidence that dynamical laws of motion may be discovered from empirical studies of chaotic or complex phenomena, and also review the foundation of reductionism in invariance principle.
Compulsory formation of solvento complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kukushkin, Yu.N.; Kukushkin, V.Yu.
1986-01-01
The essence of the method of the compulsory formation of solvated complexes which are labile in substitution reactions has been described in this review. It is based on three techniques for eliminating ligands from the inner sphere of the original compounds: 1) binding of the ligands in sparingly soluble productions or their conversion into highly volatile compounds; 2) binding of the ligands in stronger compounds than the original products; 3) chemical conversion of coordinated ligands, which result in a loss of donor capacity by the reaction products and the departure of these products from the inner sphere of the complex compounds. If the solvent in which the reaction is carried out has a sufficient donor capability, the coordination capacity of the central ion is saturated by means of solvent molecules with the formation of a solvento complex. The method has been illustrated by a large number of concrete examples of reactions which result in the formation of compounds with an assigned composition.
Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity
Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash
2016-12-01
We introduce some Hilbert complexes involving second-order tensors on flat compact manifolds with boundary that describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion in nonlinear elasticity. We then use the general framework of Hilbert complexes to write Hodge-type and Helmholtz-type orthogonal decompositions for second-order tensors. As some applications of these decompositions in nonlinear elasticity, we study the strain compatibility equations of linear and nonlinear elasticity in the presence of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies. As an application of these Hilbert complexes in computational mechanics, we briefly discuss the derivation of a new class of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear elasticity.
Multi-stage complex contagions
Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.
2013-03-01
The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.
Complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Holm, Rene
2014-01-01
Inclusion complexes between two bile salts and a range of differently methylated β-cyclodextrins were studied in an attempt to rationalize the complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins. Calorimetric titrations at a range of temperatures provided precise values of the enthalpies (ΔH......°), entropies (ΔS°), and heat capacities (ΔCp) of complexation, while molecular dynamics simulations assisted the interpretation of the obtained thermodynamic parameters. As previously observed for several types of modified cyclodextrins, the substituents at the rims of the cyclodextrin induced large changes......° and then a strong decrease when the degree of substitution exceeded some threshold. Exactly the same trend was observed for ΔCp. The dehydration of nonpolar surface, as quantified by the simulations, can to a large extent explain the variation in the thermodynamic parameters. The methyl substituents form additional...
Graph distance for complex networks
Shimada, Yutaka; Hirata, Yoshito; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2016-10-01
Networks are widely used as a tool for describing diverse real complex systems and have been successfully applied to many fields. The distance between networks is one of the most fundamental concepts for properly classifying real networks, detecting temporal changes in network structures, and effectively predicting their temporal evolution. However, this distance has rarely been discussed in the theory of complex networks. Here, we propose a graph distance between networks based on a Laplacian matrix that reflects the structural and dynamical properties of networked dynamical systems. Our results indicate that the Laplacian-based graph distance effectively quantifies the structural difference between complex networks. We further show that our approach successfully elucidates the temporal properties underlying temporal networks observed in the context of face-to-face human interactions.
Simulating social complexity a handbook
Meyer, Ruth
2013-01-01
Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society. The phenom...
Complexity Results in Epistemic Planning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm; Schwarzentruber, Francois
2015-01-01
Epistemic planning is a very expressive framework that extends automated planning by the incorporation of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL). We provide complexity results on the plan existence problem for multi-agent planning tasks, focusing on purely epistemic actions with propositional preconditions....... We show that moving from epistemic preconditions to propositional preconditions makes it decidable, more precisely in EXPSPACE. The plan existence problem is PSPACE-complete when the underlying graphs are trees and NP-complete when they are chains (including singletons). We also show PSPACE......-hardness of the plan verification problem, which strengthens previous results on the complexity of DEL model checking....
Tutorials in complex photonic media
Noginov, Mikhail A; McCall, Martin W; Zheludev, Nikolay I
2010-01-01
The field of complex photonic media encompasses many leading-edge areas in physics, chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, and engineering. In Tutorials in Complex Photonic Media , leading experts have brought together 19 tutorials on breakthroughs in modern optics, such as negative refraction, chiral media, plasmonics, photonic crystals, and organic photonics. This text will help students, engineers, and scientists entering the field to become familiar with the interrelated aspects of the subject. It also serves well as a supplemental text in introductory and advanced courses on optica
Communication Complexities of XOR functions
Shi, Yaoyun; Zhang,Zhiqiang
2008-01-01
We call $F:\\{0, 1\\}^n\\times \\{0, 1\\}^n\\to\\{0, 1\\}$ a symmetric XOR function if for a function $S:\\{0, 1, ..., n\\}\\to\\{0, 1\\}$, $F(x, y)=S(|x\\oplus y|)$, for any $x, y\\in\\{0, 1\\}^n$, where $|x\\oplus y|$ is the Hamming weight of the bit-wise XOR of $x$ and $y$. We show that for any such function, (a) the deterministic communication complexity is always $\\Theta(n)$ except for four simple functions that have a constant complexity, and (b) up to a polylog factor, the error-bounded randomized and q...
Dispersion scenarios over complex terrain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Mikkelsen, T.; Moreno, J.
1993-01-01
A presentation of preliminary results from a real-time simulation of full-scale dispersion experiments carried out over complex terrain in Northern Spain is given. Actual wind and turbulence measurements as observed during the experiments were analysed and used as input data for a series of simul......A presentation of preliminary results from a real-time simulation of full-scale dispersion experiments carried out over complex terrain in Northern Spain is given. Actual wind and turbulence measurements as observed during the experiments were analysed and used as input data for a series...... are suitable for subsequent comparison with observed mean dispersion data when they become available....
1998 Complex Systems Summer School
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-12-15
For the past eleven years a group of institutes, centers, and universities throughout the country have sponsored a summer school in Santa Fe, New Mexico as part of an interdisciplinary effort to promote the understanding of complex systems. The goal of these summer schools is to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and active research scientists with an introduction to the study of complex behavior in mathematical, physical, and living systems. The Center for Nonlinear Studies supported the eleventh in this series of highly successful schools in Santa Fe in June, 1998.
Complex deformations of Bjorken flow
Gubser, Steven S.
2013-01-01
Through a complex shift of the time coordinate, a modification of Bjorken flow is introduced which interpolates between a glasma-like stress tensor at forward rapidities and Bjorken-like hydrodynamics around mid-rapidity. A Landau-like full-stopping regime is found at early times and rapidities not too large. Approximate agreement with BRAHMS data on the rapidity distribution of produced particles at top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies can be achieved if the complex shift of the time coordinate is comparable to the inverse of the saturation scale. The form of the stress tensor follows essentially from symmetry considerations, and it can be expressed in closed form.
Complex deformations of Bjorken flow
Gubser, Steven S
2012-01-01
Through a complex shift of the time coordinate, a modification of Bjorken flow is introduced which interpolates between a glasma-like stress tensor at forward rapidities and Bjorken-like hydrodynamics around mid-rapidity. A Landau-like full-stopping regime is found at early times and rapidities not too large. Approximate agreement with BRAHMS data on the rapidity distribution of produced particles at top RHIC energies can be achieved if the complex shift of the time coordinate is comparable to the inverse of the saturation scale. The form of the stress tensor follows essentially from symmetry considerations, and it can be expressed in closed form.
Multiscale simulation of complex coacervates
Hoffmann, Kyle Q.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Qin, Jian; Priftis, Dimitris; Perry, Sarah; Leon, Lorraine; Kade, Matthew; Tirrell, Matthew; de Pablo, Juan J.
2014-03-01
Aqueous solutions of polymers having opposite charge can separate into a coacervate phase and a supernatant water phase.The conditions leading to such behavior, including chain lenght, ionization fraction, ionic strength, molecular structure, and temperature are poorly understood. Though thermodynamic models of this phase separation exist, they offer little descriptive power for the mechanism of complex coacervation, and the internal structure of the coacervate and precipitate phases. Here we use atomic-level and coarse-grained representations of polypeptides to study features of the phase diagram, scaling relations, and microstructure of complex coacervates, comparing results to experimental data and model calculations.
Complex variable methods in elasticity
England, A H
2003-01-01
The plane strain and generalized plane stress boundary value problems of linear elasticity are the focus of this graduate-level text, which formulates and solves these problems by employing complex variable theory. The text presents detailed descriptions of the three basic methods that rely on series representation, Cauchy integral representation, and the solution via continuation. Its five-part treatment covers functions of a complex variable, the basic equations of two-dimensional elasticity, plane and half-plane problems, regions with circular boundaries, and regions with curvilinear bounda
Correlation dimension of complex networks
Lacasa, Lucas
2012-01-01
We propose a new measure to characterize the dimension of complex networks based on the ergodic theory of dynamical systems. This measure is derived from the correlation sum of a trajectory generated by a random walker navigating the network, and extends the classical Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the context of complex networks. The method is validated with reliable results for both synthetic networks and real-world networks such as the world air-transportation network or urban networks, and provides a computationally fast way for estimating the dimensionality of networks which only relies on the local information provided by the walkers.
Complexity of Public Transport Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Huapu; SHI Ye
2007-01-01
The theory of complex networks was used to classify public transport networks into public transportation route networks, public transportation transfer networks, and bus station networks. The practical significance of the network parameters was then analyzed. The public transport networks in Langfang, Jining, and Dalian were then chosen as specific research cases. The results show that the public transportation networks have the characteristics of complex networks. In addition, the urban transportation network parameters all significantly affect the accessibility, convenience, and terrorist security capability of the urban public transportation network. The results link the findings with the actual situations to explore means to solve transportation system problems.
Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-05-01
We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Chua, Leon O
1998-01-01
Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur
Dispersion scenarios over complex terrain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Mikkelsen, T.; Moreno, J.
1993-01-01
A presentation of preliminary results from a real-time simulation of full-scale dispersion experiments carried out over complex terrain in Northern Spain is given. Actual wind and turbulence measurements as observed during the experiments were analysed and used as input data for a series of simul......A presentation of preliminary results from a real-time simulation of full-scale dispersion experiments carried out over complex terrain in Northern Spain is given. Actual wind and turbulence measurements as observed during the experiments were analysed and used as input data for a series...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
2012-01-01
Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine-structure ......Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine...
Epidemic dynamics on complex networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Tao; FU Zhongqian; WANG Binghong
2006-01-01
Recently, motivated by the pioneer work in revealing the small-world effect and scale-free property of various real-life networks, many scientists devote themselves to studying complex networks. One of the ultimate goals is to understand how the topological structures affect the dynamics upon networks. In this paper, we give a brief review on the studies of epidemic dynamics on complex networks, including the description of classical epidemic models, the epidemic spread on small-world and scale-free networks, and network immunization. Finally, perspectives and some interesting problems are proposed.
Silver Complexes of Dihalogen Molecules.
Malinowski, Przemysław J; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo
2016-08-01
The perfluorohexane-soluble and donor-free silver compound Ag(A) (A=Al(OR(F) )4 ; R(F) =C(CF3 )3 ) prepared using a facile novel route has unprecedented capabilities to form unusual and weakly bound complexes. Here, we report on the three dihalogen-silver complexes Ag(Cl2 )A, Ag(Br2 )A, and Ag(I2 )A derived from the soluble silver compound Ag(A) (characterized by single-crystal/powder XRD, Raman spectra, and quantum-mechanical calculations).
Characteristic exponents of complex networks
Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito
2013-01-01
We propose a method to characterize and classify complex networks based on the time series generated by random walks and different node properties. The analysis of the fluctuations of the time series reveals the presence of long-range correlations, and allows to define, for each network, a set of characteristic exponents that capture its essential structural properties. By considering a large data set of real-world networks, we show that the characteristic exponents can be used to classify complex networks according to their function, and are able to discriminate social from biological and technological systems.
Complex Dynamics in Communication Networks
Kocarev, Ljupco
2005-01-01
Computer and communication networks are among society's most important infrastructures. The internet, in particular, is a giant global network of networks without central control or administration. It is a paradigm of a complex system, where complexity may arise from different sources: topological structure, network evolution, connection and node diversity, or dynamical evolution. The present volume is the first book entirely devoted to the new and emerging field of nonlinear dynamics of TCP/IP networks. It addresses both scientists and engineers working in the general field of communication networks.
Workspace Program for Complex-Number Arithmetic
Patrick, M. C.; Howell, Leonard W., Jr.
1986-01-01
COMPLEX is workspace program designed to empower APL with complexnumber capabilities. Complex-variable methods provide analytical tools invaluable for applications in mathematics, science, and engineering. COMPLEX written in APL.
Coordination Control Of Complex Machines
J.C.M. Baeten; B. van Beek; J. Markovski; L.J.A.M. Somers
2015-01-01
Control and coordination are important aspects of the development of complex machines due to an ever-increasing demand for better functionality, quality, and performance. In WP6 of the C4C project, we developed a synthesis-centric systems engineering framework suitable for supervisory coordination o
Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex
Jaklitsch, W.M.; Samuels, G.J.; Ismaiel, A.; Voglmayr, H.
2013-01-01
Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13 phylogenet
Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian G. Cullis
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.
Structural insights into transcription complexes
Berger, I.; Blanco, A.G.; Boelens, R.; Cavarelli, J.; Coll, M.; Folkers, G.E.; Nie, Y.; Pogenberg, V.; Schultz, P.; Wilmanns, M.; Moras, D.; Poterszman, A.
2011-01-01
Control of transcription allows the regulation of cell activity in response to external stimuli and research in the field has greatly benefited from efforts in structural biology. In this review, based on specific examples from the European SPINE2-COMPLEXES initiative, we illustrate the impact of
Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ian G. CULLIS; Nikos NIKIFORAKIS; Peter FRANKL; Philip BLAKELY; Paul BENNETT; Paul GREENWOOD
2016-01-01
The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length-and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.
Libraries Serving the CSIR Complex.
Rajagopalan, T. S.; Ramaswami, K.
A survey of the resources and services of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) libraries was made so that the libraries in the complex could share the benefit of the experiences of each other. The report is based on questionnaire replies received from 31 CSIR Institutions and eight Co-operative Research Associations and relates…
Several topics in complex variables
Smit, I.M.
2015-01-01
This thesis is based on three articles in the field of Several Complex Variables. The first article, which is joint work with M. El Kadiri, defines and studies the concept of maximality for plurifinely plurisubharmonic functions. Its main result is that a finite plurifinely plurisubharmonic function
Chaos and complexity in astrophysics
Regev, Oded
2007-01-01
Methods and techniques of the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems and patterns can be useful in astrophysical applications. Some works on the subjects of dynamical astronomy, stellar pulsation and variability, as well as spatial complexity in extended systems, in which such approaches have already been utilized, are reviewed. Prospects for future directions in applications of this kind are outlined.
A Complexity Approach for Steganalysis
Bahi, Jacques M; Heam, Pierre-Cyrille
2011-01-01
In this proposal for the Journ\\`ees Codes et St\\'eganographie 2012, we define a new rigorous approach for steganalysis based on the complexity theory. It is similar to the definitions of security that can be found for hash functions, PRNG, and so on. We propose here a notion of \\emph{secure hiding} and we give a first secure hiding scheme.
Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex
Jaklitsch, W.M.; Samuels, G.J.; Ismaiel, A.; Voglmayr, H.
2013-01-01
Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13