WorldWideScience

Sample records for macroeconomic policy challenges

  1. Macroeconomic Policies Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This concise study analyses the symmetry of financial markets’ responses to macroeconomic policy interaction in the United Kingdom. Employing the Vector Auto-regression (VAR model on monthly data of the British financial sector and macroeconomic policies from January 1985 to August 2008, this study found that the equity and sovereign debt markets showed identical symmetry in response to macroeconomic policy interaction.

  2. On the character of macroeconomics, macroeconomic policy and econometrics: the need for another macroeconomic policy conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. HOODGDUIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work argues that the “traditional” macroeconomic policy conception that emerged in the fifties and sixties was rightly challenged in the seventies, although on the basis of an insufficiently grounded belief in the equilibrating tendencies in market economies. According to the author, the traditional policy conception should be rejected for its misconception of the character of macroeconomics which led to an overly pretentious claim for the possibilities of macroeconomics and macroeconometric model-building in the field of policy. Furthermore, it is argued that the possibility of important deficiencies in the functioning of market economies cannot be precluded on either theoretical or empirical grounds. 

  3. Macroeconomics and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    I., National Income & Economic Accounting, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1969. Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New York...system. .0 207 0 References * Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978. Edgmand, M. R., Macroeconomics: Theory and...Central Banking, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974, 4th ed. Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978. Goldfeld, S. M

  4. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  5. Growth Dynamics in South Africa: Key Macroeconomic Drivers and Policy Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themba G. Chirwa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine which key factors at the macroeconomic level are associated with the economic growth performance of the South African economy. These drivers have been identified by assessing the economic events that occurred during the period 1960-2013. During this period, the South African economy went through two economic and political systems: an apartheid system that covered the period 1948-1993; and a democratic system from 1994 to date. Regardless of the economic system implemented, we find the accumulation of physical capital, human capital development, international trade, real exchange rate growth, and inflation as the most significant macroeconomic drivers of economic growth in South Africa. We also find that the weak performance of the South African economy in recent years has been grossly affected by declining trends in the accumulation of capital stock, low quantities and quality of human capital, worsening balance of payments position, and real exchange rate instability.

  6. Macroeconomic trouble and policy challenges in the wake of the financial bust

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    Angel Asensio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrasting with the 1929 great crisis, authorities intervened forcefully in 2008 to stop the disintegration of the financial system. Governments and central banks then sought to revise the prudential regulation in depth. It would be optimistic, however, to believe that prudential measures, alone, could deliver full economic recovery, at least in the countries that had been involved in the financial turmoil. Indeed, the collapse of the "state of confidence" and the negative effects of private debts on consumption and investment decisions have fed depressive forces and policy challenges which could hold for a while, even once the financial sector is made safe. On the one hand, the economic slowdown and the direct and indirect assistance provided by the governments to the private sectors are having a heavy impact on public finances, meanwhile, on the other hand, the massive amounts of money which artificially inflated the prices of housing and financial products could produce inflationary pressures in the post-crisis period, unless a new assets bubble is allowed for. Authorities could therefore be facing high unemployment in a damaged context of public deficits and inflationary pressures. The paper aims at discussing these new challenges. The inadequacy of inflation targets and fiscal orthodoxy in a depressed economy is emphasized, and the outlines of a Post Keynesian alternative policy are examined.

  7. Essays in international macroeconomics and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qianying

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters. Each chapter covers a topic in international macroeconomics and monetary policy. The first chapter investigates the impact of unexpected monetary policy shocks on exchange rates in a multi-country econometric model. The second chapter examines the linkage between macroeconomic fundamentals and exchange rates through the monetary policy expectation channel. The third chapter focuses on the international transmission of bank and corporate distress. The las...

  8. Public Service Employment as Macroeconomic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Martin N.; Solow, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Authors assert that public service employment (PSE) is one form of macroeconomic policy and compare PSE to tax reduction, federal subsidies, and other forms. They propose a design for an ongoing federal employment program and conclude that a PSE program aimed at the structurally unemployed creates more jobs per GNP dollar than other policies. (SK)

  9. Macroeconomic policy, growth, and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Philip

    2008-12-01

    To successfully achieve biodiversity conservation, the amount of ecosystem structure available for economic production must be determined by, and subject to, conservation needs. As such, the scale of economic systems must remain within the limits imposed by the need to preserve critical ecosystems and the regenerative and waste assimilative capacities of the ecosphere. These limits are determined by biophysical criteria, yet macroeconomics involves the use of economic instruments designed to meet economic criteria that have no capacity to achieve biophysically based targets. Macroeconomic policy cannot, therefore, directly solve the biodiversity erosion crisis. Nevertheless, good macroeconomic policy is still important given that bad macroeconomy policy is likely to reduce human well-being and increase the likelihood of social upheaval that could undermine conservation efforts.

  10. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON MACROECONOMIC POLICY

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    Clementina IVAN-UNGUREANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization – the growing integration of economies and societies around the world – has been one of the most hotly-debated topics in international economics over the past few years. Rapid growth and poverty reduction in some countries that were poor 20 years ago have been positive aspects of globalization. But globalization has also generated significant international opposition to concerns about increased inequality and environmental degradation. There are many definitions of globalization. One of them could be: globalization is an ecosystem in which economic potential is no longer defined or contained by political and geographic boundaries. Economic activity has no bounds in a globalized economy. A globalized world is one where goods, services, financial capital, machinery, money, workers and ideas migrate to wherever they are most valued and can work together most efficiently, flexibly and securely. Where does economic policy come into play in this world? This paper presents some aspects of globalization and the impact on the new strategy of macroeconomics policy.

  11. In Search of the Motives behind US Fiscal Macroeconomic Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Swank (Otto); J. Swank (Job)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper optimal control techniques are applied to estimate the motives behind US fiscal macroeconomic policy. Starting from a range of possible objectives and given the perception of policy makers about the environment in which they operate, the priorities of policy makers are esti

  12. Overall Effects of China's Recent Macroeconomic Regulatory Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJianwei,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    China's economic regulatory policies in the last few years have played an important role in curbing the slide of its consistent growth drive. In terms of overall effects, the macroeconomic regulatory policies of each fiscal year have attained their targets. In some years, however,

  13. Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

  14. Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

  15. LIMITS OF ECB MONETARY POLICIES ON ADJUSTING MACROECONOMIC SHOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihnatov Iulian Romeo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper we intend to highlight the limits of ECB in managing the macroeconomic shocks in the Euro zone. We consider that in the last months the ECB monetary policy rate loses its effectiveness and, consequently, should be offset by other measures

  16. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  17. The Swedish model: an alternative to macroeconomic policy

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    ALEXANDRE GUEDES VIANA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper describes the main details of the Swedish economic model, which began to be structured on the 1930s and achieved its consolidation on the 1950s. The Swedish model is characterized by a macroeconomic policy which provides price stability, fiscal results for selective industrial policies and social active policies, the latter being recognized as a wide universal welfare state. This combination, which contradicts the traditional economic prescriptions, has been successful given the country was agrarian and underdeveloped until the beginni.ng of 20th century and achieved a high social-economic development level on the 1970s. Afterwards, we present the Swedish experiment as an alternative to macroeconomic management, especially due to its uniqueness.

  18. Macroeconomic policies and economic democracy in neoliberal Brazil

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    Daniel Bin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this paper is to investigate some of the forms of conduct of macroeconomic policies related to a substantive concept of democracy, characterized by popular participation - direct or through representatives - in decisions that unevenly affect the material well-being of the entire Brazilian population. Special attention is given to decisions about the country's public indebtedness in the years following the launching of the RealPlan. Empirical evidences show a limited democracy, revealed by the material inequality, which in turn reproduces political inequality and restricts real freedom. This is combined with the selective bureaucratic insulation of economic policy decisions, and the parliament's failure to deal with the macroeconomic agenda. The latter is thus left to the control of the executive branch's economic apparatus, which on one hand submits itself to substantial political influence from finance and, on the other hand, restricts popular participation in decisions on both fiscal and monetary policies.

  19. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  20. The effects of discretionary fiscal policy on macroeconomic aggregates

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    Stevan Gaber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the evidence on the practice and effects of discretionary fiscal policy, particularly in the context of recent efforts to stimulate the economy, reaching two main conclusions. First, policy interventions have increased in this decade, pre-dating the 2009 stimulus. Second, despite a large economic literature on the topic, the state of theory and evidence is not as "shovel ready" as one would like. Although consumption and investment clearly respond to tax incentives and structural vector autoregressions show that lower taxes and higher government purchases can boost output, it is difficult to apply the findings in the current context, in part because multipliers and policy lags are likely to vary with economic conditions. This paper surveys the theoretical predictions and recent empirical Vector Autoregression (VAR evidence on the short-run effects of discretionary fiscal policy on macroeconomic aggregates.

  1. Expecting the Unexpected Macroeconomic Volatility and Climate Policy

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    Gajendra S. Chauhan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Analysts have been comparing a policy scenario with a baseline scenario of future economic conditions without the policy, to estimate the emissions reductions and costs of a climate policy. Both scenarios required assumptions about the future course of numerous factors such as population growth, technical change and non-climate policies like taxes. Approach: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unanticipated macroeconomic shocks to growth in developing countries or a global financial crisis on the performance of three climate policy regimes: A globally-harmonized carbon tax; a global cap and trade system and the McKibbin-Wilcoxen hybrid. The G-cubed dynamic general equilibrium model has been used to explore how the shocks would affect emissions, prices, incomes and wealth under each regime. Results: It has been found that a global cap and trade regime will significantly change the way growth shocks will otherwise be transmitted between regions while price-based systems such as a global carbon tax or a hybrid policy will not. Moreover, in case of a financial meltdown, a price based system will enable significant emissions reductions at low economic cost whereas a quantity target base system will lead to loss of the opportunity for low cost emission reduction because the target is fixed. Conclusion: The results of this study have explored these issues by examining the effects of shocks that have actually occurred in the past decade: A surprising surge of economic growth in developing countries and a global financial crisis. Quantity based approaches such as a global permit trading regime tend to buffer some kinds of macro-economic shocks: Carbon prices rise and fall with the business cycle. However, price-based approaches such as a global carbon tax or a McKibbin Wilcoxen Hybrid would provide stronger firewalls to prevent adverse events in one carbon market from causing a collapse of the global system.

  2. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  3. ROMANIA MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO OVERCOME THE CRISIS MACROECONOMIC POLICIES THROUGH

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    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is intended to be an analysis of the measures taken by the Romanian economic recoverythrough levers it has at hand, namely macroeconomic policies. Current financial and economic crisis appears to beunprecedented in the last half century. Whether it's a financial crisis or an economic one, we can talk about theeconomy installing a pronounced instability, uncertainty and insecurity about the future. There is a significantdecrease in the volume of transactions on the stock exchange, lack of trust in the financial system, a disturbance ofmarket mechanisms.The crisis has caused and continues to cause effects in various sectors of the economy, includingjob losses. Following the severe global economic problems, the crisis has spread rapidly in all areas.States have beenthe subject of theoretical dispute for decades, and these arguments have been rekindled with interventions bygovernments of countries affected by the recent crisis.

  4. Uncertainty in macroeconomic policy-making: art or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, David; Barrett, Philip; Kapadia, Sujit; King, Mervyn; Proudman, James; Taylor, Tim; de Weymarn, Iain; Yates, Tony

    2011-12-13

    Uncertainty is pervasive in economic policy-making. Modern economies share similarities with other complex systems in their unpredictability. But economic systems also differ from those in the natural sciences because outcomes are affected by the state of beliefs of the systems' participants. The dynamics of beliefs and how they interact with economic outcomes can be rich and unpredictable. This paper relates these ideas to the recent crisis, which has reminded us that we need a financial system that is resilient in the face of the unpredictable and extreme. It also highlights how such uncertainty puts a premium on sound communication strategies by policy-makers. This creates challenges in informing others about the uncertainties in the economy, and how policy is set in the face of those uncertainties. We show how the Bank of England tries to deal with some of these challenges in its communications about monetary policy.

  5. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim; Bakri Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia...

  6. Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Sharmistha

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

  7. Short and long run macroeconomic effects of trade policy in the presence of debt servicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to analyze the macroeconomic effects of trade policy, when the instrument is a voluntary export restraint (VER), on both the home (imposing) country and the foreign (targeted) country. The innovation in the paper is the analysis of trade policy when debt serv

  8. Short and long run macroeconomic effects of trade policy in the presence of debt servicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the macroeconomic effects of trade policy, when the instrument is a voluntary export restraint (VER), on both the home (imposing) country and the foreign (targeted) country. The innovation in the paper is the analysis of trade policy when

  9. Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Sharmistha

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

  10. Short and long run macroeconomic effects of trade policy in the presence of debt servicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to analyze the macroeconomic effects of trade policy, when the instrument is a voluntary export restraint (VER), on both the home (imposing) country and the foreign (targeted) country. The innovation in the paper is the analysis of trade policy when debt serv

  11. Short and long run macroeconomic effects of trade policy in the presence of debt servicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the macroeconomic effects of trade policy, when the instrument is a voluntary export restraint (VER), on both the home (imposing) country and the foreign (targeted) country. The innovation in the paper is the analysis of trade policy when

  12. Macroeconomic stabilization and intervention policy under an exchange rate band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; van der Ploeg, F.

    1998-01-01

    Macroeconomic stabilization and foreign exchange market interventions are investigated for a small open economy with a nominal exchange rate band. In a first-best situation, a band is not advisable from a stabilization perspective, even though with money demand shocks no welfare losses are incurred.

  13. Macroeconomic stabilization and intervention policy under an exchange rate band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; van der Ploeg, F.

    1998-01-01

    Macroeconomic stabilization and foreign exchange market interventions are investigated for a small open economy with a nominal exchange rate band. In a first-best situation, a band is not advisable from a stabilization perspective, even though with money demand shocks no welfare losses are incurred.

  14. Macroeconomic policy interaction: State dependency and implications for financial stability in UK: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between economic and financial stabilities and influence of macroeconomic policies on the financial sector creates scope of active policy role in financial stability. As a contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this study has analysed the implications of macroeconomic policy interaction/coordination for financial stability, proxied by financial assets, i.e. equity and bonds price oscillation. The critical review and analysis of the existing literature on the subject suggests that there is also ample evidence of interdependence between monetary and fiscal policies and this interrelation necessitates coordination between them for the sake of financial stability. There is also a case for analysing the symmetry of financial markets responses to macroeconomic policy interaction. On methodological and empirical grounds, it is vital to test the robustness of policy recommendations to overcome the limitation of a single empirical approach (Jeffrey–Lindley’s paradox. Hence, the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches should be used in commentary manner. The policy interaction and optimal policy combination should also be analysed in the context of institutional design and major financial events to gain insight into the implications of policy interaction in the periods of stable economic and financial environments as well as period of financial and economic distress.

  15. Some Evidence on Policy Makers’ Motives, Macroeconomic preferences and Output-Inflation Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Swank (Otto)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of an empirical study of the relationship between macroeconomic performance and policy makers' preferences for real output growth and inflation based on quarterly data from 16 countries. The empirical results indicate that a lower priority to inflation and

  16. Analysis of China's Overheated Economy and Macroeconomic Policy Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KeshaGuo

    2004-01-01

    Based on macroeconomic analysis since 2003, this article holds mat a trena towaras overheating has surfaced in China's economy. China's rapid economic expansion has affected the quality of its growth, with rising material and energy consumption and imbalanced economic structure as the main manifestations. Regarding macroeconomic policy options in 2004, decision-makers should shift the policy focus from control of deflation to prevention of inflation; the pace of economic growth should be properly set; a balance between consumption and investment should be strengthened by controlling excessive expansion of investment, and industrial restructuring should be conducted in a coordinated manner on the basis of properly controlling the overly rapid indastrial growth; policies should be continued to boost exports and sustainable growth of foreign investment; and more efforts should be made to accelerate the change in the mode of economic growth.

  17. The macroeconomic effects of monetary policy and financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Douch, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we focus on postwar US data and incorporate new nancial measures and monetary policy shocks in a vector autoregression (VAR) system in order to test whether one or the other has any real effect on the economy. We nd econometric evidence that these shocks and events are exogenous, and therefore the exogenous nature of shocks to monetary policy and stock market crashes investigated in this study may help policymakers, especially regarding debates related to eventual relationshi...

  18. Macroeconomic effects of international regional economic integration: global practice and challenges for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Fedirko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the causes and macroeconomic peculiarities of the formation and operation of international regional economic associations of various forms have been studied. A hierarchical classification of modern international regional economic integration groups is presented. The contribution of the world’s largest integration groups to the global GDP has been analyzed. The main macroeconomic results of countries’ participation in integration associations of different forms on the pre-establishment and post-establishment stages have been described, the positive effects obtained by countries in the result of introduction of certain common economic activity conditions have been determined. Potential risks for Ukraine related to European Integration and prospective positive effects of integration into the world economy have been determined. Conceptual principles of state policy of blocking of the potential risks of international regional economic integration for Ukraine have been substantiated.

  19. MACROECONOMIC POLICIES AND TRENDS IN RESTRUCTURING OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Challenges triggered by the current economic and financial crisis are multiple. In the short term the main challenge is finding solutions that will restore investor confidence and long-term consumatorilor.Pe, the main challenge is to adjust the principles that guide the international financial system reform, mainly relating to transparency, improvement of accounting rules on securities, insurance regulation firms and markets appropriate financial products and strengthen cooperation between the world's financial institutions including the IMF's governance structure modernization and World Bank

  20. Resource price turbulence and macroeconomic adjustment for a resource exporter. A conceptual framework for policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Grant M. [School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 522 (Australia); Harvie, Charles [School of Economics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    Increased global demand for energy and other resources, particularly from the rapidly developing economies of China and India and the opening up of global resource markets to global investors and speculative activity, has resulted in considerable recent turbulence in resource prices. The recent magnitude of change in resource prices, both positive and negative, and their macroeconomic implications is of considerable contemporary importance to both resource importing and exporting economies. For a resource exporting economy, such as that of Australia, the recent resource price boom has resulted in: increased government taxation revenue, increased employment and wages in the resource and resource related sectors, increased spending in the domestic economy that contributed to buoyant economic growth, increased resource exports to the booming economies of China and India and contributed to a stronger domestic currency with beneficial effects upon inflation. On the other hand these developments have had adverse effects on the non-resource sector by: subjecting it to more intense competition for limited resources, contributing to a loss of international competitiveness and reduced exports arising from a stronger exchange rate, reducing employment in the relatively more labour intensive non-resource sector, and contributing to an eventual slow down in the overall economy. These positive and negative effects, and the overall impact of a resource price boom, require a fundamentally closer analysis of the structure of the economy under scrutiny. In this context the policy response by government is likely to be pivotal in determining the overall macroeconomic outcomes from a resource price boom. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic analytical framework to appraise economic outcomes in the wake of a resource price boom for a resource producing and exporting economy. To this end a dynamic long run macroeconomic model is developed, emphasising the important role and

  1. Electricity Pricing Policy Should Serve Macro-Economic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaoping

    2005-01-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission beefed up its efforts to promote the work of electricity price reform in 2004. It took measures in aspects of easing price contradictions, tentatively implementing discriminated price and time-of-use price and issuing a policy on the linkage of coal and electricity prices and price administration. In 2005 the basic thinking of the Commission's electricity price reform is to actively advance the pilot work of price reform,carry out the reform of transmission and distribution price, enlarge the scope of pilot work of large consumer's direct purchase, simplify sales price structure and bring about the linkage of coal and electricity prices.

  2. THE IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON COMPETITION POLICY EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, more and more countries have enacted competition laws, understanding the importance of this process in providing a normal functioning of the economy. Analyzing competition policy effectiveness is important not only because of the recent extent of the phenomenon, but also because of the impact of competition policy effectiveness on economic development and, in the current economic climate, on the economic recovery process. For this reason, quantitative evaluation for competition policy effectiveness became very useful as data handling and understanding the whole phenomenon are easier this way and an international perspective is provided. This was made possible by various international institutions that have created a system of aggregated indicators for the evaluation of competition law enforcement and competition advocacy (perceived effectiveness. The purpose of our research is to identify the macroeconomic factors that influence the effectiveness of competition law implementation within the European Union Member States. We have tasted the influence of 13 macroeconomic, using panel data methodology and data from the last four years. We obtained ß coefficients statistically significant only for 11 of them. The results are consistent with prior analyzed studies and economic logic: positive influence from market division, intensity of local competition, ethical behavior of firms, strength of auditing and reporting standards, efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes, protection of minority shareholders’ interests, public trust of politicians, economic dimension and market size and negative influence from corruption level and diversion of public funds. Based on the achieved results we can perform an analysis of principal components leading to causal space reduction with minimal information loss and without informational redundancy, creating the premises for building a model that explains competition policy

  3. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening.

  4. Fiscal policy and the business cycle: the impact of government expenditures, public debt, and sovereign risk on macroeconomic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of fiscal policy over the business cycle based on a combination of empirical macroeconometric techniques and macroeconomic theory. The focus of the analysis to be conducted is on the impact of government expenditure policies, public debt, and sovereign default risk on

  5. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  6. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim; Bakri Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply) have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR) identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign...

  7. THE MACROECONOMIC DRIVERS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MALAWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themba G. Chirwa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the main macroeconomic drivers of economic growth in Malawi. The drivers are identified by examining the various development plans and reforms that Malawi implemented during the period 1970-2011. The examination concludes that the main macroeconomic drivers of economic growth in Malawi during this period were the accumulation of physical capital, human capital development, international trade, inflation and the real exchange rate. The examination also shows that country-specific development policies and institutions are important in identifying and influencing the macroeconomic factors of growth. Although Malawi has been able to identify the factors that would contribute to sustainable economic growth in its development policies, these factors were influenced by a number of structural challenges, such as low investment rates, inadequate investment in human capital, balance-of-payment problems, macroeconomic instability, and frequent policy reversals in the implementation of macroeconomic reforms.

  8. Macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in the European Union, with particular reference to transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilind Kabashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the short- to medium-term effects of fiscal policy on output and other macroeconomic variables in European Union countries between 1995 and 2012, with particular reference to transition countries. It applies Panel Vector Auto Regression with recursive identification of government spending shocks as the most appropriate method for the aim of the study and the sample used. The main results indicate that expansionary spending shocks have a positive, but a relatively low effect on output, with the fiscal multiplier around one in the year of the shock and the following year, and lower thereinafter. There are indications that this result is driven by the recent crisis, as multipliers are considerably lower in the pre-crisis period. Effects of fiscal policy are strongly dependent on country structural characteristics. Fiscal multipliers are higher in new European Union member states, in countries with low public debt and low trade openness. Further, spending shocks are followed by rising debt levels in old member states, which could be related well to the recent European debt crisis. Finally, the analysis of the transmission mechanism of fiscal policy yields results that are consistent with both extended Real Business Cycle models and extended New Keynesian models.

  9. CONVERGENCE PROGRAM AND MACROECONOMIC POLICIES FOR ROMANIA JOINING THE EURO-ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena R DULESCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania submitted a new update of its convergence program on 5 December 2007, covering the period 2007-2010. The budgetary strategy outlined in the program is not in line with the prudent fiscal policy necessary to contain the growing external deficit and inflationary pressures which put the convergence process at risk. In view of the Commission assessment and the need to ensure sustainable convergence, Romania is invited to: (i significantly strengthen the pace of adjustment towards the MTO by aiming for substantially more demanding budgetary targets in 2008 and subsequent years in order to contain the risk of an excessive deficit, foster macroeconomic stability and rein in widening external imbalances and address the risks to the long-term sustainability of public finances; (ii restrain the envisaged high increase in public spending, review its expenditure composition so as to enhance the economy’s growth potential and improve the planning and execution of expenditure within a binding medium-term framework; (iii adopt policies to contain inflationary pressures, complementing the recommended tighter fiscal stance, with appropriate public wage policy and further structural reforms.

  10. Managing Success in Viet Nam: Macroeconomic Consequences of Large Capital Inflows with Limited Policy Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    Viet Nam has experienced spectacular economic growth over the past decade, in part the result of massive foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Although much has been written on the impacts of FDI in developing countries, previous studies have generally ignored macroeconomic consequences in cost-benefit assessments. These macroeconomic aspects can be particularly important in transitional economies like Viet Nam, where some of the tools for macroeconomic stabilization may be blunt or unavai...

  11. Macroeconomics in develpoing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the differences between the economies of industrialized countriesand developing countries, which have important implications for macroeconomics interms of theory and policy. It considers the differences in macroeconomic objectives andexamines why the reach of macroeconomic policies is different in the two sets ofcountries. It argues that the distinction between short-run macroeconomic models andlong-term growth models is not quite appropriate for developing countries, wheremacroeconomic constraints on growth straddle time horizons and short-term policieshave long-term consequences. The essential hypothesis is that the nature of relationshipsand the direction of causation in macroeconomics, which shape analysis, diagnosis andprescription, depend on the institutional setting and not the analytical structure of models.And even if some laws of economics are universal, the functioning of economies can bemarkedly different. Therefore, economic theory and policy analysis should recognize,rather than ignore, such myriad differences.

  12. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...

  13. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign variables, domestic output and inflation. The results show the important role of foreign shocks in influencing Malaysian monetary policy and macroeconomic variables. There is a real effect of monetary policy, that is, a positive shock in money supply increases domestic output. In contrast, a positive interest rates shock has a negative effect on domestic output growth and inflation. The effects of money supply and interest rate shocks on the exchange rate and stock prices are also consistent with standard economic theory. In addition, domestic monetary policy is able to mitigate the negative effect of external shocks upon domestic economy.

  14. A goal programming approach for a joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies: a methodological proposal and an application to the Spanish economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Francisco J; Cardenete, M Alejandro; Romero, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    The economic policy needs to pay increasingly more attention to the environmental issues, which requires the development of methodologies able to incorporate environmental, as well as macroeconomic, goals in the design of public policies. Starting from this observation, this article proposes a methodology based upon a Simonian satisficing logic made operational with the help of goal programming (GP) models, to address the joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies. The methodology is applied to the Spanish economy, where a joint policy is elicited, taking into consideration macroeconomic goals (economic growth, inflation, unemployment, public deficit) and environmental goals (CO(2), NO( x ) and SO( x ) emissions) within the context of a computable general equilibrium model. The results show how the government can "fine-tune" its policy according to different criteria using GP models. The resulting policies aggregate the environmental and the economic goals in different ways: maximum aggregate performance, maximum balance and a lexicographic hierarchy of the goals.

  15. A Goal Programming Approach for a Joint Design of Macroeconomic and Environmental Policies: A Methodological Proposal and an Application to the Spanish Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Francisco J.; Cardenete, M. Alejandro; Romero, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    The economic policy needs to pay increasingly more attention to the environmental issues, which requires the development of methodologies able to incorporate environmental, as well as macroeconomic, goals in the design of public policies. Starting from this observation, this article proposes a methodology based upon a Simonian satisficing logic made operational with the help of goal programming (GP) models, to address the joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies. The methodology is applied to the Spanish economy, where a joint policy is elicited, taking into consideration macroeconomic goals (economic growth, inflation, unemployment, public deficit) and environmental goals (CO2, NO x and SO x emissions) within the context of a computable general equilibrium model. The results show how the government can “fine-tune” its policy according to different criteria using GP models. The resulting policies aggregate the environmental and the economic goals in different ways: maximum aggregate performance, maximum balance and a lexicographic hierarchy of the goals.

  16. Stagflation environment oriented macroeconomic policies%滞涨环境下的宏观政策取向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖桂辉; 周海花

    2013-01-01

    面对当前国内宏观经济呈现出来的滞胀现象,理论界对其成因和对策众说纷纭,有的认为应该采用需求管理政策来应对它,有的却认为应该采取供给管理政策来化解。文章认为其产生既有需求方面的原因也有供给方面的原因,在宏观政策取舍上应该放弃对宽松货币政策的迷恋,只有把需求管理政策和供给管理政策结合起来,双管齐下才能取得较好的治理成效。%Faced with current domestic macroeconomic presentation of the stagflation phenomenon, its causes and countermeasures theorists have different opinions, some believe that demand management policies should be adopted to deal with it, but some think it should be taken to resolve the supply management policies. Articles that which generates both the demand and the supply are also reasons , the trade-offs in macroeconomic policy easing monetary policy should give up on obsession, only demand management policies and supply management policies combine two-pronged approach in order to achieve better effectiveness of governance .

  17. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  18. 中国宏观经济政策的效果分析%Analysis of China's Macroeconomic Policy Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖胜

    2001-01-01

    在当前中国的经济发展中,由于住房、医疗、教育等领域的改革和资金净流入的大量增加,存在着两个显著的变化,即货币需求的大幅增加和国际收支中资本项目的大量盈余,而这两个变化同时对我国财政政策和货币政策的实施产生了较大的影响,基于这两个变化,通过对IS-LM模型的修正,对我国当前宏观经济政策的效果进行分析。%During the economic development of China, due to the reformation of the housing, medical, education and the great growth of the net capital flow-in, there exist two obvious changes, which are the increasing of the demand for money and the great international payment surplus. Simultaneously these two changes influence the effect of our macroeconomic policy greatly. Based on these two changes, using an IS-LM model, this essay gives the analysis of the effect of Chinese macroeconomic policy.

  19. THE CHALLENGE OF MEASURING FINANCIAL STRESS. CASE STUDY FOR IDENTIFYING THE MACROECONOMIC TRIGGERS OF FINANCIAL CRISIS WITH PANEL DATA MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda CIMPOERU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring financial stress is a key research issue that has gained a lot of interest in the years following the extreme events from 2007. Although a lot of models were used for assessing and measuring financial stress, none of the managed to forecast the global crisis from 2007. We can identify three generation of models plus the approach of measuring the probability of a crisis with financial stress indexes. In our paper, we review briefly the most important approaches in measuring financial stress from the specialty literature and we propose a case study for European countries. We apply a logistic regression model for panel data, using macroeconomic indicators with the goal of finding the most important triggers for a financial crisis or otherwise said, the early warning signals of a crisis. We obtain very good accuracy of the proposed model (85% and the results are of great importance for policy makers and also for researchers. The study highly contributes to the specialty literature, considering that it is the first early warning system developed on macroeconomic indicators only for European advanced and emerging economies. Moreover, it includes in the analysis a period of five year following 2007.

  20. "Proposals" reveals orientation of macroeconomic policy%"十一五"规划建议揭示中国宏观经济政策取向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proposals for formulating the l lth five-year programme for national economic and social development adopted at the 5th plenary session of the 16th Party central committee that closed recently has set the development objectives for 2006-2010 and revealed the rough orientation of the macroeconomic policy for thenext five years.

  1. Influence of macro-economic growth, CAP reforms and biofuel policy on the Polish agri-food sector in 2007–2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possible development scenario of the Polish agricultural sector till 2020. It also assesses the impact of macroeconomic growth, CAP reforms and worldwide policies towards the agriculture on this development. The scenario is build using an extended version of the Global Trade

  2. Development assistance for health: should policy-makers worry about its macroeconomic impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Lane, Christopher; Evans, David B; Carrin, Guy

    2008-11-01

    Many low-income countries need to substantially increase expenditure to meet universal coverage goals for essential health services but, because they have very low-incomes, most will be unable to raise adequate funds exclusively from domestic sources in the short to medium term. Increased aid for health will be required. However, there has long been a concern that the rapid arrival of large amounts of foreign exchange in a country could lead to an increase in inflation and loss of international competitiveness, with an adverse impact on exports and economic growth, an economic phenomenon termed 'Dutch disease'. We review cross-country and country-level empirical studies and propose a simple framework to gauge the extent of macroeconomic risks. Of the 15 low-income countries that are increasing aid-financed health spending, 7 have high macroeconomic risks that may constrain the sustained expansion of spending. These conditions also apply in one-quarter of the 42 countries not presently increasing spending. Health authorities should be aware of the multiple risk factors at play, including factors that are health-sector specific and others that generally are not. They should also realize that there are effective means for mitigating the risk of Dutch disease associated with increasing development assistance for health. International partners also have an important role to play since more sustainable and predictable flows of donor funding will allow more productivity enhancing investment in physical and human capital, which will also contribute to ensuring there are few harmful macroeconomic effects of increases in aid.

  3. On the Transmission Mechanism of the Chinese Land Policy in Macroeconomic-control: A Theoretical Study Based on Modified IS-LM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin; DIAO; Jinming; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to bring land factor into the general fame of national product and develop a new modified‘IS-LM equilibrium model’,aiming to find out the impacts of land factor on the effective allocation of capital between total supply and total demand constituting gross national product,to analyze the relation mechanism among land factor and macroeconomic variables,and to discuss the theoretical mechanism under which land,fiscal and monetary policy are integrated. Methods employed include econometrics and model analysis. The results indicate that:( i) on the conditions that the equilibrium of supply and demand in land market,the modified IS-LM model taking into account land factor successfully performs transmission mechanism of land policy participation in macroeconomic-control by means of money capital regulation;( ii) the direction and intensity of land policy control are effected by elasticity of land supply and land price,meanwhile different characteristics of land supply elasticity exit in different stages of economic development;( iii) the realization of IS-LM equilibrium requires the aggregate effects of fiscal,monetary and land policy. It is concluded that land policies for macroeconomic-control drives land price higher,and land supply regulation would diminish financial effect. During the economic expansion or recovery period,the effect of expansionary land policy would be counteracted by high land price. During the economic transition or recession period,the government could control economical operation better through tightening land policy.

  4. The Stock Market and Macroeconomic Variables in a BRICS Country and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hsing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of selected macroeconomic variables on the stock market index in South Africa. The exponential GARCH (Nelson, 1991 model is applied. It finds that South Africa’s stock market index is positively influenced by the growth rate of real GDP, the ratio of the money supply to GDP and the U.S. stock market index and negatively affected by the ratio of the government deficit to GDP, the domestic real interest rate, the nominal effective exchange rate, the domestic inflation rate, and the U.S. government bond yield. Therefore, to maintain a robust stock market, the authorities are expected to pursue economic growth, fiscal prudence, a higher ratio of the money supply to GDP, a lower real interest rate, depreciation of the rand, and/or a lower inflation rate.

  5. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly el

  6. Macroeconomic adjustment shows government resolve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANPENG

    2004-01-01

    In the last week of April, the Chinese government unexpectedly announced a set of administrative contracting polices to curb overheating investment. These policies seriously changed market expectation on central government's attitude towards the macroeconomic adiustment.

  7. Political macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available „Macroeconomics contaminates its principles in subordination to the societal contingent, in a way, creating states of coerced generality by contextualising the truth and circumstantiating the solutions through the adjustment of hypotheses.”

  8. Political macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics contaminates its principles in subordination to the societal contingent, in a way, creating states of coerced generality by contextualising the truth and circumstantiating the solutions through the adjustment of hypotheses.

  9. The Great Financial Crisis: How Effective is Macroeconomic Policy Response in the United Kingdom?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements A Akinsoyinu

    2015-01-01

    ...; its effect has profound ramifications on the global economy. The nature and the severity of the crisis provoked an unprecedented policy response from policy makers at both global and domestic levels...

  10. The Role of Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Ensuring Macroeconomic Stability in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria SĂNDICĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to make an analysis of the dynamics of macroeconomic mechanisms of propagation of shocks in the Romanian economy based on a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model (DSGE that is based on optimizing behaviour of economic agents, using micro-foundations incorporating nominal rigidities in prices and wages. The model developed is Neo-Keynesian type model and is described based on the Christiano et al (2005 and Smets and Wouters (2003. It incorporates persistence in consumption, sticky prices and wages in Calvo sense, costs of adjustment of investment, variable capacity utilization and fixed costs in production. The model takes into account also the liquidity constraints consumers - rule of thumb, element introduced by Galí et al (2007. Another assumption of the model is the consideration of imports as an input in production, under the approach of McCallum and Nelson (2001. Changes over the standard dynamic stochastic equilibrium are related to inflation inertia generated by the learning process. An innovative element is the consideration of two monetary regimes considering adopting inflation targeting strategy in Romania in August 2005. Structural break is explicitly considered by considering two sub-samples and the estimation process of parameters is in two stages similar to the approach proposed by Jakab (2008.

  11. Evidence of Macroeconomic Policy Effects over Company-Sector Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Madaleno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that stock markets may act as an economy mirror, it is explored the sensitivity of company-sector-specific stock returns to macroeconomic news reflecting different economic environments for the UK, US, Germany, Japan and Australian markets between March 1993 and February 2013 using monthly data. Results seem to indicate that portfolio investors need to be aware that movements in the market index is the best predictor to forecast stock returns of individual companies and sectors in developed economies. Sentiment influences individual company’s returns of the utilities sector, even if these are considered of limited growth and stable earnings, for UK, USA and Australia, turning investor confidence a relevant variable to be included. Information increases about industrial production have no influence on company and sector stocks, thus not affecting investor’s decision in developed countries. As for Japan, results seem to indicate that the higher the need of oil imports of a country, the higher will be the positive impact of oil price changes over company returns. Finally, the riskless interest rate has no effect on sector stock returns independently of the country under analysis. For developed economies, we confirm the finding that stocks cannot be used as a hedge against inflation.

  12. A Simple Forecasting Model Linking Macroeconomic Policy to Industrial Employment Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    A study detailed further a model linking monetary and fiscal policy to industrial employment in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of four United States regions. The model was used to simulate the impacts on area and regional employment of three events in the economy: changing real gross national product (GNP) via monetary policy, holding the…

  13. The Great Financial Crisis: How Effective is Macroeconomic Policy Response in the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Akinsoyinu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Great Financial Crisis has been touted to be the worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1930; its effect has profound ramifications on the global economy. The nature and the severity of the crisis provoked an unprecedented policy response from policy makers at both global and domestic levels. To address the rampaging crisis, the Bank of England implemented a number of conventional and unconventional policy measures to curtail the economic rot and to stimulate economic growth. There is a broad consensus in the empirical literature and other evidence found in this paper that a number of the policies implemented in the United Kingdom played a significant role in re-directing and stimulating the economy. This paper reviews the various policy measures adopted by the Bank of England from the inception of the financial crisis in 2008 and assesses their effectiveness in bringing back the economy from the brink of collapse. Our review shows that quantitative easing (QE policy and the expansionary fiscal policy adopted by the Bank of England were effective policy tools used in stimulating economic growth, stemming the effect and shortening the duration of the crisis in the United Kingdom

  14. Recent developments in monetary macroeconomics and U.S. dollar policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, William T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory and practice of monetary policy in a closed economy and explains what these developments mean for United States dollar policy. There is no conflict between what is appropriate U.S. monetary policy at home or abroad because the dollar is the world's key currency. Both at home and abroad, the main problem for U.S. policymakers is to provide an anchor for the dollar. Recent experience in other countries suggests that a solution is evolving ...

  15. Post-Keynesian alternative policies to curb macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline alternative post-Keynesian policy recommendations addressing the problems of differential inflation, divergence in competitiveness and associated current account imbalances within the Euro area. We provide a basic framework in order to systematically address the related issues making use of Anthony P. Thirlwall’s (1979, 2002 model of a “balance-of-payments-constrained growth rate” (BPCGR. Based on this framework, we outline the required stance for alternative economic policies and then we discuss the implications for alternative monetary, wage/incomes and fiscal policies in the Euro area as a whole, as well as the consequences for structural and regional policies in the Euro area periphery, in particular.

  16. Impact of External Debt and Other Macroeconomic Policies on Output in Brazil: A VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hsing

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a VAR model to quantify the relative importance of external debt, exchange rates, monetary policy and other selected variables when explaining output fluctuations in Brazil. Using the money market rate as a policy instrument, impulse response functions indicate that shocks to the interest rate, the external debt, or the inflation rate have an inverse impact on output, while currency and stock prices shocks have a positive effect on economic activity. In the medium run, the explanatory power of the external debt rises while that of the money market rate and the real exchange rate decline. When money is considered as a monetary tool, output responds positively to shocks to the real monetary base or to stock prices and reacts inversely to shocks to the external debt, currency depreciation, or inflation. Therefore, the choice of different monetary policy tools is not neutral when affecting output.

  17. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  18. The dynamic macroeconomic effects of tax policy in an overlapping generations model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ; Ligthart, JE

    2000-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic allocation effects of tax policy within the context of an overlapping-generations model of the Blanchard-Yaari type. The model is extended to allow for endogenous labour supply and three tax instruments, viz. a capital tax, labour income tax, and consumption tax. Both a

  19. Creative City Challenge: policy measures and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Romein, A.; Trip, J.J.; Zonneveld, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Report written in the framework of NSR INTERREG IVB project Creative City Challenge. The report presents the results of the project by means of an interactive toolkit for policy-makers. It presents policy measures to foster creative city development and their application on CCC partner cities and regions, and discusses the transferability of policies from one local context to another.

  20. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  1. FEATURES OF A STATE POLICY OF REDISTRIBUTION IN MODERN MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Grineva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Article focuses on the fact that the main goal of social policy is to ensure the steady growth of level and quality of life of the population and creation of conditions for human development. This article argues for the need to provide government for every person of environment for own work and resourcefulness to ensure their welfare and well being of their families, completely fulfill social obligations to pensioners, invalids, large families, disabled and other needy layers of population, etc. In addition, it is proved that the level of income members of society is an important indicator of their welfare, because it determines the possibilities of material and spiritual life of the individual: recreation, education, health maintenance, satisfaction of pressing needs. Some major factors that have a direct impact to incomes of the population, beside the size of salary, stands dynamics of retail prices, and the degree saturation of consumer market with goods and etc. It is proved when the socially oriented policy of regulation of the income owing to features of such type of economic system takes very important place. Its main task don't allow or at the first stage minimize the portion of the population which below the poverty line. It connect with the second task to reduce polarization of the population income, decreasing in the measure of economic need and opportunities decile coefficient of differentiation.

  2. 宏观经济政策对股票市场的影响研究%Study on the Influence of Macroeconomic Policy on Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴轩

    2013-01-01

      理论上,宏观经济通过传导机制对股票市场产生影响,从而产生联动效应。文章主要通过理论分析和实证分析相结合的方法,建立了VEC模型,就我国宏观经济政策对股票市场的走势的影响进行深入分析。结果表明,宏观经济政策对股票市场有一定的影响,但政策变量产生影响的显著程度与股票市场对政策变量的敏感度,时滞现象,观测时间长短以及市场自身波动性有关。%In theory, macroeconomic has an impact on the stock market through transmission mechanism, resulting in the connected effect. The article mainly used the method of combining theoretical analysis and empirical analysis to set up the VEC model. The influence of macroeconomic policies in China on the trend of the stock market has been analyzed deeply. The results show that macroeconomic policies have a certain impact on the stock market. However, the notable degree of the influence of policy variables is related to the sensitiveness of the stock market to policy variables, lag phenomenon, the length of the observation time and market volatility.

  3. Política social e ajuste macroeconômico Social policy and macroeconomic adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson do Rosário Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do texto é fazer um balanço das respostas dos Estados de bem-estar social às mudanças provocadas pelo globalização nas décadas de 1980-1990. O texto mostra que a hipótese sobre o desmantelamento dos sistemas de bem-estar social não pode ser comprovada por falta de evidências de mudanças substanciais nos mecanismos de financiamento e eleição de beneficiários. O texto focaliza também os efeitos do processo de internacionalização da economia brasileira sobre o sistema de proteção social do país. Conclui que as restrições impostas aos gastos públicos limitou severamente a capacidade em promover políticas sociais abrangentes. Verificou-se na década, a opção por políticas sociais focalizadas e seletivas pela adoção do diagnóstico da baixa efetividade do sistema de proteção social brasileiro. O caso da política de saúde foi uma exceção em razão da capacidade de intermediação de interesses na arena setorial.This paper analyzes responses by welfare states to globalization in some OECD countries in the 1980s and 90s, demonstrating that the hypothesis concerning the dismantling of social welfare systems cannot be proven due to lack of evidence of substantial changes in the funding and selection of beneficiaries. The paper also focuses on the effects of internationalization of the Brazilian economy on the country's social protection system. The conclusion is that restrictions imposed on public expenditures severely limited the capacity to promote broad coverage in social policies. During the decade the option was made for targeted, selective social policies based on the adoption of a diagnosis of low effectiveness in the Brazilian social protection system. The case of health policy was an exception, due to capacity for interest mediation in the social arena.

  4. BEYOND CONNECTIVITY. FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR E-INCLUSION POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Gheorghiu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The information society stays at the core of the Lisbon Strategy, despite the dot-com crisis and the still hidden macroeconomic impact of information and communication technology (ICT. Thus, i2010 has been the first concrete initiative of the revised Lisbon Strategy in 2005, while ICT represents by far the field with the largest budget in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7. On the industry side, the stakes are still high in the global competition, where Europe hopes for a place at least for communication technologies and services. However, the extreme dynamics of technology with its sometimes breathtaking promises, poses new challenges for e-inclusion. Firstly, the accelerating pace of innovation maintains a generation type of digital divide between countries with different level of development. Secondly, the changing nature of the network (e.g. web 2.0 with virtual communities; web 3.0 with location based interaction; semantic web; ambient intelligence and “the internet of things” blurs the very distinction between inside and outside the information space. The paper explores these challenges and the associated policy options.

  5. [Macroeconomic analysis: agro-nutritional dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussy, J

    1992-01-01

    This reflection on the renewed prominence of macroeconomic analysis in the area of food and agriculture, especially in Africa, assesses the history, limitations, and potential of the discipline as applied in formulation of agricultural policy. It begins by tracing the development and history of macroeconomic analysis from the emergence of liberal political economy in the late 18th century. The evolution of macroeconomic analysis applied to food and agriculture has not been linear; periods of eclipse have alternated with periods of influence. Most recently, in the 1960s, macroeconomic analysis was important in attempts to understand the place of agriculture in national economies, but the misuse of its vocabulary to justify a number of controversial policy actions created lasting distrust. The questions addressed by macroeconomic analysis and the potential contributions of its use in the 1960s are discussed, followed by an analysis of the reasons for renewed attention to the macroeconomic viewpoint beginning with the balance of payments crisis of the 1980s. The recent growth of institutional demand for macroeconomic analysis and policy has been accompanied by misunderstanding and inflated expectations as to its usefulness, while suspicions linger. The pressures encouraging broadened use of macroeconomic analysis are identified, including the growing influence of purely macroeconomic processes such as urbanization, the demographic transition, and the debt crisis; the intensifying of national and international market constraints affecting food and agriculture; and the legitimation of macroeconomic terminology by the large international organizations. Misapplications of macroeconomic analysis are identified, such as an erroneous equating of "macroeconomy" with "global economy". The lack of consensus among macroeconomic theorists about policies ostensibly based on macroeconomic analysis is discussed, as is the sometimes strained relationship between them and specialists

  6. 中央银行透明化政策与宏观经济稳定%Central Bank Transparent Policy and Macroeconomic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈晓翔; 李颖

    2014-01-01

    In the context of inflation expectation management,this paper constructed a Chi-nese central bank communication index for the period of 2001 to 2013 to find the effect of central bank transparent policy on macroeconomic stability.The results showed that a more transparent monetary policy was conducive to macroeconomic stability.In some cases,the central bank's transparent policy is even more effective than its actual intervention.So the People's Bank of Chi-na should further enhance its level of transparency.%在通胀预期管理背景下,构建中国2001~2013年中央银行信息交流指数,考量中央银行透明化政策影响宏观经济稳定机制。结果表明,央行增加信息交流有利于宏观经济稳定,某些情况下甚至超过实际干预的效果。因此,我国央行应进一步提高货币政策透明度并培育规范的中央银行信息交流机制。

  7. Identification of Macroeconomic Factors in Large Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Dewachter, Hans; Houssa, Romain

    standard practices in the SVAR literature. Estimators based on the EM algorithm are developped. We apply this framework to a large panel of US monthly macroeconomic series. In particular, we identify nine macroeconomic factors and discuss the economic impact of monetary policy stocks. The results...

  8. China's Macroeconomic Development: Stages and Nonlinear Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingyao Lai

    2006-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is that China's macroeconomic development can be divided into three distinct stages with significant trend changes. Market-oriented reform and opening to the outside world provide main driving forces for the convergence. However, the gradual reform and some inappropriate policies have caused serious ups and downs in China's macroeconomic performance.

  9. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need......The economic decline that began in 2008 opened a window of opportunity for consideration about how to combine macroecononomic and environmental concerns. This discussion is far from new, as evidenced, for instance, by the European Commission’s White Paper from 1993, which explained how a greening...

  10. 新常态下我国宏观经济政策框架的重构%RECONSTRUCTING MACROECONOMIC POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR THE NEW NORMAL CHINESE ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹远征; 于春海; 阎衍

    2016-01-01

    我国宏观经济政策“微刺激”效果下降,而“强刺激”带来了严重后遗症,导致这种状况的关键原因是政策框架在整体上出了问题。重构我国宏观政策框架的战略定位应该包括以下内容:(1)短期应对不断加剧的宏观经济和金融风险;(2)中期应对结构调整的负面冲击;(3)长期构建高效的、可持续的和动态一致的宏观调控模式。重构政策框架的原则性要求包括:(1)宏观经济及金融的稳定性与国际收支平衡应该成为显性目标;(2)财政政策主要指向结构调整期的短期阵痛,货币政策指向宏观经济及金融稳定性;(3)宏观政策应该遵循市场化、可预期的操作模式。在具体策略上可以选择国债市场作为突破口,通过改变国债发行规模和方式,推动国债市场的大发展和大开放,以此拓展整个金融市场的深度和开放程度。%Faced with the policy dilemma between the declining effect of soft stimulus and the bad side effect of strong stimulus,Chinese policymakers have to think how to reconstruct macroeconomic policy frameworks.The strategic objectives of reconstruction include:(1)in a short time,dealing with the emer-ging risk of macro-economy and finance;(2)in the medium term,dealing with bad side-effects of econom-ic restructuring and change of the pattern of economic growth;(3 )in the long term,constructing effi-cient,sustainable,and dynamic consistent macroeconomic policy frameworks.Fundamentals of reconstruc-tion include:(1)the objectives of macroeconomic and financial stability and external balance should be in-cluded in policy frameworks;(2 )fiscal policy directs to the side-effect of economic restructuring,while monetary policy directs to macro-economic and financial stability;(3 )macroeconomic policies should be implemented in market-oriented and predictable mode.A feasible breakthrough could be made in govern-ment bond markets.

  11. CULTURAL POLICY IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES: NEW CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. SHCHURKO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the new conditions of countries’ development in the post-crisis period. Challenges to the cultural and socio-economic policy during last decade were analyzed. Religious factors are offered to be considered as important mechanisms of solving transition period problems, and at the same time as the causes of many conflicts in the world. It was offered to include those factors as inevitable elements into modern policy making process.

  12. Healthcare Policy in Romania. Frameworks and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buţiu Călina Ana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to review some of the healthcare policy issues of Romania and identify those challenges which may be addressed through social intervention. Based on statistical data, documents, reports and applicable laws one will review the health condition of Romanian population and the state of the national health system, and will examine the broad strategies and policies currently under the scrutiny of appropriate ministries. The findings of the study suggest looking at health policies also through the lens of social inclusion.

  13. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  14. The Evolution of Macroeconomic Theory and Implications for Teaching Intermediate Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyen, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    Traces the development of macroeconomic theory from John Maynard Keynes to modern endogenous growth theory. Maintains that a combination of interest in growth theory and related policy questions will play a prominent role in macroeconomics in the future. Recommends narrowing the gap between graduate school and undergraduate economics instruction.…

  15. The effects of the global economic crisis on Macedonian economy: Some macroeconomic indicators and future policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Tosheva

    2016-01-01

    The experiences and lessons taken from the global economic crisis should serve as a basis for changing the current economic model with a new one in order the economy of the country to catch a connection with the intense changes that are expected to occur in the coming period. It is expected that creating new economic model in Republic of Macedonia will result in multiple positive effects that primarily manifested in the increasing number of newly small and medium enterprises, domestic investments, industrial production, GDP, number of new employees and total exports as well as in reduction of the trade deficit in maintaining macroeconomic stability of the country.

  16. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER)

  17. Policy challenges of increasing automation in driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata M. Khan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of information and communication technologies (ICT with automotive technologies has already resulted in automation features in road vehicles and this trend is expected to continue in the future owing to consumer demand, dropping costs of components, and improved reliability. While the automation features that have taken place so far are mainly in the form of information and driver warning technologies (classified as level I pre-2010, future developments in the medium term (level II 2010–2025 are expected to exhibit connected cognitive vehicle features and encompass increasing degree of automation in the form of advanced driver assistance systems. Although autonomous vehicles have been developed for research purposes and are being tested in controlled driving missions, the autonomous driving case is only a long term (level III 2025+ scenario. This paper contributes knowledge on technological forecasts regarding automation, policy challenges for each level of technology development and application context, and the essential instrument of cost-effectiveness for policy analysis which enables policy decisions on the automation systems to be assessed in a consistent and balanced manner. The cost of a system per vehicle is viewed against its effectiveness in meeting policy objectives of improving safety, efficiency, mobility, convenience and reducing environmental effects. Example applications are provided that illustrate the contribution of the methodology in providing information for supporting policy decisions. Given the uncertainties in system costs as well as effectiveness, the tool for assessing policies for future generation features probabilistic and utility-theoretic analysis capability. The policy issues defined and the assessment framework enable the resolution of policy challenges while allowing worthy innovative automation in driving to enhance future road transportation.

  18. Macroeconomic Determinants of the Stock Market Index and Policy Implications: The Case of a Central European Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between Hungary’s stock market index and relevant macroeconomic variables. The GARCH model is applied in empirical work. It finds that Hungary’s stock market index has a positive relationship with real GDP, the ratio of the government debt to GDP, the nominal effective exchange rate and the German stock market index, a negative relationship with the real interest rate, the expected inflation rate and the government bond yield in the euro area, and a quadratic relationship with real M2 money supply. It indicates that there is a positive (negative relationship if real M2 money supply is less (greater than the critical value of 9,563 billion forints. If the quadratic relationship is not specified and tested, the positive coefficient of real M2 will be insignificant at the 10% level, and we may reach a misleading conclusion that the stock market index is not affected by real M2.

  19. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Zahra ABDOLLAHI

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nu...

  20. Recent macroeconomic trends in emerging economies and implications for development - Country Study: Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eustáquio Reis

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews the sluggish growth and inclusive developments of the Brazilian economy in the last decade. The first section analyzes the macroeconomic performance pointing export growth as the engine of growth. The second evaluates social policies and their relationship with the improvements in the labor market. The third examines Brazilian policy reactions to the global crisis that managed to recover consumption but failed to sustain investment and growth. The discussion of challenges fo...

  1. The Role of the Monetary Policy in the Context of the Macroeconomic Policies Mix –A Fiscal and Monetary Policy Case Study for Romania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgiana-Alina Ionita

    2016-01-01

    The main object of the research is to analyze and identify an optimal monetary and fiscal policy model that responds to the economic problems of the countries from Central and East Europe and, mainly, of Romania...

  2. Macroeconomic Regulation and Control by Using a Combination of Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy, and Industrial Policy--A Discussion On Chinese Economic Macroeconomic Regulation and Control Mode after Asia Financial Crisis%财政、货币、产业三大政策并用的宏观调控——亚洲金融危机以来中国经济宏观调控模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英; 倪月菊

    2012-01-01

    Since 1990s, industrial policy has become an important means of macroeconomic regulation and control, along with fiscal policy and monetary policy, for the government to stimulate economic growth. Fiscal policy, monetary policy, and industrial policy, the combination of the three big policies has been an important feature of Chinese government' s economic management for further economic development. Since Asian financial crisis, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and industrial policy have been used by the Chinese government to confront the impact of economic crisis and formulate economic regulations, they have been important features of Chinese government in regulating the country' s macro economy; industrial policy is changing into a policy tool to confront excessive economic fluctuation in short term and regulate economic cycle from a policy tool that adjusts middle and long term economic structure and industrial structure; though industrial policy is widely used to manage economic growth structure and level, to confront economic crises it can also stimulate the economic demands like the fiscal and monetary policy do, this is not the key points and objectives of industrial policy in normal sense; industrial policy, as a policy that curbs economic crisis and stimulates economic growth, its key goals are infrastructure region and strategic industries, while it stimulates the aggregate demand, it takes into account the future industry development, as well as enhancement of international competition capability. An economic macro regulation mode that combines industrial policy, fiscal policy and monetary policy will favor selective regulation and control during peak and bottom point of an economic cycle. For different industries, use different industrial policies, to avoid the dominance of planning and administrative means which existed for middle and long term regulation under the planned economy system, like "cut everything with one knife ", which the root

  3. Macroeconomic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.T.M.; Bekaert, G.R.J.; Cho, S.; Inghelbrecht, K.; Moreno, A.

    2015-01-01

    A New-Keynesian macro-model is estimated accommodating regime-switching behavior in monetary policy and macro-shocks. A key to our estimation strategy is the use of survey-based expectations for inflation and output. Output and inflation shocks shift to the low volatility regime around 1985 and 1990

  4. Modern macroeconomics: a review of the post 2008/2009 crisis debate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macroeconomics has gone wayward and thus become irrelevant for policy, others ... consequent spillover effects for the whole economy and on global a scale. ... macroeconomics yet, but monetary theory on one side and real business cycle.

  5. Macroeconomics in crisis and macroeconomics in recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic crisis brings to a reconsideration of macroeconomics: as it happened in the past, after the Great Crash of 1929 as well as after the Second World War and after the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971 and the subsequent oil crisis. A brief critical survey of mainstream macroeconomics (the neoclassical synthesis and its variants, and its criticisms on the side of Keynesians and Sraffians is followed by a brief survey of the elements of alternative macroeconomic analysis developed by Keynes and Kalecki, Minsky and Sylos Labini, and others.

  6. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focacci, Antonio [Bologna Univ., Business and Management Dept., Bologna (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  7. St. Louis Model for Macroeconomic Policy Determination in Relation to Employment Generation in a Developing Economy: Some Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Umoru

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses St. Louis model to econometrically answer the question of whether the Keynesian policy or the Monetarist’s policy was more efficacious on employment generation in Nigerian with quarterly data for sample period of 1992 to 2016. The empirical finding is that cumulative effects of Keynesian of increasing aggregate government spending on the growth rate of employment in Nigeria is dominant in contrast to Monetarist’s policy. The policy simulation results reported negative dynamic multiplier of -0.01 of monetary policy on employment; fiscal policy gave a dynamic employment multiplier of 0.12 respectively. The study thus bears out fiscal policy as more effectual in inducing employment in Nigeria by imposing positive feedbacks. The study remarks on feasible implementation of empirical finding.

  8. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies op

  9. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies

  10. Macroeconomic Stability in Developing Countries: How Much Is Enough?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Montiel; Luis Servén

    2006-01-01

    Over the 1990s macroeconomic policies improved in most developing countries, but the growth dividend from this improvement fell short of expectations, and a policy agenda focused on stability turned...

  11. Three Essays on Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doda, Lider Baran

    This dissertation consists of three independent essays in macroeconomics. The first essay studies the transition to a low carbon economy using an extension of the neoclassical growth model featuring endogenous energy efficiency, exhaustible energy and explicit climate-economy interaction. I derive the properties of the laissez faire equilibrium and compare them to the optimal allocations of a social planner who internalizes the climate change externality. Three main results emerge. First, the exhaustibility of energy generates strong market based incentives to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO 2 emissions without any government intervention. Second, the market and optimal allocations are substantially different suggesting a role for the government. Third, high and persistent taxes are required to implement the optimal allocations as a competitive equilibrium with taxes. The second essay focuses on coal fired power plants (CFPP) - one of the largest sources of CO2 emissions globally - and their generation efficiency using a macroeconomic model with an embedded CFPP sector. A key feature of the model is the endogenous choice of production technologies which differ in their energy efficiency. After establishing four empirical facts about the CFPP sector, I analyze the long run quantitative effects of energy taxes. Using the calibrated model, I find that sector-specific coal taxes have large effects on generation efficiency by inducing the use of more efficient technologies. Moreover, such taxes achieve large CO2 emissions reductions with relatively small effects on consumption and output. The final essay studies the procyclicality of fiscal policy in developing countries, which is a well-documented empirical observation seemingly at odds with Neoclassical and Keynesian policy prescriptions. I examine this issue by solving the optimal fiscal policy problem of a small open economy government when the interest rates on external debt are endogenous. Given an

  12. Modeling expectations in agent-based models: an application to central bank's communication and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salle, I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Expectations play a major role in macroeconomic dynamics, especially regarding the conduct of monetary policy. Yet, modeling the interplay between communication, expectations and aggregate outcomes remains a challenging task, mainly because this requires deviation from the paradigm of rational expec

  13. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaglehole Robert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce.

  14. Macroeconomic Stabilization When the Natural Real Interest Rate Is Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    The authors modify the Dynamic Aggregate Demand-Dynamic Aggregate Supply model in Mankiw's widely used intermediate macroeconomics textbook to discuss monetary policy when the natural real interest rate is falling over time. Their results highlight a new role for the central bank's inflation target as a tool of macroeconomic stabilization. They…

  15. Macroeconomic Stabilization When the Natural Real Interest Rate Is Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    The authors modify the Dynamic Aggregate Demand-Dynamic Aggregate Supply model in Mankiw's widely used intermediate macroeconomics textbook to discuss monetary policy when the natural real interest rate is falling over time. Their results highlight a new role for the central bank's inflation target as a tool of macroeconomic stabilization. They…

  16. Challenging Political Spectacle through Grassroots Policy Dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Can simply talking about policy strengthen democracy? Drawing on data collected for case studies of one Canadian and two U.S. grassroots organizations, we demonstrate that taking part in policy dialogues hosted by grassroots organizations enables participants to gain greater clarity regarding policy issues, policy processes, and citizens'…

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS ON MACROECONOMIC AGGREGATES IN BRICS COUNTRIES AND USA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The global economic crisis which has emerged 2007 year has led to major financial and corporate scandals, also hence to large fluctuations in macroeconomic developments and the implementation of national policies. Macroeconomic aggregates are important indicators that measure the results of activities of the economy of a country, and therefore are important for macroeconomic analysis. The aim of this paper is to show the impact of the global economic crisis on macroeconomic aggregates in the ...

  18. The reactions to macro-economic crises in Nordic health system policies: Denmark, Finland and Sweden, 1980-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Juhani; Vrangbæk, Karsten; Winblad, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have experienced two major recessions during the last 25 years. The adjustments to the earlier crisis in the late 1980s (Denmark) and early 1990s (Finland and Sweden) resembled the policies in many other European countries during the present crisis. The analysis of relationship of deep economic crises and growth period between them to the health system policies and institutions in the three countries from the 1980s to 2013 is based on a categorisation of reactions to external shocks as path conforming or path breaking. The results of the empirical long-term trends show that the reactions to deep recessions have been mainly temporary adjustments and acceleration of changes already prepared before economic crisis. The economic crisis in the three countries has not been 'good enough' to enable paradigmatic changes in the Nordic public, decentralised and equity-oriented health systems. Changes such as the slow privatisation in care funding and production and the adoption of new management practices indicate an ongoing paradigmatic change related to longer-term societal, ideological and political developments rather than directly to economic crises or growth.

  19. Environmental Education Policy Implementation Challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis of key documents and interviews with policy makers. A post-structural analysis ... policy text, environment and environmental education concepts. The analysis ... This form of governance influences classroom practice. In addition to the ...

  20. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.

  1. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  2. New Classical and New Keynesian Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Howard; Snowdon, Brian

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes underlying tenets and policy implications of new classical and new Keynesian macroeconomics. Compares new approaches with orthodox Keynesian and monetarist schools of thought. Identifies the fundamental difference between new classical and new Keynesian models as the assumption regarding the speed of wage and price adjustment following…

  3. Policy Implementation and its Challenges in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effiong, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review is designed to critically evaluate the problems of policy implementation in Nigeria. For in-depth analysis, the transformation agenda of Jonathan’s administration is used as a case-study. The central thesis of the work is that the effectiveness of public policy in solving societal problems is impeded by domestic factors. From the case-study analysis it was uncovered that such domestic forces as, lack of credible information, reliable statistics, manpower shortage, inadequate funds, corruption as well as over-ambitious policy goals are the problems. On the basis of the findings it is recommended among other things, that there should be a complete real reform of the entire policy framework. This exercise requires systemic policy initiative.

  4. Challenge energy policy turnaround; Herausforderung Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael; Brandt-Schwabedissen, Annette; Graaff, Rudolf; Queitsch, Peter; Thomas, Roland [Staedte- und Gemeindebund Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V., Duesseldorf (Germany); Becker, Sven [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Portz, Norbert; Schmitz, Johannes [Deutscher Staedte- und Gemeindebund, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The documentation under consideration makes suggestions to cities and communities in light of the energy policy turnaround. The documentation contains the following contributions: (1) Power generation by means of renewable energy resources (Johannes Schmitz); (2) The energy policy turnaround needs acceptance - communication as the key to success (Sven Becker); (3) Climate-conscious communal construction planning (Michael Becker); (4) Establishment of climate concepts (Peter Queitsch); (5) Energetic measures at buildings (Annette Brandt-Schwabedissen); (6) Energy political turnaround and awarding (Norbert Portz); (7) Electromobility (Roland Thomas); (8) Position paper of DStB for the energy policy turnaround.

  5. Macroeconomic model of national economy development (extended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diaconova

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model offered in this paper describes complex functioning of national economy and can be used for forecasting of possible directions of its development depending on various economic policies. It is the extension of [2] and adaptation of [3]. With the purpose of determination of state policies influence in the field of taxes and exchange rate national economy is considered within the framework of three sectors: government, private and external world.

  6. 信息化条件下的经济波动机制和宏观经济政策%Economic Fluctuation Mechanism and Macroeconomic Policies under Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢曾; 郑超愚

    2013-01-01

      从逆向选择、道德风险和委托−代理理论的微观基础出发,信息不完全性可从市场不完全性、价格扭曲和预期等途径引致实际经济波动,特别是通过预期途径对微观经济主体的预期形成、宏观经济政策的决策过程及宏观经济政策的实际效果产生深远影响,进一步加剧宏观经济运行的不确定性。在国际经济关系中,信息不完全性不仅表现为发达国家与发展中国家间的“信息鸿沟”,而且表现为前者相对于后者的国际贸易产品信息优势。为适应信息化经济要求和针对不对称的国际信息结构,中国宏观经济调控应重视信息网络基础建设,完善不确定条件下宏观经济政策的制定和实施机制,发挥信息导向在稳定国内经济波动和防止国际危机传染中的积极作用。%  Based on the micro-foundation of adverse selection, moral risk and principal-agent models, imperfect information can cause real economic fluctuation through imperfect market, price distortion and/or expectation, especially profoundly impacting microeconomic agents’ expectation, macroeconomic policy making and macroeconomic policy effect through expectation. In international economic relations, imperfect information is exhibited not only in information divide between developed countries and developing countries, but also in developed countries’ comparative advantage in product information. When meeting the needs of information economy and confronting asymmetric structure of international information, China’s macroeconomic management should attach more importance to information infrastructure, and improve formation and conduction mechanism of macroeconomic policies, so as to make full use of information guide to play active role in stabilizing economic fluctuation and preventing possible contagion of international crisis.

  7. 基于Agent的经济政策对电力消费影响模拟实验%Simulating Impact of Macroeconomic Policy on Electricity Consumption Based on Multi-agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏杰; 胡兆光

    2011-01-01

    为了模拟某些经济调控政策对电力消费的影响,基于一般均衡思想,运用多Agent技术建立了经济政策对电力消费影响的政策模拟系统ECMAS.在ECMAS中,根据2005年投入产出表和电力消费数据,将宏观经济生产系统归总的15个行业Agent、政府Agent、居民Agent和市场Agent,各Agent为实现自身的目标,根据外部环境的变化决策动作行为,通过微观个体的行为动作模拟社会经济运行,分析了税收变化、居民消费变化、政府支出变化对电力消费的影响,为电力需求分析预测、电力规划提供依据.%In order to simulate impacting of macroeconomic policy on electricity consumption, an Electricity Consumption Simulation System Based on Multi-agent System (ECMAS) was developed based on general equilibrium theory. In ECMAS, macroeconomic system consists of government agent, resident agent, market agent and fifteen industry agents who were concluded according to 2005 I/O table and data of electricity consumption. Through simulating agent's behavior, the impact of macroeconomic policy, household consumption expenditure and government expenditure on electricity consumption is analyzed.

  8. Educational Policy Research: Progress, Puzzles, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Murnane

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvantaged children. I will make the case that research provides encouraging evidence on several policy approaches. At the same time, the research reveals puzzles that I believe we need to take seriously in thinking about future research to inform the design of the next round of policies. Finally, I suggest some directions for policy research that come from taking seriously puzzles in the evidence.

  9. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  10. Macroeconomics and Public Policy. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    added reserves. In the U.S., the Federal Reserve responds to the bank credit needs of the economy through expansionary open market operations . The... open market operations . Thus, we see that just as in the market for any commodity there is an interaction in the marketplace between supply and demand...as closely as it does to those general credit conditions it seeks. Open market operations are conducted for the entire System, that is, the 12 district

  11. Policy challenges for wildlife management in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Try as it might, wildlife management cannot make wild living things adapt to climate change. Management can, however, make adaptation more or less likely. Given that policy is a rule set for action, policy will play a critical role in society’s efforts to help wildlife cope with the challenge of climate change. To be effective, policy must provide clear goals and be...

  12. Challenging the premises of international policy review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Læssøe, Jeppe; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a think tank called the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) announced the results of a study entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. Intended for a policy audience, the study offered a glimpse into the status of Education...

  13. Intermediate Macroeconomics Tutorials and Applets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Web site designed for undergraduate macroeconomics teaching. Includes examples of two teaching modules, an applet that features macro time series for 19 countries, dictionaries of macroeconomic terms in 12 languages, links to macroeconomic topics, and an intranet search option. (JEH)

  14. Intermediate Macroeconomics Tutorials and Applets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Web site designed for undergraduate macroeconomics teaching. Includes examples of two teaching modules, an applet that features macro time series for 19 countries, dictionaries of macroeconomic terms in 12 languages, links to macroeconomic topics, and an intranet search option. (JEH)

  15. Shaping public policy: a challenge in faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, J E

    1984-05-01

    Religious health care's involvement in public policy is an essential part of Christian life. The most important way in which Catholic hospitals and health care systems can contribute to public policy is through faith-reflection upon their identity and calling. To guide the shaping of public policy, several theological models have been set forth. The theology of democratic capitalism is based on individual human creativity. As a system of political economy organized to prevent the centralization of government power, it thrives on free competition. Well- intentioned social programs that seek to equalize results, according to democratic capitalists , inevitably lead to greater government control and should be avoided. Inequality, in fact, according to this theory, can create incentive for individuals and industry to be more productive. The stewardship approach to theological reflection calls for a distribution of goods and services based on need. The right to health care, for example, is founded in God's gift of creation to all inhabitants. The resources of creation are allotted to individuals as property in a sense of cooperation and sharing. Thus, according to this notion, government programs that help society steward its resources wisely should be promoted. The U.S. bishops ' 1981 pastoral letter on health and health care presents a third model, which reflects on the dignity of human beings as images of God to guide public policy. Models, however, must not replace personal theological reflection. Catholic health care providers share a responsibility to evaluate social issues from their perspective as members of the healing ministry and to participate in public policy development.

  16. Challenging equality policies: The emerging LGBT perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cruells, Marta; Coll Planas, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The state members of the European Union have witnessed the emergence of equality policies which target discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. These are usually based on the single issue model focusing exclusively on discrimination suffered by LGBT people, however there are other approaches to this issue which take into account the interaction of different axes of inequality, namely, the multiple and intersectional discrimination models. This ar...

  17. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  18. 中国货币政策波动性的评估及其宏观经济效应分析%The Estimation of Volatility of Monetary Policy and Its Macroeconomic Effect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓创; 付蓉; 徐曼

    2015-01-01

    本文运用马尔科夫区制转移模型和GARCH族模型,实证考察了中国货币政策的波动性及其原因,并通过构建时变参数向量自回归模型分析“价格型”和“数量型”货币政策波动的宏观经济效应。研究结果显示中国货币政策波动对宏观经济目标变量的影响存在显著的阶段性差异;货币政策波动性较大时,其对经济增长和通货膨胀的溢出效应明显减弱,甚至对宏观经济目标变量产生负面影响。因此,保持货币政策的稳定性和连贯性不仅有助于提高货币政策的宏观调控效果,更是新常态下维持经济中高速增长、促进经济结构升级转型的重要保障。%This paper empirically studied the volatility of monetary policy in China by Markov regime-switching model and GARCH model. Furthermore, it studied the macroeconomic effects of price-oriented and quantitative monetary poli-cies′volatility based on the time-varying parameter vector autoregressive model. The results show there is significant difference between different stages about the influence of the monetary policy volatility on macroeconomic target variables. When monetary policy volatility is severe, its spillover effect on economic growth and inflation is obviously weakened, e-ven turns into a negative impact. Thus, maintaining the stability and continuity of monetary policy can not only improve its effect of macroeconomic regulation and control, but also guarantee the moderate and high speed of economic growth and the upgrading and transformation of economic structure.

  19. Experience of Macroeconomic Models Realization in Transition Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Naval

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article represents an issue about macroeconomic model realization under transition economy of Moldova Republic. Different macroeconomic model beginning with simple monetary model and growth model, and more complicated model as financial programming models, general equilibrium model, describing complex functioning of national economy and forecasting effect of various economic policies on economy development were considered. Some comparative analysis and conclusions were presented.

  20. Trade Regimes, Liberalization and Macroeconomic Instability in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Dupasquier; Patrick N. Osakwe

    2006-01-01

    Trade policy has been a very contentious issue in the discourse on African development. Using panel data for 33 African countries spanning the period 1986-2000, we examine the relationship between trade liberalization and macroeconomic instability in Africa. We focus on instabilities in output, consumption and investment, and use both single and system estimation techniques as well as different measures of trade regimes. After controlling for key potential sources of macroeconomic instability...

  1. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to address the Nigerian version of the global financial crisis. However, the right mix of these policies to avoid conflicts in the light of dampening effects of the global financial melt-down as well as the possible effects of the global financial crisis and macroeconomic fluctuations on economic development in Nigeria is of relevance..The direction and magnitude of relevant policy to stimulate increased government intervention, it was observed that there is the need for comparative dynamics of economies in order to return to the path of sustainable growth and development

  2. International Education Policies, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Burnett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short chapter discusses the rights and capabilities of, and development approaches to, education in developing countries, the recent evolution of developing countries’ education systems in the present century, the ‘leaderless globalisation’ of the international institutions currently responsible for education, and the initial effects of the data and evaluation revolution on education. It concludes with five recommendations: evidence should be used more in education strategies, policies and practices; innovation needs to be encouraged; international funding should target more the neediest countries; assessment, benchmarking, and evaluation should be further encouraged; and a new international governance mechanism is needed for education, possibly led from outside the education sector itself.

  3. Ethical and public policy challenges for pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Elliot S; Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney; Grennan, Kay

    2014-12-01

    It is timely to consider the ethical and social questions raised by progress in pharmacogenomics, based on the current importance of pharmacogenomics for avoidance of predictable side effects of drugs, and for correct choice of medications in certain cancers. It has been proposed that the entire population be genotyped for drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms, as a measure that would prevent many untoward and dangerous drug reactions. Pharmacologic treatment targeting based on genomics of disease can be expected to increase greatly in the coming years. Policy and ethical issues exist on consent for large-scale genomic pharmacogenomic data collection, public vs corporate ownership of genomic research results, testing efficacy and safety of drugs used for rare genomic indications, and accessibility of treatments based on costly research that is applicable to relatively few patients. In major psychiatric disorders and intellectual deficiency, rare and de novo deletion or duplication of chromosomal segments (copy number variation), in the aggregate, are common causes of increased risk. This implies that the policy problems of pharmacogenomics will be particularly important for the psychiatric disorders.

  4. Malaria: Antimalarial resistance and policy ramificationsand challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ′The National health Policy 2002" of India and the "Roll Back Malaria" policy makers have set up an ambitious goal of reducing malaria mortality and morbidity by 25% by 2007, and by 50% by 2010. To achieve these goals, problems should be identified, available evidence analyzed and policy should be changed early. Infection with drug resistant malarial parasites has a tremendous impact on health (prolonged recurrent illness, increased hospital admissions and death, health system (higher cost of treatment and socioeconomics of the region. In view of the evidence of the economic burden of malaria, it has been suggested that second line treatment could be considered at 10% failure instead of 25%. Effective schizonticidal drugs will not only reduce morbidity and mortality but will also reduce transmission. Studies have shown that prevalence of viable (as tested by exflagellation test gametocytes is considerably more after the Chloroquine or Chloroquine + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine treatment compared to Quinine. Unfortunately, the only gametocytocidal drug for Plasmodium falciparum, primaquine, is also loosing its efficacy. 45 mg Primaquine reduces gametocyte prevalence by 50% while a new drug, 75 mg bulaquine or 60 mg primaquine reduces it by 90%. Plasmodium vivax forms 60-70% of malaria cases in India. Relapses which occur in 10-20% of cases adds to the burden. Efficacy, as confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCRSSCP to differentiate relapse and re-infection, of standard dose of primaquine (15 mg/day for 5 days, even 15 mg/day for 14 days for vivax malaria is reducing. Fourteen day treatment is also impractical as compliance is poor. Newer drugs, newer drug delivery systems are thus needed. Slow release formulations with blood levels maintained for one week may be useful. Rationale of giving primaquine in higher doses and different timing need to be considered. The genome of Plasmodium falciparum and

  5. Macroeconomics correlations focused on foreign direct investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is meant to reveal the way in which the theory of interconnections between systems and sub-systems partici-pating to the creation of economic value, which have been described by professor Paul Bran in his book Economics of Value is outlined in practice and how its analysis may help us to control the effects of the policies applied at the level of each macroeconomic sub-system.

  6. Expectations and macroeconomics: learning and loose commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    The three chapters of this thesis analyze different issues regarding the role of expectations in macroeconomics. The first two chapters consider that private economic agents can either be rational and forward looking or may actually need to use past data to learn how to form expectations. The first two chapters try to describe and estimate the different dynamics that these two types of expectation mechanisms induce. The third chapter analyzes the interaction between policy makers and forward-...

  7. Photovoltaics: New Policy Challenges for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alexandre Duque Moreira De Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade governments across Europe have set in place a series ofprogrammes to expand investment on grid-connected solar power technology, mostespecially Photovoltaics (PV. Recently most of these programmes have beenrolled back, in face of rapidly declining costs. Using a simple model thisarticle shows that basic PV electricity costs are presently below 0.10 €/kWh inlarge swaths of the continent, entering levels where previously only nuclear andfossil fired electricity where found. Due to the scalable nature of PV, manyhouseholds in Europe are now able to produce their own electricity at a costconsiderably lower that the rates demanded by grid utilities. If governmentsproceed with the complete roll back of fixed electricity rates to PV suppliersthe most likely result is a shift to off-the-grid systems. Long term thistrend presents serious challenges to utilities and traditional electricitysuppliers, putting at stake the traditional electricity market framework.

  8. 中国宏观信息、货币政策对股票市场的影响%The impact of Chinese Macroeconomic Information and Monetary Policy on Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文理

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of Chinese macroeconomic information and monetary policy on stock market. The results show that macroeconomic information has no impact on the stock market, but monetary policy has significant impact on the stock market. Expansionary monetary policy would help stock price go up, and tighte ning money policy will make stock price go down. Besides, monetary policy has more impact on newly developed industry, like real estate and finance industries, but has less impact on traditional industries, like public service in dustry. The performances of the Chinese stock market are inconsistent with its economy economic fundamentals. The Chinese stock market can't realize the effect of national economic "weather glass", but it is closely related to the policy and exhibits an intensive "policy market" Dhenomenon%考察中国宏观经济信息、货币政策对股市的影响效果,结果发现:宏观经济变量对股票收益基本没有解释力;而且,2001年7月前,货币政策对股票收益影响微弱,2001年7月后,货币政策对股票收益影响非常显著,扩张性货币政策有助于股价上升,紧缩性政策促使股价下降。同时,行业股价指数分析表明货币政策对房地产、金融等新兴行业影响较大,对公用事业等传统行业影响较小。当前中国股市运行脱离了经济基本面,股市尚无国民经济“晴雨表”作用,但却与政策因素密切相关,表现出一种强烈的“政策市”。

  9. Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth: A Review of International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirwa Themba G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducts a qualitative narrative appraisal of the existing empirical literature on the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in developing and developed countries. Much as other empirical studies have investigated the determinants of economic growth using various econometric methods, the majority of these studies have not distinguished what drives or hinders economic growth in developing or developed countries. The study finds that the determinants of economic growth are different when this distinction is used. It reveals that in developing countries the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth include foreign aid, foreign direct investment, fiscal policy, investment, trade, human capital development, demographics, monetary policy, natural resources, reforms and geographic, regional, political and financial factors. In developed countries, the study reveals that the key macroeconomic determinants that are associated with economic growth include physical capital, fiscal policy, human capital, trade, demographics, monetary policy and financial and technological factors.

  10. Essays on Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Llosa, Luis Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    In these essays, I examine (i) the role of terms of trade in emerging countries and (ii) economic efficiency under endogenous information. The first chapter documents a negative relationship between the terms of trade - defined as the ratio of imports to the price of exports - and various macroeconomic variables such as output, consumption, investment and total factor productivity (TFP) in emerging economies. The second part of this chapter presents a small open economy business cycles model ...

  11. Essays in development macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    João Moreira Salles

    2012-01-01

    Developing macroeconomics is less about looking for ways to say that economic rules stemming from research in developed countries don\\'t apply to emerging-markets, than it is about trying to understand the many stages these economies go through in the natural course of their development. There are, of course, exceptions, but economic phenomena tend to have common sources. These are, after all, generated by the incentives, designed or natural, that people face when dealing with their day to da...

  12. Implementation of STEM Education Policy: Challenges, Progress, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2012-01-01

    This is a case study of the implementation of state STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) policy over the period of the first 18 months of building a regional STEM partnership. Fullan's change theory is the framework used to determine progress and associated challenges with building a regional STEM educational partnership and…

  13. How do new innovation paradigms challenge current innovation policy perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    multiple actors by managing knowledge sharing processes across entire value networks. The chapter provides a brief description and comparison of these new innovation paradigms and discusses the challenges that these paradigms imply for existing innovation policies. The innovation policy recommendations......Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new...... innovation paradigms such as user-driven innovation, open innovation and value co-creation. The user-driven and open innovation paradigms have already become the subject of extensive research and are currently discussed in terms of their potential implications for policy development. The value co...

  14. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COBHAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  15. Uncertainties, monetary policy and financial stability: challenges on inflation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Caldas Montes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at presenting the challenges that inflation targeting central banks may face since uncertainties represent a harmful element for the effectiveness of monetary policy, and since financial instabilities may disturb the transmission mechanisms - in particular, the expectation channel - and thus the economic stability. Financial stability must not be considered as a simple goal of monetary policy, but a precondition for central banks operate their policies and reach the goals of inflation and output stability. The work identifies different sources of uncertainties that surround central banks' decisions; and approaches the role that inflation targeting central banks should play according to some basic principles that can serve as useful guides for central banks to help them achieve successful outcomes in their conduct of monetary policy.

  16. Meeting the challenge: using policy to improve children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Charles Adam; Kelly, Maggie M; Green, Denise; Gaffney, Marcus; Kattwinkel, John; French, Molly

    2005-11-01

    We reflect on the proceedings of a symposium at a conference of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. We present examples of bridging the gap between science and policy to achieve improvements in children's health through case studies in early hearing detection and intervention, folic acid fortification to prevent birth defects, sleep positioning recommendations to reduce infant mortality, and workplace lactation support programs. We discuss case studies that present different policy strategies (public health law and voluntary practices) for improving public health. These case studies demonstrate both the power of policy as a tool for improving children's health and the challenges of communicating public health research to policy decisionmakers.

  17. Challenges for monetary policy in the enlarged European monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Irena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastward enlargement of the Euro area entails significant implications for the accession candidates in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, the existing Euro system and the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB. The present analysis assesses the challenges and critical aspects in monetary policy modeling with special emphasis to enlargement. The focus is on the difficulty of implementing a unique currency policy in view or growing heterogeneity within the enlarged monetary union, and secondly - the issue of the voting mechanism within the ECB. When analyzing those two issues, it is conclusive that the difficulties for the ECB and the current Euro zone members will increase. For the enlarged Euro zone, which is becoming more divergent, it will be very hard to find adequate recipes to meet the needs and requirements of all. The big question is: whether centralization of monetary policy is a sustainable and superior solution?.

  18. Teoria macroeconomica e politica monetaria:i contributi di Franco Modigliani e il dibattito in corso (Macroeconomic theory and monetary policy: contributions by Franco Modigliani and the ongoing debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Papademos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente articolo tratterò diversi temi di teoria macroeconomica e politica monetaria, ponendoli in relazione con i contributi e le idee di Franco Modigliani.
Mi soffermerò, in particolare, sulla struttura e sulle caratteristiche principali di impianti teorici capaci di descrivere in modo adeguato il ruolo della moneta nel contesto macroeconomico e gli effetti della politica monetaria sulla produzione aggregata e sul livello dei prezzi.
Uno di tali impianti, che riassumerà in sé i progressi teorici esaminati in precedenza, può essere ritenuto in linea con il punto di vista comune riguardo alle componenti fondamentali e al funzionamento del meccanismo di trasmissione della politica monetaria. Evidenzierò, inoltre, gli elementi di incertezza e le questioni irrisolte che sussistono riguardo ad alcune caratteristiche dinamiche e strutturali del modello.
Come secondo argomento, intendo trattare brevemente la natura e la solidità delle relazioni empiriche che legano importanti variabili economiche – quali il livello dei prezzi e la produzione aggregata – agli strumenti di politica monetaria.
Infine, mi soffermerò sulle conseguenze sia dell’impianto teorico macroeconomico come lo conosciamo attualmente, sia dei risultati empirici riguardo ai legami fra gli obiettivi e gli strumenti di politica monetaria per la scelta di un’adeguata strategia in questo ambito e per la sua efficace attuazione.    In this article will discuss several topics of macroeconomics and monetary policy and relate them with the contributions and ideas of Franco Modigliani. I will focus in particular on the structure and main features of theoretical systems able to adequately describe the role of money in the macroeconomic environment and the effects of monetary policy on aggregate output and the price level. One of these facilities, which will sum itself theoretical advances discussed above, can be considered in line with the common point

  19. Practical Research on the Involvement of Land Tax Policy in Macroeconomic Regulation%土地税费政策参与宏观调控的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕东; 吕宾; 秦静

    2014-01-01

    通过分析耕地占用税、城镇土地使用税、土地增值税、新增建设用地有偿使用费(简称新增费)、土地闲置费等土地税费政策参与宏观调控实践效果,反应出我国土地税费政策参与宏观调控过程中存在税制结构不尽合理、土地取得环节税负偏低、保有环节征税范围过窄、流转环节税费政策实施难度大等问题。对策建议:优化土地税制设计,加强调控作用;在土地取得环节实行差别化税额标准;提高土地保有环节的税负;在土地流转环节加强税费征管。%Through analyzing the practice effect of the involvement of land tax policy in macroeconomic regulation, such as tax on farmland used for nonagricultural purposes, urban land use tax, land value-added tax, new construction land use fees, and idle charges, some problems are relfected in the course of the involvement of land tax policy in macroeconomic regulation. Speaking in overall terms, there are irrationalities in structure of taxation system;low taxes are paid for the acquisition of land;too narrow levy scope has been devoted to the tax for land tenure;and it is dififcult in tax policy implementation of land transfer. In response to this, this paper suggests that we must optimize the design of the land tax system, and strengthen the government's macro-regulatory functions. We must implement differential tax standards for the acquisition of land, and increase the tax bearing on land tenure. In addition, we must enhance our efforts to collect and control tax on land transfer.

  20. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  1. Climate technology strategies. Vol. 2. The macro-economic cost and benefit or reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capros, P.; Georgakopoulos, P. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Regemorter, D. van; Proost, S. [Catholic Univ., Leuven (Belgium). Center for Economic Studies; Schmidt, T.F.N.; Koschel, H. [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Mannheim Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre und Statistik; Vouyoukas, E.L.

    1999-07-01

    Climate technology becomes more and more relevant in international environmental policy negotiations. At the Kyoto conference binding emission reduction targets have been established for several regions of the world. The major challenge is how to realize these reduction goals with minimum costs without generating new distributional and social difficulties. The book analyses the macroeconomic structural and distributional impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies for the EU and the member states. (orig.)

  2. 当前中国经济失衡的特点与宏观政策的效应%The Characteristics of China's Economic Imbalance and the Effect of Macroeconomic Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2012-01-01

    The outstanding features of the current China's economic imbalance are mainly reflected in two aspects: the pressure of serious inflation, and the threat of profound economic depression. Thus, the aforesaid two economic features require the macroeconomic policy to make significant adjustments to keep the balance between different macroeconomic goals. And the specific adjustments such as the adjustment of total policy goal, the transference of key fiscal policy, the directional change of monetary policy, and the change in the combination method of monetary policy and fiscal policy as well as the adjustment of exchange rate policy, etc, shall be adopted to maintain the balances.%中国经济增长失衡最为突出的特点在于,既面临巨大的通胀压力,同时又面临严重的经济增速放缓的威胁。虽然通胀绝对水平并不突出,但由于其成因复杂,使相应的宏观政策的有效性遇到了严重挑战;虽然增长率并不低,但由于需求疲软,特别是导致需求不足的结构原因深刻,使持续均衡的增长面临严重困扰。针对这种失衡的复杂性,宏观经济政策作出了相应的调整:(1)总量政策从强调首要目标向突出各目标间的均衡转变;(2)财政政策从突出扩张效应向更为兼顾风险转变;(3)货币政策从突出反通胀向兼顾增长转变;(4)货币与财政政策从“松紧搭配”的反方向组合向逐渐缩小反方向程度转变;(5)汇率政策从强调国际收支目标向首先服从国内宏观经济根本目标转变。当然,要提高宏观政策的有效性和科学性,在宏观调控方式上要推动总量与结构、需求与供给、货币与财政、中央与地方各方面的协调,而这种宏观调控各方面的协调只有依靠市场化改革的深入才真正具有体制基础。

  3. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China,the country’s central bank, published an article concerning China’s managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank’s website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China’s macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.Edited excerpts follow

  4. On Transmission Mechanism and Effect of Macroeconomic Policy under the Soft Budget Constraints%软预算约束下的宏观经济政策传导机制及政策效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢作诗; 李善杰

    2012-01-01

    Although fiscal policies are relatively more effective than monetary policies in the economy under soft budget constraints, effectiveness of both fiscal and monetary policies are diminished compared to those in the economy under hard budget constraints. So government has to regulate and control economy by taking such quantitive-variable controlling measures as administrative methods, controlling credit and land-use approval. Due to investment impulse and consumption repression under soft budget constraints and lack of flexibility in economic adjustment under special regulate-and- controlling macroeconomic policies, economy demonstrates different characteristics from those in common market economy. Economic fluctuations in China result not only from common market reasons but also from special economic system and institutions. The essential measure to solve the macroeconomic unbalance is not to adjust demand by using fiscal and monetary policies, but by reforming. In face of production capacity surplus and consumption repression as well as regression of overseas absorption from hyper-growth to normal-growth, fiscal overexpansion may land China' s economy into deflation again, and overexpansion of both fiscal and monetary policies may put China's economy at the risk of stagflation.%虽然在软预算约束经济中,财政政策相对于货币政策要高效一些,但是与硬预算约束经济相比,财政政策、货币政策的有效性都降低了。正因为如此,政府才不得不采用行政手段以及信贷控制、土地审批这样的控制数量变量的手段来调控经济。软预算约束下的“投资冲动”和“消费压抑”,加之特殊的宏观调控政策使得经济的调整缺少弹性,导致经济表现出不同于一般市场经济的特征来。中国的经济波动既有市场经济的一般性原因,更有特殊的体制性原因。解决宏观经济结构失衡的根本办法不是利用财政政策、货币政策

  5. CREDIBILITY AND TRANSPARENCY - SOURCES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorzsak Magdalena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that the monetary policy credibility and transparency represent two powerful sources for the improvement of macroeconomic performances. In order to achieve this goal, the authors adapted the methodology developed by Kr

  6. CENTRAL BANK INDEPENDENCE AND MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCES - AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The empirical evidence upon the macroeconomic performances of the independent central banks do not always have been successfully. In some cases, the consistency of the indices based on the interpretation of central banks statues used for measuring the degree of central bank independence is controversial, particularly for some of the indices. Moreover, the correlations between central bank independence and macroeconomic performance variables are not always confirmed, the causal relationship between central bank independence and inflation is controversial, and the higher disinflation costs, as a result of a higher sacrifice ratio correlated with the degree of independence is controversial, too. The effects of central bank independence upon macroeconomic performances focalized upon the empirical evidence of inflation, output or economic grouth and the disinflation costs. This is due to the lack of studies vis - vis of relationship between central bank independence and macroeconomic performances regarding some variables like interest rates and budgetary deficits. Specialists consider inflation and output as the main determinats of the social welfare. The economic literature regarding this fact suggests that the central bank is seen as a free lunch institution. This hypothesis sustains that independent central banks will have social benefits in terms of lower inflation rates, but without any costs in terms of the real macroeconomic performances as a higher output volatility or a lower economic growth. In this article we provide a qualitative analyses regarding the relationship between central bank independence and macroeconomic performances. For this purpose the authors used the new index for measuring central bank independence and inflation targeting based on three pillars: political and legal central bank independence, central bank governance and conduct of monetary policy, central bank transparency and accountability. For estimating the

  7. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  8. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  9. Macroeconomic Effects of Federal Reserve Forward Guidance [with Comments and Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffrey R. Campbell; Charles L. Evans; Jonas D. M. Fisher; Alejandro Justiniano

    2012-01-01

    .... We distinguish between Odyssean forward guidance, which publicly commits the FOMC to a future action, and Delphic forward guidance, which merely forecasts macroeconomic performance and likely monetary policy actions...

  10. Exchange rate formation in Ukraine and its impact on macroeconomic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The factors of exchange rate formation in Ukraine are analyzes in this paper, the influence of exchange rate on macroeconomic indicators of development and the main priorities of the exchange rate policy are determined exchange.

  11. Federal funding of health policy in Brazil: trends and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Federal funding of health policy in Brazil in the 2000s, focusing on the Ministry of Health’s budget implementation. Federal spending on health was less unstable between 2000 and 2002 and has expanded since 2006. However, it fluctuated as a share of both the Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Revenue. Federal intergovernmental transfers increased, exceeding 70% in 2007. Meanwhile, the proportion of Federal investments remained low, varying from 3.4% to 6.3%. The highest absolute amount of spending was on specialized outpatient and hospital care. The decade showed a proportionally greater increase in spending on pharmaceutical care. The growing allocation of Federal funds to States in the North and Northeast, especially for primary care and epidemiological surveillance, failed to offset the sharp regional inequalities in per capita Federal spending. The main characteristics of health funding limit Federal health policy governance and pose several challenges for the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

  12. Challenges for future family policies in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This anthology maps and analyses current trends within the area of family policy and outlines some possible challenges that the Nordic welfare states will soon be facing. Over several decades the Nordic welfare model has been characterised by the notion that children are not only the private...... such as New Public Management principles and increased focus on children’s positions and rights affect family policies in the Nordic countries? The authors, who come from all five Nordic countries, discuss the following topics: issues related to family demographics, children’s position in society...... responsibility of parents, but also a responsibility to be shared with society. Moreover, the Nordic welfare model goes hand-in-hand with the women’s movement by offering opportunities for women, as well as men, to also participate in education and employment. The question remains how more recent trends...

  13. Ghana's biofuels policy: challenges and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Antwi, Edem Cudjoe Bensah, David Ato Quansah, Richard Arthur, Julius Ahiekpor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid biofuels have come up strongly as possible substitute to conventional fossils fuels and woodfuels apparently because of its perceived environmental benefit, sustainability and recent hikes in petroleum fuel prices. These have led most countries to include biofuels in their energy mix to mitigate climate change effect caused by petroleum fuels and also to ensure energy security. Ghana as a developing country has also identified the potential of biofuels in her energy mix by setting some targets in its Strategic National Energy Policy (SNEP. This paper analyses the implications of the policy as presented in SNEP. It also looks at programmes put in place to achieve the set objectives and the possible challenges that are likely to be faced in their implementation. The paper concludes by calling for strong governmental involvement in achieving the set objectives.

  14. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  15. Predictive regressions for macroeconomic data

    OpenAIRE

    Fukang Zhu; Zongwu Cai; Liang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have constantly asked whether stock returns can be predicted by some macroeconomic data. However, it is known that macroeconomic data may exhibit nonstationarity and/or heavy tails, which complicates existing testing procedures for predictability. In this paper we propose novel empirical likelihood methods based on some weighted score equations to test whether the monthly CRSP value-weighted index can be predicted by the log dividend-price ratio or the log earnings-price ratio. Th...

  16. Workplace diversity and public policy: challenges and opportunities for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An overview of employment participation patterns for these groups is presented, workplace barriers arising from marginalized status are highlighted, and the article concludes with a discussion of work-related legislative and public policy fronts that can be informed and influenced by the contributions of psychologists.

  17. Korean Nationalism in a Divided Nation: Challenges to US Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1976-5118.2008.00002.x Korean nationalism poses challenges for Koreans dwelling in each half of the divided Korean nation because each half of the nation must simultaneously deal with both their own and the other half’s form of semi-nationalism and also with peninsular pan-nationalism. Coping with these three forms of nationalism is also a problem for US policy toward each Korean state and toward ...

  18. A Psychological Analysis of Macro-economic Policy Ineffectiveness%宏观经济政策失效的心理学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大光

    2001-01-01

    Discussion on macro- ecomic policy ineffectiveness from the viewpoint of psychology opens a new angle of studying macro- economic policy effect. There are some forms of macro- economic policy ineffectiveness , such as rash advance ,lag attenuation, exhale at will, repeat ineffective ,and reverse moving. There are psychology activities of demand-→motivation-→action inside the policy established principal parts, implement principal parts and implements objects. Psychology errors cause macro- economic policy defects. The attitudes and actions of the policy implement principal parts are affected by two psychology demands. At some definite conditions, macro- economic policy effects is affected by the actions of policy implements objects.%从心理学角度探讨宏观经济政策失效的问题,从而开拓出研究宏观经济政策效应的新视角。宏观经济政策失效有冒进放大型、滞后衰减型、发散随意型、累次无效型、反向而动型等表现形式。政策制定主体、实施主体及实施客体的经济行为的背后都经历需要→动机→行为的心理活动过程。心理误区常导致宏观经济政策出现缺陷,两种心理需求影响政策实施主体的态度和行为,而政策实施客体的行为则在一定的条件下决定宏观经济政策的效应。

  19. Macroeconomic susceptibility, inflation, and aggregate supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2017-03-01

    We unify aggregate-supply dynamics as a time-dependent susceptibility-mediated relationship between inflation and aggregate economic output. In addition to representing well various observations of inflation-output dynamics this parsimonious formalism provides a straightforward derivation of popular representations of aggregate-supply dynamics and a natural basis for economic-agent expectations as an element of inflation formation. Our formalism also illuminates questions of causality and time-correlation that challenge central banks for whom aggregate-supply dynamics is a key constraint in their goal of achieving macroeconomic stability.

  20. 基于博弈论的宏观经济政策动态非一致性研究%Dynamic Inconsistency of Macro-economic Policies Based on the Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茜

    2012-01-01

    通过论述理性预期和动态非一致性理论在宏观经济博弈分析中的发展,分析了政府与公众的动态博弈过程及宏观经济政策在二者博弈后的结果,最后对我国宏观调控政策提出增强决策透明度,加强制度保障,健全宏观调控体系等有利于形成良好、准确的公众预期以及减少政策的动态非一致性的建议。%The development of rational anticipation and dynamic inconsistency theory gives the game theory a deeper meaning in the field of macro-economy.When the government formulates macro-economy policies,the rational anticipation of the public should be fully considered;in order to avoid the dynamic inconsistency of the policies,it is necessary to establish the relevant rules and system.By studying the development of rational anticipation and dynamic inconsistency theory in the game of macro-economy,this paper analyzes the process of dynamic game between the government and the public and discusses its result.To form accurate public expectation and reduce the possibility of dynamic inconsistency,the paper provides suggestions to the government,including enhancing the transparency of decision-making,intensifying the system guarantee,improving the system of macro-economic control and so on.

  1. Economies: An Open Access Journal for the Field of Development Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Fendel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economies (ISSN 2227-7099 is a new international, peer-reviewed open access journal for the academic fields of development economics and macroeconomics. While the latter seems to be clearly defined, development economics is not, because it is related to nearly all traditional economic sub-disciplines such as macroeconomics, international trade and finance, as well as microeconomics and public finance. Typically, academic field journals of development economics cover all those economic sub-disciplines. Economies instead focuses mainly on the macroeconomic perspective of economic development and it intends to publish academic research that is of strong macroeconomic policy relevance. In general, contributions in Economies should foster understanding of the macroeconomic process of economic development, with the process of development not exclusively being reserved to what we typically call developing countries. Also, the group of developed economies is still developing in the sense of improving their living standards further.

  2. Optimal Investment Control of Macroeconomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ke-jie; LIU Chuan-zhe

    2006-01-01

    Economic growth is always accompanied by economic fluctuation. The target of macroeconomic control is to keep a basic balance of economic growth, accelerate the optimization of economic structures and to lead a rapid, sustainable and healthy development of national economies, in order to propel society forward. In order to realize the above goal, investment control must be regarded as the most important policy for economic stability. Readjustment and control of investment includes not only control of aggregate investment, but also structural control which depends on economic-technology relationships between various industries of a national economy. On the basis of the theory of a generalized system, an optimal investment control model for government has been developed. In order to provide a scientific basis for government to formulate a macroeconomic control policy, the model investigates the balance of total supply and aggregate demand through an adjustment in investment decisions realizes a sustainable and stable growth of the national economy. The optimal investment decision function proposed by this study has a unique and specific expression, high regulating precision and computable characteristics.

  3. [Biotechnology's macroeconomic impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones Tacero, Milagros; Pérez García, Julián; San Román, Antonio Pulido

    2008-12-01

    This paper tries to yield an economic valuation of biotechnological activities in terms of aggregated production and employment. This valuation goes beyond direct estimation and includes the indirect effects derived from sectorial linkages between biotechnological activities and the rest of economic system. To deal with the proposed target several sources of data have been used, including official data from National Statistical Office (INE) such us national accounts, input-output tables, and innovation surveys, as well as, firms' level balance sheets and income statements and also specific information about research projects compiled by Genoma Spain Foundation. Methodological approach is based on the estimation of a new input-output table which includes the biotechnological activities as a specific branch. This table offers both the direct impact of these activities and the main parameters to obtain the induced effects over the rest of the economic system. According to the most updated available figures, biotechnological activities would have directly generated almost 1,600 millions of euros in 2005, and they would be employed more than 9,000 workers. But if we take into account the full linkages with the rest of the system, the macroeconomic impact of Biotechnological activities would reach around 5,000 millions euros in production terms (0.6% of total GDP) and would be responsible, directly or indirectly, of more than 44,000 employments.

  4. Towards an Environmental Macroeconomics Towards an Environmental Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman E. Daly

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards an Environmental Macroeconomics Other than some incipient efforts at including environmental costs in national accounts there are no points of contact between tradifiod macroeconomics and the environment. This condition is explained in terms of Schumpeter's notion of pre-analytic visions: The economy as isolated flow of exchange value versus the economy as open subsystem of the finite ecosystem. From the second pre-analytic vision the first analytical questions that occur are: how big is the economic subsystem relative to the total ecosystem, and how big should it be? This is the macroeconomic question of optimal scale and needs to be clearly distinguished from the microeconomic question of optimal allocation.

  5. Towards a new vision of economic policy: Discussion around the new paradigm proposed by David Romer in “Keynesian macroeconomics without the LM curve”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Leonardo Penagos Rozo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New Keynesians (NK refer to an advanced posture compared to the traditional paradigm of the IS-LM equilibrium, which, as a tool, satisfied economic policy explanations for the moment. The model had critics like be considered not to have microeconomic foundations, among others. Perhaps at the times presented: Keynes, in 1936, with the General Theory, Hicks, in 1937, with Mr. Keynes and the classics; Samuelson in 1948 and subsequent years, with his work Economy, it provided important elements in the balance. However, a new approach was needed for the Twenty-First Century, and it is the one proposed by David Romer. The purpose of this article is to make an initial review for understanding how some aspects of economic policy are linked as elements of economic growth.

  6. DUAL MONETARY SYSTEM AND MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Herianingrum

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the impact of dual monetary policy shock on macroeconomic indicators of Indonesia: growth and inflation. In addition, this study will also examine whether conventional monetary policy has a particular impact upon Islamic banking sector. This research apply VAR (vector auto regressive method on monthly data from Bank Of Indonesia during the period of January 2010 to December 2013. The result of IRF explain that the interest rate channel find the hard way to accomplished the macroeconomic goals while the Islamic monetary instrument indicates the potential growth of output and hold the inflation low. The result of VDC describes that the Islamic instrument still affected by conventional monetary policy because of slow development in Islamic monetary systemDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.1990

  7. Wind power policy: Issues and challenges in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, C.J. [TMES Institute of Business Management and Computer Studies, Mandvi, Gujarat (India); Mistry, S.H. [C. K. Pithawalla Institute of Management, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2012-07-01

    The energy policy of India is much concerned with the country's ever increasing energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. About 70% of country's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels. Our nation is heavily dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands. It is estimated that by 2030; India's dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country's total energy consumption. So, renewable energy usage can be sustainable alternative to country's energy demand. India has the world's fifth largest wind power market. To promote the usage of wind energy, government have declared tax incentives and other incentives but still the most of the estimated wind potential is not realized for energy need of country. In this paper author tries to identify the issues and challenges for promotion of wind power promotion in India and will suggest for the correction in the existing energy policy. (Author)

  8. MACROECONOMIC UNCERTAINTY AND PRIVATE INVESTMENT IN GHANA: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bekoe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the progress made in economic performance over the years, the Ghanaian economy continues to be bedevilled by a host of constraints. Among these constraints are low levels of savings and investments which have raised serious concerns among economists and policy makers with respect to the sustainability of the achievements attained so far. This study attempts to investigate empirically the link between investments and uncertainty using dataset from Ghana covering the period 1975 to 2008. In the empirical analysis, the paper aims at separating ordinary variability from uncertainty by the construction of measures of uncertainty for some key macroeconomic indicators and using them to assess their impact on investment behaviour within an econometric framework including other acceptable determinants of investment. The Phillip-Hansen cointegration test confirms the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship between private investment, standard determinants of investment, and macroeconomic uncertainty. Result from the study shows that on the whole the investment-uncertainty link reveals a significant negative effect of all macroeconomic uncertainty indicator variables on private investment with the exception of real exchange rate volatility. The values for price of capital uncertainty, real GDP growth uncertainty, and terms of trade uncertainty are large in absolute terms. The regression result further reveals that private investment displays important inertia and shows slow adjustment process towards long-run equilibrium. Lastly, the summary measure of macroeconomic uncertainty which encompasses the first principal components of the conditional variances of the five macroeconomic variables shows a consistent indirect effect on private investment. Generally we found macroeconomic uncertainties to be more detrimental to private investment growth in the long-run relative to the short-run.

  9. ABOUT MACROECONOMIC PURPOSE OF THE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE BALANCED MACROECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Vladimirov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is a theoretical substantiation of the possibility of DOS reaches the maximum possible public efficiencies of government spending, investments and taxes in perfect condition coordination bath open economic system. The proposed model can always bring in the ideal case («zero-loss" public effectively scope of public expenditure and investment to the maximum possible rate of economic growth, that allows you to substantiate the main directions of the relevant macroeconomic (fiscal, tax and budget policy.

  10. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014. Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges.

  12. Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rojas

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of factor accumulation, economic policies, and economic and political uncertainties on growth performance of Latin American countries in the last three decades. We extend the work of Corbo and Rojas (1992 in two directions suggested by recent work in this area. First, we extend the model by considering term of trade effects and an additional measure of distortion, the black marker premium. Second, we provide further evidence of the channels through which economic policies affect growth by endogenizing the investment rate. The main conclusions are that the terms of trade affect growth directly, and indirectly through its effect in the investment rate: the black market premium is more a measure of macroeconomic instability than of the degree of oppenness; and stability of economic policies can affect growth directly through the law of motion for growth and indirectly through investment rates. Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience

  13. The Influence of Global Macroeconomic Factors on Stock Values: A Sector Level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Şerife Özlen

    2014-01-01

    Investors and policy makers should carefully analyze stock returns and their possible relationships with microeconomic and macroeconomic factors in both local and global arena. Since the markets are increasingly becoming global, the outcomes may be more important for international factors. Therefore, this study aims to identify the relationship between selected international macroeconomic variables (FTSE-100 England market index, GDAX Germany market index, NYSE Composite market index, Gold pr...

  14. Essays in Education and Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on education and macroeconomics. The first chapter analyzes whether public education financing systems can account for large differences among developed countries in earnings inequality and intergenerational earnings persistence. I first document facts about public education in the U.S. and Norway, which…

  15. Essays in Education and Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on education and macroeconomics. The first chapter analyzes whether public education financing systems can account for large differences among developed countries in earnings inequality and intergenerational earnings persistence. I first document facts about public education in the U.S. and Norway, which…

  16. Macroeconomic announcements and financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The third and final study examines the causal relationship between uncertainty about macroeconomic fundamentals and return volatility. The underlying question is: does higher return volatility result in higher uncertainty in beliefs amongst analysts, or the other way around? Using daily data on anal

  17. MACROECONOMIC FORECASTING USING BAYESIAN VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tutberidze

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments that can be advanced to support the forecasting activities of business entities. The underlying argument in favor of forecasting is that managerial decisions are significantly dependent on proper evaluation of future trends as market conditions are constantly changing and require a detailed analysis of future dynamics. The article discusses the importance of using reasonable macro-econometric tool by suggesting the idea of conditional forecasting through a Vector Autoregressive (VAR modeling framework. Under this framework, a macroeconomic model for Georgian economy is constructed with the few variables believed to be shaping business environment. Based on the model, forecasts of macroeconomic variables are produced, and three types of scenarios are analyzed - a baseline and two alternative ones. The results of the study provide confirmatory evidence that suggested methodology is adequately addressing the research phenomenon and can be used widely by business entities in responding their strategic and operational planning challenges. Given this set-up, it is shown empirically that Bayesian Vector Autoregressive approach provides reasonable forecasts for the variables of interest.

  18. New consensus macroeconomics and inflation targeting: Keynesian critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Arestis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of countries have adopted Inflation Targeting (IT since the early 1990s in an attempt to reduce inflation to low levels. Since then, IT has been praised by most literature as a superior framework of monetary policy. We suggest that IT is a major policy prescription closely associated with the New Consensus Macroeconomics (NCM. This paper concentrates mainly on the IT aspects of the NCM. We address the theoretical foundations of IT. This is followed by an assessment of its theoretical foundations, where a number of aspects are discussed. We then turn our attention to an assessment of the empirical work on IT, where we distinguish the work that has been done utilising structural macroeconomic models, and work based in single equation techniques. The IT theoretical framework and the available empirical evidence do not appear to support the views of the proponents.

  19. Macroeconomic control of interest rate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鸣; 叶元煦; 何绍元

    2002-01-01

    The macroeconomic control of interest rate is studied using the elastic theory and correlation analysisand the concrete influence of interest rate on the consumption, savings and investment in China are investiga-ted. It is pointed out that although the interest rate mechanisms in China has gone through several adjustmentsand reforms, the results are not yet fully up to expectations. The interest rate does not adjust the national eco-nomic structure, and direct the trend of funds, nor regulate the general social supply and demand and balancethe price and currency in circulation, to achieve a rational distribution of social resources. The interest rate pol-icy of Central Bank does not have much actual influence on the economic departments, and this influence wascontinuously weakened in recent years. Countermeasures are suggested for improving the macro control of inter-est rate.

  20. 当前我国宏观经济形势与财横政策%The Macro-economic Situation and Fiscal & Tax Policy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫坤; 于树一; 刘新波

    2012-01-01

    2011年,世界经济一方面处于经济增长、债务危机、通货膨胀、财政整顿共同编织的困局之中,一方面处于实体经济困顿和悲观预期两者相互作用形成的非良性循环之中。我国经济增长速度虽有所放缓,总体上仍保持着持续高增长的势头,内生动力依然强劲,城乡居民收入和消费结构均有所改善。但是,我国地方债务风险迅速累积,这一问题需引起高度关注。下一阶段的财税政策调整应从实体经济增长解困、经济增长信心提振、地方债务风险化解等方面入手。%The world economy in 2011 is in a dilemma intertwined by economic growth, debt crisis, inflation and financial consolidation together on the one hand, and in a non-smooth economic circulation formed by the interaction of struggling real economy with pessimistic business expectations on the other hand. Although China's economic growth rate is slowing down, the country's overall economy maintains the continuous and relatively-high growth momentum with a strong endogenous power, improving the urban-rural income and consumption structure. However, it is noticeable that the local government debt accumulated over the past few years is relatively heavy and some risks loom. Adjustments of the fiscal policy in the next stage should focus on solving the real economic difficulties, boosting economic growth, fostering confidence, and controlling the local government debt risk.

  1. Evaluation of optimal monetary policy strategy in Romania in the context of fulfilment of convergence criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DAMIAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the euro currency implies the fulfilment of Maastricht convergence criteria, which implies a number of challenges for the macroeconomic policy mix, due to the existence of the conflict between them. The paper analyzes empirically the main monetary policy strategy in the context of euro in Romania.The results of the study show that inflation targeting is an optimal monetary policy strategy to achieve real and nominal convergence criteria.

  2. China's Current Macroeconomic Trend and Its Macro-control PolicyZhang%中国宏观经济走势和调控政策选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光

    2012-01-01

    文章深入分析了中国当前宏观经济形势以及宏观调控政策,主要围绕四个方面的内容展开:首先,今年政府工作报告提出两个重要目标:一是GDP增长7.5%,一是CPI控制在4%,这表明政府淡化经济增长,增大经济结构调整和转变发展方式的决心和政策方向。第二,现行的金融结构和金融体制基本上是国有大金融主导的,同时国家又不承认民间金融的合法性,造成许多中小企业的融资需求无法得到满足。因此,当前的货币政策和金融体制需要进一步放松管制。第三,政府收入快速增长与居民可支配收入不断下降形成矛盾,实现公共财政真正走向公众的目标还需要更多的政策调整和改革。最后,当前中国的体制现状是政府太强、社会太弱及市场扭曲,因此未来改革的方向可以概括如下:约束政府,壮大社会,回归市场。%This paper analyzes China' s current macroeconomic situation and macro-control policy, focusing mainly on four aspects. Firstly, the government work report of 2012 has put forward two important goals of GDP growth of 7.5% and CPI rate within 4%, which indicates the government' s determination and policy direction to slow down economic growth and to increase economic structural adjustment and to transform development mode. Secondly, as the existing financial system is basically dominated by large state-owned financial banks and the legitimacy of private finance unacknowledged, which leads to the financial needs of many SMEs being unable to be met, the current monetary policy and financial system needs further deregulation. Thirdly, the government' s income growth now contradicts with the decline of residents' disposable income, thus it is imperative to achieve the goals of more policy adjustment and reform. China' s current institutional status quo features strong government, weak society and market distortion

  3. [Macroeconomic recovery trends. Urban impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Mendoza, J S

    1991-12-01

    Some reflections are presented on the impact of Mexico's macroeconomic policy on population dynamics and urban development in the immediate future as the opening and liberalization of the economic increasingly influence market forces. Although the actions envisaged in the macroeconomic policy are not yet consolidated, it is possible to foresee some of their consequences for the city and for population movement. It can be predicted that the macroeconomic policy will lead to greater economic growth and consolidation of the urban population because of positive expectations for stability and growth, and the resultant environment of confidence in the immediate future. A resurgence of private investment in goods and services directed primarily to private consumption will inevitable create demand for public investment in infrastructure and improved services. Demand for consumer durables in likely to rise, as is demand for housing. New residential zones are likely to appear and grow, changing the territorial configuration of urban areas. The urban administration should make some effort to control the growth.

  4. Energy policy: application, consistency, dilemmas and challenges; Politica energetica: abrangencia, consistencia, dilemas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Ronaldo

    2007-07-01

    This article performs an overview on the aspects of the energy policy in which the impacts of the energy policy has a essentially economic dimension, since she acts on the economical activities in various ways. The article extends on the application versus consistence, dilemmas and challenges of the energy policy.

  5. China' s Policy Configuration and Its Macroeconomic Influence on the Context of Trilemma%中国的“三元悖论”政策目标组合选择及其影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳林

    2012-01-01

    By conducting trilemma index, this paper examines how China' s policy configuration affects its macroeconomic performance. The paper finds that China peruses great exchange rate stability and monetary independence, but ignores financial openness. Greater monetary independence is associated with lower output volatility while greater exchange rate stability implies greater output volatility ,which can be mitigated since china holds a mass international reserve. Meanwhile financial openness has a positive effect in lowing output volatility. Furthermore, accumulating international reserve higher than a threshold makes greater exchange rate stability associated with higher inflation volatility. Greater monetary independence induces a lower level of inflation volatility while holding a certain level of international reserve mitigates its positive effect. Financial openness increases inflation volatility. The paper highlights the drawback of perusing excessive exchange rate stability.%本文构建了“三元悖论”政策目标指数,并探讨了中国的宏观经济管理策略对经济稳定性的影响。研究发现,中国以汇率高度稳定作为首要目标,并追求适度的货币政策独立性,而谨慎追求金融开放,并积累了巨额外汇储备。这种策略的影响包括:(1)较高的货币政策独立性对降低产出波动率有积极作用,因持有外汇储备的间接影响使得汇率高度稳定政策也显著降低了产出波动率,金融开放同样也起到了降低产出波动率的作用;(2)积累巨额外汇储备与追求汇率高度稳定政策间的交互影响使得汇率稳定成为维持物价稳定的消极因素,货币政策独立性将降低国内通货膨胀波动率而积累过多的外汇储备却恶化这种影响,金融开放将增加物价波动性。文章凸显出过度追求人民币名义汇率稳定的弊端。

  6. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  7. Macroeconomic aspects of financial liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirdala Rajmund

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive and the negative macroeconomic aspects of the financial liberalization for the developing and emerging economies are well described in the present literature. But it is not easy to clearly summarize the final effects of the financial integration on the certain country. For instance the argument about the growth benefits of the capital account liberalization is likely to be inadequate considering the financial crises in the emerging markets at the end of the last century. On the other hand, many authors (especially in the financial literature report that the equity market liberalizations help to significantly boost the economic growth. There are also some examples on the microeconomic level (firm level or industry level when the international financial integration brings certain benefits to the integrated enterprises and the capital flows restriction leads to the distortionary effects. In the paper we analyze the macroeconomic effects of the capital flows liberalization.

  8. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  9. Challenge and Development: The Emerging Understanding of Policy Work

    OpenAIRE

    Colebatch, Hal K.

    2012-01-01

    Two themes have traversed the academic and practitioner literatures on policy and policy analysis: the search for a sophisticated technology of choice in the paradigm of instrumental rationality, and a ‘puzzling’ about the relationship of this technology to practice. A great deal of conceptual development has emerged from the tension between these two themes. There has been a re-thinking of the nature of the actors in the policy process, of the significance of the organizational forms within ...

  10. Make in India and Challenges before Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Economic development, inclusive growth and high employability are significantly linked to education policy of a country. Beginning with Kothari Commission (1966) with its emphasis on science & technology and research to National Policy on Education (1986), several committees during the last decade have advocated for greater foreign…

  11. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response t

  12. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  13. What next for China's macroeconomic policies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Huan; Li Yunlu; Hua Chunyu

    2010-01-01

    @@ In Europe debt crisis has not yet hit bottom;in the United States economic recovery remains weak.Domestically,there is insufficient internal impetus driving economic growth in China;and export sees a risk of decreasing....The country has pulled half-way through 2010,its most complicated year in economy.

  14. Assessing the Short-Term Effects on Output of Changes in Federal Fiscal Policies (Working Paper Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    in state budget practices , including variations in their balanced-budget requirements; Nakamura and Steinsson (2011) study regional variations in...Balancing Fiscal Policy Risk, Washington, D.C. Appendix 1. Leeper, Eric M. 2010. “Monetary Science, Fiscal Alchemy .” in Macroeconomic Challenges: The

  15. Integration Processes of Migrants: Research Findings and Policy Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinus Penninx

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the integration processes of immigrants and minorities with a recent immigrant background, and the policies related to the process of settlement of these newcomers in European societies at all relevant levels: from the local level of municipalities and cities, to the national level of states, and the international level of the European Union. Within this general approach, however, a strong emphasis is put on the local level, since that is the level where such policies have to be implemented and are primarily felt, both by the immigrants themselves and by those parts of society that are most affected by immigration. To describe the current state of integration research and policies, this paper will explore in the first section the nature of integration processes, their conceptualisation and lessons from empirical studies. The reason for devoting some space to these topics is the assertion that any integration policy should be based on a thorough, scientifically-based knowledge of the processes of integration and exclusion: if a policy wants to steer such a process, it should have a clear idea of what instruments it can use possibly to intervene, in which part of the process, and at what particular moment. Such knowledge is a solid starting point for policy-making, but it is not enough. Processes of policy-making and implementation follow their own set course, which do not necessarily run parallel to the process of integration. That is why, in the following section, the author attempts to explain some of these processes. At the end of this paper he returns to the core questions of immigration and integration policies on the one hand, and the relationship between local, national and international integration policies on the other.

  16. Undecidability in macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Chandra, Tushar Deepak

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we study the difficulty of solving problems in economics. For this purpose, we adopt the notion of undecidability from recursion theory. We show that certain problems in economics are undecidable, i.e., cannot be solved by a Turing Machine, a device that is at least as powerful as any computational device that can be constructed. In particular, we prove that even in finite closed economies subject to a variable initial condition, in which a social planner knows the behavior of every agent in the economy, certain important social planning problems are undecidable. Thus, it may be impossible to make effective policy decisions. Philosophically, this result formally brings into question the Rational Expectations Hypothesis which assumes that each agent is able to determine what it should do if it wishes to maximize its utility. We show that even when an optimal rational forecast exists for each agency (based on the information currently available to it), agents may lack the ability to make these forecasts. For example, Lucas describes economic models as 'mechanical, artificial world(s), populated by ... interacting robots'. Since any mechanical robot can be at most as computationally powerful as a Turing Machine, such economies are vulnerable to the phenomenon of undecidability.

  17. The structuralist tradition in economics: methodological and macroeconomics aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRÍCIO MISSIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the structuralist tradition in economics, emphasizing the role that structures play in the economic growth of developing countries. Since the subject at hand is evidently too large to cover in a single article, an emphasis has been brought to bear upon the macroeconomic elements of such a tradition, while also exploring its methodological aspects. It begins by analysing some general aspects of structuralism in economics (its evolution and origins associated with ECLAC thought, in this instance focusing on the dynamics of the center-periphery relationship. Thereafter, the macroeconomic structuralism derived from the works of Taylor (1983, 1991 is presented, followed by a presentation of neo-structuralism. Centred on the concept of systemic competitiveness, this approach defines a strategy to achieve the high road of globalization, understood here as an inevitable process in spite of its engagement being dependent on the policies adopted. The conclusions show the genuine contributions of this tradition to economic theory.

  18. The Manufacturing Sector of Ghana: Are There Any Macroeconomic Disturbances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Enu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the macroeconomic factors that influence performance of the manufacturing sector of Ghana using multivariate time series approach. It was found out that manufacturing production and real gross domestic product per capita were inversely related. In the long-run, macroeconomic variables such as private sector credit, labour and real exchange rate were unfavourable factors that weigh down the manufacturing sector while in the short-run, the past years consumer price index and real exchange rate were unfavourable to the manufacturing production. Finally, it is recommended that private sector credit to the manufacturing sector should be improved, training of labour force should be skilled and technical oriented and policies to stabilise the real exchange rate should be put in place to halt the down trending in manufacturing production.

  19. Projection of macroeconomic indicators in SME sector by 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on an analysis of companies and entrepreneurs who have made business (performed their activity in the period of 2010-2014. We also analyzed the number of entrepreneurs, micro, small and medium enterprises, number of employees, gross social value, exports, imports, number of importers and exporters. The aim of the paper is the projection of macroeconomic indicators by 2025 in the Republic of Serbia, with emphasis put onto improvement of business conditions with the aim of Serbian economy growth. The result of the research should show that the macroeconomic projections in the SME sector are on the path of recovery and growth, but they are conditional on the quality of fiscal policy, reforms implementation pace, financial incentives, and creating an environment whose ultimate goal would be strengthening of the private sector and creating even favorable business conditions.

  20. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  1. Public preferences and the challenge to genetic research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Modern genetic research requires scientists to collect, store, and study DNA samples and health information from thousands of people. Longstanding policy allows researchers to use samples and information without a person's informed consent as long as the person's identity is protected. Under existing policy, researchers must neither disclose study results to interested research participants nor compensate people who contribute to genetic research. Research and ethics experts developed these policy approaches without input from the people whose contributions are essential to the genetic research enterprise. A growing body of evidence shows that many research participants and would-be participants disagree with the current policy approaches. For ethical and practical reasons, participants should have a greater role in determining how genetic research is conducted.

  2. Assessment of the Challenges in Policy Implementation in the Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, stakeholders in the mining sector have expressed concerns about the ... of Ghana by reviewing policies on regularisation and environmental management. ... and training of miners on good mining and environmental practices.

  3. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements ...

  4. Full Time School in Brazil: Policy, Curriculum and Pedagogic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Valéria Valéria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the project of integral education and full time school which is under construction in Brazil, linking history and policy to thinking the curriculum and pedagogical work in schools for extended journey. The analyzes presented here are the resulted synthesis of two completed researches and another two ongoing, concerning policy and processes of teaching and learning in public full time schools.

  5. Affect Theory and Policy Mobility: Challenges and Possibilities for Critical Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to a growing literature on policy mobilities by proposing that affect be considered in analyses of the movements and transformations of policy over time and space. In particular, collective affective conditions, the role of affect in terms of infrastructures and actors of policy apparatuses and the mediating influences of…

  6. The Importance of Science Policy and its Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    I worked for physicist and Congressman Bill Foster (D-IL) as the Mather Public Policy Intern through the American Institute of Physics and the Society of Physics Students during the summer of 2014. This internship is meant to connect undergraduate physics students with the policy process in Washington DC. As a Mather Public Policy Intern, I worked for Congressman Foster researching policy initiatives such as science funding, STEM education, and environmental regulations. This talk will discuss my experience and many of the things that I learned as an undergraduate physicist working on Capitol Hill. For example, through my experience with the internship, I attended lectures and hearings that illuminated for me how members of Congress conceive of scientific research. I also met with many physicists on Capitol Hill working to improve government interest in physics research -- AAAS Fellows, Members of Congress, and Government Relations Specialists -- and I will talk about how I saw physicists impacting governmental policies relating to scientific research and development. This internship is part of the Society of Physics Students internship program and was funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts. This work was part of the Society of Physics Students internship Program.

  7. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation.

  8. Macroeconomía aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio Aguilar, Raymindo

    2012-01-01

    Macroeconomía aplicada es un eBook de texto para estudiantes de nivel profesional, particularmente del área de negocios, que facilita el aprendizaje  del funcionamiento de la economía y su influencia en la vida cotidiana de empresas, gobierno y sociedad. Sus contenidos teórico-prácticos son vigentes y actuales; altamente vinculados a la comprensión de la economía en su conjunto y en particular a la economía mexicana.

  9. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  10. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  11. Algebra Policy in California: Great Expectations and Serious Challenges. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the May 2009 EdSource report, "Algebra Policy in California: Great Expectations and Serious Challenges." The report focuses on California's policies regarding mathematics, in particular state standards for when students should take Algebra I. It also provides a comprehensive look at state data related to both student…

  12. Threats to Inclusive Education in Lesotho: An Overview of Policy and Implementation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosia, Paseka Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how the education of Learners with Special Education Needs (LSEN) has developed in Lesotho as a result of international policies on human rights and education. In particular, it explores various challenges to inclusive education such as proper understanding of inclusive education, the development of a policy on special and…

  13. Threats to Inclusive Education in Lesotho: An Overview of Policy and Implementation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosia, Paseka Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how the education of Learners with Special Education Needs (LSEN) has developed in Lesotho as a result of international policies on human rights and education. In particular, it explores various challenges to inclusive education such as proper understanding of inclusive education, the development of a policy on special and…

  14. Assessing California's Accountability System: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities for Improvement. Policy Brief 04-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Jennifer; Bitter, Catherine; Kirst, Mike; Carnoy, Martin; Woody, Elisabeth; Buttles, Melissa; Fuller, Bruce; Ruenzel, David

    2004-01-01

    During the past two years, three independent studies--conducted by Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE), American Institutes for Research (AIR), and the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)--have examined the accomplishments, shortcomings, and continuing challenges of California's Public Schools Accountability Act (PSAA).…

  15. Inclusive Education in Korea: Policy, Practice, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Wook

    2013-01-01

    Even though the Korean experience with special education in the public education system is limited, inclusive education for special education needs (SEN) students has been at the center of attention at the national policy level since the mid-1990s. Since then, Korean educators and administrators have put an emphasis on the revision and regulation…

  16. Fiscal Challenge: An Experiential Exercise in Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Mike; Soques, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a pedagogical innovation that is designed to enhance students' understanding of fiscal policy in general, and the national debt and deficit in particular. The innovation leverages the educational advantages offered through a competitive environment by pitting teams of students against one another with the…

  17. Challenging Sex Discrimination Through the Courts: Maternity Leave Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottker, Janice

    This study attempted to determine the extent to which school districts had brought their maternity leave policies into compliance with the latest Supreme Court ruling. The study also analyzed the maternity leave requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), and sought to determine which variables were associated with…

  18. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  19. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  20. Fiscal Challenge: An Experiential Exercise in Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Mike; Soques, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a pedagogical innovation that is designed to enhance students' understanding of fiscal policy in general, and the national debt and deficit in particular. The innovation leverages the educational advantages offered through a competitive environment by pitting teams of students against one another with the…

  1. Challenges in Evaluating the EU's Lifelong Learning Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clain, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, lifelong learning has become a major policy concern for the European Union, being seen as a means for enabling individuals to be more competitive in social and economic contexts that are continually changing. After a series of white papers and strategies in the field of lifelong learning, the EU launched the Lifelong…

  2. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  3. Inclusive Education in Korea: Policy, Practice, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Wook

    2013-01-01

    Even though the Korean experience with special education in the public education system is limited, inclusive education for special education needs (SEN) students has been at the center of attention at the national policy level since the mid-1990s. Since then, Korean educators and administrators have put an emphasis on the revision and regulation…

  4. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  5. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras: Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. - Research Highlights: {yields} This paper shows the development of a long-term energy policy for Honduras. {yields} The various diagnoses of the energy sector in Honduras are shown, considering the use of wood, biomass, biofuels, electricity, transportation, hydrocarbons and rural electrification. {yields} The most relevant results of the analysis of energy forecasting are shown, for which the LEAP software was used. {yields} The objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes.

  6. Policy and Legal Challenges of Virtual Worlds and Social Network Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Kienle, Holger M; Müller, Hausi A

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses policy challenges of complex virtual environments such as virtual worlds, social network sites, and massive multiplayer online games. The complexity of these environments--apparent by the rich user interactions and sophisticated user-generated content that they offer--poses unique challenges for policy management and compliance. These challenges are also impacting the life cycle of the software system that implements the virtual environment. The goal of this paper is to identify and sketch important legal and policy challenges of virtual environments and how they affect stakeholders (i.e., operators, users, and lawmakers). Given the increasing significance of virtual environments, we expect that tackling these challenges will become increasingly important in the future.

  7. Application of the IS-PC-MR model in the modern macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinić Ljubina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary economic literature, very significant position takes 'new' neoclassical synthesis, which refers to the consensus about the role of monetary policy in the modern economy, the role of expectations, the importance of money and looking 'forward' by economic agents. For more than a half of century, IS-LM model was the main instrument of macroeconomic analysis. However, modern conditions have led to the situation where traditional IS-LM analysis is not applicable any more. Hence, a new, IS-PC-MR model is developed, and the research objective of the paper is to analyze the IS-PC-MR model as the basic tool of modern macroeconomics, which is able to explain the contemporary macroeconomic issues, with a focus primarily on the role of monetary policy during the shocks in the economy and inflation targeting.

  8. Long Run Relationship between Macroeconomic Indicators and Stock Price: The Case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawtari FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term equilibrium between South Africa’s stock index and selected macroeconomic variables using vector error-correction models (VECM. Upon testing for co-integration, long run structural equation modelling (LRSM and VECM, the results indicate that industrial production is the most important determinant of stock market prices. This suggests that South Africa’s stock market is highly sensitive to the country’s industrial production. Money supply, inflation, and exchange rates are other determinants of South Africa’s stock index but to a lesser extent than industrial production. The study found that the macroeconomic variables comprising industrial production, inflation, money supply, and exchange rate are co-integrated on the long run with stock market prices. These findings have implications for policy makers in the sense that any changes in the macroeconomic policy should take into consideration the impact of such changes on the stock market.

  9. Macroeconomic Policy Design in an Interdependent World Economy: An Analysis of Three Contingencies (Conception de la politique macroéconomique dans une économie mondiale interdépendante: analyse de trois éventualités) (Formulación de la política macroeconómica en una economía mundial interdependiente: Análisis de tres casos)

    OpenAIRE

    Willem H. Buiter

    1986-01-01

    The paper uses a small analytical two-region model (the Mundell-Dornbusch model, as first adapted by Marcus Miller), consisting of the United States and the rest of the industrial world, to analyze three issues concerning international economic interdependence and macroeconomic policy coordination. First, what should be the monetary or fiscal response in the rest of the industrial world to a tightening of U.S. fiscal policy, and what should be the U.S. monetary response? A unilateral U.S. fis...

  10. Presence in International Organisms: A Policy for a Collective Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What does the presence of Spaniards in international organisations signify and entail? Why, for what, and how should this be promoted? In order to answer such questions, the author analyses the meaning and implications of this presence in a globalised world in which a commitment to effective multilateralism entails a commitment to the international organisms as forums for and actors in global governance, and their presence in our societies and lives. This means both the promoting of Spanish presence in the administrations inwhich the proposals are formed which embody the general interest of the international organisations, like the multilateralisation of Spanish society. For this reason, in the framework of its multilateral policy, Spain is currently developing a policy of promoting the presence of Spaniards in international organisations in the areas of information, training, promotion and incentives, the outlines and results of which are described in this article.

  11. The geography of innovation : challenge to technology policy within regions

    OpenAIRE

    Fadairo, Muriel; Massard, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The "Geography of Innovation" is based on the desire to give empirical foundations to the explanations behind the pronounced spatial polarisation of the innovation activities. It focuses on an attempt to measure the spatial dimension of knowledge externalities, in order to reveal their role in the organisation of research systems. The aim of this paper is to survey this empirical literature in order to highlight the main results interesting for the innovation policy. This analysis emphasises ...

  12. Introduction: Young Fatherhood: Lived experiences and policy challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The entry of young people into early parenthood has long been regarded as an issue for social policy and for professional practice in the UK and internationally. Despite a steadily falling trend, most notably since 1998, the UK still has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy in Europe, concentrated in the most socially disadvantaged areas of the country (Office for National Statistics, 2015). The majority of these pregnancies are unplanned, with about half resulting in the birth of a ...

  13. POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY – NEW CHALLENGES IN ANALYZING FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEȘAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The art of governance, the relationship between the governed and the governing, the impact of a social and political system on coherent foreign policy-building is significantly influenced by the distribution of power and the type of decisional unit existent within the state. New subjects of study, such as political psychology, have proved their utility both in theoretical and practical study of international relations. Being a frontier subject, political psychology tries to offer answers to a number of questions regarding different issues among which the way character features influence the decision maker’s behavior, the role of the operational code in foreign policy and the utility of psychological profiles in the international relationships and in intelligence. Leading from the types of power distribution and decisional units existent in the professional literature, the present paper narrows the narrative and focuses on examining the importance of the individual level of analysis in explaining foreign policy decisions, analyzing the decision of the Russian Federation to veto the intervention of the international community in the Syrian civil conflict.

  14. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras. Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. (author)

  15. Becoming the Citizen Scientist: Opportunities and Challenges in Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosler, T. L.

    2007-03-01

    The methodologies, creativity and intellectual capacity of today's physicists are becoming more and more relevant in the world of policy and politics. Some issues such as climate change, alternative energy and avian influenza clearly reveal the relevance of scientific knowledge and research in policy. However, the connection between science and issues such as electronic voting, government earmarks and international cooperation are not as obvious, but the role of scientists in these topics and their effects on science itself are critical. As the world becomes increasingly technological and global, the need for the involvement of scientists in the political process grows. The traditional scientific training of physicists emphasizes intense scrutiny of specific physical phenomena in the natural world but often misses the opportunity to utilize trained scientific minds on some of society's greatest problems. I will discuss the many ways in which scientists can contribute to society far beyond the academic community and the unique opportunities science policy work offers to the socially conscious scientist or even those just looking to get more grant money.

  16. Policy and Regulatory Challenges in the Tourism Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing collabora......The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing...... collaborative economy, these conditions are difficult to meet. The dynamic restructuring of power relations, new stakeholders and information asymmetries can obscure what is really going on. Some authors offer valuable meso-level explorations of policy and regulatory issues in different sub......-sectors of the collaborative economy. However, these solutions are often based on assumptions about government sovereignty and power relations that do not necessarily apply in the slippery global world of platform capitalism. This chapter seeks to undertake a critical exploration of the factors and values that permeate...

  17. Policy to support marine biotechnology-based solutions to global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Rachael J; Guy, Ken; Philp, Jim C

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in science and technology are igniting new interest in marine biotechnology. Governments are recognizing the potential of marine biotechnology to provide solutions to grand global challenges of population health, food, and energy security and sustainable industry. This paper examines some of the challenges to and policy options for the development of marine biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  19. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  20. How Does Transport Policy Cope with Climate Challenges? Experiences from the UK and Other European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Lawler, Mary; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Transport is one of the fastest growing sources of emissions of greenhouse gases. Some European countries have adopted comprehensive “sustainable transport” policies, in which climate change is addressed. This paper looks into how sustainable transport policy frameworks deal with climate change...... challenges in three countries: the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In particular, the focus is on the role of follow-up and monitoring systems to keep the policies on track. For the United Kingdom, a critical analysis is made of strengths and weaknesses of the policy monitoring regime...

  1. Innovation Policy Evaluation – Challenges and Roads Ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2012-01-01

    are that the criteria for evaluating effects should be extended beyond the immediate, observable impact. Results It is found that using traditional evaluation metrics render an underestimation of indirect, hard to measure effects such as transfer of tacit knowledge, reputation effects, long-term benefits from...... networking, training effects in increased abilities to select and manage collaboration projects, and the general increase in connectivity of the innovation system. Value This study contributes to our understanding of how innovation network policies are evaluated. The paper firstly propose what should...

  2. Innovation Policy Evaluation – Challenges and Roads Ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2012-01-01

    are that the criteria for evaluating effects should be extended beyond the immediate, observable impact. Results It is found that using traditional evaluation metrics render an underestimation of indirect, hard to measure effects such as transfer of tacit knowledge, reputation effects, long-term benefits from...... networking, training effects in increased abilities to select and manage collaboration projects, and the general increase in connectivity of the innovation system. Value This study contributes to our understanding of how innovation network policies are evaluated. The paper firstly propose what should...

  3. Introduction: Young Fatherhood: Lived experiences and policy challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Bren

    2016-01-01

    The entry of young people into early parenthood has long been regarded as an issue for social policy and for professional practice in the UK and internationally. Despite a steadily falling trend, most notably since 1998, the UK still has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy in Europe, concentrated in the most socially disadvantaged areas of the country (Office for National Statistics, 2015). The majority of these pregnancies are unplanned, with about half resulting in the birth of a child, although the extent to which this should be a cause for concern is a contested issue (Duncan et al., 2010). Considerable research evidence exists on the experiences of young mothers, with a range of interventions designed to meet their needs. However, young fathers (defined as those under the age of 25, a quarter of whom are estimated to be in their teens) have, until recently, been neglected in both research and policy. Over the past decade, small pockets of research evidence on the circumstances, practices and values of young fathers have begun to coalesce into a fledgling evidence base. However, the notion of 'feckless' young men, who are assumed to be absent, or disinterested in 'being there', or, worse, regarded as a potential risk to their children, continues to hold sway, particularly in popular media and some political discourses (Neale and Davies, 2015).

  4. A SHORT REVIEW OF MACROECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Humberrto

    2007-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este documento es entender, clasificar y proporcionar un importante resumen de los rasgos fundamentales de la macroeconomía con fundamentos microeconómicos y la macroeconomía como soporte de la microeconomía. Este documento puede ser interesante para aquellos que desean entender como estas dos escuelas macroeconómicas se han desarrollado. Macroeconomía con fundamento microeconómicos presenta cuatro ramas: la Síntesis Neoclásica, Monetaristas, Nuevos Clásicos y Re...

  5. The macroeconomics of vitreoretinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, George J; Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the macroeconomics of vitreoretinal diseases. Approximately 6% of the Medicare Part B expenditure was spent on ocular diseases and 0.3% on vitreoretinal interventions. Among the 17,674 practicing ophthalmologists, 1849 (10.5%) designated themselves as specializing in the treatment of vitreoretinal diseases. Ophthalmologists receive 38% of their payments from Medicare; 13% of their total income were capitated. Age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, two conditions commonly treated by vitreoretinal specialists, are projected to affect more than 10 million people in 2020. Vitreoretinal interventions account for only a small portion of the total health care expenditure. The rising demand from the aging population and health care costs will continue to put pressure on all physicians and society. The changes in the sources of payment and managed care will directly affect the economics of a physician's practice.

  6. Cosmetic surgery in times of recession: macroeconomics for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-10-01

    Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.

  7. Challenges of the Unemployment Protection System and Active Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pino, Eloísa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  8. Addressing the Challenges in Tonsillectomy Research to Inform Health Care Policy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Rishi; Schilder, Anne G M; Dimitriadis, Panagiotis A; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-09-01

    Eighty-five percent of investment in medical research has been wasted, with lack of effect on clinical practice and policy. There is increasing effort to improve the likelihood of research being used to influence clinical practice and policy. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures, and its frequency, cost, and morbidity create a clear need for evidence-based guidelines and policy. The first systematic review on tonsillectomy was conducted 40 years ago and highlighted the lack of definitive evidence for the procedure. Since that study, the body of evidence has still not been able to sufficiently inform policy. This review provides an overview of the key challenges in research to inform tonsillectomy policy and recommendations to help bridge the evidence-policy gap. The challenges in using research to inform policy can be summarized as 4 main themes: (1) non-policy-focused evidence and lack of available evidence, (2) quality of evidence, (3) communication of research findings, and (4) coordinating time frames. Researchers and decision makers should be aware of the limitations of research designs and conflicts of interest that can undermine policy decisions. Researchers must work with decision makers and patients throughout the research process to identify areas of unmet need and political priority, align research and policy time frames, and disseminate research findings. Incentives for researchers should be reorganized to promote dissemination of findings. It is important to consider why evidence gaps in tonsillectomy research have not been addressed during the past 40 years despite considerable investment in time and resources. These findings and recommendations will help produce research that is more responsive to policy gaps and more likely to result in policy changes.

  9. 搭配型财政政策的宏观经济效应研究——基于中国月度数据的经验分析%On the Macroeconomic Effect of Composite Fiscal Policy --based on the Empirical Analysis of Monthly Data in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程恋军; 仲维清

    2012-01-01

    In order to compare the effect of different fiscal policy on macroeconomic control, in this paper, we analyze the shock effect of 8 types of composite fiscal policy on main macroeconomic variables by using related monthly data from the perspective of fiscal policy research. It shows that as for the level of stimulating the output, the effect of both deficit financed tax cut fiscal policy and two-expansionary fiscal policy is the same, if the government want to adopt the balanced budget spending policy, the reverse direction balanced budget spending policy should be applied. Secondly, in comparison with the deficit financed tax cut fiscal policy, the two-expansionary fiscal policy has the most obvious effect on consumption; thirdly, the deficit financed tax cut fiscal policy and the two-expansionary fiscal policy play the same role in stimulating the investment, and the deficit spending fiscal policy will easily cause investment fluctuation fourthly, the balanced budget spend- ing policy can lead a rise in price level, while other fiscal policy will stabilize the price level.%为了比较不同的财政政策组合对宏观经济调控的效果,本文将政策搭配的思想放在财政政策研究的框架下,利用有关月度数据,模拟了8种财政政策组合对主要宏观经济变量的冲击效应。研究发现:从刺激产出的角度而言,赤字化减税政策和双松的财政政策工具的效果一样,如要运用平衡型预算的政策工具组合,应该采用逆向平衡型;双松的财政政策工具搭配对消费的挤入效应最大,赤字化减税政策对私人消费的挤入效应则很微弱;而对于投资来说,赤字化减税政策和双松的财政政策工具搭配的效果俱佳,而赤字化支出政策容易造成投资波动;正向平衡型预算政策工具会造成价格水平上升,而其他工具组合则会平抑物价。

  10. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Hanlon, A

    2016-10-29

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Integrating Mercury Science and Policy in the Marine Context: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kathleen F.; Evers, David C.; Warner, Kimberly A.; King, Susannah L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and presents policy challenges at local, regional, and global scales. Mercury poses risks to the health of people, fish, and wildlife exposed to elevated levels of mercury, most commonly from the consumption of methylmercury in marine and estuarine fish. The patchwork of current mercury abatement efforts limits the effectiveness of national and multi-national policies. This paper provides an overview of the major policy challenges and opportunities related to mercury in coastal and marine environments, and highlights science and policy linkages of the past several decades. The U.S. policy examples explored here point to the need for a full life cycle approach to mercury policy with a focus on source reduction and increased attention to: (1) the transboundary movement of mercury in air, water, and biota; (2) the coordination of policy efforts across multiple environmental media; (3) the cross-cutting issues related to pollutant interactions, mitigation of legacy sources, and adaptation to elevated mercury via improved communication efforts; and (4) the integration of recent research on human and ecological health effects into benefits analyses for regulatory purposes. Stronger science and policy integration will benefit national and international efforts to prevent, control, and minimize exposure to methylmercury. PMID:22901766

  12. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzouk Denise

    2008-09-01

    long-stay patients. However, services are unequally distributed across the regions of the country, and the growth of the elderly population, combined with an existing treatment gap is increasing the burden on mental health care. This gap may get even wider if funding does not increase and mental health services are not expanded in the country. There is not yet a good degree of integration between primary care and the mental health teams working at CAPS level, and it is necessary to train professionals to act as mental health planners and as managers. Research on service organization, policy and mental health systems evaluation are strongly recommended in the country. There are no firm data to show the impact of such policies in terms of community service cost-effectiveness and no tangible indicators to assess the results of these policies.

  13. Taxing CO2 and subsidising biomass: Analysed in a macroeconomic and sectoral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the combination of taxes and subsidies as an instrument to enable a reduction in CO2 emission. The objective of the study is to compare recycling of a CO2 tax revenue as a subsidy for biomass use as opposed to traditional recycling such as reduced income or corporate taxation....... A model of Denmark's energy supply sector is used to analyse the e€ect of a CO2 tax combined with using the tax revenue for biomass subsidies. The energy supply model is linked to a macroeconomic model such that the macroeconomic consequences of tax policies can be analysed along with the consequences...

  14. How Can Macroeconomic Control Be Improved?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳贵

    2007-01-01

    Ⅰ.New macroeconomic controls not fully realised China introduced a new set of macroeconomic controls in 2004 in an attempt to control excessive growth.Due to the impact of the Asian Financial Crisis, China’s economy grew at a low growth rate between 1998 and 2001.However it accelerated from 2002 onwards,and saw a GDP increase of 11%in the fourth quarler of 2003,a historical high since 1997 Investment

  15. Income Inequalities, Productive Structure and Macroeconomic Dynamics. A Regional Approach to the Russian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vercueil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, sustained economic growth in emerging countries (and among them, BRICS countries has attracted much attention in the western world. Multinational companies have been lured by the growing purchasing power of a significant part of the population, often presented as the “promised land” of consumer spending in durable goods, high tech services and fashion products. Of course, increasing incomes imply also significant socio-economic changes within these countries as well. A growing number of studies have been carried in order to track the evolution of income distribution in BRICS countries, and the formation and composition of a social group usually called “middle class” in western countries (Kharas (2010, SIEMS (2010, Levada (2012, Ernst and Young (2013, Kochhar R., Oates R. (2015. In this paper we try to assess the impact of recent macroeconomic fluctuations on Russian households income levels. We analyse the Russian trajectory in three different ways. First, we compare the evolution of the “middle class” in Russia with other (BRIC and western countries, using the wealthbased definition of this group proposed in the Global Wealth Report (Crédit Suisse Research Institute, 2015. Second, we go deeper into the Russian case in order to show how regional disparities regarding incomes distribution can be interpreted, considering the country’s recent macroeconomic trajectory. For this purpose, we build a productive typology of the Russian regions and study the link between each type and the level of income inequalities, using the varying structures in sources of household’s incomes as a possible explanation of regional variations. We conclude by an assessment of the remaining challenges for incomes policy in Russia

  16. Water and sanitation policies in Argentina: the challenge of universalizing services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica L. Cáceres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at contributing to the reflection and debate on the water and sanitation policies in Argentina. For this purpose, regulatory and institutional aspects are discussed regarding services management in the country. The paper also includes a characterization of the five stages of such policies that have marked the progress of the sector. Finally, the main challenges faced by the sector are mentioned as a conclusion.

  17. China's Foreign Trade: Achievements,Determinants and Future Policy Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PingyaoLai

    2004-01-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, China's foreign trade has achieved great success. The main determinants behind this success include market-oriented reform, appropriate trade and exchange rate policies, and the active participation of foreign-invested enterprises. However, China is far from completing the transition in trade structure, and is facing many difficult policy challenges in maintaining its export momentum into the future.

  18. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

  19. Impact of Macroeconomic Policy on Capital Structure of Real Estate Listed Corporation%宏观经济政策对房地产上市公司资本结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹岚; 何世文; 钱晓莉

    2014-01-01

    Real estate listed corporation has undoubtedly become the focus of the governmental macroeconomic regulation and control due to its special economic status and the occupying important social status. This paper analyzes the capital structure of real estate industry using the multiple linear regression mould on the basis of stating the theory on macroeconomic factors affecting the capital structure. Empirical evidence indicates that the asset liability ratio changes inversely with the rate of inflation,but with the interest rate of the actual loan changes in the same direction. The relationship among asset liability ratio,GDP growth rate and price earnings ratio is not significant. Then the capital structure optimization strategy of the real estate listed corporation is discussed.%上市房地产公司由于其特殊的经济地位和所占据的重要社会地位,导致了它毫无疑问地成为了政府进行宏观调控的焦点。本文在阐述宏观经济要素对资本结构影响理论的基础上,利用多元线性回归模型实证分析了房地产行业的资本结构。实证表明:资产负债率与通货膨胀率呈反向变化,而与实际贷款利率呈同向变化,与GDP增长率和市盈率关系不显著。进而探讨了房地产上市公司资本结构的优化策略。

  20. Globalization of international migration: Social challenges and policy implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Aleshkovski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XX century, the humankind witnessed the insurmountable and irreversible power of globalization processes, which influence all spheres of social life and establish a global system of interdependency between countries and nations. Globalization within impetuous changes in global political, social and economic systems has determined dramatic shifts in the international migration processes that lead to the new stage of migration history. In nowadays globalized world, international migration has become a reality for almost all corners of the globe. The author considers features of the recent trends of international migration: the unprecedented growth of the international migration flows; the widening geography of international migration that involves nearly all countries of the world; qualitative changes in the structure of international migration flows; the key role of economic migration; the permanent growth and structural intricateness of irregular migration; the increasing scale and geographical widening of forced migration; the growing importance of international migration for the demographic development of the world, countries of both origin and destination. All these trends combined prove that the international migration patterns have become more complex. The author analyzes the legal framework of the international migration processes, and gives recommendations on the ways to improve the control and regulation of migration processes. Specific issues related to the social challenges of international migration are also discussed in the article.

  1. Past experience with the EU Common Agricultural Policy and future challenges for landscape development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Busck, Anne Gravsholt;

    and land use through the Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) and several other policies, however it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between effects of EU policies and the general trends on the European continent. In a Danish perspective, the formal effects of EU membership have been effectuated since...... the accession to the EU by 1973, however the trend towards intensification and industrialisation have emerged since the 2nd world war. Since 1973, landscape challenge have changed from intensification to debates on marginalisation in the early 1980s, introduction of the environmental policies in the mid 1980s...... with focus on the aquatic environment and lately towards a focus on biodiversity in respect to implementation of the habitats directive. A conglomerate of policy causes and effects on landscape changes is described in details from Denmark in the period from 1973-2014, and with specific analysis of data...

  2. Alcohol and healthy ageing: a challenge for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, D; McCormack, F; Seaman, P; Bell, K; Duffy, T; Gilhooly, M

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents findings of a qualitative study of older people's use of alcohol during retirement and identifies ways that an improved understanding of older people's drinking can inform policy approaches to alcohol and active and healthy ageing. Qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with a self-selecting sample of retired people. Participants were recruited from three geographical locations in the West of Scotland. A quota sampling design was used to ensure a broad spread of participants in terms of socio-economic position, age and gender. In total 40 participants were interviewed and the data analysed thematically using Braun and Clarke's (2006) approach. Amongst those who used alcohol, it was most often framed in terms of pleasure, relaxation, socialising and as a way to mark the passage of time. Alcohol was often associated with social occasions and interactions both in private and in public spaces. There were also many examples of the use of imposed routines to limit alcohol use and of a decreasing volume of alcohol being consumed as participants aged. This suggests that older people are often active in constructing what they regard as 'healthier' routines around alcohol use. However, processes and circumstances associated with ageing can lead to risk of social isolation and/or increased alcohol consumption. Such processes include retirement from paid work and other 'biographical disruptions' such as caring for a partner, bereavement and/or loss of social networks. These findings highlight processes that can result in changes in drinking habits and routines. Whilst these processes can be associated with a reduction or cessation of alcohol use as people age, they can also be associated with increased risk of harmful alcohol consumption. Fractured or disrupted routines, particularly those associated with bereavement or the burden of caring responsibilities, through increasing the risk of loneliness and isolation, can construct increased risk of

  3. Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

    2009-01-01

    During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States.

  4. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  5. Chaos: Challenges from and to socio-spatial form and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios S. Dendrinos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief assessment is given of the major accomplishments made through the mathematics of chaos to the understanding of socio-spatial dynamics to date. Certain shortfalls are also presented, mostly associated with model testing and falsifiability which transcend socio-spatial dynamics. Beyond such shortcomings, lie an array of challenges for chaotic dynamics involving specifically socio-spatial form and policy. A few directions on meeting these challenges are suggested including the case of limited chaos.

  6. Using a DSGE Model to Assess the Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Waldyr Dutra Areosa; Christiano Arrigoni Coelho

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present how a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model (DSGE) can be used by policy makers in the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the macroeconomics impacts of two monetary policy instruments: (i) short term interest rate and (ii) reserve requirements ratio. In our model, this last instrument affects the leverage of banks that have to deal with agency problems in order to raise funds from depositors. We estimated a modified version of Gertler and Karadi (2011)...

  7. Using a DSGE Model to Assess the Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Waldyr Dutra Areosa; Christiano Arrigoni Coelho

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present how a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model (DSGE) can be used by policy makers in the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the macroeconomics impacts of two monetary policy instruments: (i) short term interest rate and (ii) reserve requirements ratio. In our model, this last instrument affects the leverage of banks that have to deal with agency problems in order to raise funds from depositors. We estimated a modified version of Gertler and Karadi (2011)...

  8. PUBLIC POLICY, CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND BOYS AT RISK: CHALLENGING, ENDURING AND NECESSARY PARTNERSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk.

  9. Jamaica is Without a National Sexual Harassment Policy: Challenges, Consequences, Health Problems and the Need for a National Policy Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Peters

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans are sexual as they are physical beings. Simply put, sexual relations are embedded in their composition and so legislations are needed to protect vulnerable groups such as children, poor, women, orphans, elderly, mentally and physically disabled people and adolescents from sexual exploitations. The current study will explore why Jamaica needs a national sexual harassment policy, the challenges without a policy and the difficulties in formulating a policy in such a highly sexed culture. The methodology that was utilized for the study was ethnography. This study was conducted in Metropolis of Jamaica (i.e., Kingston and St. Andrew, and purposive sampling was used to select respondents, with focus groups and elite interviews being among the methods of data collection. There was consensus in the focus group that policies such as those for sexual harassment are not meant to act as deterrents per say but as back up plans, a tool to reach for just in case the harassment occurs; “the rules are not enforced they are just there if something happens I don’t think they can be enforced”. It was also postulated that in Jamaican culture the men approach women, however if the woman makes it clear that she is not interested the most the man will do is curse then move on to another female of interest. It was agreed upon by all participants in the study that power plays a role in sexual harassment and its definition. There was notably more reference to sexual harassment between a manager and a subordinate than between co-workers. A subject stated that: “Many time the harasser feels entitled to harass because they know that they have the power if you complain you might lose the work.” It was also felt that a sexual harassment policy should have various degrees of punishment dependent on the number of infractions the accused has been found guilty of. Thus, a male participant in the focus session declared, “I don’t feel the policy should just fire

  10. Reflections on modern macroeconomics: Can we travel along a safer road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffeo, E.; Catalano, M.; Clementi, F.; Delli Gatti, D.; Gallegati, M.; Russo, A.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we sketch some reflections on the pitfalls and inconsistencies of the research program-currently dominant among the profession-aimed at providing microfoundations to macroeconomics along a Walrasian perspective. We argue that such a methodological approach constitutes an unsatisfactory answer to a well-posed research question, and that alternative promising routes have been long mapped out but only recently explored. In particular, we discuss a recent agent-based, truly non-Walrasian macroeconomic model, and we use it to envisage new challenges for future research.

  11. Reflections on Modern Macroeconomics: Can We Travel Along a Safer Road?

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffeo, E; Clementi, F; Gatti, D D; Gallegati, M; Russo, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we sketch some reflections on the pitfalls and inconsistencies of the research program - currently dominant among the profession - aimed at providing microfoundations to macroeconomics along a Walrasian perspective. We argue that such a methodological approach constitutes an unsatisfactory answer to a well-posed research question, and that alternative promising routes have been long mapped out but only recently explored. In particular, we discuss a recent agent-based, truly non-Walrasian macroeconomic model, and we use it to envisage new challenges for future research.

  12. The climate challenge: the limits of public policies; Le defi climatique: les limites des politiques publiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, D. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires sur le Developpement Durable, 10 - Troyes (France)

    2003-07-01

    Can democratic societies organize the energy diet imposed by the prevention of climate change? What would be the difficulties to overcome? This challenge could not be met without changing the nature of public policies and without learning how to determine collectively new individual lifestyles, not separable from duties. (author)

  13. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  14. Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Head Start: A Closer Look at Program Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and addressing challenging behaviors were examined. Data were gathered from six Head Start programs in the Midwest, through interviews and document analysis. The findings provide a glimpse into how Head Start programs support children's social and emotional competence and…

  15. Megatrends and grand challenges of cybercrime and cyberterrorism policy and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Bert Jaap; Akhgar, Babak; Brewster, Ben

    2016-01-01

    What are grand challenges of cybercrime and cyberterrorism policy and research for the coming one or two decades? To answer this question, we first need to grasp some major trends that influence the future of cybercrime and cyberterrorism, and the combatting thereof, in fundamental ways. This chapte

  16. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  17. Challenges in Evaluating Special Education Teachers and English Language Learner Specialists. Research & Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Goe, Laura; Croft, Andrew; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Current emphasis on teacher effectiveness in educational policy poses a challenge for the evaluation of special education teachers and English language learner (ELL) specialists. Most evaluation systems focus on student achievement and teacher practice; however, few systems have the capacity to differentiate among specialty area educators, address…

  18. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  19. Reductionist and integrative research approaches to complex water security policy challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M; Lankford, B.; Krueger, T.; Forsyth, T.; Carter, R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Taylor, R.; Varis, O.; Cleaver, F.; Boelens, R.; Swatuk, L.; Tickner, D.; Scott, C.A.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews and contrasts two approaches that water security researchers employ to advance understanding of the complexity of water-society policy challenges. A prevailing reductionist approach seeks to represent uncertainty through calculable risk, links national GDP tightly to hydro-clima

  20. Macroeconomic Dynamics of Assets, Leverage and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Jeroen C.; Malevergne, Yannick; Sornette, Didier

    A macroeconomic model based on the economic variables (i) assets, (ii) leverage (defined as debt over asset) and (iii) trust (defined as the maximum sustainable leverage) is proposed to investigate the role of credit in the dynamics of economic growth, and how credit may be associated with both economic performance and confidence. Our first notable finding is the mechanism of reward/penalty associated with patience, as quantified by the return on assets. In regular economies where the EBITA/Assets ratio is larger than the cost of debt, starting with a trust higher than leverage results in the highest long-term return on assets (which can be seen as a proxy for economic growth). Therefore, patient economies that first build trust and then increase leverage are positively rewarded. Our second main finding concerns a recommendation for the reaction of a central bank to an external shock that affects negatively the economic growth. We find that late policy intervention in the model economy results in the highest long-term return on assets. However, this comes at the cost of suffering longer from the crisis until the intervention occurs. The phenomenon that late intervention is most effective to attain a high long-term return on assets can be ascribed to the fact that postponing intervention allows trust to increase first, and it is most effective to intervene when trust is high. These results are derived from two fundamental assumptions underlying our model: (a) trust tends to increase when it is above leverage; (b) economic agents learn optimally to adjust debt for a given level of trust and amount of assets. Using a Markov Switching Model for the EBITA/Assets ratio, we have successfully calibrated our model to the empirical data of the return on equity of the EURO STOXX 50 for the time period 2000-2013. We find that dynamics of leverage and trust can be highly nonmonotonous with curved trajectories, as a result of the nonlinear coupling between the variables. This

  1. The macroeconomics of targeting: the case of an enduring epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clive; Gersbach, Hans

    2009-01-01

    What is the right balance among policy interventions in order to ensure economic growth over the long run when an epidemic causes heavy mortality among young adults? We argue that, in general, policies to combat the disease and promote education must be concentrated, in certain ways, at first on some subgroups of society. This concentration involves what we term the macroeconomics of targeting. The central comparison is then between programs under which supported families enjoy the benefits of spending on health and education simultaneously (DT), and those under which the benefits in these two domains are sequenced (ST). When levels of human capital are uniformly low at the outbreak, DT is superior to ST if the mortality rate exceeds some threshold value. Outside aid makes DT more attractive; but DT restricts support to fewer families initially and so increases inequality. A summary account of the empirical evidence is followed by an application of the framework to South Africa.

  2. Analysis Of Japans Economy Based On 2014 From Macroeconomics Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Mohammad Rafiqul Islam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Japan is the worlds third largest economy. But currently economic situations of Japan are not stable. It is not increasing as expected. Since 2013 it was world second largest economy but Japan loosed its placed to China in 2014 due to slow growth of important economic indicators. By using the basic Keynesian model we will provide a detailed analysis of the short and long run impacts of the changes for Japans real GDP rate of unemployment and inflation rate. We demonstrated a detailed use of the 45-degree diagram or the AD-IA model and other economic analysis of the macroeconomic principles that underlie the model and concepts. Finally we will recommend the government with a change in fiscal policy what based on the analysis by considering what might be achieved with a fiscal policy response and the extent to which any impact on the stock of public debt might be a consideration

  3. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship.

  4. Interest Rates Targeting of Monetary Policy: An Open Economy SVAR Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Zulkefly Abdul; Karim, Bakri Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of monetary policy during the interest rates targeting in a small-open economy (i.e. Malaysia) by using an open-economy structural VAR (SVAR) study. It tests the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines how effective monetary policy is in influencing macroeconomic variables. The results show that during interest rates targeting, monetary policy plays a significant role in affecting macroeconomics...

  5. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  6. PHENOMENA AND BASIC MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULINA CATANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics is a separate discipline of the Economy that studies and analyzes the behaviour of economic aggregates and significant average, such as price level, national income, national income potential, the gap GDP, employment and unemployment of labour, investment and export of the whole economy. We can accuse to Macroeconomics that it deals also with the average price of all goods and services, not the prices of certain products. These aggregates result from economic behaviour of certain groups (governments, companies, consumers in the course of their activities on different markets. But why does it need Macroeconomics? Experts say that we need this separate discipline because there are certain forces that affect the broader economy globally, which can not be understood only by analyzing individual economic phenomena, individual products or markets.

  7. Relationship between macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is relations between some macroeconomic aggregates and performance of banks. This paper show analysis of trends in gross domestic product, exchange rates, interest rates, inflation load, developments in the balance of payments. On the business side, performance is achieved insight into the liquidity, capital adequacy, and the amount of non-performable loans. The aim of the research is to refute or confirm the interconnectedness of movement values of macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance. The analysis confirmed the association of two set variables. The negative value movements of macroeconomic aggregates directly or indirectly have an impact on the quality of performance of the banking sector. Therefore, it is necessary to define an adequate strategy of the economy, would not it safer to carry out the process of adapting to new developments in the market, such as the global financial crisis, the rise in unproductive enterprises, distrust customers etc.

  8. Macroeconomic perspectives on the Danish economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Risager, Ole

    A guide to major economic policy issues in Denmark. Leading Danish and international economists discuss, in comparative conte×t, the Danish economy's performance in the last 40 years, and assess the challenges which Denmark in common with other small, open economies faces in the global economy to...

  9. Reconstructing Macroeconomics Based on Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masanao; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    We believe that time has come to integrate the new approach based on statistical physics or econophysics into macroeconomics. Toward this goal, there must be more dialogues between physicists and economists. In this paper, we argue that there is no reason why the methods of statistical physics so successful in many fields of natural sciences cannot be usefully applied to macroeconomics that is meant to analyze the macroeconomy comprising a large number of economic agents. It is, in fact, weird to regard the macroeconomy as a homothetic enlargement of the representative micro agent. We trust the bright future of the new approach to macroeconomies based on statistical physics.

  10. INTERACTION OF MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES WITH STOCK PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALİ ÖZER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between ISE 100 Index and some macroeconomic variables by using monthly data of January 1996 – December 2009. ISE 100 Index was used as dependent variable and interest rates, money supply, foreign trade equilibrium, industrial production index, gold prices, exchange rates, consumer price index were used as independent variables. Least squares estimation method, Johansen-Jeselius cointegration test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition results produced by VEC model were used in the study. These analysis show that there is a long run relationship between some macroeconomic variables and stock prices.

  11. Challenges and Benefits of Direct Policy Search in Advancing Multiobjective Reservoir Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, Andrea; Giuliani, Matteo; Zatarain-Salazar, Jazmin; Hermann, John; Pianosi, Francesca; Reed, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Optimal management policies for water reservoir operation are generally designed via stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). Yet, the adoption of SDP in complex real-world problems is challenged by the three curses of dimensionality, of modeling, and of multiple objectives. These three curses considerably limit SDP's practical application. Alternatively, in this study, we focus on the use of evolutionary multi-objective direct policy search (EMODPS), a simulation-based optimization approach that combines direct policy search, nonlinear approximating networks and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to design Pareto approximate operating policies for multi-purpose water reservoirs. Our analysis explores the technical and practical implications of using EMODPS through a careful diagnostic assessment of the EMODPS Pareto approximate solutions attained and the overall reliability of the policy design process. A key choice in the EMODPS approach is the selection of alternative formulations of the operating policies. In this study, we distinguish the relative performance of two widely used nonlinear approximating networks, namely Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Functions, and we further compare them with SDP. Besides, we comparatively assess state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability. Our diagnostic results show that RBFs solutions are more effective that ANNs in designing Pareto approximate policies for several water reservoir systems. They also highlight that EMODPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg MOEA, are statistically superior for the class of problems considered.

  12. Work–life balance policies: Challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Downes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Helping employees to balance their work and family lives is a business imperative. Work–life balance policies (like flexitime aim to support employees to do so. However, implementing these policies is problematic.Research purpose: The aim of this article is to report on the challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime as a work–life balance policy.Motivation for the study: Organisations must develop and implement work–life balance policies. This requires human resource practitioners to investigate and understand experiences and perceptions about the challenges and benefits of flexitime.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a qualitative research design with an exploratory approach. She drew a nonprobability purposive and voluntary sample (n = 15 from the financial sector. She used semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect the data and conducted content analyses to analyse and interpret them.Main findings: The researcher extracted four main themes (individual and general challenges, the aspects organisations need to implement flexitime effectively and the benefits that would follow its implementation from the data. Its benefits vary from work–life balance to employee loyalty and commitment. Some challenges are maintaining productivity, a shortage of critical resources and understanding flexitime.Practical/managerial implications: The research identified requirements that human resource practitioners should attend to in order to ensure that organisations use flexitime more effectively.Contribution/value-add: The researcher obtained unique findings about the minimum requirements for implementing flexitime effectively. They could assist organisations to address the challenges that employees face.

  13. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  14. Research Challenges in Management and Compliance of Policies on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Kienle, Holger M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue that policies are an increasing concern for organizations that are operating a web site. Examples of policies that are relevant in the domain of the web address issues such as privacy of personal data, accessibility for the disabled, user conduct, e-commerce, and intellectual property. Web site policies--and the overarching concept of web site governance--are cross-cutting concerns that have to be addressed and implemented at different levels (e.g., policy documents, legal statements, business processes, contracts, auditing, and software systems). For web sites, policies are also reflected in the legal statements that the web site posts, and in the behavior and features that the web site offers to its users. Both policies and software tend to evolve independently, but at the same time they both have to be kept in sync. This is a practical challenge for operators of web sites that is poorly addressed right now and is, we believe, a promising avenue for future research. In this paper, we ...

  15. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  16. Modelling Land Use and Transport Policies to Measure Their Contribution to Urban Challenges: The Case of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas play a key role in the development of European territories, and it is essential for them to be sustainable and efficient. However, the European cities are facing some challenges related to certain trends that are threatening their sustainable development and operational efficiency. In this paper, we compare the contribution of three policy measures—cordon toll accompanied by public transport improvements, teleworking and re-densification—to address different city challenges. The policy assessment requires a long term simulation tool, i.e., the MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator model, which is able to consider interactions between land use and transport systems. The simulations of the different policy scenarios were carried out for the case of Madrid in the period 2012–2031. The contribution of the policy measures to address the city challenges was measured through different indicators. The results indicated that the three policy measures contributed to the time efficiency challenge, by saving time for the commute, reducing congestion and improving the traffic flows at peak hours. The most effective policy in this regard is the teleworking measure. Another challenge addressed by the three policies was the accessibility to PT. The three policy scenarios, when simulated, showed higher PT use, especially the cordon toll scenario. However, the only policy that really contributed to the energy, emissions and pollution city challenges was the re-densification measure, which reduced travel distances and encouraged a mobility that relies more on PT and slow modes.

  17. A study on macroeconomic cost of CCS in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Whan; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2015-04-01

    CCS is an important measure for mitigating the problem of World Climate Change and already several projects are entered the step of commercialization. The benefits of CCS implementation ultimately depends on the alleviation level of CO2 on earth because it is caused by the mitigation of the World Climate Change problem. Thus it is possible not to coincide at same time between starting the CCS and getting the benefits. Considering the high costs of CCS, the time mismatch between imposing the costs and getting the benefits is apt to impose some heavy burden on the individual national economy. For this reason, at the political decision-making, the policy makers should consider the macroeconomic effects. Meanwhile, Korean electricity market's supply side is comprised of competitive production and a sole distributor(public enterprise) and then electricity is supplied by a single price structure(administered pricing). Under this condition, if CCS is introduced to power setor, electric charges must be increased and production costs will go high. High production costs will have unfavourable effects on disposable income, price level, purchasing power and so on. In order to minimize these effects, policy makers have to consider the economic effects of introducing CCS. This study estimates the microscopic cost of CCS using ICCSEM 2.0 methodology made by CO2CRC and after that, the macroeconomic effects of introducing CCS is estimated on the basis of microscopic cost estimating results. The macroeconomic effects of CCS applied to Power Generation sector are estimated using macroeconometrics model and Input-Output analysis. A macroeconometrics model is an analytical tool designed to describe the operation of the national economy. This model is usually applied to examine the dynamics of aggregate quantities such as the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, the level of prices and so forth. Introducing

  18. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2006-05-01

    out, is it acceptable to require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.

  19. On the Mechanism of Land Policy in Macroeconomic-control in China: A Theoretical Proof Based on Modified IS-LM Model%论中国土地政策参与宏观调控的传导机制——一个基于修正的IS-LM模型的理论诠证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁琳琳; 严金明

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:将土地供应要素纳入国民生产研究的总体框架,并对传统IS-LM模型进行修正。系统分析土地变量变化如何影响资本在中国国民生产总供给和总需求构成中的配比,正确建立土地要素与宏观经济变量之间的联系机制,综合探讨应用土地、财政和货币政策进行宏观调控的理论机理。研究方法:计量经济法,模型分析法。研究结果:(1)土地市场供求均衡条件下,引入土地要素的IS-LM扩展模型构建了土地政策通过货币资本调节宏观经济变量的传导机制;(2)土地供给弹性和价格影响土地政策调控的方向和强度,不同经济周期阶段具有不同的土地供给弹性特征;(3)引入土地要素的IS-LM均衡需要财政、货币和土地政策协同作用实现。研究结论:土地参与宏观调控推升了土地价格;经济转型或衰退期,适当紧缩供地规模有利于抑衰退、稳增长。%The purposes of this paper are to bring land factor into the general fame of national product and develop a new modified IS-LM equilibrium model,aiming to find out the impacts of land factor on the effective allocation of capital between total supply and total demand constituting gross national product,analyze the relation mechanism among land factor and macroeconomic variables,and discuss the theoretical mechanism under which land,fiscal and monetary policy are integrated.Methods employed include econometrics and model analysis.The results indicate that 1) on the conditions that the equilibrium of supply and demand in land market,the modified IS-LM model taking into account the land factor successfully shows the mechanism of land policy in macroeconomic-control by means of money capital regulation;2) the direction and intensity of land policy control are affected by elasticity of land supply and land price,meanwhile different characteristics of land supply elasticity exit in different stages of economic

  20. The future of common agricultural policy and the challenges of Europe 2020 strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dragoi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP faces a series of challenges involving the need for strategic decisions for the long term future of European agriculture and rural areas in the European Union. To be effective in addressing these challenges, the CAP must work within a framework of connected economic policies and sustainable public finances that contribute to accomplish the EU. In this context, it should be noted that the Europe 2020 Strategy revealed a new perspective for the CAP reform, the main development directions being focused on finding the most appropriate solutions to the new economic, social and environmental issues brought on by the international economic crisis, also contributing to the sustainable development of EU agriculture. In what follows, we will briefly review the existing proposals at EU level for future development directions of the CAP.

  1. [Challenges and opportunities for the development of a national pharmaceutical policy in México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Dreser, Anahí; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    Unlike many other Latin American countries Mexico has no coherent and explicit national pharmaceutical policy (NPP). Other national challenges are: high out-of-pocket expenditure on medicines despite the implementation of universal health care coverage through Seguro Popular, high prices of medicines in the private sector in comparison to other countries when adjusted for income level, and the lack of clear strategies to improve safety and efficiency in the use of medicines, in particular interventions aimed at private physicians, pharmacies and consumers. The aim of this paper is to describe the challenges and opportunities to (1) consolidate the processes of formulating, implementing and evaluating NPP, and (2) define the policy content with regard to access and use of medicines.

  2. Challenges and opportunities for the development of a national pharmaceutical policy in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika J Wirtz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many other Latin American countries Mexico has no coherent and explicit national pharmaceutical policy (NPP. Other national challenges are: high out-of-pocket expenditure on medicines despite the implementation of universal health care coverage through Seguro Popular, high prices of medicines in the private sector in comparison to other countries when adjusted for income level, and the lack of clear strategies to improve safety and efficiency in the use of medicines, in particular interventions aimed at private physicians, pharmacies and consumers. The aim of this paper is to describe the challenges and opportunities to (1 consolidate the processes of formulating, implementing and evaluating NPP, and (2 define the policy content with regard to access and use of medicines.

  3. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen Speed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for ‘fake news’ and ‘alternative facts’ with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of ‘the other’ and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism.

  4. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for ‘fake news’ and ‘alternative facts’ with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of ‘the other’ and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. PMID:28812811

  5. Emerging nutrition challenges: policies to tackle under-nutrition, obesity and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Denise Costa; Rivera, Juan A; Uauy, Ricardo; Ding, Zong-Yi; Ruel, Marie T; Svensson, Per-Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    On 19 May, 2008, Mexico's Secretary of Health, Dr José Angel Córdova Villalobos, hosted an event entitled Emerging Nutrition Challenges: Policies to Tackle Under-nutrition, Obesity and Chronic Diseases. Held in conjunction with the World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva, nearly 100 delegates from over 30 countries attended. The International Association of Infant Food Manufacturers and the International Hospital Federation supported Mexico in its sponsorship of this event. Dr Villalobos provided opening remarks including an overview of Mexico's public policies to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. Dr. Mauricio Hernández, Mexico's Undersecretary of Health, moderated as six experts from around the world spoke on issues relating to the nutrition "double burden" (i.e. malnourishment and obesity), successful interventions and policy opportunities for improving nutrition, preventing obesity and enhancing health outcomes. Following are abstracts from their presentations.

  6. Multicultural social policy and community participation in health: new opportunities and challenges for indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2012-01-01

    Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings.

  7. Latin American universities and the third mission : trends, challenges, and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Thorn, Kristian; Soo, Maarja

    2006-01-01

    Universities in Latin America are increasingly considered instruments of social and economic development and face rising expectations in regard to supplying relevant skills, undertaking applied research, and engaging in commercial activity. The paper discusses trends and challenges within Latin American universities, as well as policy options available for strengthening their contributions to social and economic development. The so-called third mission of universities is often equated with kn...

  8. "Minsky, Monetary Policy, and Mint Street: Challenges for the Art of Monetary Policymaking in Emerging Economies"

    OpenAIRE

    Yanamandra, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the emerging challenges to the art of monetary policymaking using the case study of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in light of developments in the Indian economy during the last decade (2003-04 to 2013-14). The paper uses Hyman P. Minsky's financial instability hypothesis as the conceptual framework for evaluating the endogenous nature of financial instability and its potential impact on monetary policymaking, and addresses the need to pursue regulatory policy as a tool t...

  9. Policy Challenges for Infrastructure Development in Asian LICs: Lessons from the Region

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses policy issues pertaining to infrastructure development in low income countries (LICs) in Asia. Infrastructure challenges in Asian LICs have not been adequately highlighted to date mainly because the international focus has often been on African LICs and because large countries such as China, India, and Indonesia attracted more interest among the developing Asian countries. While Asian LICs have sought to improve their infrastructure over the years, the quality and quantit...

  10. [Sanitary regulation as part of health policy in Brazil: gaps and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce

    2016-05-01

    Objective To outline and discuss the main challenges for sanitary regulation contained in the federal-level Brazilian health policy. Methods For the present qualitative study, based on the analysis of public policies, information was collected from documents and interviews. Document analysis provided a historical overview of the insertion of sanitary regulation into the Brazilian health policy between 1999 and 2009 (first decade of existence of the national health surveillance agency, Anvisa). In addition, 13 interviews were carried out with actors selected for their historical, technical, or academic role in the field. Content analysis was used to define themes emerging from the materials analyzed with a focus on the "content" category, which refers to strategic and operational guidelines of policy programs, projects, initiatives, and normative framework. Results Content analysis revealed five themes that reflect the challenges to sanitary regulation in Brazil: 1) objects under regulation treated as isolated cases; 2) a Brazilian-specific model of sanitary regulation that is different from other international models; 3) ignorance regarding the role of sanitary surveillance in health care; 4) absence of an information system; and 5) absence of performance indicators and assessment tools. Conclusions Sanitary surveillance must have a mission that is disentangled from inspection tasks to become an effective instrument of health protection. For that, an information system that brings the National Sanitary Surveillance System together toward major objectives is essential. The adoption of tools for assessment of action is also required, with the establishment of adequate indicators.

  11. The Readability of Principles of Macroeconomics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Sarah; Woods, James

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated principles of macroeconomics textbooks for readability using Coh-Metrix, a computational linguistics tool. Additionally, they conducted an experiment on Amazon's Mechanical Turk Web site in which participants ranked the readability of text samples. There was a wide range of scores on readability indexes both among…

  12. Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Massaro

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of

  13. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  14. Essays on Technology and Forecasting in Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jon Devin

    2012-01-01

    The three chapters in this dissertation use disaggregated models and data to provide new insights on well-established questions in macroeconomics. In the first chapter, to analyze how productivity impacts the business cycle, I model aggregate production with a production possibility frontier that accommodates sector-and factor-biased productivity.…

  15. Do Macroeconomic Announcements Cause Asymetric Volatility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Goeij (Peter); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study the impact of macroeconomic news announcements on the conditional volatility of stock and bond returns. Using daily returns on the S&P 500 index, the NASDAQ index, and the 1 and 10 year U.S. Treasury bonds, for January 1982 - August 2001, some interesting results e

  16. The Readability of Principles of Macroeconomics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Sarah; Woods, James

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated principles of macroeconomics textbooks for readability using Coh-Metrix, a computational linguistics tool. Additionally, they conducted an experiment on Amazon's Mechanical Turk Web site in which participants ranked the readability of text samples. There was a wide range of scores on readability indexes both among…

  17. Essays on Technology and Forecasting in Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jon Devin

    2012-01-01

    The three chapters in this dissertation use disaggregated models and data to provide new insights on well-established questions in macroeconomics. In the first chapter, to analyze how productivity impacts the business cycle, I model aggregate production with a production possibility frontier that accommodates sector-and factor-biased productivity.…

  18. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    of macroeconomic on real estate pricing in. Greece between 1981-1999 and ... multi-equation regression analysis to model the bi-causal ... Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria. Abuja is selected for ..... Joshi, H. (2006). Identifying the asset price.

  19. Stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from SPF survey participants over the period from 1969 to 1996. This link is much

  20. Periodic integration in quarterly UK macroeconomic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); G. Romijn

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents empirical evidence on the seasonal patterns in several UK macroeconomic variables, additional to related evidence reported in Osborn (International Journal of Forecasting (1990), 6, 327–336). The method used is a test procedure for seasonal unit roots that allows

  1. Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Penalized Regression Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, Stephan; Wijler, Etiënne

    2016-01-01

    We study the suitability of lasso-type penalized regression techniques when applied to macroeconomic forecasting with high-dimensional datasets. We consider performance of the lasso-type methods when the true DGP is a factor model, contradicting the sparsity assumption underlying penalized regressio

  2. Stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from SPF survey participants over the period from 1969 to 1996. This link is much

  3. Macroeconomic narratives in a world of crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhammer, Emil; Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Since the financial crisis in 2008, a series of publications on macroeconomic responses to the compound crises of the economy and the environment have emerged. Under labels such as green new deal, green growth and the great transition, attempts at offering coherent responses to the crises have been...

  4. Meeting the Needs of the Growing Very Old Population: Policy Implications for a Global Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Stephanie; Spini, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Very old adults are one of the fastest-growing age groups worldwide. Yet they rarely constitute a targeted group for public policies. Drawing on the results of the centenarian studies presented in this special issue, we highlight major challenges that arise from the increase of this population. We outline several promising approaches for policy makers and professionals to develop evidence-based policies and programs that are tailored to the needs of very old adults and their families. We focus our discussion on three key topics essential to life care: the importance of integrated care to meet the complex care needs of the very old; the balance between formal and informal care; and the development of suitable places for living. Besides more specific measures, we propose that policies promoting the social integration of very old adults in their communities would be particularly helpful, as these may benefit not only the very old and their families but also individuals of all ages. We conclude that the development of suitable policies addressing the needs of the very old will benefit from future investigation of cross-cultural similarities and differences in centenarians' characteristics, available services, as well as life conditions they encounter in communities and institutional contexts.

  5. Five Policy Levers To Meet The Value Challenge In Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Ryan; Darzi, Ara

    2015-09-01

    The burden of cancer on public finances is a serious concern for policy makers. More people are developing cancer, and as standards of care have risen, more are surviving and requiring longer-term care. Precision medicine promises better outcomes but demands commensurately higher payments for care. As both incidence and per case costs rise, we suggest that the task of expanding access to high-quality cancer care poses a "value challenge" that policies in many countries are inadequate to meet. Policy makers should respond with a new approach. We explore questions that policy makers will need to consider regarding objectives, barriers, and levers for policy development. We use transparency and accountability as cornerstones of a new approach to promote value-based decision making. Although barriers to advancing this agenda are formidable, we recommend that governments define common standards for value-based accounting; serve as information brokers for evidence development; pioneer value-based procurement of goods and services; engage in deliberative democracy in cancer care; and educate communities to facilitate knowledge sharing between communities of patients, their caretakers, and researchers.

  6. Challenges in Education Research in Taiwan: Research Institutes and Organizations, Research Policies, and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, many education researchers and policy makers worldwide have reviewed education research to attempt to provide strategies to improve the quality of such research in their countries. Taiwan’s government has launched policies and funded support to set the benchmark for Taiwan’s leading universities in international academic competition. The external environment of global competition based on research policy influences the ecosystem of social science research production. To assure the quality of education policy, peer review from within the education community is one approach to supplementing the government’s governance, including the establishment of research institutes, promotion, rewards, and research value. This study tracked the mode of academic research and provides an overview of the status of academic education research in Taiwan. Because education research is part of the humanities and social sciences fields, this study identified the challenges in educational research by examining the trend of social science research and by analyzing research organizations, policy, and the evaluation of research performance. Due to the environment of education research in Taiwan is not friendly to education researcher to accumulate papers in SSCI or international journal, additional concerns entail how education research communities can develop and agree on its quality.

  7. Public involvement in health priority setting: future challenges for policy, research and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David James; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Staniszewska, Sophie; Tumilty, Emma; Weale, Albert; Williams, Iestyn

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the findings of this special issue and discusses the future challenges for policy, research and society. The findings suggest that challenges emerge as a result of legitimacy deficits of both consensus and contestatory modes of public involvement in health priority setting. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the discussions and findings presented in this special issue. It seeks to bring the country experiences and case studies together to draw conclusions for policy, research and society. Findings - At least two recurring themes emerge. An underlying theme is the importance, but also the challenge, of establishing legitimacy in health priority setting. The country experiences suggest that we understand very little about the conditions under which representative, or authentic, participation generates legitimacy and under which it will be regarded as insufficient. A second observation is that public participation takes a variety of forms that depend on the opportunity structures in a given national context. Given this variety the conceptualization of public participation needs to be expanded to account for the many forms of public participation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that the challenges of public involvement are closely linked to the question of how legitimate processes and decisions can be generated in priority setting. This suggests that future research must focus more narrowly on conditions under which legitimacy are generated in order to expand the understanding of public involvement in health prioritization.

  8. Chinese Macroeconomic Stabilisation and Reform: A Briefing Note

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BryaneMichael

    2004-01-01

    While reform of the Chinese public and external sectors has promoted growth, it has also led to increasing macroeconomic volatility. Such volatility has largely been due to China's de facto administrative and fiscal decentralisation and its de jure attempts at reasserting central control through fiscal and commercial regulation. Section Ⅱ will discuss some reasons for China's rapid economic growth and discuss the macro-level influences which caused output and inflation instability in the period 1979-1996. Section Ⅲ will discuss the effects of public sector reform on output and prices. Section Ⅳ will explore trade reform's effects on output and prices. The conclusion will discuss implications for stabilisation -where “stabilisation” is taken to comprise economic policies aimed at reducing inflation while promoting long-term output growth.

  9. Transportation technology transitions and macroeconomic growth -- Contemporary evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents international and temporal extensions of evidence for a theory developed by the author concerning the interaction of transportation technology transitions and macroeconomic growth. The period 1970 to the present is examined for the nations of Japan, the US, and Europe (France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom collectively). An addition to the abstract logic supporting the general arguments of the theory is also presented. The theory has been developed concerning the role of significant transportation technology transitions as a cause of significant macroeconomic declines in nations for which the manufacture of transportation vehicles (ships, locomotives, and automobiles) is a dominant economic activity. The theory offers an explanation for periods of pronounced multiyear decline in economic growth rate--sometimes called depressions and sometimes called stagnations. One purpose of this paper is to explore whether or not Japan and Europe have each recently experienced a multiyear event of this type. In the theory and the evidence presented for it, environmental regulation of transportation vehicles has been shown to be an initiating cause of significant technical change, with sharp, sustained fuel price increases being a second frequent initiating cause. These causes of significant technical change, and their possible consequences, are potentially important considerations for those proposing policies to deal with global warming, since both fuel economy regulation and fuel price increases have been recommended by policy analysts as means to reduce transportation`s contribution to global warming. The theory has been offered and supported by publications developing mathematical models and examining US historical evidence consistent with the theory.

  10. Time to Shift from Macro- to Micro-Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    All of the authors seem to share the perception that one can no longer expect much from macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper share this opinion, but this should not be interpreted as the skeptical view that macroeconomic policies are ineffective on employment. They saw from the Korea's two crises how contrasting outcomes could result…

  11. Time to Shift from Macro- to Micro-Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    All of the authors seem to share the perception that one can no longer expect much from macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper share this opinion, but this should not be interpreted as the skeptical view that macroeconomic policies are ineffective on employment. They saw from the Korea's two crises how contrasting outcomes could result…

  12. STATE INTERVENTION AND MACROECONOMIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Vladušić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monetarists are opponents of government intervention and supporters of free market processes. Keynesians are, conversely, supporters and advocates of government intervention and opponents of uncontrolled operation of the market mechanism. As opponents of government intervention, the monetarists do not agree that it should take countercyclical fiscal policy which can cause greater increase in expenditures of the public sector during the recession, but spending cuts in the period of expansion and that, consequently, the public expenditures continue to increase. However, Tobin, indicating a negative attitude, claims that inflation cannot be used as a reason to reduce the budget, if fiscal policy has little or no effect on income. Undesirability of countercyclical fiscal policy is a logical consequence of the monetarist views on the stability of the sector and better performance of the free market of government intervention in social reproduction. Rule on a constant rate of monetary expansion eliminates the need for conducting discretionary policy, as the Phillips curve, previously defined, does not allow an optimal combination of inflation and unemployment. Therefore, the use of money (and interest rates and bank loans, as the goal of monetary policy provides economic policy makers to focus on managing variability (i.e. concentrate to money supply, which is beyond the scope of operation of the market, on the one hand, and to let determining the interest rates of bank loans and the free market, on the other hand. Finally, monetarists are extremely concerned about the multiple connections between inflation and expansion of the public sector, for three reasons: first, inflation increases the share of the public sector (and exacts an increase in public expenditure, if a progressive tax system is functioning; second, combating inflation can only indirectly limit the expenditure of the public sector, as the government expenditures partly increase by

  13. Macroeconomic Scenarios and Reality : A Frequency Domain Approach for Analyzing Historical Time Series and Generating Scenarios for the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouwer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Macroeconomic scenarios are an important component of Asset and Liability Management (ALM) models as used by financial institutions around the world such as pension funds and insurance companies to support important strategic policy decisions, for example on the optimal strategic asset allocation.

  14. Deployment potential and macro-economic impacts of carbon dioxide capture and storage in the future energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelbl, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the deployment potential of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) under stringent climate policy targets and the possible macro-economic implications. First, we look at the use of CCS in scenarios of different Energy-Economy and Integrated Assessment Models. These scenarios look

  15. Inflation targeting challenges in emerging market countries: The case of Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Šoškić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    .... Certain differences among emerging markets in terms of overall macroeconomic environment, strength of basic monetary policy tools, and institutional development have had an effect on the performance...

  16. Managing complexity practical considerations in the development and application of ABMs to contemporary policy challenges

    CERN Document Server

    O’Brien, Sean; Khouja, Moutaz

    2013-01-01

    This book emerged out of a project initiated and funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that sought to build on efforts to transform agent-based models into platforms for predicting and evaluating policy responses to real world challenges around the world.  It began with the observation that social science theories of human behavior are often used to estimate the consequences of alternative policy responses to important issues and challenges.  However, alternative theories that remain subject to contradictory claims are ill suited to inform policy. The vision behind the DARPA project was to mine the social sciences literature for alternative theories of human behavior, and then formalize, instantiate, and integrate them within the context of an agent-based modeling system.  The research team developed an experimental platform to evaluate the conditions under which alternative theories and groups of theories applied.  The end result was a proof of concept—developed from the groun...

  17. Women's reproductive rights in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: challenges for transforming policy into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; San Sebastián, Miguel; Wulff, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Despite advances made by Ecuador in developing policies on reproductive and sexual rights, implementation, and oversight remain a challenge, affecting in particular those living in the Amazon basin. This paper reports on an evaluation of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Orellana, Ecuador, the basis of which was the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument, which was altered to focus on government obligations, the reality of access and utilization of services, and the inequities and implementation challenges between the two. A community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006 served to document the current status of SRHR Local female field workers interviewed 2025 women on three areas of womens reproductive health: delivery care, family planning, and pregnancy among adolescent girls age 10-19. The results suggest a reality more dismal than that of the official information for the area. Skilled delivery care, modern contraceptive use, and wanted pregnancies were conspicuously lower among indigenous women living in rural areas. Access to reproductive health services varied between rural and urban women. These significant differences in care--amongst others documented--raise concerns over the utility of national-level data for addressing inequities. The gaps evident in the validity of available information for monitoring policies and programs, and between national policy and action reveal that much still needs to be done to realize SRHR for women in the Amazon basin, and that current accountability mechanisms are inadequate.

  18. Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on Non-financial firms' Stock Returns: Evidence from Sectorial Study of KSE-100 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma Zaighum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to study the impact of pre-specified set of macroeconomic factors on firm's stock returns for nine nonfinancial sectors listed in Karachi Stock Exchange. The macroeconomic factors included are consumer price index, industrial production index, market returns, risk free return and money supply. The studied sample covers data from 2001 to 2011. Panel analysis using pooled OLS shows that all studied sectors firm's stock returns have negative relationship with consumer price index, money supply and risk free rate, whereas industrial production index and market returns indicates a positive relationship. The results of this study have important implications for the equity investors and policy makers.

  19. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  20. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  1. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  2. Designing better methane mitigation policies: the challenge of distributed small sources in the natural gas sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-04-01

    Methane—a short-lived and potent greenhouse gas—presents a unique challenge: it is emitted from a large number of highly distributed and diffuse sources. In this regard, the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended periodic leak detection and repair surveys at oil and gas facilities using optical gas imaging technology. This regulation requires an operator to fix all detected leaks within a set time period. Whether such ‘find-all-fix-all’ policies are effective depends on significant uncertainties in the character of emissions. In this work, we systematically analyze the effect of facility-related and mitigation-related uncertainties on regulation effectiveness. Drawing from multiple publicly-available datasets, we find that: (1) highly-skewed leak-size distributions strongly influence emissions reduction potential; (2) variations in emissions estimates across facilities leads to large variability in mitigation effectiveness; (3) emissions reductions from optical gas imaging-based leak detection programs can range from 15% to over 70%; and (4) while implementation costs are uniformly lower than EPA estimates, benefits from saved gas are highly variable. Combining empirical evidence with model results, we propose four policy options for effective methane mitigation: performance-oriented targets for accelerated emission reductions, flexible policy mechanisms to account for regional variation, technology-agnostic regulations to encourage adoption of the most cost-effective measures, and coordination with other greenhouse gas mitigation policies to reduce unintended spillover effects.

  3. Achievements and challenges on policies for allied health professionals who use telehealth in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, D; Foerster, V; Nakagawa, B; Wapshall, T M; Murtagh, J A; Smitten, J; Steblecki, J A; Wong, G

    2005-01-01

    We formulated policies and procedures for allied health professionals (AHPs) who provide services using telehealth in Nunavut, Canada's newest Arctic territory. These are a supplement to the clinical policies and procedures already established for Nunavut physicians and nurses. The services were in the areas of audiology, dietetics/nutrition, midwifery, occupational therapy, ophthalmic services, pharmacy, physiotherapy, psychology, respiratory therapy, social work and speech therapy. Documents specific to each of the services were developed, drawing on information from Government of Nunavut data, Nunavut healthcare providers and links made through the Internet. Topics included the scope and limitations of telehealth services, staff responsibilities, training and reporting, professional standards and cultural considerations. We also considered generic policies covering common issues such as jurisdiction, licensing and liability. The policies and procedures for AHPs will enhance and expand the successes already achieved with telehealth in Nunavut. The challenges are to balance the preferred approaches to service provision with the realities of health care and communications in an Arctic setting.

  4. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  5. Causality Macroeconomic Crisis-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vanghele

    2016-01-01

    Identification of strategies to provide solutions to the monetary and financial intolerance of sloweconomic progress in recent years, is a challenge for analysts and experts in the field of crisismanagement.In such cases, art is obvious the management to identify those options with realisticcharacter to resist the fierce opposition of society manifested by severe steps toward restructuring andreforming the system.

  6. Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem

    1997-01-01

    To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

  7. [The report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health: its relevance to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) was established by the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the role of health in economic development. On 20 December 2001 the CMH submitted its report to the WHO Director-General. Entitled Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development, the CMH report affirms that in order to reduce poverty; and achieve economic development, it is essential to improve the health of the poor; to accomplish this, it is necessary to expand the access that the poor have to essential health services. The Commission believes that more financial resources are needed, that the health expenditures of less-developed and low-income countries are insufficient for the challenges that these countries face, and that high-income countries must increase their financial assistance in order to help solve the main health problems of less-developed and low-income countries. This piece summarizes a report that was prepared by the Program on Public Policy and Health of the Division of Health and Human Development of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The PAHO document analyzes the importance of the CMH report for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on some of the central arguments put forth in the CMH report as they relate to achieving better health conditions in the Americas. These arguments have been organized around three major themes in the CMH report: a) the relationships between health and economic growth, b) the principal health problems that affect the poor in low-income and low-middle-income#10; countries, and c) the gap between the funding needed to address the principal problems that affect these countries and the actual spending levels. #10;

  8. Macroeconomic Variables and Stock Market: US Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sirucek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This focus of this paper are the effect, implication, impact andrealtionship between selected macroeconomic variables andwider US indices S&P 500 and industrial Dow Jones IndustrialAverage (DJIA. I Consider inflation, interest rates, moneysupply, producer price index, industrial production index, oilprice and unemployment and their impact on selected stockindices in the USA between 1999 and 2012. The hypotesis of thispaper is, that between selected macroeconomic variables, namelyproducer price index, industrial production index, oil price andDow Jones index is strongly relationship than between thesefactors and S&P 500. The paper is organizing as follows. Firstsection reviews the related literature. In section two are materialsand methods which are use explained. Section 3 provides theempirical results and the last part presents the conclusions.

  9. The new-classical contribution to macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. LAIDLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to assessing New-Classical ideas, and to asking what of lasting importance this school of macroeconomics has contributed since the early 1970s. It deals in turn with the relationship between New-Classical Economics and Monetarism, the relative explanatory power of these two bodies of doctrine over empirical evidence, and the claims of New-Classical Economics to embody a superior analytic method. The author argues that, although the particular ways in which New-Classical Macroeconomics has applied its basic ideas are unnecessarily restrictive, its stress on equilibrium behaviour conditioned by the state of individual agents’ expectations as a basis for macro modelling is nevertheless valuable.  

  10. Labor search and matching in macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The labor search and matching model plays a growing role in macroeconomic analysis. This paper provides a critical, selective survey of the literature. Four fundamental questions are explored: how are unemployment, job vacancies, and employment determined as equilibrium phenomena? What determines worker flows and transition rates from one labor market state to another? How are wages determined? What role do labor market dynamics play in explaining business cycles and growth? The survey descri...

  11. Challenges of Agro-Food Standards Conformity: Lessons from East Africa and Policy Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    a variety of programmes and projects aimed at supporting standards development and conformity. This article contributes to the critical literature discussing the challenges and potentials of standards conformity and supplies policy recommendations for future interventions. It reports the results......Standards are used to govern an increasing share of global food trade, and have been interpreted by academics both as market access barriers and opportunities for low-income country producers, exporters and workers. Donors have mostly chosen to treat them as opportunities and today finance...... development and better-informed interventions, but also to focus more squarely on supply capacity and welfare outcomes in project planning....

  12. India–EU engagement and international migration: Historical perspectives, future challenges, and policy imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant Kumar Potnuru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a multilateral framework and a rule based global structure for the governance of international migration of people in all its complexities, countries engage in bilateral or regional cooperation in an attempt to engage and harmonize international movements and work towards a win–win situation. The current paper examines if and how the bilateral relationship or engagement between India and the EU has historically evolved and influenced international migration flows between them, and what potential future challenges and policy options they face for a successful engagement and facilitation of movement of people.

  13. Past experience with the EU Common Agricultural Policy and future challenges for landscape development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Busck, Anne Gravsholt

    Countries located in north western Europe, have all been influenced by many similar drivers over the past 50 years, and their landscape development trajectory has largely been coordinated with some differences depending on the history, and natural potentials. The EU has influenced land management...... the accession to the EU by 1973, however the trend towards intensification and industrialisation have emerged since the 2nd world war. Since 1973, landscape challenge have changed from intensification to debates on marginalisation in the early 1980s, introduction of the environmental policies in the mid 1980s...

  14. On the Need for New Economic Foundations: A Critique on Mainstream Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hoffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The body of macroeconomic theory known as the neoclassical-Keynesian synthesis, hereafter mainstream macroeconomics, has dominated the practice of economics since the middle of the twentieth century and is largely unchallenged in institutions that teach economics. Not only does mainstream macroeconomics underlie monetary and fiscal policies intended to promote economic growth, full employment, and price stability, but it also provides the lens through which economic activity is measured and performance is evaluated. Most importantly, it has spawned a generally accepted ideology or conventional wisdom that frames economic issues and ‘acceptable’ policy responses to them. Woe to the economist or politician who strays beyond the constraints imposed by the beliefs emanating from this body of theory. Mainstream economic theory has always had its critics, but the failure of mainstream economists to predict the collapse of 2008 and the failure of the policy responses to the crisis have stimulated a new round of criticism. This paper surveys a range of criticisms made by economists and non-economists alike and finds that grounds exist for the rejection of mainstream macroeconomic theory. It is mathematically incoherent and irrelevant insofar as the assumptions upon which it is based are not supportable; its concepts are abstract and not measurable, and not capable of addressing the real questions of sustainability, economic stability, power, justice, and equity that affect the human condition. The conclusions reached are: 1 mainstream economic theory took a profoundly wrong path in the mid-twentieth century 2 foundations for a new synthesis of economic thinking are needed capable of addressing the issues that emerged in the late 20th century and integrating findings from other sub-disciplines of economics and other sciences.

  15. New macroeconomic model of national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Nikolaevna Kuklina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the relevance of the formation of new macroeconomic models of post-crisis development of the national economy and regional economy. It is noted that there is not just a set of models of national economies and a set of methodological approaches to its modeling. Formation of macroeconomic models takes into consideration the features of socio-economic development of individual regions. In this context, the major regions are highlighted, in particular, the Ural Federal District. It is noted that the structure of regional economic space of the Ural Federal District is different, and different is the level of involvement of the region in the global economy. The problem of correlation of the history of economic ideas and the world of real economic processes of recent decades is reviewed. Predictive capacity of the modern theory of the cycle and the possibility of using its analytical tools for the formation of a new macroeconomic model of post-crisis development of the national economy is analyzed.

  16. 中日能源政策对各自宏观经济增长的影响%The Impact of Chinese and Japanese Energy Policy on Macroeconomic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波

    2016-01-01

    本文以中国和日本1960-2013年数据为样本, 验证能源政策、 消费与经济增长之间的关联性. 由于三大产业能源依赖程度有显著差异, 通过对三者之间关系进行分产业的分析, 发现能源消费对于中日两国三大产业都具有显著促进作用, 而能源政策在两国的三大产业上的具体体现并无很大不同.%This paper uses the sample data of 1960-2013 in both China and Japan to verify the relationship among energy policy, energy consumption and economic growth.In addition, because of the significant differences in the energy de-pendence of the three industries, this paper finds that energy consumption has crucially positive influence on the three major industries of China and Japan, but energy policies don′t show apparent distinction by exploring the real relationship among energy consumption, energy policy and economic growth.

  17. An empirical evaluation of macroeconomic surveillance in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The EU's macroeconomic surveillance mechanism, namely the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure (MIP), is based on the so-called Scoreboard, which comprises a set of indicators that serve as a signalling device for potentially harmful macroeconomic developments. We first evaluate the early warning properties of the Scoreboard indicators with regard to financial crises. We then analyze the role of emerging crisis signals from the Scoreboard for the subsequent steps of the MIP (In-Depth Reviews), i...

  18. Decisions and macroeconomics: development and implementation of a simulation game

    OpenAIRE

    Woltjer, G.B.

    2003-01-01

    “Steer the economy” is an interactive game that shows the relationship between company decisions and macroeconomic dynamics. In this real time computer network simulation game the interaction between the players determines the macroeconomic results and players see within a short period the long-term consequences of their strategic decisions.For a lot of students macroeconomics is very abstract. It is difficult for them to imagine that the theories are fundamentally about the coordination of h...

  19. Causality between Malaysian Islamic Stock Market and Macroeconomic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Marjan; Masih, Mansur

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes an attempt to analyse the causality between Islamic stock market and three macroeconomic variables in the case of Malaysia. Although there are numerous studies investigating relationship between conventional stock market and macroeconomic fundamentals, there is a certain gap in the literature pertaining to the relationship between Islamic indices and macroeconomic variables which are becoming an interesting area of research due to fast growing force of Islamic finance. Thus, ...

  20. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  1. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-10-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  2. 财政政策、货币政策和产业政策对宏观经济作用的实证分析%Empirical Analysis of the Effect on Macroeconomic Caused by Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy and Industrial Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊彬; 陈雁

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous application of the three policies of fiscal policy, monetary policy and industrial policy is one of important characteristics to promote the development of economy in China. Since 2008, in response to the financial crisis, Chinese government implemented a series of macro-control measures to stabilize the economic growth and control inflation. The empirical analysis of the effect on economic growth and of inflation caused by the three major macro-control measures of fiscal policy, monetary policy and industrial policy is carries out, the conclusions are obtained. On this basic, the policy suggestions are put forward.%财政政策、货币政策与产业政策三大政策并用,是我国推动经济发展的重要特征之一.2008年以来,中国政府为应对金融危机,实施了一系列宏观调控措施以稳定经济增长与治理通货膨胀.对财政政策、货币政策和产业政策这三大宏观调控政策对经济增长与通货膨胀的作用进行实证分析,得出结论并在此基础上提出政策建议.

  3. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Macroeconomic Volatility: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data from 1997–2014 of 30 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, subdividing trended and cyclical volatility of macroeconomics and inflation, considering different indicators of financial development and financial structure, this paper investigated the impact of financial development and financial structure on macroeconomic volatility. The empirical results found that (1 the trended and cyclical volatility of the previous macroeconomic period had a significantly positive impact on that of the current period, and the impact of trended volatility was greater than that of cyclical volatility; (2 financial development had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility through inflation cyclical volatility, but inflation trended volatility would amplify macroeconomic volatility; financial markets have no significant effect on macroeconomic volatility; financial structure measured with the ratio of stock market turnover and the efficiency of the financial development had a significant positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility; and (3 inflation trended volatility had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility and trended volatility, while inflation cyclical volatility had a significantly positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility.

  4. Integrating precision cancer medicine into healthcare-policy, practice, and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Gabrielle; Carrot-Zhang, Jian; Ragoussis, Vassilis; Joly, Yann

    2016-10-24

    Precision medicine (PM) can be defined as a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory healthcare service delivery model. Recent developments in molecular biology and information technology make PM a reality today through the use of massive amounts of genetic, 'omics', clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data. With cancer being one of the most prominent public health threats in developed countries, both the research community and governments have been investing significant time, money, and efforts in precision cancer medicine (PCM). Although PCM research is extremely promising, a number of hurdles still remain on the road to an optimal integration of standardized and evidence-based use of PCM in healthcare systems. Indeed, PCM raises a number of technical, organizational, ethical, legal, social, and economic challenges that have to be taken into account in the development of an appropriate health policy framework. Here, we highlight some of the more salient issues regarding the standards needed for integration of PCM into healthcare systems, and we identify fields where more research is needed before policy can be implemented. Key challenges include, but are not limited to, the creation of new standards for the collection, analysis, and sharing of samples and data from cancer patients, and the creation of new clinical trial designs with renewed endpoints. We believe that these issues need to be addressed as a matter of priority by public health policymakers in the coming years for a better integration of PCM into healthcare.

  5. E-learning policies, practices and challenges in two Norwegian organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle-Strand, Anne; Thune, Taran

    2003-05-01

    This article reports a pilot study on the uses of technology to enable learning within a formal educational setting in a higher education institution and within a corporation. These two Norwegian cases were selected due to their commitment to technology-enabled learning, as expressed in policy and strategy documents. The aim was to investigate the commitment and actual use of information and communications technology (ICT) for learning as well as what key actors think are the major challenges for successful large scale implementation of ICT for learning. The findings indicate that there is insufficient follow-up on e-learning policies and that there is a general lack of strategic direction and leadership in this area. The key challenges respondents highlight relate to the need for a systematic and pedagogical approach to e-learning in which three equally important considerations must be balanced: organization, pedagogy and technology. Key perspectives of a coherent pedagogical and organizational framework for planning e-learning are discussed.

  6. The management and policy challenges of the globalisation effect of informatics and telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, M

    1999-01-01

    Managers and policy makers face new and as yet unrecognised challenges--particularly loss of control--through the application of new information technologies in healthcare. Whilst informatics and telemedicine are important developments, the potential for adverse organisational and societal effects should be recognised and anticipated. Health organisations are frequently seen as circumscribed networks, and these in turn form local alliances with related organisations. Information technologies are frequently construed as relating to operational systems within organisations, not least electronic patient record systems and diagnostic systems. These can then be linked to new generation health business systems, to provide accurate management information at low additional cost. However, this pair of assumptions is now seriously flawed, due to the effects of the latest developments in health informatics and telemedicine. In particular, telecommunications and Internet technologies render ineffectual previous external barriers of distance and national boundaries, whilst within the organisation the combination of knowledge bases with information technologies creates tendencies towards internal autonomy. Organisational and national policy control of health care face direct and radical challenges through perverse effects of otherwise beneficial developments, and early action is needed.

  7. Advancing geriatrics research, education, and practice: policy challenges after the great recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerzan, Judy T; Rich, Eugene C

    2014-06-01

    The series of articles in this JGIM issue provides a number of policy-relevant recommendations for advancing geriatrics research, education and practice. Despite the unprecedented pressure to reduce state and federal spending, policymakers must concurrently address the challenges of a growing population of older individuals with increasingly complex health care problems. Thus, there may be opportunities to advance this agenda in creative ways. For example, without new spending, federal research agencies can make changes to encourage needed new directions in aging research, and the ACA provides new funding opportunities such as the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute. States and the federal government have an increasing need for the health professions workforce to have collaborative care skills and geriatrics clinical competencies, and are finding ways to invest in relevant initiatives. On the clinical program side, state and federal governments are initiating programs to promote delivery system changes that improve the care of older adults. Nonetheless, in the face of the policy challenges that have persisted after the "great recession," academic geriatrics and general internal medicine will need to join forces with public and private interests to secure the resources needed to advance this ambitious agenda for geriatrics research, education and practice.

  8. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  9. Addressing the ethical, policy, and social challenges of preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason

    2011-10-11

    Research suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology begins prior to the clinical expression of the disease and that biomarker measures may provide direct evidence of this process. As a result, it may be possible to uncouple the diagnosis of AD from the clinical expression of the disease. The shifting boundaries between normal brain aging and disease present 3 challenges: 1) establishing guidelines for researchers and clinicians to safely and effectively communicate the diagnosis of preclinical AD, 2) setting up a process that effectively translates this diagnosis into practice and policy, and 3) adapting laws, regulations, and professional practices to the diagnosis of preclinical AD. The field of genetic testing for AD suggests how to balance a patient's desire to know his or her risk of developing dementia with a clinician's desire to mitigate the potential harms of that information. The development of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for other diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, suggests the need for a National Alzheimer's Education Program to develop policies and procedures to translate preclinical AD into both clinical practice and policy. Revisions are needed to laws, regulations, and professional practices governing driving, financial management and planning, and privacy and confidentiality.

  10. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-02-12

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for 'fake news' and 'alternative facts' with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of 'the other' and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban Ethiopia: a Micro-simulation approach. ... why incomes and inequality largely remained stable at a time of fundamental changes in macroeconomic policy environment.

  12. Policy Challenges Related to Biofuel Development in Tanzania Politische Herausforderungen in Bezug auf Biokraftstoffe in Tansania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sosovele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, agricultural development and natural resource management. The growing demand for biofuels is being driven by high oil prices, energy security concerns and global climate change. In Tanzania there is growing interest on the part of foreign private investors in establishing biofuel projects, although globally there are concerns related to biofuel investments. Tanzania has approved a number of such projects, but the biofuel subsector faces several policy challenges that could clearly hamper its development. These include the lack of a holistic and comprehensive energy policy that addresses the broad spectrum of energy options and issues, and weak or absent institutional and legal frameworks. This article highlights some key policy issues critical to the development of biofuels and argues that if these challenges are not addressed at the national policy level, biofuel development may not result in the expected benefits to Tanzania and the majority of its local communities. Biokraftstoffe sind in jüngster Zeit in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Landwirtschaftsentwicklung und nationales Ressourcenmanagement zu einem wichtigen Thema geworden. Die wachsende Nachfrage nach Biokraftstoffen wird durch die hohen Ölpreise, Befürchtungen in Bezug auf Energiesicherheit und den globalen Klimawandel vorangetrieben. In Tansania ist wachsendes Interesse ausländischer Privatinvestoren an Biokraftstoffprojekten zu beobachten, obwohl es weltweit Bedenken gegenüber solchen Investitionen gibt. Die tansanische Regierung hat einer ganzen Reihe entsprechender Projekte zugestimmt, doch mit dem Biokraftstoffsektor sind politische Herausforderungen verbunden, die diese Entwicklung behindern könnten. Dazu gehören das Fehlen einer ganzheitlichen und umfassenden Energiepolitik, die das ganze Spektrum energiepolitischer Fragestellungen und Optionen einschließt, wie auch schwache oder fehlende institutionelle

  13. The Current China's Macroeconomic Total Demand and Monetary Policy Regulation and Control%当前中国宏观经济总需求及货币政策调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the angle of the contribution to economic growth of China's three major demands,domestic demand is the potential power of China's economic growth,while external demand has made important contributions.Regulation and control of monetary policy on aggregate demand is conduct through the credit channel and the interest rate channel.However,because of the micro-subject of China's market is not sensitive to interest rate signals,the interest rate pathways is limited.The condition of monetary policy interest rates conducting effectively is that the micro-subject can make their own decision based on monetary policy freely and can obtain benefi ts or bear the loss for their choice.Therefore,to improve the effect of monetary policy,we should consolidate the market micro-foundation and establish a sound market competition mechanism.%从我国三大需求对经济增长的贡献看,内需是中国经济增长的主要动力源,外需为中国经济发展做出了重要贡献。货币政策对总需求的调控主要通过信贷渠道和利率渠道进行传导,但由于我国市场微观主体对利率信号不敏感,利率传导途径受到限制。货币政策利率传导途径有效的前提是微观主体根据货币政策做出决策后须有条件实现自己的选择,并因自己的行为获取利益或承担损失,这样才能建立起传递及时、反应敏感的传导机制,更好实现货币政策的调控目标。因此,要提高货币政策效应,应更多从夯实市场微观基础、健全市场竞争机制等方面来考虑。

  14. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors.

  15. The Demographic Revolution: Reconceptualizing Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orio Giarini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is important to reconsider the measurements which refer to the “Wealth of Nations” and from which the most appropriate references for better welfare policies are derived. In the present Service Economy, not all the “value added” measures indicate an increase in the level of wealth (the costs to cope with pollution for instance, whereas many developments in service functions and performances (in the case of many communication systems for instance add to real wealth much more than the usual value added references indicate. In particular, the notion of productivity in a Service economy is much more relevant with reference to performance in time (hence in a probabilistic system than to the production factor costs (in an equilibrium-based system. But all this is linked to progress in economics as a discipline, and to its integration with environmental issues (which also pretend to solve the problems of the “Wealth of Nations” on the basis of their “sustainability”. This will be a new era in economic development which will be beyond current extrapolations and will hope for “growth” in the traditional Industrial Revolution perspective.

  16. THE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EVALUATING STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE IN WELL- BALANCED MACRO-ECONOMIC FRAMEWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguey Arseniyevich VLADIMIROV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed at an academic substantiation of possibility of reaching the community-measured and utmost available efficiency in public expenditure and investments and tax collection/ revenue in a perfectly arranged well-balanced open-ended macro-economic framework. The model suggested looks similar (by its interpretation to the «econophysical» trend in the contemporary economics concept (Cf.: the Carnot cycle in thermodynamics, that means a specific amount received from the public spending jointly with investments to the national economy (in the event of a successful outcome i.e. «zero-loss» may lead to the maximum expected rate of economic growth, that enables justifying general directions of an appropriate macroeconomic policy (concerning both finance and budget allocations]. 

  17. Macroeconomic control,political costs and earnings management:Evidence from Chinese listed real estate companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Jieying; Li; Shangkun; Liang; Guojun; Wang

    2011-01-01

    Firms in China have faced high political costs during China’s economic transition,because they are affected by macroeconomic policies.However,research to date has offered no consistent conclusions on the relationship between political costs and earnings management in China.This study tests whether real estate firms attempt to decrease earnings during periods of macroeconomic control,using variables related to the national real estate market as proxies for political costs.We find that political costs are negatively related to earnings management in listed real estate firms.In addition,we find that non-state-owned enterprises utilized more income-decreasing accruals during this period.Our results are consistent with the political costs hypothesis.

  18. Romania’s Macroeconomic Steering in 2015 - between Enthusiasm and Recession Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian - Marian Barbu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals that, despite having a solid macro-economic state and a significant economic growth as starting points, those who conceive the fiscal-budgetary macroeconomic policies in Romania apply more enthusiasm than principles of responsibility, prudence and sustainability. While economic growth in Romania is over 3% of the GDP, public debt of a little over 40% of the GDP, budget revenues with 7.8% bigger than during the first 9 months of the previous year, and budgetary surplus of almost 1% of the GDP after the first 8 months, the 2016 budget prospects look good. Well, they are actually not. If the Government implements the budgetary expenditure announced, the budget deficit may explode which may lead, in 2018, to exceeding the maximal critical threshold of public debt, and in this case, according to the Romanian National Bank, the recession risk will be over 50%.

  19. Liaison of Exchange Rate and Macroeconomic Variables: A Case Study of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneel Salman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate plays a significant role in the economic growth of a country because it has also a close relationship to some major macroeconomic variables like Gross Domestic Product (GDP, interest rate, current account and inflation etc. All these variables are adversely affected by uncertainty or fluctuations in exchange rate. The objective of this paper was to find out the relationship between the exchange rate and other above mentioned macroeconomic variables. The paper not only described the relationship but also defined the nature of the relationship between the selected variables. The results showed that exchange rate has a long run relationship to GDP, inflation, interest rate and current account. Granger Causality test concluded that there was unidirectional causal relationship between exchange rate and GDP and the direction of causal relationship run from exchange rate to GDP. There were also some policy implications suggested for the stability in exchange rate and removing the adverse effects of uncertainty in Pakistan.

  20. THE USE OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES – AS THE WAY TO GET OVER MACRO-ECONOMIC IMBALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmelnitsky L.Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes major groups of current macroeconomic risks. Major challenges of modern world energy development are described and the spotlight on renewable energy sources as one of mechanisms of the described problems solution. Major requirements applied to government support schemes for renewable energy development are stated as well.

  1. QMM – A Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Icelandic Economy. Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper documents and describes Version 2.0 of the Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Central Bank of Iceland (QMM). QMM and the underlying quarterly database have been under construction since 2001 at the Research and Forecasting Division of the Economics Department at the Bank and was first...... implemented in the forecasting round for the Monetary Bulletin 2006/1 in March 2006. QMM is used by the Bank for forecasting and various policy simulations and therefore plays a key role as an organisational framework for viewing the medium-term future when formulating monetary policy at the Bank. This paper...

  2. Unit roots and structural breakpoints in China's macroeconomic and financial time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qi; TENG Jianzhou

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies unit-root tests to 10 Chinese macroeconomic and financial time series that allow for the possibility of up to two endogenous structural breaks.We found that 6 of the series,i.e.,GDP,GDP per capita,employment,bank credit,deposit liabilities and investment,can be more accurately characterized as a segmented trend stationarity process around one or two structural breakpoints as opposed to a stochastic unit root process.Our findings have important implications for policy-makers to formulate long-term growth strategy and short-run stabilization policies,as well as causality analysis among the series.

  3. QMM – A Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Icelandic Economy. Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper documents and describes Version 2.0 of the Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Central Bank of Iceland (QMM). QMM and the underlying quarterly database have been under construction since 2001 at the Research and Forecasting Division of the Economics Department at the Bank and was first...... implemented in the forecasting round for the Monetary Bulletin 2006/1 in March 2006. QMM is used by the Bank for forecasting and various policy simulations and therefore plays a key role as an organisational framework for viewing the medium-term future when formulating monetary policy at the Bank. This paper...

  4. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  5. THE JEOPARDIZED SITUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN BANGLADESH: CAN CUSTOMIZED POLICY APPROACH SOLVE THE CHALLENGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Md. Bahauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amountonly 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  6. 宏观政策对中国经济波动的影响模拟%A Simulation of the Effects of Macro-economic Policies on China's Economic Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松华

    2015-01-01

    文章通过建立一个包含货币政策、具有自动稳定机制的财政政策、金融中介机构以及粘性价格、粘性工资等特性的新凯恩斯主义动态随机一般均衡模型(DSGE),在校准模型结构参数的基础上,运用脉冲响应技术手段分析了财政政策、货币政策以及贷款、消费偏好等8个外生随机冲击对我国经济波动的影响。研究发现:货币供应量、消费偏好和政府购买支出等冲击均导致我国经济上升,即产出和通货膨胀均上升,贷款和技术冲击导致产出增加而通货膨胀下降,投资调整成本冲击导致产出和通货膨胀均下降,价格加成和工资加成冲击均导致产出下降、通货膨胀上升;货币供应量、技术和投资调整成本冲击是我国经济波动的主要来源,财政政策对中国经济波动的影响相对较小。%This paper constructs a New-Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model (DSGE) , which characterized by monetary policy, self-adjusting fiscal policy, financial intermediary, sticky wages and prices etc. and then simulates the impacts of eight exogenous stochastic shocks such as fiscal and monetary policies, credit and consumption preference etc. on China's economic fluctuations by employing impulse response on the basis of parameters calibration. The findings are as follow:the shock of money supply, consumption preference and government expenditure all have positive effects on Chinese economy, driving output and inflation to increase, the shock of credit and technology drive output to increase and inflation to decrease, the shock of investment adjustment cost has negative effect on output and inflation, the shock of price and wage mark-up decrease output and increase inflation;the shock of money supply, technology and investment adjustment cost are the main sources of China's economic fluctuations, however, the effect of fiscal policy on China's economic fluctuation is

  7. Challenges and opportunities of Reverse Logistics in the context of the National Solid Waste Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elaje Azevedo Simões da Mota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Law 12.305/2010, passed in 2010, made companies responsible for the solid waste issued from their production and clients’ post-consumption. In this situation, and considering the low rate of Reverse Logistics (RL activities within the metropolitan regions of Brazil’s largest cities compared to the high rate of waste produced per day, this article introduces the challenges and opportunities of introducing RL operations in the context of the National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP, in order to support and encourage companies to apply reverse processes in their production and clients’ post-consumption. To this end, the methodology used was to review the literature on the NSWP and RL, as well as unstructured interviews, allowing the challenges and opportunities for RL under the perspective of the NSWP to be presented as the main results. After checking the relevance of each topic, it was concluded that RL systems associated to the NSWP are crucial to overcoming challenges and exploiting the opportunities presented

  8. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Koduah, Augustina; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene A.; Ansah, Evelyn; van Dijk, Han; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2) that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented. Design Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988–2008) were analyzed using trend analysis. Poisson regression analysis was applied to quantify the incidence rate ratio of the trends. Implemented health policies and intervention programs to reduce childhood mortality in Ghana were reviewed to identify their impact and challenges. Results Since 1988, the annual average rate of decline in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Ghana was 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2%, respectively. From 1988 to 1989, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality declined from 48 to 33 per 1,000, 72 to 58 per 1,000, and 108 to 83 per 1,000, respectively, whereas from 1989 to 2008, neonatal mortality increased by 2 per 1,000 while infant and under-five mortality further declined by 6 per 1,000 and 17 per 1,000, respectively. However, the observed declines were not statistically significant except for under-five mortality; thus, the proportion of infant and under-five mortality attributed to neonatal death has increased. Most intervention programs implemented to address childhood mortality seem not to have been implemented comprehensively. Conclusion Progress towards attaining MDG 4 in Ghana was below the targeted rate, particularly for neonatal mortality as most health policies and programs targeted infant and under-five mortality. Implementing neonatal

  9. Macroeconomic effects of energy political and climate political measures of the years 1995 up to 2011; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte energie- und klimapolitischer Massnahmen der Jahre 1995 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, Ulrike; Lutz, Christian; Ulrich, Philip [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Actually, the macroeconomic effects of the energy policy turnaround are discussed controversially. The Federal Government started a comprehensive monitoring process in order to accompany the energy policy turnaround. Currently it is too early for a model-supported ex-post acquisition of the effects of the resolutions of the Federal Government in 2010. Often the implementation of the measures began in 2011. Just now no complete results are available. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution consider the macroeconomic aspects of the measures which were implemented in the areas energy efficiency, renewable energy sources as well as combined heat and power generation in the years between 1995 and 2011.

  10. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  11. Three essays on the labour market macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis Doctoral contiene tres ensayos sobre la macroeconomía del mercado de trabajo cuyo objetivo es contribuir al debate científico, y arrojar luz sobre la configuración del mercado laboral. Aunque estos tres capítulos deben de ser considerados como piezas de investigación independientes, su conjunto trata de clarificar el rol de la globalización, el sector financiero, y el ciclo económico en diferentes aspectos del mercado de trabajo. El primer capítulo estudia el rol de la globalizació...

  12. Partial differential equation models in macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achdou, Yves; Buera, Francisco J; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Moll, Benjamin

    2014-11-13

    The purpose of this article is to get mathematicians interested in studying a number of partial differential equations (PDEs) that naturally arise in macroeconomics. These PDEs come from models designed to study some of the most important questions in economics. At the same time, they are highly interesting for mathematicians because their structure is often quite difficult. We present a number of examples of such PDEs, discuss what is known about their properties, and list some open questions for future research. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Agan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions.

  14. GREEK ECONOMIC CRISIS ON MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GĂBAN LUCIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine briefly some elements of macroeconomic aspects that could explain - at least partly - a number of causes of the current economic crisis in Greece. Using data provided by competent bodies, is intended as a more accurate outlining the differences between Greece and the other countries of the European Union member show widespread Greek State as an outlier among the countries that make up the current "U.E. 28 ". The analysis is based on three indicators relevant to the case – unemployment, government debt and nonperforming loans.

  15. Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Agan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions

  16. Private consumption-savings behavior and macroeconomic imbalances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro Campos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Between the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1991 and 2007 many of the existing macroeconomic theories were applied to support the claim that the euro area was an optimal currency union and to argue that increasing macroeconomic imbalances were a logical part of the financial integration process.

  17. Macroeconomics in the Classroom--No Longer Just Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Ray C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes features of a macroeconomics model that runs on a microcomputer and its solution, sometimes called a simulation. Specific uses of the model in the teaching of introductory and intermediate/advanced levels of macroeconomics are discussed, as well as use by economic planners in running alternative forecasts. (MBR)

  18. Intermediate Macroeconomics without the IS-LM Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerapana, Akila

    2003-01-01

    States that the IS-LM model is the primary model of economic fluctuations taught in undergraduate macroeconomics. Argues that the aggregate demand-price adjustment (AD-PA) model is superior for teaching about economic fluctuations. Compares the IS-LS model with the AD-AP model using two current issues in macroeconomics. (JEH)

  19. Macroeconomic sources of foreign exchange risk in new EU members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocenda, Evzen; Poghosyan, Tigran

    2009-01-01

    We address the issue of foreign exchange risk and its macroeconomic determinants in several new EU members. We derive the observable macroeconomic factors-consumption and inflation-using the Stochastic discount factor (SDF) approach. The joint distribution of excess returns in the foreign exchange m

  20. Macroeconomic pressures and their implications for business development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries......The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  1. Key Challenges for Tertiary Education Policy and Research--An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedegebuure, Leo; Schoen, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Australia has had a mixed history in the way in which policy research has related to higher education policy. Recognising a history of policy-related research and to some extent research-informed policy-making, Australia has followed the trend of other New Public Management-driven systems of de-emphasising policy-oriented independent research. In…

  2. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonandan, Raywat

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive tourism, or "cross-border reproductive care", is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client's countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored.

  3. Policies for agricultural nitrogen management-trends, challenges and prospects for improved efficiency in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Hansen, Birgitte; Hasler, Berit

    2014-01-01

    With more than 60% of the land farmed, with vulnerable freshwater and marine environments, and with one of the most intensive, export-oriented livestock sectors in the world, the nitrogen (N) pollution pressure from Danish agriculture is severe. Consequently, a series of policy action plans have......-surplus has been reduced from approximately 170 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to below 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during the past 30 yrs, while the overall N-efficiency for the agricultural sector (crop + livestock farming) has increased from around 20-30% to 40-45%, the N-leaching from the field root zone has been halved, and N......), with specific measures addressing the whole N cascade, in order to improve the quality of ground- and surface waters, and to reduce the deposition to terrestrial natural ecosystems. However, there is still a major challenge in complying with the EU Water Framework and Habitats Directives, calling for new...

  4. Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Orvill

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that in 2000 almost 175 million people, or 2.9% of the world's population, were living outside their country of birth, compared to 100 million, or 1.8% of the total population, in 1995. As the global labour market strengthens, it is increasingly highly skilled professionals who are migrating. Medical practitioners and nurses represent a small proportion of highly skilled workers who migrate, but the loss of health human resources for developing countries can mean that the capacity of the health system to deliver health care equitably is compromised. However, data to support claims on both the extent and the impact of migration in developing countries is patchy and often anecdotal, based on limited databases with highly inconsistent categories of education and skills. The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers in order to better understand its impact and to find entry points to developing policy options with which migration can be managed. The paper is divided into six sections. In the first, the different types of migration are reviewed. Some global trends are depicted in the second section. Scarcity of data on health worker migration is one major challenge and this is addressed in section three, which reviews and discusses different data sources. The consequences of health worker migration and the financial flows associated with it are presented in section four and five, respectively. To illustrate the main issues addressed in the previous sections, a case study based mainly on the United Kingdom is presented in section six. This section includes a discussion on policies and ends by addressing the policy options from a broader perspective.

  5. Sugar and health in South Africa: Potential challenges to leveraging policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alex; Fig, David; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Mandle, Jessie; Myers, Jonathan; Hofman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that excessive sugar consumption is driving epidemics of obesity and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) around the world. South Africa (SA), a major consumer of sugar, is also the third most obese country in Africa, and 40% of all deaths in the country result from NCDs. A number of fiscal, regulatory, and legislative levers could reduce sugar consumption in SA. This paper focuses on a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the challenges that government might anticipate. Policies cannot be enacted in a vacuum and discussion is focused on the industrial, economic, and societal context. The affected industry actors have been part of the SA economy for over a century and remain influential. To deflect attention, the sugar industry can be expected either to advocate for self-regulation or to promote public-private partnerships. This paper cautions against both approaches as evidence suggests that they will be ineffective in curbing the negative health impacts caused by excessive sugar consumption. In summary, policy needs to be introduced with a political strategy sensitive to the various interests at stake. In particular, the sugar industry can be expected to be resistant to the introduction of any type of tax on SSBs.

  6. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France.

  7. Inclusion in High - Achieving Singapore: Challenges of Building an Inclusive Society in Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Walker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Building an inclusive society in which all people can participate effectively and live together requires understanding inclusive education and its impact on the social order. As countries of different regions face the vast array of challenges unique to their educational systems, it becomes apparent that inclusive societies are intricately tied to social inclusion policy initiatives and developments in education. Governments are becoming increasingly aware of the need to review their educational systems as they attempt to define what an inclusive society is and how to make inclusion truly effective. Singapore is a unique example of a country that has the resources and the vision, but currently lacks an educational system designed to fully include individuals with special needs. Although Singaporean students consistently score near the top in science, math, and reading achievement on international assessments, many students with special needs still receive their education in schools separated from their mainstream peers. In 2004, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong discussed a new vision of Singapore becoming an inclusive society that embraces all individuals with special learning needs. In this manuscript, the authors provide a brief history of Singapore and its education system and explore how PM Lee’s vision of an inclusive society has shaped practice and policy in Singapore schools in the last decade. Specific ideas and next steps for creating an inclusive Singapore for individuals with disabilities are discussed.

  8. Long-term challenges in urban housing: in the search for intersections between design and policy regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Palaiologou, G.; Kostourou, F.

    2016-01-01

    Current discussions on urban housing confirm the central role of design in dealing with the rapidly increasing complexities of urban challenges. Nonetheless, design often remains detached from decision-making at the level of building regulations and urban policies. Situated around the debate of greater socio-spatial sustainability, this paper aims to an integrated understanding of housing performance devising an analytical discussion of both the design and the policy-making approaches. To exp...

  9. Interest Rates Targeting of Monetary Policy: An Open Economy SVAR Study of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the implementation of monetary policy during the interest rates targeting in a small-open economy (i.e. Malaysia by using an open-economy structural VAR (SVAR study. It tests the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines how effective monetary policy is in influencing macroeconomic variables. The results show that during interest rates targeting, monetary policy plays a significant role in affecting macroeconomics variables. This finding suggests that monetary policy has an important role as a stabilization policy in a small-open economy.

  10. Sustainable energy prices and growth. Comparing macroeconomic and backcasting scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Hoejer, Mattias [Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    How do results from the sustainability research world of backcasting relate to the macroeconomic scenarios used for policy evaluation and planning? The answer is that they do not, mostly - they come from different scientific traditions and are not used in the same contexts. Yet they often deal with the same issues. We believe that much can be gained by bringing the two systems of thinking together. This paper is a first attempt to do so, by making qualitative comparisons between different scenarios and highlighting benefits and limitations to each of them. Why are the pictures we get of the energy future so different if we use a macroeconomic model from when using a backcasting approach based on sustainable energy use? It is evident that the methods for producing those two kinds of scenarios differ a lot, but the main reason behind the different results are found in the starting points rather than in the methods. Baseline assumptions are quite different, as well as the interpretations and importance attached to signals about the future. In this paper, it is discussed how those two types of scenarios differ and how they approach issues such as energy prices and growth. The discussion is based on a comparison between Swedish economic and sustainability scenarios. The economic scenarios aim at being forecasts of the future and are used as decision support for long-term policies. But are the assumptions in the economic scenarios reasonable? The sustainability scenarios are explicitly normative backcasting scenarios. They do not take the issue of growth and consumption fully into account. Could they be developed in this respect? The comparison between the scenarios is also used to look closer at the issue of energy prices in a society with sustainable energy use. One of the questions raised is if a low energy society calls for high energy prices. Moreover, the effects of tradable permits versus energy taxes is analysed in the context of how energy use could be kept low

  11. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Srisookwatana, Orapan; Pinprateep, Poldej; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-05-16

    Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA) and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors. Capacity development at individual, institutional and system level to generate evidence and ensure it is used by multisectoral agencies is as critical as strengthening the health literacy of people and the overall good governance of a

  12. "On the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy"

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Sawyer, Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of macroeconomic policy and theory over the past twenty years or so, a major shift has occurred regarding the relative importance given of monetary policy versus fiscal policy. The former has gained considerably in stature, while the latter is rarely mentioned. Further, monetary policy no longer focuses on attempts to control some monetary aggregate, as it did in the first half of the 1980s, but instead focuses on the setting of interest rates as the key policy instrument...

  13. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa: challenges, opportunities, and policy priority areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Bromberg, Mel; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa has drawn attention to global health inequalities, in particular the inadequacies of health care systems in sub-Saharan African countries for appropriately managing and containing infectious diseases. The purpose of this article is to examine the sociopolitical and economic conditions that created the environment for the Ebola epidemic to occur, identify challenges to and opportunities for the prevention and control of Ebola and future outbreaks, and discuss policy recommendations and priority areas for addressing the Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks in West Africa. Articles in peer-reviewed journals on health system reforms in developing countries and periodicals of international organizations were used to gather the overview reported in this article. We identify individual, structural, and community challenges that must be addressed in an effort to reduce the spread of Ebola in West Africa. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for the overhaul and transformation of African health care systems to build the capacity in these countries to address infectious diseases. Public-private partnerships for investment in developing countries' health care systems that involve the international community are critical in addressing the current Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks.

  14. Selected Macroeconomic Variables and Stock Market Movements: Empirical evidence from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ato Forson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and analyzes the long-run equilibrium relationship between the Thai stock Exchange Index (SETI and selected macroeconomic variables using monthly time series data that cover a 20-year period from January 1990 to December 2009. The following macroeconomic variables are included in our analysis: money supply (MS, the consumer price index (CPI, interest rate (IR and the industrial production index (IP (as a proxy for GDP. Our findings prove that the SET Index and the selected macroeconomic variables are cointegrated at I (1 and have a significant equilibrium relationship over the long run. Money supply demonstrates a strong positive relationship with the SET Index over the long run, whereas the industrial production index and consumer price index show negative long-run relationships with the SET Index. Furthermore, in non-equilibrium situations, the error correction mechanism suggests that the consumer price index, industrial production index and money supply each contribute in some way to restore equilibrium. In addition, using Toda and Yamamoto’s augmented Granger causality test, we identify a bi-causal relationship between industrial production and money supply and unilateral causal relationships between CPI and IR, IP and CPI, MS and CPI, and IP and SETI, indicating that all of these variables are sensitive to Thai stock market movements. The policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  15. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Senthilkumar, P; Gayathri, K; Shyamsundar, G; Jacob, K S

    2015-01-01

    While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  16. Assessment of the relationship of government spending on social assistance programs with Brazilian macroeconomic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Senna, Viviane; Souza, Adriano Mendonça

    2016-11-01

    Since the 1988 Federal Constitution social assistance has become a duty of the State and a right to everyone, guaranteeing the population a dignified life. To ensure these rights federal government has created programs that can supply the main needs of people in extreme poverty. Among the programs that provide social assistance to the population, the best known are the "Bolsa Família" Program - PBF and the Continuous Cash Benefit - Continuous Cash Benefit - BPC. This research's main purpose is to analyze the relationship between the main macroeconomic variables and the Federal government spending on social welfare policy in the period from January 2004 to August 2014. The used methodologies are the Vector auto regression model - VAR and Error Correction Vector - VEC. The conclusion, was that there is a meaningful relationship between macroeconomic variables and social assistance programs. This indicates that if the government takes a more abrupt resolution in changing the existing programs it will result in fluctuations in the main macroeconomic variables interfering with the stability of Brazilian domestic economy up to twelve months.

  17. Guiding Economic Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three top Chinese officials responsible for guiding China’s macroeconomic policies expound on the state of the economy In Premier Wen Jiabao’s recent govern- ment work report,he said that the major task this year would be to prevent over- all prices from rising rapidly.Along with this,he accentuated a prudent fiscal policy and a tight monetary policy. Following the premier’s work report,

  18. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  19. State transformation and policy networks: The challenging implementation of new water policy paradigms in post-apartheid South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magalie Bourblanc

    2017-01-01

    .... A reform of the water policy was one of the priorities of the new Government, but with little experience in water management, they largely relied on 'international best practices' in the water sector...

  20. Financial sustainability versus access and quality in a challenged health system: an examination of the capitation policy debate in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-11-01

    Policy makers in low and middle-income countries are frequently confronted with challenges of increasing health access for poor populations in a sustainable manner. After several years of trying out different health financing mechanisms, health insurance has recently emerged as a pro-poor health financing policy. Capitation, a fixed fee periodically paid to health service providers for anticipated services, is one of the payment policies in health insurance. This article examines claims and counter-claims made by coalitions and individual stakeholders in a capitation payment policy debate within Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme. Using content analysis of public and parliamentary proceedings, we situate the debate within policy making and health insurance literature. We found that the ongoing capitation payment debate stems from challenges in implementation of earlier health insurance claims payment systems, which reflect broader systemic challenges facing the health insurance scheme in Ghana. The study illustrates the extent to which various sub-systems in the policy debate advance arguments to legitimize their claims about the contested capitation payment system. In addition, we found that the health of poor communities, women and children are being used as surrogates for political and individual arguments in the policy debate. The article recommends a more holistic and participatory approach through persuasion and negotiation to join interests and core evidence together in the capitation policy making in Ghana and elsewhere with similar contexts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Relationship between Macroeconomic Variables and ISE Industry Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozcan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between macroeconomic variables and Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE industry index is examined. Over the past years, numerous studies have analyzed these relationships and the different results obtained from these studies have motivated further research. The relationship between stock exchange index and macroeconomic variables has been well documented for the developed markets. However, there are few studies regarding the relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock exchange index for the developing markets. Thus, this paper seeks to address the question of whether macroeconomic variables have a significant relationship with ISE industry index using monthly data for the period from 2003 to 2010. The selected macroeconomic variables for the study include interest rates, consumer price index, money supply, exchange rate, gold prices, oil prices, current account deficit and export volume. The Johansen’s cointegration test is utilized to determine the impact of selected macroeconomic variables on ISE industry index. The result of the Johansen’s cointegration shows that macroeconomic variables exhibit a long run equilibrium relationship with the ISE industry index.

  2. Continued challenges in the policy and legal framework for collaborative water planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Poh-Ling; Bowmer, K. H.; Baldwin, C.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryWe consider the implementation of Australian water reform over the last two decades and into the future. Reform was to provide security for consumptive users and adequate rights for the environment. Overallocation, a key threat to both these aims, continues to challenge planners particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin and cannot be addressed without community support. We draw from four major studies to provide insights on how implementation needs to be underpinned by theory. From the perspective of institutional design for collaborative and sustainable water planning, seven major improvements are required: (1) Provision of detailed policy guidelines to support general legal requirements, particularly practical advice for interpreting and applying the precautionary principle. (2) Tools to identify and engage unorganised or neglected community sectors, for example Indigenous peoples and youth. (3) Procedural fairness and transparent decision making, to build confidence in reform; use of independent experts and visual tools to improve the quality of discussion and increase the acceptability of trade-offs. (4) Clearer documentation and language in planning, as more litigation is likely. (5) In accord with international literature, the development of comprehensive policy and legislative framework allowing a systems approach to consensus building, especially when the science is contested. (6) Information on exactly how much water is required and where, by capturing societal choices on environmental assets. (7) Planning for sustainable contraction where cutbacks to water use is required, as an additional strategy to the current emphasis on buying water or building infrastructure. In summary we advocate collaborative water planning processes to engender community confidence in planning.

  3. Policies for agricultural nitrogen management—trends, challenges and prospects for improved efficiency in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Hansen, Birgitte; Hasler, Berit; Hertel, Ole; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Kronvang, Brian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Schjørring, Jan K.; Sillebak Kristensen, Ib; Graversgaard, Morten; Termansen, Mette; Vejre, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    With more than 60% of the land farmed, with vulnerable freshwater and marine environments, and with one of the most intensive, export-oriented livestock sectors in the world, the nitrogen (N) pollution pressure from Danish agriculture is severe. Consequently, a series of policy action plans have been implemented since the mid 1980s with significant effects on the surplus, efficiency and environmental loadings of N. This paper reviews the policies and actions taken and their ability to mitigate effects of reactive N (Nr) while maintaining agricultural production. In summary, the average N-surplus has been reduced from approximately 170 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to below 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during the past 30 yrs, while the overall N-efficiency for the agricultural sector (crop + livestock farming) has increased from around 20-30% to 40-45%, the N-leaching from the field root zone has been halved, and N losses to the aquatic and atmospheric environment have been significantly reduced. This has been achieved through a combination of approaches and measures (ranging from command and control legislation, over market-based regulation and governmental expenditure to information and voluntary action), with specific measures addressing the whole N cascade, in order to improve the quality of ground- and surface waters, and to reduce the deposition to terrestrial natural ecosystems. However, there is still a major challenge in complying with the EU Water Framework and Habitats Directives, calling for new approaches, measures and technologies to mitigate agricultural N losses and control N flows.

  4. Securing a Better Living Environment for Left-Behind Children: Implications and Challenges for Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Theodora; Ee, Miriam; Anh, Hoang Lan; Yeoh, Brenda S A

    2013-12-01

    Migration is an increasingly significant driver of transformations in family configurations and caregiving practices as well as living arrangements. The sustainability of geographically-split family formations is dependent on several factors, including the presence and strength of care support networks among migrants and their left-behind families, access to communication infrastructure and the stability of the families' financial resources. Drawing on both a selective review of relevant academic literature as well as key findings from the CHAMPSEA Project, the article first examines the effects of these three factors on the well-being of migrants' left-behind family members, especially children. The article also considers major implications of the project's findings, as well as possible challenges for migration and development policies. One area of concern for migration and development policy arising from our research findings is the need to provide better support for left-behind caregivers or carers who are substituting for the absent migrant in childcare and domestic work but who may also need care and support themselves. Another area relates to the need to improve communication infrastructure to help migrants and their families maintain their relationships across transnational spaces; while a third lies with the importance of minimizing migrant families' economic stress stemming from the cycle of debts resulting from exorbitant broker fees and the mismanagement of remittances. By acknowledging both the social and economic costs of international labor migration on families, governments of labor-sending countries can create a more effective legal and institutional framework as well as design suitable supporting mechanisms for left-behind families. There is then a stronger possibility that migration can become a sustainable development strategy for transnational families in South-East Asia.

  5. Macroeconomic Synchronization and Policy Coordination After Regional Economic Integration in the Americas El impacto de la integración económica regional en la sincronización macroeconómica y la coordinación de políticas L’impact de l’intégration économique régionale sur la synchronisation macroéconomique et la coordination des politiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of many significant differences between high-income and developing country partners in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, business cycle synchronization has followed increased trade integration in the post-NAFTA period. There is also some preliminary support for some convergence between Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR economies post-CAFTA-DR, although it is too soon to reach any significant conclusions. Macroeconomic synchronization has important implications for policy making because it indicates the need for and benefits from policy coordination. Policy coordination with high-income partners may benefit developing country partners by reducing macroeconomic volatility and increase stability, when macroeconomic variability is due to common shocks and not country-specific shocks. Idiosyncratic volatility would require monetary and fiscal policy autonomy rather than coordination. Examining policy coordination between NAFTA states and between CAFTA-DR members, I find little evidence for policy coordination before and after implementation of the FTA. For the developing partners in NAFTA and CAFTA-DR, even as trade integration shrinks the available policy options for member states, the costs of losing policy autonomy largely outweigh the benefits of coordination because of the idiosyncratic macroeconomic variability of the developing partners.A pesar de las numerosas diferencias significativas que existen entre los países de renta alta y los países en desarrollo miembros del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN, la sincronización de los ciclos económicos ha seguido a una integración comercial en aumento desde la entrada en vigor del TLCAN. Asimismo, existen pruebas de que algunas economías del CAFTA-DR (Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos muestran también una cierta convergencia de los ciclos económicos pese a que es

  6. State transformation and policy networks: The challenging implementation of new water policy paradigms in post-apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Bourblanc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, South Africa had represented a typical example of a hydrocracy. Following the democratic transition in South Africa, however, new policy paradigms emerged, supported by new political elites from the ANC. A reform of the water policy was one of the priorities of the new Government, but with little experience in water management, they largely relied on 'international best practices' in the water sector, although some of these international principles did not perfectly fit the South African water sector landscape. In parallel, a reform called 'transformation' took place across all public organisations with the aim of allowing public administrations to better reflect the racial components in South African society. As a result, civil engineers lost most of their power within the Department of Water Affairs and Sanitation (DWS. However, despite these changes, demand-side management has had difficulties in materializing on the ground. The paper aims at discussing the resilience of supply-side management within the Ministry, despite its new policy orientation. Using a policy network concept, the paper shows that the supply-side approach still prevails today, due to the outsourcing of most DWS tasks to consulting firms with whom DWS engineers have nourished a privileged relationship since the 1980s. The article uses the decision-making process around the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP Phase 2 as an emblematic case study to illustrate such developments. This policy network, which has enjoyed so much influence over DWS policies and daily activities, is now being contested. As a consequence, we argue that the fate of the LHWP Phase 2 is ultimately linked to a competition between this policy network and a political one.

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MACROECONOMIC STABILISATION PENTAGON IN ROMANIA, CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionita Rodica Oana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to achieve the pentagon analysis of macroeconomic stabilization in Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary in the period 2000 to 2013. It is a comparative analysis of the countries above mentioned in terms of the five key targets of economic policy, aiming the increasing, dynamic balance of each economy: economic growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, the budget deficit as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product, the current account deficit of the balance of payments as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product. The main objective of each economy which passes from planned to market economy should be to cease the economic decline, followed by the elimination of internal and external imbalances and only after that it should be followed by a continuous growth process. All the above mentioned indicators shall be represented on an ad hoc graduated scale. The period of research was chosen so as to obtain a view of the macroeconomic policies in transition from one period to another, in order to highlight the common as well as the main differences in the approach used for economy stabilization. Therefore I have computed the graphical analysis of macroeconomic stabilization pentagon for the three countries in the period 2000- 2013 to captures the dynamics of the economic policy mix. This benchmark tool shows the interdependence which exists between inflation and other important economic indicators. The events occurred in the period starting with 2007/2008 have raised the interest of economics researchers, highlighting the need for significant improvements in the surveillance of the economic and financial system. The global fragility generated concerns regarding the vulnerabilities and causes which led to the occurrence of such events, thus generating different measurement techniques. Despite all its advantages, this approach has a significant limitation consisting in the fact that it can only reveal a picture without surprising other

  8. Impact and Challenges of a Policy Change to Early Track Extubation in the Operating Room for Fontan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Liu, Qi; Coquet, Sean; Yasui, Yutaka; Cave, Dominic

    2016-08-01

    While policy changes toward early extubation in the operating room (OR) have been commonly seen in palliative surgeries in single ventricle anatomy, no systematic assessment of their impact on patient outcome has been reported. All patients aged 0-17 years admitted to a PICU in a quaternary children's hospital for post-operative management following a primary Fontan procedure between 2005 and 2011 were included. Patients for revision of Fontan or patients admitted to adult Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit were excluded. Practice policy was changed from routine extubation in the PICU to early extubation in OR in January 2008. Data were compared between the pre-policy-change era (2005-2007) and the post-policy-change era (2008-2011) to assess the impact of the change on patient outcomes. Generalized linear regression (GLM) and interrupted time series (ITS) analysis were used to access the effect of policy change on PICU length of stay and post-operative fluid balance, adjusting for potential confounders using propensity scores. Root cause analysis (RCA) was conducted to describe causes of failed extubation and challenges of this policy change. One hundred twenty-seven children met inclusion criteria. Average body weight was 14.7 kg [standard deviation (SD) 3.9], and age was 3.5 years (SD 1.9). A clear change in extubation practice occurred between the pre- versus post-policy-change eras: 97.5 % were extubated in the PICU in the pre-policy-change era, as compared to 15.0 % in the post-policy-change era. The average PICU length of stay was shortened by 4.1 days from the pre-policy-change era to the post-policy-change era [95 % CI -1.2 to -6.9, p extubation in the current practice.

  9. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrickson Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The United States pediatric population with chronic health conditions is expanding. Currently, this demographic comprises 12-18% of the American child and youth population. Affected children often receive fragmented, uncoordinated care. Overall, the American health care delivery system produces modest outcomes for this population. Poor, uninsured and minority children may be at increased risk for inferior coordination of services. Further, the United States health care delivery system is primarily organized for the diagnosis and treatment of acute conditions. For pediatric patients with chronic health conditions, the typical acute problem-oriented visit actually serves as a barrier to care. The biomedical model of patient education prevails, characterized by unilateral transfer of medical information. However, the evidence basis for improvement in disease outcomes supports the use of the chronic care model, initially proposed by Dr. Edward Wagner. Six inter-related elements distinguish the success of the chronic care model, which include self-management support and care coordination by a prepared, proactive team. United States health care lacks a coherent policy direction for the management of high cost chronic conditions, including rheumatic diseases. A fundamental restructure of United States health care delivery must urgently occur which places the patient at the center of care. For the pediatric rheumatology workforce, reimbursement policies and the actions of health plans and insurers are consistent barriers to chronic disease improvement. United States reimbursement policy and overall fragmentation of health care services pose specific challenges for widespread implementation of the chronic care model. Team-based multidisciplinary care, care coordination and self-management are integral to improve outcomes. Pediatric rheumatology demand in the United States far exceeds available workforce supply. This article reviews the career

  10. Oil Shocks and Macroeconomic Adjustment: a DSGE modeling approach for the Case of Libya, 1970–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Libya experienced a substantial increase in oil revenue as a result of increased oil prices during the period of the late 1970s and early 1980s, and again after 2000. Recent increases in oil production and the price of oil, and their positive and negative macroeconomic impacts upon key macroeconomic variables, are of considerable contemporary importance to an oil dependent economy such as that of Libya. In this paper a dynamic macroeconomic model is developed for Libya to evaluate the effects of additional oil revenue, arising from positive oil production and oil price shocks, upon key macroeconomic variables, including the real exchange rate. It takes into consideration the impact of oil revenue upon the non-oil trade balance, foreign asset stock, physical capital stock, human capital stock, imported capital stock and non-oil production. Model simulation results indicate that additional oil revenue brings about: an increase in government revenue, increased government spending in the domestic economy, increased foreign asset stocks, increased output and wages in the non oil sector. However, increased oil revenue may also produce adverse consequences, particularly upon the non-oil trade balance, arising from a loss of competitiveness of non-oil tradable goods induced by an appreciation of the real exchange rate and increased imports stimulated by increased real income. Model simulation results also suggest that investment stimulating policy measures by government produce the most substantive benefits for the economy.

  11. Poverty and macroeconomic performance across space, race, and family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2004-02-01

    We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using state-level panel data from the 1981-2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of poverty. The magnitude and source of these antipoverty effects, however, were not uniform across family structures and racial groups or necessarily over time. While gains in the eradication of poverty, in general, were tempered by rising wage inequality, simulations indicated that female-headed families and families that were headed by black persons experienced substantial reductions in poverty in the 1990s largely because of the growth in median wages. An auxiliary time-series analysis suggests that the expansions in the federal Earned Income Tax Credit of the 1990s accounted for upward of 50% of the reduction in after-tax income deprivation.

  12. MACROECONOMIC STABILITY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold WEISZENBACHER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the recent financial crisis, the macroeconomic stability of most countries has been cast to shadow. The damage to the economy caused by high inflation, volatile exchange rates, increasing amount of debts and the unstable financial markets has heavily left its toll on the global market and has led to massive unemployment and increasing poverty. This paper aims to follow the eight new Central and Eastern European countries that joined the European Union in 2004, as well as Romania and Bulgaria, who followed suit in 2007, in what concerns their economical performance, following adhesion to the EU while also comparing the periods before and after the economical crisis. They were chosen as a topic of research for the severity with which the crisis affected them and the high degree of reform implementation in the aftermath. It also plans to highlight the effect of the new reforms and the growth potential when compared to the rest of the European Union. The price inflation, real GDP growth, the levels of (unemployment, fiscal policy and stability of exchange rates will provide a clear image of how this cluster of developing countries fare nowadays against the rest of the EU countries.

  13. Emergent Macroeconomics An Agent-Based Approach to Business Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Delli Gatti, Domenico; Gallegati, Mauro; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Palestrini, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    This book contributes substantively to the current state-of-the-art of macroeconomics by providing a method for building models in which business cycles and economic growth emerge from the interactions of a large number of heterogeneous agents. Drawing from recent advances in agent-based computational modeling, the authors show how insights from dispersed fields like the microeconomics of capital market imperfections, industrial dynamics and the theory of stochastic processes can be fruitfully combined to improve our understanding of macroeconomic dynamics. This book should be a valuable resource for all researchers interested in analyzing macroeconomic issues without recurring to a fictitious representative agent.

  14. Realized Bond-Stock Correlation: Macroeconomic Announcement Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Ranaldo, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of macroeconomic announcements on the realized correlation between bond and stock returns. Our results deliver insights into the dominating drivers of bond-stock comovements. We find that it is not so much the surprise component of the announcement, but the mere fact...... that an announcement occurs that influences the realized bond-stock correlation. The impact of macroeconomic announcements varies across the business cycle. Announcement effects are highly dependent on the sign of the realized bond-stock correlation which has recently gone from positive to negative. Macroeconomic...... announcement effects on realized bond and stock volatilities are also investigated....

  15. A Polynomial Term Structure Model with Macroeconomic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valentim Vicente

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a myriad of factor models including macroeconomic variables have been proposed to analyze the yield curve. We present an alternative factor model where term structure movements are captured by Legendre polynomials mimicking the statistical factor movements identified by Litterman e Scheinkmam (1991. We estimate the model with Brazilian Foreign Exchange Coupon data, adopting a Kalman filter, under two versions: the first uses only latent factors and the second includes macroeconomic variables. We study its ability to predict out-of-sample term structure movements, when compared to a random walk. We also discuss results on the impulse response function of macroeconomic variables.

  16. Debate-Proof Grades: Experiences and Challenges of Using a Grading Rubric in a Social Welfare Policy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, Christson A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences and challenges of a graduate teaching assistant in using a grading rubric in a social welfare policy course. Using a grading rubric as a debate-proof strategy against the grade entitlement of students is expatiated. In addition, the benefits of using grading rubrics to achieve CSWE/EPAS competency…

  17. Introduction. New Challenges for the EU in the Arab Mediterranean and the Revision of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter; Shteiwi, Musa

    2017-01-01

    . The review emphasizes that ongoing transition processes are affecting the Mediterranean states, leading to a complex and differentiated Middle Eastern reality, which challenges the EU and calls for a rethinking of European foreign and security policies. A key notion of the review is the term ‘stabilization...

  18. Challenges of Implementing Renewable Energy Policies at Community Scale: The Case of Strategic Energy Plans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of national energy efficiency targets requires policies at the local scale. It is widely acknowledged that local communities play an important tole to implement these policies: as arena where renewable energy technologies can be combined with socio-economic interests of local...... stakeholders. Although a vast amount of demo projects are well-documented, insufficient attention has been given to the average performing municipalities and their challenges in linking technical energy scenarios with their socio-economic realities in practice. This paper analyses the Strategic Energy Plans...... (SEP) of 17 Danish municipalities on their development, inclusion of local communities, affected stakeholders, and on their impact on the municipalities’ working procedures. The main technical, physical, organisational and socio-economic challenges for local energy policy implementation are illustrated...

  19. INVESTIGATING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY USING THE OUTPUT GAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia TITAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to illustrate the importance of the output gap in analysing macroeconomic stability in general and business cycle dynamics in particular. Ten EU countries are considered, with five old members and five new members. For all ten countries the data for the period 1999-2014 is used, but for four countries, namely France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain additional data is available that goes back to 1965, such that the whole period 1965-2014 is covered, which allows for a particular analysis. An empirical analysis is performed with regard to the behaviour of the output gap for different countries over time. The results obtained allow for relevant comparisons and highlight the usefulness of this indicator as a tool in the study of business cycles.

  20. The rate of interest as a macroeconomic distribution parameter: Horizontalism and Post-Keynesian models of distribution of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    We review the main arguments put forward against the horizontalist view of endogenous credit and money and an exogenous rate of interest under the control of monetary policies. We argue that the structuralist arguments put forward in favour of an endogenously increasing interest rate when investment and economic activity are rising, due to increasing indebtedness of the firm sector or decreasing liquidity in the commercial bank sector, raise major doubts from a macroeconomic perspective. This...

  1. Loan quality determinants: Evaluating the contribution of bank-specific variables, macroeconomic factors and firm level information

    OpenAIRE

    Belaid, Faiçal

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses probit and ordered probit methods to examine the impact of banks’ policies in terms of cost efficiency, capitalization, activity diversification, credit growth and profitability, on the loan quality in the Tunisian banking sector after controlling for the effects of firm-specific characteristics and macroeconomic conditions. Using a data set with detailed information for more than 9 000 firms comprising the portfolios of the ten largest Tunisian banks, we show that banks which...

  2. The policy challenges of tradable credits: A critical review of eight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    This article offers a critical review of eight tradable permit markets: water permits at Fox River, Wisconsin; the U.S. leaded gasoline phase-out; sulfur dioxide credits under the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) for controlling ozone and acid rain in Southern California; renewable energy credit trading at the regional level in the United States; individual transferrable quotas for fisheries at the national level in New Zealand; carbon credits traded under the European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme; and carbon offsets permitted under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. By 'critical' the article does not fully weigh the costs and benefits of each tradable credit scheme and instead identifies key challenges and problems. By 'review' the author relied exclusively on secondary data from an interdisciplinary review of the academic literature. Rather than performing as economic theory suggests, the article shows that in many cases credit markets are prone to compromises in program design, transaction costs, price volatility, leakage, and environmental degradation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these problems for those seeking to design more equitable and effective public policies addressing environmental degradation and climate change. - Research Highlights: {yields}This study reviews eight tradable credit markets. {yields}It finds that markets are prone to common problems. {yields}It concludes that tradable permit markets are political instruments as much as they are economic ones.

  3. The policy challenges of tradable credits. A critical review of eight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    This article offers a critical review of eight tradable permit markets: water permits at Fox River, Wisconsin; the U.S. leaded gasoline phase-out; sulfur dioxide credits under the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) for controlling ozone and acid rain in Southern California; renewable energy credit trading at the regional level in the United States; individual transferrable quotas for fisheries at the national level in New Zealand; carbon credits traded under the European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme; and carbon offsets permitted under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. By 'critical' the article does not fully weigh the costs and benefits of each tradable credit scheme and instead identifies key challenges and problems. By 'review' the author relied exclusively on secondary data from an interdisciplinary review of the academic literature. Rather than performing as economic theory suggests, the article shows that in many cases credit markets are prone to compromises in program design, transaction costs, price volatility, leakage, and environmental degradation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these problems for those seeking to design more equitable and effective public policies addressing environmental degradation and climate change. (author)

  4. Revitalizing Old Industrial Base of Northeast China: Process,Policy and Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingyu

    2008-01-01

    Northeast China is the largest old industrial base of China that endured persistent influence of the past planned economy system.This region has lost its leading place since the reform and opening up,and became a backward region by contrast with the coastal areas.This paper elaborates the evolutionary process of the old industrial base of Northeast China,analyses the main reasons for the decline,gives a preliminary evaluation on the revitalizing polices in recent years,and points out major long-term challenges for future revitalization.It concludes that for Northeast China,a relative declining area:1) it is indispensable to get the long-term policy support from the central government;2) system reform and structure adjustment are the crucial strategies,particularly the reform of the large and medium state-owned enterprises;and developing new industries is as important as upgrading traditional advantaged industries;3) the local governments should play an indirect role,avoiding from any unnecessary intervention on economic activity;and 4) social security and investment climate must be improved simultaneously.In addition,the author stresses that the lack of knowledge on the nature of old industrial base had led to failures of the past initiatives,and revitalizing the old industrial base should be treated as a holistic regional project including economy growth,society progress and environment improvement.

  5. Lessons learned and new challenges for integrated assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the first government-sponsored demands for integrated assessment to support decision making in the United States is embodied in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Over the past 25 years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported federal agencies` in evaluating health and environmental impacts as required by NEPA. Many of ORNL`s efforts have focused on complex, programmatic assessments that break new ground and require and integrate expertise from a wide range of technical disciplines. Examples of ORNL projects that illustrate the use of integrated assessment approaches include environmental documentation for: (1) the Department of the Army`s Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s licensing activities related to the Owens River Basin in eastern California and along a 500-mile reach of the upper Ohio River, and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s decision regarding restart of the undamaged reactor (Unit 1) at Three Mile Island. Our discussion of these examples illustrates successful integrated assessment approaches and identifies new challenges facing integrated assessment activities.

  6. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system.

  7. Publishing Activity of RAS Economic Institutes amid New Challenges of Science Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tret’yakova Ol’ga Valentinovna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New challenges of science policy in Russia have determined a number of objectives which require scientific institutions to implement specific solutions aimed at improving research quality and efficiency. Since the evaluation of research results requires the use of different metrics, including bibliometrics, the main issue lies in the choice of indicators which can be used to conduct multi-analysis. The aim of this study is to implement the holistic approach to bibliometric assessment of scientific institutions and to analyze the performance of academic activity of economic institutions on the basis of the proposed criteria. The article summarizes the results of scientometric indicators monitoring, conducted at the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The analysis is based on a large set of publications of academic economic institutions for the period 2011–2015. The informational basis of the research includes data of the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI. The institutions were ranked by a number of criteria: total number of publications in the RSCI and journals from the VAK list of Publications, number of citations. The author analyses the h-index value dynamics and indicators characterizing the number of publications considered as most-cited for the reference group in question. Conclusions and data obtained during analysis may be useful for studying development trends of economic science in Russia and assessing the performance of scientific organizations based on researching the dynamics of individual publication indicators and their comparison by reference group

  8. Brazil’s international economic placement: the challenges of the Dilma government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sennes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s recent growth – combined with the optimum conditions of its external accounts and the realisation of its macroeconomic policies – has placed the country in a good position to recover its public policies and strategies over the long term. Several of these policies began to be implemented in the final years of Lula da Silva’s government, and they should be continued during Dilma Rousseff’s current government, by focusing particularly on public investment policy, industrial and technology policy and regional economic placement. However, the positive results of the current period have begun to reveal a number of limitations and shortcomings. These will be the specific challenges for the Rousseff government over the coming years.

  9. The Third Reich’s Macroeconomic Policies: Enablers of Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    2 consumerism was picking-up since sales tax receipts were showing gains and more Germans were returning to the workforce than in years past.3 The...access to employment and education . Putting the new order into context of Kuhne’s theory, noting that people’s behavior is dependent on how they perceive...were looked on with a higher level of prominence and support from the national government. One such measure of support for farmers was the passage

  10. Fractional-order in a macroeconomic dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S. A.; Quintino, D. D.; Soliani, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we applied the Riemann-Liouville approach in order to realize the numerical simulations to a set of equations that represent a fractional-order macroeconomic dynamic model. It is a generalization of a dynamic model recently reported in the literature. The aforementioned equations have been simulated for several cases involving integer and non-integer order analysis, with some different values to fractional order. The time histories and the phase diagrams have been plotted to visualize the effect of fractional order approach. The new contribution of this work arises from the fact that the macroeconomic dynamic model proposed here involves the public sector deficit equation, which renders the model more realistic and complete when compared with the ones encountered in the literature. The results reveal that the fractional-order macroeconomic model can exhibit a real reasonable behavior to macroeconomics systems and might offer greater insights towards the understanding of these complex dynamic systems.

  11. Technological changes on the macroeconomic level—mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shananin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two of the technological changes on the macroeconomic level. The first type is due to changes of addresses of mutual deliveries between producers and the second type is due to technological progress.

  12. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  13. The relationship between exchange rate and macroeconomic variables in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wei Su

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide evidences on the relationship betweenRenminbi (RMB exchange rate and macroeconomic variables in China, as well asguidelines for reform of RMB exchange rate regime. The long-run equilibriumrelationship between RMB exchange rate and macroeconomic variables of Chinais examined by applying the non-parametric rank tests proposed by Breitung.Furthermore, this study uses the threshold error-correction model (TECM todetect the nonlinear casual relationship between RMB exchange rate andmacroeconomic variables that are nonlinear forms. The results show that RMBexchange rate and macroeconomic variables have nonlinear relationship witheach other. In the long run, these results demonstrate solid evidence that RMBexchange rate and macroeconomic variables support the hypothesis of anasymmetrical error-correction process in China. Our results have important policyimplications for Chinese government under study.

  14. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  15. The Birth of the Regulated Company in the Macroeconomic Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandru BODISLAV

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzes the mode of evolution of an economy at macroeconomic level, backward-pyramidal evolution from the capitalism structure, the appearance of the free enterprise and the corporate...

  16. a review of selected macroeconomic factors impacting building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2011-09-27

    Sep 27, 2011 ... procurement in Nigeria. The influence of the macro-economic indicators on this problem cannot ..... Hillebrandt, P. M. (2000) Economic Theory and the Construction Industry. ... Udeh, C. (1991), Contract Administration in.

  17. Interactive macroeconomics stochastic aggregate dynamics with heterogeneous and interacting agents

    CERN Document Server

    Di Guilmi, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    One of the major problems of macroeconomic theory is the way in which the people exchange goods in decentralized market economies. There are major disagreements among macroeconomists regarding tools to influence required outcomes. Since the mainstream efficient market theory fails to provide an internal coherent framework, there is a need for an alternative theory. The book provides an innovative approach for the analysis of agent based models, populated by the heterogeneous and interacting agents in the field of financial fragility. The text is divided in two parts; the first presents analytical developments of stochastic aggregation and macro-dynamics inference methods. The second part introduces macroeconomic models of financial fragility for complex systems populated by heterogeneous and interacting agents. The concepts of financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics are explained in detail in separate chapters. The statistical physics approach is applied to explain theories of macroeconomic modelling a...

  18. Cognitive modeling and multi criteria decision making in macroeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova Nina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in macroeconomics belongs to the class of ill-structured tasks with strong external factors interdependence, a limited number of management tools and experts groups' subjectivity. This paper suggests a technique of macroeconomic analysis which includes methods of cognitive modeling for formalizing a problem situation and scenario generation as a basis of the typical multicriteria decision making task. In turn, for solving this task is suggested a method based on measuring the distance to the 'ideal' solution with determining importance of criteria by finding objective, common component of all values measured by experts groups. For extracting this 'commonality' means of factor analysis are used. Such an approach allows separating of the objective part in experts' value from a subjective one, while the technique at whole provides formalization of macroeconomic problems and substantiation of decision-making in macroeconomics.

  19. MACROECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT AND GREENFIELD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT OF HOTEL BRANDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joze Peric; Maja Niksic Radic

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study is to assess the macroeconomic environment, the effects of greenfield FDI in tourism and, consequently, the presence of global hotel brands using the comparative analysis...

  20. The challenge of comparative health policy research for applied medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C E

    1984-01-01

    In this paper I argue that medical anthropologists can work in settings outside of academia to effect policy and that this work can simultaneously contribute to scientific knowledge and to the discipline of anthropology. In doing this, I first discuss the concept of policy and bind these ideas within the framework of health policy. Then I discuss the roles of anthropologists in the health policy field and the problems of selecting issues for research and the concern about the dichotomy between pure and applied research. Finally, I review some key health policy issues in American society and discuss how medical anthropologists can work toward practicing their craft in practical ways.

  1. Immediate challenge of combating climate change: Effective implementation of energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvaj, Zoran; Bukarica, Vesna

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the most readily available, rapid and cost-effective way to achieve desired greenhouse gases reductions. Therefore, it is the focus of energy and climate change policies world wide. The results of these policies are still missing in the desired extent, even in the EU, which has the most advanced energy efficiency policy. The main reason behind this policy failure is a complete lack of focus on implementing capacities that would ensure full policy uptake. Embracing full-scale energy management systems in public and business sectors and mobilisation of and cooperation between all stakeholders are the way towards higher efficiency.

  2. The macroeconomics of public sector deficits : a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Fiscal deficits have been at the forefront of macroeconomic adjustment in the 1980s, both in developing and developed countries. Fiscal deficits were blamed in good part for the assortment of ills that beset developing countries in the 1980s: over-indebtedness leading to the debt crisis beginning in 1982, high inflation, and poor investment and growth performance. This paper will examine the evidence for the macroeconomic effects of fiscal deficits, using the results of a set of ten case stud...

  3. Macroeconomics Variables and the Stock Market : The Case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yelyubayev, Talgat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic variables and the Russian stock market. Following macroeconomic variables are used: industrial production, consumer price index, discount rate, exchange rate and oil prices. Index of the MICEX stock exchange is chosen to represent the Russian market. Monthly time series data of mentioned variables are used and time span covers September 1997 to April 2011 period. Empirical analysis consists of applying Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF...

  4. Macroeconomic Factors and the Correlation of Stock and Bond Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfeng Li

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the correlation between stock and bond returns. It first documents that the major trends in stock-bond correlation for G7 countries follow a similar reverting pattern in the past forty years. Next, an asset pricing model is employed to show that the correlation of stock and bond returns can be explained by their common exposure to macroeconomic factors. The link between the stock-bond correlation and macroeconomic factors is examined using three successively more realistic...

  5. Realized Bond-Stock Correlation: Macroeconomic Announcement Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Ranaldo, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of macroeconomic announcements on the realized correlation between bond and stock returns. Our results deliver insights into the dominating drivers of bond-stock comovements. We find that it is not so much the surprise component of the announcement, but the mere fact that an announcement occurs that influences the realized bond-stock correlation. The impact of macroeconomic announcements varies across the business cycle. Announcement effects are highly dependent on ...

  6. The Czech Equity Market - Its Effectiveness and Macroeconomic Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Horská

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines features of the Czech stock market’s development from 1997 to 2003 and attempts to unveil the macroeconomic consequences of stock-price development. The analysis of the stock market’s behavior supports a cautionary stance on the hypothesis of the efficient-market theory, even in its weak form. Another finding, as regards the macroeconomic consequences of stock-price development, undermined the assumption of the positive wealth effect of rising stocks. In relation to GDP gr...

  7. [Paradigms in the analysis of public health policies: limitations and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Zapata, Walter; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo; Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Alvarez-Del Castillo, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Research on health policies is considered essential to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of public policies. Analyses of public health policies have various objectives, including helping to solve the problems for which the policy was originated. That objective faces two large obstacles: (1) the ambiguity and heterogeneity of the models applied for the analysis of public policies, conditions that hinder the selection of analytical methods and the assessment of the scope of the objective; and (2) the traditional methodological approaches that limit the capacity of analyses to help solve the problems detected. This paper reviews the epistemology of the predominant models of public health policy analysis in order to assess their scope and limitations. It concludes that the development of new conceptual approaches could improve the quality of research on public policies and their ability to favorably impact decisions.

  8. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrickson Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For children with rheumatic conditions, the available pediatric rheumatology workforce mitigates their access to care. While the subspecialty experiences steady growth, a critical workforce shortage constrains access. This three-part review proposes both national and international interim policy solutions for the multiple causes of the existing unacceptable shortfall. Part I explores the impact of current educational deficits and economic obstacles which constrain appropriate access to care. Proposed policy solutions follow each identified barrier. Challenges consequent to obsolete, limited or unavailable exposure to pediatric rheumatology include: absent or inadequate recognition or awareness of rheumatic disease; referral patterns that commonly foster delays in timely diagnosis; and primary care providers' inappropriate or outdated perception of outcomes. Varying models of pediatric rheumatology care delivery consequent to market competition, inadequate reimbursement and uneven institutional support serve as additional barriers to care. A large proportion of pediatrics residency programs offer pediatric rheumatology rotations. However, a minority of pediatrics residents participate. The current generalist pediatrician workforce has relatively poor musculoskeletal physical examination skills, lacking basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine. To compensate, many primary care providers rely on blood tests, generating referrals that divert scarce resources away from patients who merit accelerated access to care for rheumatic disease. Pediatric rheumatology exposure could be enhanced during residency by providing a mandatory musculoskeletal medicine rotation that includes related musculoskeletal subspecialties. An important step is the progressive improvement of many providers' fixed referral and laboratory testing patterns in lieu of sound physical examination skills. Changing demographics and persistent reimbursement disparities will

  9. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 2: title VII of the civil rights act and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  10. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  11. A Taylor Rule for Fiscal Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070970777

    2011-01-01

    In times of rapid macroeconomic change it would seem useful for both fiscal and monetary policy to be modified frequently. This is true for monetary policy with monthly meetings of the Open Market Committee. It is not true for fiscal policy which mostly varies with the annual Congressional budget

  12. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  13. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Doris, E.; Krasko, V.; Hillman, D.

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  14. 宏观经济学中的长期与短期%Long-term and Short-term of Macroeconomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小仲

    2013-01-01

    The long-term and short-term factors in macroeconomics are intertwined and interacting. Modern macroeconomics theory is mainly based on the wage and price adjustment speed to define long-term and short-term, study macroeconomics variable decisions in long-term and short-term, using different model analyze long-term and short-term problem, study the ef-fects of macroeconomics policy on long-term and short-term perspective, and attempts through a combination of long and short approach to compatible main macroeconomics theoretical divergences.%宏观经济中的长期和短期因素交织在一起并且相互作用。现代宏观经济学主要依据工资和价格调整速度来界定长期和短期,研究宏观经济变量的长期和短期决定,运用不同模型分析长期问题和短期问题,从长期和短期视角考察宏观经济政策效应,并试图通过长期和短期相结合的方法兼容宏观经济学主要流派的理论分歧。

  15. Commonalities and challenges: a review of Australian state and territory maternity and child health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Donovan, Jenny; Kruske, Sue; Kemp, Lynn; Homer, Caroline; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-12-01

    Nurses and midwives play a key role in providing universal maternal, child and family health services in Australia. However, the Australian federation of states and territories has resulted in policy frameworks that differ across jurisdictions and services that are fragmented across disciplines and sectors. This paper reports the findings of a study that reviewed and synthesised current Australian service policy or frameworks for maternity and child health services in order to identify the degree of commonality across jurisdictions and the compatibility with international research on child development. Key maternity and child health service policy documents in each jurisdiction were sourced. The findings indicate that current policies were in line with international research and policy directions, emphasising prevention and early intervention, continuity of care, collaboration and integrated services. The congruence of policies suggests the time is right to consider the introduction of a national approach to universal maternal, child health services.

  16. Shifting Policy Postures of Indonesia and Thailand: Responding to the China Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    when a state is able to pursue engagement policies concurrently with indirect or soft-balancing policies , so that the state can “ cultivate a middle...second largest coal exporter and world’s largest palm oil exporter, and these natural resources are becoming increasingly vital to fuel China’s...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SHIFTING POLICY

  17. Educational Policy Reform and its Impact on Equity Work in Ontario: Global Challenges and Local Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goli M. Rezai-Rashti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the effects of global policy discourses on the educational restructuring of the work of equity workers in Ontario, Canada. Research in two school boards with those directly involved in equity work revealed that the restructuring process had uneven and unexpected effects on the activities of equity workers. Using the critical policy analysis framework, the analysis moves into a discussion of the complexities of policy studies. I argue that the policies introduced at the government level are implemented and practiced on the basis of the historical specificities found at each local site. (Note 1

  18. Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew; Jones, Charles

    2009-02-18

    The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.

  19. On capital flows and macroeconomic performance: Evidence before and after the financial crisis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kandil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper sheds light on the Turkish experience of capital account liberalization and its effect on key macroeconomic variables, using quarterly data in a multivariate VAR model. We also take into consideration the crisis breakpoint in 2001 and estimate the effect of shocks attributed to capital flows, using quarterly data during the sub-periods 1989:01–2001:01 and 2001:02–2009:03. The findings indicate that capital flows have varying effects on the Turkish economy before and after the crisis in 2001 and the evidence supports significant effects of liberalizing financial flows on macroeconomic performance, especially during the post-crisis period (2001:02–2009:03. Moreover, this latter period exhibited evidence of sterilization policy that has helped mopping up excess liquidity and containing inflationary pressures. These factors seem to signal deliberate efforts by the Central Bank of Turkey to stem the risk of appreciation of the real exchange rate and preserve export competitiveness during periods of high financial inflows, a trend that has been reversed recently by the surge in outflows and currency depreciation in many emerging markets in anticipation of imminent normalization of monetary policy in the United States.

  20. Excess Liquidity, Housing Price Booms and Policy Challenges in China%Excess Liquidity, Housing Price Booms and Policy Challenges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Guo; Chen Li

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating asymmetric cost and benefit of supplying excess liquidity into an otherwise standard time inconsistency model this paper offers an explanation of the excess liquidity and housing price booms recently experienced in China. We find that the central bank's incentive to stimulate eeonomie growth with excess liquidity fuels real estate prices and accelerates inflation bias. Therefore, the central bank should free itself from the pressure to achieve an economic growth rate higher than the potential level and assign an appropriate weight to the real estate price fluctuations in the central bank's objective function, so that the central bank "s policy of stimulating economic growth with excess liquidity can be constrained.