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Sample records for macrochirus salmo gairdneri

  1. Stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 and Benzocaine in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1970-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized with M.S. 222 for periods up to 12 min experience interrenal ascorbate depletion, uremia, and moderate hypercholesterolemia. Anesthesia with neutralized M.S. 222 (pH 7) or benzocaine prevented these changes and significantly reduced the variability in plasma glucose, cholesterol, and cortisol, indicating that the stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 is due to the low pK of the sulfonic acid moiety.

  2. Pigmentation of salmonids: Factors affecting carotenoid deposition in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    OpenAIRE

    Torrissen, Ole

    1984-01-01

    Factors affecting carotenoid deposition in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were investigated in three feeding experiments. The deposition of astaxanthin in the flesh increased significantly with increasing levels of astaxanthin in the diet decreased the ratios of astaxanthin in flesh to astaxanthin in diet. Fish size, dietary fat quality and vitamin E supplementation seemed to have no effect on the astaxanthin deposition. Depletion of the amount of astaxanthin in the flesh suggests metaboliza...

  3. Effect of capture stress on plasma enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, G.R.; Cairns, M. A.; Christian, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    Four capture methods were used to collect domesticated rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): angling, electroshocking, seining, and direct netting (control). Blood was sampled rapidly upon capture, usually within 2 min. No significant differences were noted within the time frame of the experiment between the four capture groups for plasma protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase activity, or leucine aminonaphthylamidase activity. Creatine phosphokinase activity was elevated among electroshocked fish. Acid phosphatase activity was too low for accurate measurement. Hematocrits were significantly elevated by capture struggles. These results indicate that these capture methods do not preclude the use of plasma enzyme levels for investigating the health of wild fish. Key words: plasma enzyme, capture stress, physiology, plasma protein, rainbow trout, lactate dehydrogenase, leucine aminonaphthylamidase, creatine phosphokinase

  4. Tolerance to gas supersaturation in freshwater and seawater by steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, G.R.; King, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The euryhaline status of steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, smolts was challenged in sea water for 2 weeks after which half of the total fish population was returned to fresh water. Acclimation continued and created two test populations in 29%osea water and fresh water. Subsequently these fish were exposed in fresh water or sea water to approximately equal hyperbaric dissolved total gas pressures (ΔP) of 190 mm Hg or about 125% of barometric pressure. Sea water was easier to supersaturate with air and required only about 10% of the entrained air which was required in fresh water at the same temperature and pressure. Mean time to first mortality was sooner in sea water. Mean times to mortality (10–50%) were not significantly different between fresh water and sea water, but there was a noticeable trend for longer survival in fresh water.

  5. Studies on the metabolism of astaxanthin in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khalifah, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Racemic astaxanthin was fed to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The fish showed a bright pink coloration of the skin and flesh; the highest amount of astaxanthin was found in the skin of fish fed the test diet for six weeks. Lutein, 3-epilutein, and zeaxanthin were also detected in the flesh and skin; it was concluded that astaxanthin was converted to zeaxanthin in the skin. The mean vitamin A content of the liver was determined; the ratio of vitamin A/sub 1/:vitamin A/sub 2/ was approximately 1:3. Retinol and 3,4-dehydroretinol were extracted from the intestine of rainbow trout low in vitamin A, after force feeding with astaxanthin using a feeding tube. Antibiotic-treated fish had no marked difference in vitamin A content compared with a control group that received no antibiotic. This proves that astaxanthin was converted to vitamin A in fish depleted of vitamin A, that microorganisms were not involved in the conversion, and that conversion occurred in the intestine. An in vitro study using /sup 3/H 3S, 3S'-astaxanthin incubated with duodenal and ileal segments of the intestine provided HLPC and radioisotope data, which showed that rainbow trout were able to bioconvert astaxanthin to vitamin A.

  6. Oxygen Consumption and Swimming Performance in Hypoxia-Acclimated Rainbow Trout Salmo Gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BUSHNELL, PG; STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K

    1984-01-01

    1. Swimming performance and oxygen consumption of normoxic (control) and hypoxia-acclimated (P002=40 mmHg) rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, were monitored at >145, 60 and 40mmHg. 2. Maximum swimming velocity at 40mmHg was reduced from >54.8cm s-1 to 41.4cm s1 in controls and to 40.6 cm s......Hg did not significantly change oxygen consumption in control animals, although no fish (control or hypoxia acclimated) completed swimming trials at 54.8cm s-1 in 40mmHg. 5. Oxygen consumption of hypoxia-acclimated fish at 5.5cm s-1 and 40 mmHg was significantly higher than oxygen uptake in normoxia...... at the same speed. This relative increase was not maintained, however, as oxygen consumption at higher swimming speeds was similar to that in normoxia. 6. Blood studies showed that hypoxia-acclimated fish had lower ATP concentrations and P50 values. While these factors may increase the blood oxygen loading...

  7. Localisation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) in the forebrain and neurohypophysis of the trout (salmo gairdneri). An immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, H J; Murathanoglu, O

    1977-07-11

    The double antibody immunofluorescence technique was applied to serial coronal and sagittal sections of the brains of the trout, Salmo gairdneri, using an antibody against mammalian LH-RH. Immunoreactive material was found in small perikarya, situated at both sides of the ventriculus communis in the area dorsalis pars medialis of the telencephalon. The axons of these perikarya, also containing immunoreactive material, do not form a tract, but run diffusely in a caudo-ventral direction towards the pituitary stalk. The ending of these fibres has not yet been established.

  8. Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 μg/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

  9. Functional units in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) liver: III. Morphometric analysis of parenchyma, stroma, and component cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, J A; Lantz, R C; Hinton, D E

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic stroma and parenchyma with its component cell types were quantitatively described in adult male and female actively-spawning 5-year-old rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Point-count morphometry of glycol methacrylate sections estimated volume compartments for stroma and parenchyma. Veins composed 85% of the stroma while arteries and bile ducts occupied approximately 6-7% each. Parenchyma accounted for 95% of hepatic volume. Point-count morphometry of transmission electron micrographs estimated volume compartments as well as numerical and surface density measurements for parenchymal components. Within the hepatic parenchymal compartment, hepatocytes occupied 85% and showed significant sex differences. Female hepatocytes were significantly more numerous but were smaller, only 60% of the volume of male hepatocytes. Since hepatocyte nuclear volume was equal in both sexes, differences were due to reduced cytoplasmic volume in females. Perisinusoidal macrophages of females occupied larger volumes of their respective parenchymal compartments, and their larger mean cytoplasmic volumes suggested activation. Biliary epithelial cells of preductules and ductules were numerous. Ratios of numerical density of hepatocytes to biliary epithelial cells were consistent with a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes. Factors possibly mediating the sexual dimorphism are discussed.

  10. Distribution of radioactivity in the chondrichthyes Squalus acanthias and the osteichthyes salmo gairdneri following intragastric administration of (9-/sup 14/C)phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbakken, J.E.; Palmork, K.H.

    1980-12-01

    The fate of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) in marine animals has received increasing attention in the last decade. The present studies dealing with spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) are part of a series of experiments with different marine organisms. All the experiments were performed under the same laboratory conditions using intragastric administration of the PAH-component, /sup 14/C-labelled phenanthrene. Thus it is possible to compare species differences of disposition of PAH in various marine organisms. The most pronounced differences in the disposition of phenanthrene between bony fish and cartilaginous fish in our studies are that the maximum value of radioactivity in the liver of cartilaginous fish occurred several days later than the corresponding value in bony fish. Furthermore, the radioactivity in cartilaginous fish was retained at a high level beyond 672 h (28 days), a time at which the radioactivity in bony fish is near the background values.

  11. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

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    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  12. Histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Gerald R.

    1979-01-01

    The histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) was studied in frozen tissue sections of rainbow trout both in yearling and adult fish. Age of fish had relatively little effect upon the results. The most intense LAN color production was in epithelial cells of midgut, pyloric ceca, hindgut, and in some segments of kidney tubules. Lower levels of LAN were evident in liver cells of Kupffer, and still lower or slight levels of LAN activity were found in blood cells, muscle, nerve, connective tissue, gonad, and pancreas. The results indicate that LAN might be useful in assessing histotoxicity to LAN-rich areas of the body.

  13. Mercury Concentrations of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) Vary by Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Madenjian, Charles P.; James T. Francis; Jeffrey J. Braunscheidel; Joseph R. Bohr; Matthew J. Geiger; G. Mark Knottnerus

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from...

  14. Role of intestinal microflora in the degradation of DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Though liver homogenates show apparent microsomal enzyme DDT-dehydrochlorinase activity, in the intact fish the intestinal microflora play a major role in DDT detoxication. Since the presence of this microflora in fish depends on the recent intake of food (12), the rate of detoxication and hence the toxicity of ingested DDT to the rainbow trout will probably depend somewhat on the available food supply.

  15. Effects of phenol on ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The ATPase specific activities from crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout were lower than those from microsomal preparations reported in the literature. Sodium pump activity (ouabain sensitive NaK-ATPase) was demonstrable at 37/sup 0/C. An ouabain insensitive NaK-ATPase was demonstrable at temperatures below 30/sup 0/C and may represent a Na-ATPase activity reported by others. Energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C for total NaK-ATPase ws 10,500 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity had an energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C of 15,600 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity was thermally labile at temperatures in excess of 30/sup 0/C. Concentrations of Mg/sup +2/ in excess of 5 mM appeared to inhibit total NaK-ATPase activity. At 37/sup 0/C, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ exerted little, if any, stimulatory effect on ATPase activities, in spite of the fact that 37/sup 0/C was the only temperature at which sodium pump activity was demonstrable. MS-222 failed to produce any discernible changes in any of the demonstrable ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates. Total NaK-ATPase activities were more sensitive than Mg-baseline activities to in vitro inhibition by phenol. Concentrations of phenol which produce 50% inhibition in total NaK-ATPase produced only 35% inhibition in Mg-baseline activity. The nature of in vitro inhibition was uncompetitive. Sodium pump activity was unaffected by phenol at concentrations as high as 25 mM. An effort was made to demonstrate an in vivo effects of phenol on rainbow trout gill ATPase activites. An infestation of a parasite (Gyrodactilus) on the experimental fish precludes any definative assessment of in vivo effects.

  16. Selenium-induced autometallographic demonstration of endogenous zinc in organs of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1989-01-01

    of selenium obtained by each organ was determined by gamma-spectrometry, and compared with the autometallographic deposition of silver grains. The relative accumulation of selenium in the organs was: liver greater than spleen greater than kidney greater than intestine greater than gills greater than brain...... greater than muscle. In the fish labelled with 10 and 25 ppm Se, AMG-deposits were found (1) within lysosomes of liver cells, (2) within the granules and on the nuclear membrane of melanophores in the spleen, (3) on the microvilli and in the apical cytoplasm of renal proximal tubular cells, (4) within...

  17. Distribution of /sup 14/C-ochratoxin A in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.-E.; Hult, K.

    1986-01-01

    The nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was studied in rainbow trout by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting using /sup 14/C-labelled toxin. After one single intravenous injection of 10 ..mu..Ci fish, corresponding to 160 ng toxin/g body weight, the tissue affinity was studied during an eight day period. As soon as 5 min. after injection the concentration of the radioactivity in the blood had dropped to one tenth of that in the kidney and the urinary bladder. The autoradiograms showed two patterns of blackening in the kidney, one diffuse in the pronephros and one very strong blackening in the opistonephros. In addition to the kidney very high concentrations of radioactivity were also noticed in the bile and the pseudobranch. The muscular tissue of treated trouts contained almost no radioactivity during the whole experiment. Chemical analysis revealed that the radioactivity that could be extracted from the organs was mainly ochratoxin A.

  18. L'insémination artificielle de la truite Salmo gairdneri Richardson.

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    BILLARD R.

    1975-01-01

    Après dilution les spermatozoïdes restent immobilisés lorsque la concentration en KCl du dilueur dépasse 10 mmol/l. Cette immobilisation est réversible pour des concentrations en KCl comprises entre 10 et 30 mmol/l. Au contraire la fécondabilité des ovules est légèrement diminuée lorsque la concentration en KCl du dilueur atteint 10 mmol/l. Cependant des possibilités d'utilisation de la technique de double dilution lors de l'insémination artificielle de la Truite sont envisageables.

  19. Movements and behavior of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) determined by radio telemetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.D.

    1976-08-01

    The organization of this thesis reflects the development of underwater radio tracking methodology for monitoring movements of freshwater fish. Equipment and techniques developed during this research are described in Part I and represent a cooperative effort between the author and the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek engineering staff. In 1970, the equipment and techniques were tested and perfected during a study of largemouth bass movements in Mary Lake. The bass project provided an ideal situation to test the system. Since Mary Lake was small and the bass exhibited localized movements, the fish could be found easily; consequently, the performance of the system could be continually analyzed and problems could be quickly solved. The home range movements of the bass are described in Part II. After establishing the reliability and usefulness of the system, a much more difficult project was attempted. In 1971, a program was initiated to study the movements and behavior of steelhead in western Lake Superior. Results of this project (1971 to 1974) are presented in Part III.

  20. Mercury concentrations of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Francis, James T.; Braunscheidel, Jeffrey J.; Bohr, Joseph R.; Geiger, Matthew J.; Knottnerus, G. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI), USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g) was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g). Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.

  1. Growth, life history, and species interactions of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) under heavy predation

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    Belk, M.C. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this study was, first, to compare growth and life history characteristics of an unfished population of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) in the presence of an abundant predator population to characteristic exhibited by bluegills in typical southeastern US reservoirs where the abundance of predators is reduced, but fishing is increased. The second objective was to determine if differences observed between populations were determined genetically or environmentally.

  2. [Transketolase activity in thiamine deficiency of the kidney in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) following continous feeding with raw hearring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, R; Spannhof, L

    1977-04-01

    The feeding of crude, thiaminase-containing herring to rainbow trout produced external symptoms of thiamine deficiency after a period of 150 days. The level of transketolase activity in the kidney decreased continuously until the first appearance of deficiency symptoms, while the TPP effect showed an upward trend. After prolonged feeding of crude herring the decline of transketolase activity is accompanied by a deficiency of the apoenzyme of transketolase. The administration of thiamine-containing food to the thiamine-deficient animals induced an immediate increase n transketolase activity. Once the external deficiency symptoms are very pronounced the death of the animal can only, if at all, be prevented by an injectionof thiaminie.

  3. Effect of burst swimming and adrenaline infusion on O2 consumption and CO2 excretion in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, J F; Tufts, B L; Randall, D J

    1987-01-01

    1. Immediately following burst swimming, the oxygen consumption of rainbow trout increased by 71%, carbon dioxide excretion by 104% and the respiratory exchange ratio by 17%. 80 min after burst swimming all of these parameters had returned to levels which were not significantly different from...... control values. 2. Infusion of adrenaline into resting fish had no significant effect on oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide excretion and therefore there was no significant change in the respiratory exchange ratio. 3. This infusion of adrenaline caused a significant elevation in the red blood cell p......H which was still present 80 min later. 4. The present results contrast with those of van den Thillart, Randall & Lin (1983), who demonstrated carbon dioxide retention after burst swimming. While it is possible that catecholamines may inhibit bicarbonate flux through the red blood cell, our experiments...

  4. Phylogeography of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in the Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kouichi; Yonekura, Ryuji; Katano, Osamu; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi River Basin supports the richest fish fauna in eastern North America and has played a key role in the maintenance of fish biodiversity, especially as a refuge for freshwater fishes during glaciations. In this study, we investigated the phylogeography of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in eastern North America, using complete sequence of the mitochondrial ND1 gene from 369 samples collected at 15 sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major lineages (northern and southern clades) in a parsimony network. A sympatric distribution of the lineages was widely observed in the Mississippi Basin. Sequence diversity in the two lineages was significantly lower in glaciated regions around the Great Lakes than in unglaciated regions. The two lineages were estimated to have diverged in the Kansan glaciation, and refugia for both existed around the Ouachita Highlands. The southern clade dispersed during the Yasmouth Interglacial, prior to the dispersal of the northern clade during the Sangamon Interglacial. In the northern clade, low genetic diversity and population fragmentation inferred by nested clade analysis (NCA) were considered due to bottleneck events in the Wisconsin glaciation, while the southern clade showed isolation by distance in a Mantel test. A difference in demographic fluctuation suggests that sympatry of the two lineages has resulted from recent secondary admixture through the range expansion of the northern clade in the post-Pleistocene. Large-scale admixture of multiple mtDNA lineages in L. macrochirus, which has not been recorded in other fishes in the Mississippi River Basin, may result from their high vagility.

  5. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of waterborne and dietary selenium in juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Laverne; Little, Edward E.; Buckler, Denny R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to waterborne selenium as a 6:1 mixture of selenate to selenite (as Se) for 60 d and to dietary seleno-l-methionine for 90 d. Measured concentrations of total selenium in the waterborne exposure ranged from 0.16 to 2.8 mg/l, and concentrations of seleno-l-methionine in the test diet ranged from 2.3 to 25.0 mg/kg wet weight. Mortality, body weight, condition factor, swimming and feeding behavior, aggression, and selenium tissue residues were monitored during the tests. Increased mortality at measured concentrations of 0.64 mg Se/l and greater was the primary adverse effect of waterborne selenium on the juvenile bluegill. Bluegill exposed to 2.8 mg/l of waterborne Se for 30 d exhibited a significant reduction in condition factor (K), whereas dietary exposure of bluegill to 25 mg Se/kg for 30 d and 13 mg Se/kg or greater for 90 d elicited significant reductions in K. Mortality and swimming activity of bluegill were not affected in the dietary exposure. Net accumulation of Se from both water and diet was directly related to exposure concentration. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 5 to 7 for bluegill exposed to waterborne Se and from 0.5 to 1.0 for fish exposed to dietary Se. Results of these laboratory tests indicate that survival of bluegill may be impaired in natural waters with elevated Se concentrations.

  6. STUDY OF Salmo GENUS (PISCES, SALMONIDAE ON THE BALKAN PENINSULA

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    Simo Georgijev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Author disputes the position of the authors K o t t e l a t (1997 and K o t t e l a t & F r e y h o f (2007 about the existence of several species belonging to the Salmo genus in some parts of Balkan Peninsula: Salmo aphelios Kottelat, 1997; Salmo balcanicus (Karaman, 1927; Salmo farioides (Karaman, 1938; Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814; Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924; Salmo lumi Poljakov, Filipi & Basho, 1958; Salmo macedonicus (Karaman, 1924; Salmo montenigrinus (Karaman, 1933; Salmo pelagonicus Karaman, 1938; Salmo peristericus Karaman, 1938; Salmo taleri (Karaman, 1932. Majority of those species were described by dr. Stanko Karaman, the author who is, regarding the number of described species of European freshwater fishes, on the second place, just behind Carl Linnaeus. It is hardly believable that four trout species were formed in a small and oligotrophic microhabitat like Ohrid Lake, or three species in the Vardar River, knowing that the factor of geographic isolation doesn’t exist in either of the habitats. The author’s position is that all of these species are actually just types of one, highly plastic regarding the micro ecological conditions and phenotypic manifestations, species: Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1785. The author supports his opinion by his own results, as well the results of other scientists, obtained through studies of ecology and taxonomy of the brown trout in fluent and still water microhabitats. Also the author suggests that it is unacceptable to apply the terminology immanent to the anthropogenic factor in a sphere of another scientific area where such factor doesn't exist (agronomy-race and biology-natural selection.

  7. Comportement de l'espèce “Salmo trutta” dans le bassin de la Seine. Suite et fin

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    ARRIGNON J.

    1968-04-01

    — The exotic peninsular (Danish stocks gives a higher rate of migratories than the native continental stocks. — Some fishes have irregular removings, either upstream or downstream, to search a more propicious environment. — The breeders are going more or less far to search proper spawning places. — The native populations are very sedentary, if they lives in a stable and inviolate environment. — The concentrations of fishes in Low-Seine includes, vith the same silverwhite skin : — Salmo trutta fario ; — Salmo trutta gairdneri ; — and Salmo salar. But, it is not possible, to make a discrimination between Salmo trutta fario (dulcaquicola ; and Salmo trutta fario (marina. The migrator fishes of the species changes their skin at the time of the physiological motivation and it can be found all the possible links between the sea-trout and the streamtrout.

  8. Biologia reproductiva y estimaciones de poblaciones de la trucha arco iris salmo gairdneri, en dos ríos montañosos de costa Rica

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    Debbie Irwin

    2016-03-01

    También los peces adultos usualmente migran río abajo después del desove y exhiben un comportamiento de territorialidad, lo cual crea mayor dispersión. Se sacrificaron de 5 a 7 individuos por semana para estudiar su biología reproductiva. La proporción de hembras a machos fue de 1,3: 1, indicando esto una distribución aproximadamente igual entre los sexos. Los meses de marzo a abril son los últimos de la época de desove, la cual se calcula comienza en enero. La mayoría de los peces muestreados tenían sus gónadas en las 3 primeras etapas de desarrollo. Unos pocos se encontraron desovando activamente o recientemente gastados. Todo indica que la trucha Arco Iris se reproduce naturalmente en Costa Rica.

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) in striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), milkfish (Chanos chanos), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): comparison with salmon Gn-RH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, N.M.; Harvey, B.; Brownstein, M.J.; Eiden, L.E.

    1984-08-01

    Immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) was extracted from brains of striped mullet, milkfish, rainbow trout, and chum salmon with acetone/HCl and petroleum ether. High pressure liquid chromatography and cross-reactivity studies show mullet, milkfish, and trout brains to contain a peptide chromatographically and immunologically identical to synthetic salmon Gn-RH, while the mammalian form of Gn-RH is detectable in none of these fishes. Gn-RH is present in immature 7-month-old and 4-year-old milkfish. A second immunoreactive peptide is separable by HPLC in all the fish studied. This early-eluting form of Gn-RH is unlikely to be a precursor; its cross-reactivity with antisera R-42 and number185 suggests that any modification is in the C-terminal region. Several possible roles for this peptide are advanced.

  10. Influence of salinity and ratio of lipid to protein in diets on certain enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürss, K; Bittorf, T; Vökler, T

    1985-01-01

    The connection between metabolic and sea water adaptation of the rainbow trout was investigated. The rainbow trout were kept in fresh water and diluted sea water of 8 and 20 0/00 S at 16 degrees C and fed on three different diets for 51 days. Hyperosmotic salinity (20 0/00) tends to inhibit growth in rainbow trout by reducing the food conversion efficiency. A higher protein concentration in the diet can partly compensate for this effect. The liver IDH, G6PDH and 6PGDH activities of the rainbow trout are influenced only by food quality, whereas the liver G1DH, AspT and A1T activities, like the muscle A1T, are also affected by salinity. The salinity had no significant effect on the activities of the kidney enzymes we investigated (Na/K-ATPase, G1DH, A1T, AspT) or of the muscle AspT in these experiments.

  11. Effects of temperature, food deprivation and salinity on growth, RNA/DNA ratio and certain enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürss, K; Bittorf, T; Vökler, T; Wacke, R

    1987-01-01

    1. The connection between feeding regime (food deprivation and restricted diet) and thermal acclimation (1-2, 6, 11 and 16 degrees C) was studied in rainbow trout held in diluted seawater (20% S). 2. At 1 degree C, food deprivation effects on all parameters are slight, and on RNA and certain enzymes they are masked by thermal acclimation effects. 3. At a salinity of 20% rainbow trout on a restricted diet and held at 11 degrees C have the highest growth rate. 4. Owing to increasing RNA levels, the RNA/DNA quotient is significantly higher than normal in rainbow trout held at 1 degree C although the fishes do not grow at this temperature. 5. Temperature and feeding both affect the enzymes we studied (liver: G1DH, AspT, arginase, G6PDH, and 6PGDH; kidney: G1DH, AspT, arginase, and Na/K-ATPase; white muscle: AspT and A1T; gill: Na/K-ATPase) differently. Interactions between these two factors also occur in some cases.

  12. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2008-03-15

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  13. Testing a bioenergetics-based habitat choice model: bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) responses to food availability and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Using an automated shuttlebox system, we conducted patch choice experiments with 32, 8–12 g bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test a behavioral energetics hypothesis of habitat choice. When patch temperature and food levels were held constant within patches but different between patches, we expected bluegill to choose patches that maximized growth based on the bioenergetic integration of food and temperature as predicted by a bioenergetics model. Alternative hypotheses were that bluegill may choose patches based only on food (optimal foraging) or temperature (behavioral thermoregulation). The behavioral energetics hypothesis was not a good predictor of short-term (from minutes to weeks) patch choice by bluegill; the behavioral thermoregulation hypothesis was the best predictor. In the short-term, food and temperature appeared to affect patch choice hierarchically; temperature was more important, although food can alter temperature preference during feeding periods. Over a 19-d experiment, mean temperatures occupied by fish offered low rations did decline as predicted by the behavioral energetics hypothesis, but the decline was less than 1.0 °C as opposed to a possible 5 °C decline. A short-term, bioenergetic response to food and temperature may be precluded by physiological costs of acclimation not considered explicitly in the behavioral energetics hypothesis.

  14. Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and wild source in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Abua; Egilla, Jonathan

    2008-09-15

    Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish muscles (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and natural pond in Missouri were determined using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and the direct mercury analyzer (DMA). Dietary intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Dogfish muscle (DORM-2) and lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2) reference standards were used in trace element recovery and method validations. The average elemental concentrations (mg/kg diet, dry wt.) of fish feed were: As 1.81, Cd 2.37, Co 0.10, Cr 1.42, Cu 8.0, Fe 404, Mn 35.9, Ni 0.51, Pb 9.16, Se 1.71, Sn 20.7, V 0.09, Zn 118 and Hg 0.07. The mean elemental concentrations (μg/kg wet wt.) in bluegill muscles from both aquaculture and wild (in parenthesis) sources were: As 0.36 (0.06), Cd 0.28 (0.01), Co 0.0 (0.0), Cr 0.52 (0.05), Cu 0.38 (0.18), Fe 17.5 (2.43), Mn 0.18 (0.24), Ni 0.18 (0.04), Pb 1.03 (0.04), Se 0.34 (0.30), Sn 0.66 (0.42), V 0.02 (0.01), Zn 6.97 (9.13) and Hg 0.06 (0.24). Kruskal-Wallis chi square indicated significant differences in As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Zn and Hg (Paquaculture and wild bluegills, posed no health risks for approximately 85% of all samples.

  15. Sequence Analysis of the Protein Structure Homology Modeling of Growth Hormone Gene from Salmo trutta caspius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Rezaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the growth hormone protein investigated and characterized from Salmo trutta caspius. Growth hormone gene in the Salmo trutta caspius have six exons in the full length that is translated into a Molecular Weight (kDa: ssDNA: 64.98 and dsDNA: 129.6. There are also 210 amino acid residue. The assembled full length of DNA contains open reading frame of growth hormone gene that contains 15 sequences in the full length. The average GC content is 47% and AT content is 53%. This protein multiple alignment has shown that this peptide is 100% identical to the corresponding homologous protein in the growth hormone protein which including Salmo salar (Accession number: AAA49558.1 and Rainbow trout (Salmo trutta (Accession number: AAA49555.1" sequences. The sequence of protein had deposited in Gene Bank, Accession number: AEK70940. Also we were analyzed second and third structure between sequences reported in Gene Bank Network system. The results are shown, there are homology between second structure in three sequences including: Salmo trutta caspius, Salmo salar and Rainbow trout. Regarding third structure, Salmo trutta caspius and Salmo salar are same type, but Rainbow trout has different homology with Salmo trutta caspius and Salmo salar. However, the sequences were observed three parallel " helix and in second structure there were almost same percent β sheet.

  16. The marine life of sea trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Villar, Diego

    During my PhD. research project I have studied the marine migratory behaviour and survival of wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) juveniles when moving from freshwater to saltwater (i.e. smolts/post-smolts) in two different fjord systems. These studies are focused on the initial marine stage of post...

  17. Comparative toxicity of methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide to freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, S.H.; Knuth, M.L.; Anderson-Buchou, C.D.; Brooke, L.T.; Lima, A.R.; Shubat, P.J.

    1986-10-01

    The organic solvents methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) are used widely as industrial solvents. Although some toxicity data appear in the literature for methanol and DMF, there have been few studies which have been flow-through tests for a standard 48- or 96-h exposure period with measured toxicant concentrations. In this study, 96-h flow-through acute toxicity tests with methanol and DMF were conducted with three species of freshwater fish - rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Static acute toxicity tests (48 h) were conducted with DMF and two species of freshwater invertebrates - a midge (Paratanytarsus parthenogeneticus) and a daphnid (Daphnia magna). Median lethal (LC50) and median effect (EC50) concentrations for 96-h exposures were determined for fish and 48-h EC50's were determined for invertebrates.

  18. Differential Expression of Genes that Control Respiration Contribute to Thermal Adaptation in Redband Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Michael R; Thorgaard, Gary H; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-05-04

    Organisms can adapt to local environmental conditions as a plastic response or become adapted through natural selection on genetic variation. The ability to adapt to increased water temperatures will be of paramount importance for many fish species as the climate continues to warm and water resources become limited. Because increased water temperatures will reduce the dissolved oxygen available for fish, we hypothesized that adaptation to low oxygen environments would involve improved respiration through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To test this hypothesis, we subjected individuals from two ecologically divergent populations of inland (redband) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) with historically different temperature regimes (desert and montane) and their F1 progeny to diel cycles of temperature stress and then examined gene expression data for 80 nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS subunits that participate in respiration. Of the 80 transcripts, 7 showed ≥ 2-fold difference in expression levels in gill tissue from desert fish under heat stress whereas the montane fish had none and the F1 only had one differentially expressed gene. A structural analysis of the proteins encoded by those genes suggests that the response could coordinate the formation of supercomplexes and oligomers. Supercomplexes may increase the efficiency of respiration because complexes I, III, and IV are brought into close proximity and oligomerization of complex V alters the macrostructure of mitochondria to improve respiration. Significant differences in gene expression patterns in response to heat stress in a common environment indicate that the response was not due to plasticity but had a genetic basis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Metales pesados en Trucha Común (Salmo trutta fario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEGORBURU, I., CANTON, L., MILLAN, E., CASADO, A., ALVAREZ, J.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han determinado las concentraciones de metal en hígado branquia y músculo de Trucha común (Salmo trutta fario, procedente de cinco puntos de la cuenca del río Urola. las muestras se analizaron por espectroscopía de absorción atómica, tras su digestión ácida. La distribución de concentraciones es de tipo normal-logarítmico y existe una retención preferente de aluminio, manganeso y zinc en las branquias, mientras el hígado acumula cadmio, hierro y cobre.

  20. Metales pesados en Trucha Común (Salmo trutta fario).

    OpenAIRE

    Legorburu, I.

    1988-01-01

    Se han determinado las concentraciones de metal en hígado branquia y músculo de Trucha común (Salmo trutta fario), procedente de cinco puntos de la cuenca del río Urola. las muestras se analizaron por espectroscopía de absorción atómica, tras su digestión ácida. La distribución de concentraciones es de tipo normal-logarítmico y existe una retención preferente de aluminio, manganeso y zinc en las branquias, mientras el hígado acumula cadmio, hierro y cobre.

  1. Cadmium, metal-binding proteins, and growth in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W. Gregory; Wiener, James G.; Steingraeber, Mark T.; Atchison, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    We exposed juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) to ~1000 mg∙L−1 of continuously suspended river sediment in a 28-d test with six treatments (randomized block with one sediment-free control and five sediments ranging from 1.3 to 21.4 μg Cd∙g dry weight−1). Each treatment had three replicates, each with 25 fish. Growth was reduced by exposure to suspended sediment, probably due to physical effects of sediment on feeding and to toxicity in the treatment with the greatest concentrations of metals. Mean whole-body concentrations of cadmium (0.04–0.14 μg∙g wet weight−1) were correlated with cadmium concentration in filtered water (8–72 ng∙L−1), suspended sediment (0.61–16.8 μg∙L−1), and bulk sediment. The concentration of hepatic nonthionein cytosolic cadmium (cadmium not bound by metal-binding proteins, MBP) in fish exposed to the two most contaminated sediments exceeded that in controls. The mean concentration of hepatic MBP was correlated with cadmium concentration in filtered water, suspended sediment, bulk sediment, and whole fish. Whole-body cadmium concentration was the most sensitive indicator of cadmium exposure, with lowest observed effect concentrations of 1.9 μg Cd∙L−1 for suspended sediment and 13 ng Cd∙L−1 for filtered water. Sediment-associated cadmium was less available than waterborne cadmium for uptake by fish.

  2. A physiological approach to quantifying thermal habitat quality for redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) in the south Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Li, H.; Mesa, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined tissue-specific levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and whole body lipid levels in juvenile redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) from the South Fork of the John Day River (SFJD), Oregon, with the goal of determining if these measures could be used as physiological indicators of thermal habitat quality for juvenile redband trout. Our objectives were to determine the hsp70 induction temperature in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue and characterize the relation between whole body lipids and hsp70 for fish in the SFJD. We found significant increases in hsp70 levels between 19 and 22??C in fin, liver, and white muscle tissue. Maximum hsp70 levels in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue occurred when mean weekly maximum temperatures (MWMT) exceeded 20-22??C. In general, the estimated hsp70 induction temperature for fin and white muscle tissue was higher than liver tissue. Whole body lipid levels began to decrease when MWMT exceeded 20. 4??C. There was a significant interaction between temperature and hsp70 in fin and white muscle tissue, but not liver tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that increased hsp70 levels in juvenile redband trout are symptomatic of thermal stress, and that energy storage capacity decreases with this stress. The possible decrease in growth potential and fitness for thermally stressed individuals emphasizes the physiological justification for thermal management criteria in salmon-bearing streams. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Salmo of the western Balkans, based upon multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovrh, Gašper; Snoj, Aleš; Bajec, Simona Sušnik

    2014-02-03

    Classification of species within the genus Salmo is still a matter of discussion due to their high level of diversity and to the low power of resolution of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based phylogeny analyses that have been traditionally used in evolutionary studies of the genus. We apply a new marker system based on nuclear (n)DNA loci to present a novel view of the phylogeny of Salmo representatives and we compare it with the mtDNA-based phylogeny. Twenty-two nDNA loci were sequenced for 76 individuals of the brown trout complex: Salmo trutta (Danubian, Atlantic, Adriatic, Mediterranean and Duero mtDNA lineages), Salmo marmoratus (marble trout), Salmo obtusirostris (softmouth trout), and Salmo ohridanus (Ohrid belvica or belushka). Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The divergence time of the major clades was estimated using the program BEAST. The existence of five genetic units i.e. S. salar, S. ohridanus, S. obtusirostris, S. marmoratus and the S. trutta complex, including its major phylogenetic lineages was confirmed. Contrary to previous observations, S. obtusirostris was found to be sister to the S. trutta complex and the S. marmoratus clade rather than to the S. ohridanus clade. Reticulate evolution of S. obtusirostris was confirmed and a time for its pre-glacial origin suggested. S. marmoratus was found to be a separate species as S. trutta and S. obtusirostris. Relationships among lineages within the S. trutta complex were weakly supported and remain largely unresolved. Nuclear DNA-based results showed a fairly good match with the phylogeny of Salmo inferred from mtDNA analyses. The comparison of nDNA and mtDNA data revealed at least four cases of mitochondrial-nuclear DNA discordance observed that were all confined to the Adriatic basin of the Western Balkans. Together with the well-known extensive morphological and genetic variability of Balkan trouts, this observation highlights an interesting

  4. Transcriptomic responses to functional feeds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchi, Luca; Bickerdike, Ralph; Douglas, Alex; Secombes, Christopher J; Martin, Samuel A M

    2011-11-01

    Functional feeds are diets that have positive effects on both health and growth promoting performance of the animals ingesting them, by supplying additional compounds above and beyond the basic nutritional requirements for animal growth alone. The most common additives used in aquaculture diets are probiotics, prebiotics, immunostimulants, vitamins and nucleotides. Inclusion of these components to fish diets can increase feed conversion efficiency and growth, as well as having positive effects on the fish immune system. This review discusses the results from previous studies on fish nutrition and includes a novel genomic approach, using microarray analysis, to elucidate nutritional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a newly developed functional feed health premix diet. The transcriptome analysis demonstrated that compared to the standard diet feeding with the functional feed had significant effects on biological processes in the liver. This resulted in a reduction of the expression of genes related to protein turnover, reduced circulating plasma proteins and a down regulation of genes involved in the immune response. These results suggest that the functional feed may infer a decrease in whole body metabolic demands, suppressing both protein turnover and whole body oxygen demand, as well as down regulating several genes involved in the innate immune system. Together these changes appear to result in less energy wastage in fish and an enhanced growth and performance.

  5. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  6. Genetic structure and demographic history of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations from the southern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, A.P.; Madeira, M.J.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2008-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to characterize the genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the southern Balkans and to assess the spread of non-native strains and their introgression into native trout gene pools. We analysed polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci in ...

  7. Investigating the phenology of seaward migration of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, E R.; Tummers, J. S.; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the existence of a downstream autumn-migratory phenotype in juvenile anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta), however the precise timing, extent and ecological significance of such behaviour remains ambiguous. We investigated the phenology of downstream migration of wild...

  8. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, M O; Armstrong, J D; Miles, M S; Burton, T; Groothuis, T G G; Metcalfe, N B

    2011-09-01

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the use of implants for studies of maternal hormonal influences on adult fishes and their offspring.

  9. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Miles, M. S.; Burton, T.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the us

  10. Founder effects and genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Danish river system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1996-01-01

    The influence of founder effects on the genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was studied in a small Danish river system. Samples of trout from seven locations were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...

  11. Influence of -tocopherol on arachidonic acid deposition and peroxidation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fingerlings/Influencia del -tocoferol en la incorporacion y peroxidacion del acido araquidonico en alevines parr de salmon del Atlantico (Salmo salar L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dantagnan, Patricio; Dominguez, Astrid; Borquez, Aliro; Alcaino, Javier; Pavez, Claudio; Hernandez, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic effect of arachidonic acid (ARA) (20:4n-6) and [alpha]-tocopherol on the accumulation of fatty acids and the peroxidation of lipids in liver and muscle was evaluated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles...

  12. Intestinal morphology of the wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkka, Guro; Austbø, Lars; Falk, Knut; Bjerkås, Inge; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2013-08-01

    The worldwide-industrialized production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has increased dramatically during the last decades, followed by diseases related to the on-going domestication process as a growing concern. Even though the gastrointestinal tract seems to be a target for different disorders in farmed fish, a description of the normal intestinal status in healthy, wild salmon is warranted. Here, we provide such information in addition to suggesting a referable anatomical standardization for the intestine. In this study, two groups of wild Atlantic salmon were investigated, consisting of post smolts on feed caught in the sea and of sexually mature, starved individuals sampled from a river. The two groups represent different stages in the anadromous salmon life cycle, which also are part of the production cycle of farmed salmon. Selected regions of gastrointestinal tract were subjected to morphological investigations including immunohistochemical, scanning electron microscopic, and morphometric analyses. A morphology-based nomenclature was established, defining the cardiac part of the stomach and five different regions of the Atlantic salmon intestine, including pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine with pyloric caeca, first segment of the mid-intestine posterior to pyloric caeca, second segment of the mid-intestine and posterior intestinal segment. In each of the above described regions, for both groups of fish, morphometrical measurements and regional histological investigations were performed with regards to magnitude and direction of mucosal folding as well as the composition of the intestinal wall. Additionally, immunohistochemistry showing cells positive for cytokeratins, α-actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in addition to alkaline phosphatase reactivity in the segments is presented. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  13. Population transcriptomics of life-history variation in the genus Salmo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giger, T.; Excoffier, L.; Amstutz, U.

    2008-01-01

    several candidate genes associated with preparatory adaptations to different life histories in salmonids, including genes encoding for transaldolase 1, constitutive heat-shock protein HSC70-1 and endozepine. Some of these genes clustered into functional groups, providing insight into the physiological...... design involving 180 cDNA microarray experiments, we measured gene-expression levels from 1098 transcript probes in 90 individuals originating from six brown trout (Salmo trutta) and one Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population, which follow either a migratory or a sedentary life history. We identified...... pathways potentially involved in the expression of life-history related phenotypic differences. Such differences included the down-regulation of genes involved in the respiratory system of future migratory individuals. In addition, we used linear discriminant analysis to identify a set of 12 genes...

  14. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) sterol metabolism and metabolic health – impact of dietary lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Nina Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Marine resources are today limited, and due to this there is an increasing inclusion of non-marine lipids in the diet of farmed salmonids. An optimal diet for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) should not only promote fast growth, but also keep the fish at good health, making it robust to face changes and stressors from the surrounding environment. There is, however, still knowledge lacking about the nutritional needs of Atlantic salmon. Lipid sources vary in their fatty acid (FA) compos...

  15. EFFECT OF CULTURE CONDITIONS ON REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF BROWN TROUT SALMO TRUTTA L.

    OpenAIRE

    RANDÁK T.; KOCOUR M.; ŽLÁBEK V.; POLICAR T.; JARKOVSKÝ J.

    2006-01-01

    Progeny from artificial propagation of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) of the Blanice river, Czech Republic, were farmed to maturity and spawned at ages three, four and five during 2002-2004. Reproductive parameters and biological quality of eggs in this farmed population were compared to those of the original wild population. ANCOVA showed no differences between wild and farmed fish in weight of eggs per female, total fecundity, or relative fecundity in any year. Significantly higher egg ...

  16. The volitional travel speed varies with reproductive state in mature female brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Dolby, Jes;

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of reproduction on the volitional travel speed of mature female brown trout Salmo trutta L. The downstream travel speed in the pre-spawning state was 0·25 m s−1 (95% CI : 0·19, 0·34) while it increased significantly to 0·65 m s−1 (95% CI: 0·49, 0·87) in the post...

  17. Morphological differences in the skin of marble trout Salmo marmoratus and of brown trout Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sivka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being genetically very closely related, the marble trout Salmo marmoratus and the brown trout Salmo trutta exhibit marked phenotypic differences, particularly with regard to skin pigmentation. Histological analysis of skin from the head and gill cover of differently aged individuals of the two species was carried out in order to characterize differences in skin structure. The basic structure of skin of the individuals studied corresponded with that described for other salmonids, though the head epidermis was somewhat thicker in S. marmoratus than in S. trutta, thickening with age in both species. Numerous secretory goblet cells and sporadic secretory sacciform cells were observed in the upper and middle part of the epidermis in both species. Melanophores were present in both species only in the dermis, and were bigger in S. marmoratus and present at lower average density than in S. trutta, and more or less constant across all age classes. In adult S. marmoratus with fully established marble pigmentation, light areas at low density with small (i.e. aggregated melanophores were present, while in S. trutta melanophores were more uniformly distributed.

  18. [Peculiarities of the parasitofauna of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L.), brown trout (Salmo truttae L.), and char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) in the Utsjoki River system (Northern Finland)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieshko, E P; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Novokhatskaia, O V; Kaukoranta, M; Niemela, E

    2011-01-01

    Data on the parasite diversity in Salmonidae fish parr from different parts of the Utsjoki River obtained during 1993-1995 and 2006-2007 are presented. Three fish species, Salmo salar L., S. truttae L., and Salvelinus alpinus L., were examined on the presence of helminthes. Twenty species of salmon parasites were found, the majority of which are the parasites with complicated life cycles. Infusorians C apriniana piscium, myxosporidia Chloromyxum januaricus and Myxobolus neurobius, metacercaria of the genera Diplostomum and Apatemon, and the nematode Raphidascaris acus larvae were the most numerous in salmon parasite fauna. Brown trout had the most number of specific parasite species, whereas char was infested by protozoan parasites only.

  19. Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Koed, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The downstream migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and sea trout smolt (S. trutta L.) was investigated using radio telemetry in the spring of 1999 and 2000. Forty wild sea trout smolts, 20 F1 sea trout smolts, 20 hatchery salmon smolts and 20 salmon smolts from river stockings were radio....... The diel migration pattern of the radio tagged smolts was predominantly nocturnal in both species. Wild sea trout smolt migrated significantly faster than both the F1 trout and the introduced salmon. There was no correlation between net ground speed, gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity or fish length in any...... of the different groups. The migration speed of wild sea trout smolts was positively correlated with water discharge in both years. In F1 sea trout smolts, migration speed was positively correlated with temperature in 1999. The migration speed of salmon smolts did not correlate to any of the investigated...

  20. A review of the likely effects of climate change on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta, with particular reference to water temperature and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the effects of water temperature and flow on migrations, embryonic development, hatching, emergence, growth and life-history traits in light of the ongoing climate change with emphasis on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta. The expected climate change in the Atlantic is for milder and wetter winters, with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow, decrease in ice-covered periods and frequent periods with extreme weather. Overall, thermal limits for salmonids are species specific. Scope for activity and growth and optimal temperature for growth increase with temperature to an optimal point before constrain by the oxygen content of the water. The optimal temperature for growth decreases with increasing fish size and varies little among populations within species, whereas the growth efficiency may be locally adapted to the temperature conditions of the home stream during the growth season. Indirectly, temperature influences age and size at smolting through its effect on growth. Time of spawning, egg hatching and emergence of the larvae vary with temperature and selective effects on time of first feeding. Traits such as age at first maturity, longevity and fecundity decrease with increasing temperature whilst egg size increases with temperature. Water flow influences the accessibility of rivers for returning adults and speed of both upstream and downstream migration. Extremes in water flow and temperature can decrease recruitment and survival. There is reason to expect a northward movement of the thermal niche of anadromous salmonids with decreased production and population extinction in the southern part of the distribution areas, migrations earlier in the season, later spawning, younger age at smolting and sexual maturity and increased disease susceptibility and mortality. Future research challenges are summarized at the end of the paper.

  1. Genetic structure of European populations of Salmo salar L (Atlantic salmon) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    1996-01-01

    analyses of the NADH dehydrogenase 1 segment, employing four endonucleases. Significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations. A hierarchical analysis of the distribution of the mtDNA variability revealed that only a small part was distributed among geographical groups within the study......The genetic relationships between the only natural population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Denmark and seven other European salmon populations were studied using RFLP analysis of PCR amplified mitochondrial DNA segments. Six different haplotypes were detected by restriction enzyme...

  2. Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Rosengren, Malin; Del Villar, Diego

    2013-01-01

    (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating...... higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter...

  3. Conventional armament wastes induce micronuclei in wild brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, F; Suciu, R; Gephard, S; Juanes, F; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2000-10-31

    We analysed micronuclei in brown trout Salmo trutta specimens sampled in the Trubia River, upstream and downstream of the emissions from a Spanish military factory to assess genotoxicity risks derived from military wastes. A significant exponential increase in micronuclei counts was found in fish living downstream of the military wastes with respect to fishes inhabiting upstream areas of the same river. In comparison, we only found a linear increase in micronuclei counts in a control stream where an old military factory had been demolished 6 months before sampling. This difference suggests that active discharge of armament factory wastes can directly induce micronuclei and therefore represents a genotoxic risk for the ecosystem.

  4. Diel foraging and shelter use of large juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) under food satiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Jyde, M.; Filrup, K.;

    2012-01-01

    The diel partitioning of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta foraging behaviour is controlled by a number of factors including predation risk, competition, temperature and food availability. The present study uses PIT-tagging and visual observation to asses the use of shelter and foraging behaviour...... of Danish wild juvenile brown trout (13.5-15.6 cm). The experiment was conducted in a fluvarium and the fish were fed to satiation. It was hypothesised that food satiation would promote nocturnal foraging and increase daytime shelter use. Our results showed a significant difference in diel shelter use...

  5. Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Rosengren, Malin; Del Villar, Diego

    2013-01-01

    (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating...... higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter...

  6. Parasitofauna study of the brown trout, Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei from Corsica (Mediterranean island rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quilichini Y.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Corsica is a mediterranean island characterised by a great number of rivers. Salmonides are the main fishes which populate these rivers. Very appreciated by fishermen, Salmonides are represented by three species in the insular hydrographical network, among which an autochthonous species, the brown trout (Salmo trutta. In the present work, we have analysed the parasitofauna of this species. According to our knowledge, this research has never been carried out in Corsica. In a first step, we drew up an inventory of the parasites found in this freshwater fish. In a second step, we studied the differences which appeared in the composition of parasite communities of this species.

  7. Proteolysis in salmon ( Salmo salar ) during cold storage : Effects of storage time and smoking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.E.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2001-01-01

    Changes in free amino acids (FAAs), small peptides and myofibrillar proteins were investigated in salmon (Salmo salar) muscle stored at OC for up to 23 days and after the stored salmon was smoked. Storage time and smoking process did not increase the formation of FAAs and small peptides indicating...... change of myosin and no change of alpha -actinin and actin were observed. The smoking process itself enhances the intensity of bands, but does not change the pattern markedly except for the appearance of a 25 and 70 kDa band. Degradation pattern after smoking was not affected by storage time....

  8. Biological variation of lipid constituents and distribution of tocopherols and astaxanthin in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, Per B; Jensen, Benny

    1998-01-01

    The contents of fat, astaxanthin, and tocogherols and the fatty acid composition of a homogeneous group of 145 farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were determined. The analytical variation of the data was stastistically-separated from the biological variation. The fat content in the muscle near ...

  9. Genetic detection of sex-specific dispersal in historical and contemporary populations of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2004-01-01

    The study of sex-biased dispersal has attracted considerable attention in birds and mammals, but less in other taxa, including fishes. We analysed sex-specific dispersal in historical (1910s and 1950s) and contemporary (1990s) samples of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. We tested the hypothesis...

  10. The vitamin D receptor and its ligand 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lock, E.J.; Ornsrud, R.; Aksnes, L.; Spanings, F.A.; Waagbo, R.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    Seaward migration of Salmo salar is preceded by preparatory physiological adaptations (parr-smolt transformation) to allow for a switch from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW), which also means a switch in ambient calcium from hypocalcic (<1 mM Ca(2+)) to the plasma (~1.25 mM Ca(2+)) and to strongly

  11. A Review of Factors Influencing Maturation of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar with Focus on Water Recirculation Aquaculture System Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturation of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is an extremely complex process, particularly in aquaculture systems, with many variables (known or otherwise) having the capacity to influence the timing and prevalence of maturation, and acting as promoters and/or inhibitors of sexual development. The vast...

  12. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset of xenoestro...

  13. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  14. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  15. Kinematics and energetics of swimming performance during acute warming in brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, J M D; Keen, A N; Nudds, R L; Shiels, H A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how acute warming of water temperature affects the mechanical efficiency of swimming and aerobic capabilities of the brown trout Salmo trutta. Swimming efficiency was assessed using the relationship between swimming kinematics and forward speed (U), which is thought to converge upon an optimum range of a dimensionless parameter, the Strouhal number (St ). Swim-tunnel intermittent stopped-flow respirometry was used to record kinematics and measure oxygen consumption (ṀO2) of S. trutta during warming and swimming challenges. Salmo trutta maintained St between 0·2 and 0·3 at any given U over a range of temperatures, irrespective of body size. The maintenance of St within the range for maximum efficiency for oscillatory propulsion was achieved through an increase in tail-beat frequency (ftail) and a decrease in tail-beat amplitude (A) as temperature increased. Maintenance of efficient steady-state swimming was fuelled by aerobic metabolism, which increased as temperature increased up to 18° C but declined above this temperature, decreasing the apparent metabolic scope. As St was maintained over the full range of temperatures whilst metabolic scope was not, the results may suggest energetic trade-offs at any given U at temperatures above thermal optima.

  16. Comparative transcriptomics of Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O. gorbuscha during infections with salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Koczka, Kim W; Yasuike, Motoshige; Jantzen, Stuart G; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2014-01-01

    ... knowledge of fish immune responses to ectoparasites. Herein we report three L. salmonis experimental infection trials of co-habited Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O...

  17. A Dense Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Linkage Map Reveals Recent Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Salmo Genus and the Impact of Selection on Linked Neutral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitwein, Maeva; Guinand, Bruno; Pouzadoux, Juliette; Desmarais, Erick; Berrebi, Patrick; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta), a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses. Performing map comparison between S. trutta and its sister species, S. salar, revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Strikingly, all of the fusion and fission events that occurred after the S. salar/S. trutta speciation happened in the Atlantic salmon branch, whereas the brown trout remained closer to the ancestral chromosome structure. Using the strongly conserved synteny within chromosome arms, we aligned the brown trout linkage map to the Atlantic salmon genome sequence to estimate the local recombination rate in S. trutta at 3721 loci. A significant positive correlation between recombination rate and within-population nucleotide diversity (π) was found, indicating that selection constrains variation at linked neutral sites in brown trout. This new high-density linkage map provides a useful genomic resource for future aquaculture, conservation, and eco-evolutionary studies in brown trout. PMID:28235829

  18. Effects of passive integrated transponder tags on survival and growth of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Hage; Thorn, Aske N.; Skov, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Background: A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the potential impacts of surgically implanted 23 and 32 mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on survival, growth, and body condition of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Rate of tag retention and healing of the tagging incision...... with and without suture closure of the incision, and 32 mm PIT-tag implantation without suture closure. Results: Over the 35-day experiment, mortality occurred only among fish tagged with 32 mm PIT tags (14%) and all fish larger than 103 mm FL survived. Non-sutured Atlantic salmon between 80 and 99 mm FL implanted...... of the experiment, tagging incisions without suture closure were generally well-healed. Fungal infection and inflammation around the incision site occurred only when suture was used, in 46% of size class I, 21% of size class II and 38% of size class III. Conclusions: Although suture closure of the incision...

  19. Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme developed for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Hyldig, Grethe; Martinsdóttir, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop 'Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme for raw, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and to evaluate the scheme. in a shelf life study. QIM is based on the evaluation of key parameters in the deterioration of seafood's. Demerit points are assigned to selected...... parameters according to their importance and a Quality Index (QI) is established by cumulating the resulting scores. The maximum storage time in ice was determined with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) of the salmon after cooking and found to be 20-21 days. This was used as a reference to enable...... prediction of the remaining storage time of raw salmon in ice with QIM. The calculated QI evolved linearly with storage time in ice (QI=0.82x (days in ice)+0.18, R-2=0.97). Individual salmon varied in QI within each storage day. However, the multivariate analysis (PLS1) demonstrated that storage time could...

  20. Reduced rearing density increases postrelease migration success of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Hage; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Näslund, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    during rearing in the hatchery. However, individuals reared at reduced density had less eroded dorsal fins and opercula relative to those from the high-density treatment. In the stream, the downstream migration success was 16% higher for fish reared at reduced density than for conspecifics kept at high-density......The overall aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rearing density on the post-release survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during seaward migration. Fish were either reared at conventional hatchery density or at one-third of conventional density. Three hundred one-year old...... smolts from each density treatment were individually tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and released 3.2 km upstream of a stationary antenna array in a natural stream. There were no significant differences in length, body mass, or condition between fish from the two density treatments...

  1. Influence of small hydropower plants on brown trout (Salmo trutta L. population in Mislinja River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Cokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown trout (Salmo trutta L. in the Mislinja River has been endangered for years because of small hydroelectric power plants. To find out how they are affecting the population of the brown trout in the Mislinja River, we conducted a sampling of the brown trout, using a generating set. We measured the length and weight of all caught specimens and analysed the obtained data. The results are presented in this paper, e.g., biomass, estimations of abundance, average weight, average length and number of captured brown trout. We discovered that the population of the brown trout has decreased in all the sections where water has been taken away for small hydroelectric power plants.

  2. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.;

    2014-01-01

    was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI's). The statistical confidence of HSI's was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22......Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference...... fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected...

  3. Founder effects and genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Danish river system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1996-01-01

    The influence of founder effects on the genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was studied in a small Danish river system. Samples of trout from seven locations were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis....... For comparison, allozyme data from other Danish trout populations and mtDNA data from two hatchery strains were included. Genetic differentiation among populations was found to be small but significant. Pairwise tests for homogeneity of allele and haplotype frequencies between samples showed that significance...... was predominantly due to a single population. In two of the locations studied, extinction-recolonization events had taken place. In one of the populations, founding had not resulted in divergence, while the other founded population was the one that had diverged significantly from the remaining populations. Computer...

  4. Allelic frequencies of two microsatellite loci in four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDIT VARDHAMI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two microsatellite loci, Str60Inra and Ssa197, were PCR amplified on 30 individuals for each populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta. A total of 120 individuals were selected from rivers of the Florence province (Italy, Valbona and Cen (Albania, Lepenci (Kosovo. There were identified 32 different alleles for Str60Inra and 41 for the locus Ssa197. Mean number of alleles ranged from 9 (Cen to 20.5 (Florence. The mean observed and expected heterosygosities values were 0.329 and 0.755, respectively. Both microsatellite loci were polymorphic. The highest value of heterozygosity was observed in Lepenci. Significant deviations from Hardy Weinberg were found in both loci.

  5. Lunar periodicity and the timing of river entry in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuparinen, A; O'Hara, R B; Merilä, J

    2009-07-01

    Historical catch records of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three rivers discharging to the Baltic Sea in an area free from tides and from strong effects of the moon on illumination were analysed to investigate whether timing of S. salar river entry was associated with lunar cycles directly. Although a significant effect of lunar phase on river entry was detected, with more fish entering rivers around the full moon than other phases, the effect of the lunar cycle was very small compared with other sources of variation. Hence, the biological role of lunar cycle as a determinant of the timing of S. salar runs in the investigated populations was negligible, suggesting that lunar cycle per se does not play a role in the timing of S. salar river entry.

  6. Overwintering of sea trout (Salmo trutta) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dennis; Koed, Anders; Nielsen, Christian;

    2007-01-01

    for reproduction. However, immature fish may leave the ocean during their first or second winter at sea and overwinter in freshwater. The question is why does this occur? We tested the hypothesis that hypo-osmoregulatory capacity is compromised by low temperature in two coastal sea trout populations, one......Brown trout (Salmo trutta) show large phenotypic plasticity. Juveniles may reside in their native freshwater habitat until maturation or migrate into the ocean as 1- to 3-year-old smolts. Sea-going fish (sea trout) reside at sea for 2-3 years until migrating back to their native stream....... Low temperature compromised the hypo-osmoregulatory ability, as indicated by insufficient compensatory adjustments of ion-transport mechanisms. Tagging experiments revealed that descent of overwintering fish into the ocean occurred over a narrow time period coincident with increasing water temperature...

  7. The physiological basis of the migration continuum in brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    , expressed as a migration continuum, ranging from residency to anadromy. In looking at brown trout, our objective with this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in migration strategies is underpinned by physiological variation. Prior to migration, physiological samples were taken from fish......Partial migration is common in many animal taxa; however, the physiological variation underpinning migration strategies remains poorly understood. Among salmonid fishes, brown trout (Salmo trutta) is one of the species that exhibits the most complex variation in sympatric migration strategies...... to the two migratory strategies were generally similar; however, lower triacylglycerides levels in the short-distance migrants indicated that they were more lipid depleted prior to migration compared with the long-distance migrants. In the context of migration cost, we suggest that additional lipid depletion...

  8. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. on catch statistics in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Green

    Full Text Available In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.. This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

  9. Influencia del [alpha]-tocoferol en la incorporacion y peroxidacion del acido araquidonico en alevines parr de salmon del Atlantico (Salmo salar L.)/Influence of [alpha]-tocopherol on arachidonic acid deposition and peroxidation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fingerlings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricio Dantagnan; Astrid Domínguez; Aliro Bórquez; Javier Alcaíno; Claudio Pavez; Adrián Hernández

    2012-01-01

      The synergistic effect of arachidonic acid (ARA) (20:4n-6) and a-tocopherol on the accumulation of fatty acids and the peroxidation of lipids in liver and muscle was evaluated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles...

  10. Application of Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme in shelf-life study of farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2002-01-01

    Salmon (Salmo salar) was stored in ice up to 24 d, and changes during storage were observed with sensory evaluation using the Quality Index Method (QIM), and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), total viable counts (TVC), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing bacteria, and instrumental texture......-producing bacteria after 20 d in ice, which was the maximum storage time. Texture measurements indicated softening of salmon flesh with storage...

  11. Morphological variation in a secondary contact between divergent lineages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Hermida; Eduardo San Miguel; Carmen Bouza; Jaime Castro; Paulino Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological variation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Duero basin, an Atlantic river basin in the Iberian Peninsula, where a spatial segregation of two divergent lineages was previously reported, based on isozyme, microsatellite and mtDNA data. In these studies, two divergent pure regions (Pisuerga and Lower-course) and several hybrid populations between them were identified. Morphological variation was evaluated in 11 populations representative...

  12. The abundance of large, piscivorous Ferox Trout (Salmo trutta in Loch Rannoch, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Thorne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Ferox Trout are large, long-lived piscivorous Brown Trout (Salmo trutta. Due to their exceptionally large size, Ferox Trout are highly sought after by anglers while their life-history strategy, which includes delayed maturation, multiphasic growth and extended longevity, is of interest to ecological and evolutionary modelers. However, despite their recreational and theoretical importance, little is known about the typical abundance of Ferox Trout. Methods To rectify this situation a 16 year angling-based mark-recapture study was conducted on Loch Rannoch, which at 19 km2 is one of the largest lakes in the United Kingdom. Results A hierarchical Bayesian Jolly-Seber analysis of the data suggest that if individual differences in catchability are negligible the population of Ferox Trout in Loch Rannoch in 2009 was approximately 71 fish. The results also suggest that a single, often unaccompanied, highly-experienced angler was able to catch roughly 8% of the available fish on an annual basis. Discussion It is recommended that anglers adopt a precautionary approach and release all trout with a fork length ≥400 mm caught by trolling in Loch Rannoch. There is an urgent need to assess the status of Ferox Trout in other lakes.

  13. Occurrence and variation of egg cannibalism in brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymes, Jean-Christophe; Larrieu, Maider; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Egg cannibalism is a common behavior among fish taxa and is largely studied in species with parental care. Heterocannibalism and filial cannibalism have both been reported in salmonids, a group with no extended parental care, but the topic remained somewhat under-documented, especially in brown trout (Salmo trutta). In the present study, 83 spawning events were recorded finely with high-resolution video in three natural populations. Redd covering dynamics by females and the timing of cannibalism showed that eggs were vulnerable mainly during the first 120 s after spawning. Cannibalism occurred in 25% of spawnings and was principally perpetrated by peripherals but the sires also cannibalized their brood, especially after multiple mating. The probability of cannibalism increased with operational sex ratio but did not correlate with the date in spawning season. Occurrence of cannibalism also differed between populations. Our results suggest that such behavior is frequent and may reduce the fitness of parents. Its evolutionary implications for population ecology should be considered, since it appeared to be controlled by environmental and spatial factors.

  14. Differential metabolic profiles associated to movement behaviour of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Pascual-Pons, Mariona; Royo, Jose Luis; Rocaspana, Rafel; Aparicio, Enric; Pamplona, Reinald; Palau, Antoni; Sanuy, Delfi; Fibla, Joan; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta), in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain). The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol) according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile). The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms. PMID:28750027

  15. Occurrence and variation of egg cannibalism in brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymes, Jean-Christophe; Larrieu, Maider; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Egg cannibalism is a common behavior among fish taxa and is largely studied in species with parental care. Heterocannibalism and filial cannibalism have both been reported in salmonids, a group with no extended parental care, but the topic remained somewhat under-documented, especially in brown trout ( Salmo trutta). In the present study, 83 spawning events were recorded finely with high-resolution video in three natural populations. Redd covering dynamics by females and the timing of cannibalism showed that eggs were vulnerable mainly during the first 120 s after spawning. Cannibalism occurred in 25% of spawnings and was principally perpetrated by peripherals but the sires also cannibalized their brood, especially after multiple mating. The probability of cannibalism increased with operational sex ratio but did not correlate with the date in spawning season. Occurrence of cannibalism also differed between populations. Our results suggest that such behavior is frequent and may reduce the fitness of parents. Its evolutionary implications for population ecology should be considered, since it appeared to be controlled by environmental and spatial factors.

  16. Differential effects of mercurial compounds on the electroolfactogram (EOG) of salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Døving, K B; Winberg, S

    1991-01-01

    The effects on the salmon (Salmo salar L.) electroolfactogram (EOG) of the two mercurials, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl), were studied. The EOG responses were evoked by stimulating the olfactory epithelium with 340 microM L-alanine for 10 sec every second minute...... "fresh water." In the two other series, a 5-min exposure to mercury (HgCl2 or CH3HgCl, at 10(-5) M) was included after 10 min and a 15-min exposure after 45 min. The mercuric ion (Hg2+) eliminated the peak response within 2 min and suppressed the sustained response to about 35%. During the subsequent...... irrigation with mercury-free fresh water, both EOG components regained about 50% of their initial amplitudes. In contrast, methylmercury induced a steady and parallel decline of both the peak and the sustained responses, which were not reversed by rinsing the epithelium with fresh water. The results...

  17. Lipid peroxidation analysis in salmon (Salmo salar L.) processed by e-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Araujo, Michel M.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    In Brazil the consumption of fish is relatively small when compared with other source of meat protein. However the diets rich in fish have association with a wide range of positive health effects, due your great deal the fat acids omega 3, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Salmon (Salmo salar L.) specifically have those fat acids in main quantity. The omega 3 fat acids are related to the prevention of several not transmissible illness; with emphasis to cardiovascular, hypertriglyceridemia, cancer, osteoporosis and inflammatory and anti immune diseases. Food borne illnesses have been a growing concern to the governments, producers and consumers, mainly regarding the damages they cause to human health. In this context, irradiation is used as a method to preserve food. The present work aim to evaluate the lipid peroxidation in natura salmon filet irradiated on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Samples were irradiated in an e beam accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), 1,5 MeV-25mA at doses of 0, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, analyzed 7, 15, 21, 30 e 45 days after irradiation. Irradiated samples analyzed during a 45 day period, showed a higher lipid peroxidation than the control samples at the same period, increasing with dose and storage time. However, it did not pass the permitted value. Irradiation demonstrated effective without compromising the quality of the food. (author)

  18. Salmonid alphavirus infection causes skin dysbiosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kristin M.; Patel, Sonal; Robinson, Aaron J.; Bu, Lijing; Jarungsriapisit, Jiraporn; Moore, Lindsey J.; Salinas, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV. Both infection treatment and time after infection were strong predictors of the skin microbial community composition. Skin samples from SAV3 infected fish showed an unbalanced microbiota characterized by a decreased abundance of Proteobacteria such as Oleispira sp. and increased abundances of opportunistic taxa including Flavobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae and Tenacibaculum sp. These results demonstrate that viral infections can result in skin dysbiosis likely rendering the host more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. PMID:28264056

  19. Iodine Disinfection of Sea Trout, Salmo Trutta (L., Eggs and the Affect on Egg Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawada Adam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the impact iodine solution disinfection had on Salmo trutta (L. egg survival rates during incubation, and to determine the effect of the disinfection procedure on egg shells using scanning microscopy. The study groups were bathed in a Desamar K30 solution at a concentration of 100 ml per 10 dm-3 for 10 m once after the eggs had hardened and four times after the eyed stage. Egg samples for scanning analyses were collected on day 30 of incubation at the eyed stage after the first bath in the iodophor solution, and then at the end of incubation. Egg surface images were analyzed for the number of bacteria, the presence of hyphae, and the egg surface area covered with sediments. No statistically significant differences were noted in embryo survival rates in the groups that were disinfected. The highest number of bacteria was observed on egg surfaces which had not been disinfected prior to hatching. A significant amount of sediment was observed on the eggs during incubation. On day 90 of incubation, all of the egg surfaces were covered with sediments. Disinfection was not noted to have had a significant impact on the presence of hyphae. Iodophor preparations can be used for routine disinfection of trout eggs; however, other means of disinfection should be applied before the eyed egg stage.

  20. Sesamin modulates gene expression without corresponding effects on fatty acids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller Vestergren, A; Wagner, L; Pickova, J; Rosenlund, G; Kamal-Eldin, A; Trattner, S

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of sesamin inclusion in vegetable oil-based diets fed to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The diets used differed in n-6/n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio (0.5 and 1) and sesamin content (high 5.8 g/kg, low 1.16 g/kg and no sesamin). The oils used in the feeds were a mixture of rapeseed, linseed and palm oil. Fish were fed for 4 months. Fatty acids and expression of hepatic genes involved in transcription, lipid uptake, desaturation, elongation and β-oxidation were measured. No major effects on the percentage of DHA in white muscle, liver triacylglycerol and phospholipid fraction were detected. Genes involved in β-oxidation, elongation and desaturation were affected by sesamin addition. Limited effects were seen on any of the transcription factors tested and no effect was seen on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). Expression of both SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 increased with sesamin addition. It was concluded that supplementation of fish feed with a high level of sesamin had a negative effect on the growth rate and live weight and did not alter the proportions of DHA in tissues even though gene expression was affected. Thus, more studies are needed to formulate a diet that would increase the percentage of DHA in fish without negative effects on fish growth.

  1. Population and family structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a Mediterranean stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Manuel; Sanz, Nuria; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic differentiat......The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic...... differentiation. In the present study, we compared population structure v. family relationships of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) along a Mediterranean stream (Pyrenees) by using eight microsatellite loci. Results showed low levels of genetic (FST) differentiation between collections in a 6.5-km transect along...... with limited dispersal of younger brown trout from spawning redds. Family relationships provided evidence, however, for movement of adult trout over distances of a few kilometres that probably contributed to the low observed differentiation. Dispersal of adult Mediterranean trout contrasts with the clustering...

  2. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  3. Carcass analog addition enhances juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) growth and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Margaret Q.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Our study used historic marine-derived nutrient (MDN) delivery timing to simulate potential effects of restored connectivity on juvenile Atlantic salmon (ATS; Salmo salar) growth and condition. Four headwater streams were stocked with ATS young of the year (YOY) and received carcass analog additions (0.10 kg·m–2 wetted area) in treatment reaches to match the timing of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spawning. Individual ATS mass was 33%–48% greater and standard length was 9%–15% greater in treatment reaches relative to control reaches for 4 months following nutrient additions. Percent total lipids in YOY ATS were twice as great in treatment reaches 1 month following carcass analog additions and remained elevated in treatment fish for 2 more months. Absolute growth rates, based on otolith microstructure analysis, correlated with water temperature fluctuations in all reaches and were elevated by an average of 0.07 mm·day–1 in treatment reaches for 1 month following carcass analog additions. Simulated sea lamprey MDNs increased juvenile ATS growth, which, via potential increases in overwinter survival and decreases in smolt age, may contribute to population persistence and ecosystem productivity.

  4. Differential metabolic profiles associated to movement behaviour of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromi, Neus; Jové, Mariona; Pascual-Pons, Mariona; Royo, Jose Luis; Rocaspana, Rafel; Aparicio, Enric; Pamplona, Reinald; Palau, Antoni; Sanuy, Delfi; Fibla, Joan; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta), in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain). The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol) according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile). The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms.

  5. Trophic interference by Salmo trutta on Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus in southern Patagonian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, A; González, J; Ruzzante, D E; Walde, S J; Habit, E

    2013-02-01

    The length and mass ratio, diet and isotopic composition of Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus inhabiting a Salmo trutta-invaded and a S. trutta-free lake in southern Patagonia were compared. Results indicate that S. trutta exercises important trophic interference over A. zebra and A. taeniatus, causing changes in their dietary composition by reducing the consumption of winged Diptera through changes in feeding behaviours that involve jumping out of the water. This effect is significantly higher in A. zebra than in A. taeniatus a species that has a highly specialized diet. The dietary changes of A. zebra and A. taeniatus in sympatry with S. trutta lead to an impoverishment of their isotopic nitrogen signals (δ(15)N), suggesting a reduction of their trophic position. In the case of A. zebra, this translates into a significant decrease in its body condition factor. Such interference could lead to a population decline of this species and would explain the current distribution range decline and allopatry with S. trutta in fluvial systems.

  6. Intestinal microbiota of healthy and unhealthy Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Sun, Guoxiang; Li, Shuangshuang; Li, Xian; Liu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    The present study sampled the intestinal content of healthy and unhealthy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the ambient water of unhealthy fish, and the biofilter material in the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to understand differences in the intestinal microbiota. The V4-V5 regions of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes in the samples were analyzed by MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The fish were adults with no differences in body length or weight. Representative members of the intestinal microbiota were identified. The intestinal microbiota of the healthy fish included Proteobacteria (44.33%), Actinobacteria (17.89%), Bacteroidetes (15.25%), and Firmicutes (9.11%), among which the families Micrococcaceae and Oxalobacteraceae and genera Sphingomonas, Streptomyces, Pedobacter, Janthinobacterium, Burkholderia, and Balneimonas were most abundant. Proteobacteria (70.46%), Bacteroidetes (7.59%), and Firmicutes (7.55%) dominated the microbiota of unhealthy fish, and Chloroflexi (2.71%), and Aliivibrio and Vibrio as well as genera in the family Aeromonadaceae were most strongly represented. Overall, the intestinal hindgut microbiota differed between healthy and unhealthy fish. This study offers a useful tool for monitoring the health status of fish and for screening the utility of probiotics by studying the intestinal microbiota.

  7. Experimental tests for heritable morphological color plasticity in non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A H Westley

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature.

  8. Population and family structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a Mediterranean stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Manuel; Sanz, Nuria; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic differentiat......The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic...... differentiation. In the present study, we compared population structure v. family relationships of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) along a Mediterranean stream (Pyrenees) by using eight microsatellite loci. Results showed low levels of genetic (FST) differentiation between collections in a 6.5-km transect along...... with limited dispersal of younger brown trout from spawning redds. Family relationships provided evidence, however, for movement of adult trout over distances of a few kilometres that probably contributed to the low observed differentiation. Dispersal of adult Mediterranean trout contrasts with the clustering...

  9. Heavy metal contamination and hepatic toxicological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta from the Kerguelen Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jaffal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kerguelen Islands include various species of freshwater fish such as brown trout (Salmo trutta. These trout are among the most isolated from direct anthropogenic impact worldwide. This study was designed to analyse cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu concentrations in the liver of Kerguelen brown trout, and to assess the possible impacts of these metals on hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione levels. Trout were caught in the Château River, the Studer Lakes and the Ferme Pond, close to the scientific station of the Kerguelen Islands, corresponding to three morphotypes (river, lake and station. Kerguelen trouts’ hepatic concentrations of Cd and Cur were similar to those reported in previous studies in salmonids populations from areas under anthropological impacts. Clear hepatic disturbances (fibrosis, nuclear alteration, increased immune response, melanomacrophage centres [MMCs] were observed in all tested trout. A similar histo-pathological trend was observed among the trout from the three morphotypes but anti-oxidative responses were higher in the trout from the “station” morphotype. Hepatic alterations and the presence of MMCs in the livers of Kerguelen brown trout may be related to the high levels of Cd and Cu measured in this fish at all sampling sites.

  10. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta in small lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conallin J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7–20 cm juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI’s. The statistical confidence of HSI’s was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22 fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected for at all sites, but selection was inconsistent among sites for the variables substrate and velocity. The results indicate that during daytime summer conditions water depth is a significant variable for parr habitat selection in these small lowland streams, with cover also being important. Therefore, daytime refugia may be a critical limiting factor for parr in small lowland streams, and important for stream management actions under the Water Framework Directive.

  11. HABITAT USE BY NATIVE AND STOCKED TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN TWO NORTHEAST STREAMS, PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by stocked and native brown trout (Salmo trutta L. was assessed in two headwater streams of North-eastern Portugal. Underwater observations were made during the summer season in three successive years to evaluate the effect of supplemental trout stocking. Multivariate analysis techniques applied to data sets on microhabitat use were exploited to identify the focal elevation (distance of fish from the bottom, total depth and cover as the variables that contribute most to the discrimination between stocked and native trout. Preference curves computed for native and stocked trout of the same age (1+, showed a distinct pattern in their ability to explore the available microhabitat resources. Stocked trout tended to occupy deeper pools (total depth > 100 cm vs. 60-100 cm for native trout, holding higher focal elevations (140-160 cm vs. 22.5 cm and cover (combination of boulders and overhanging vegetation or undercut banks. Furthermore, a high poststocking movement of 80% hatchery-reared fish was verified just one month after their release, suggesting that stocking did not contribute to the sustainable populations in either stream, and is far from being an adequate management technique.

  12. Survival of sea-water-adapted trout, Salmo trutta L. ranched in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stig; Rasmussen, Gorm

    2000-01-01

    -13.5% NaCl) for 4 weeks; and (4) after a combination of (2) and (3). In total, 17 640 trout (age = 1+, 1.5 and 2+ years; mean fork lengths = 18.2-25.6 cm) were released in 14 batches in the summer or autumn months of 1986-1989. All fish were of domesticated origin and Carlin tagged. Survival......The effect of seawater adaptation on the survival of coastally released post-smelt trout, Salmo trutta L., was investigated by release: (1) directly (with no adaptation); (2) after retention in net pens in the sea for 29-131 days (delayed release); (3) after feeding with a high salt diet (12...... survival rate. A longer adaptation period did not increase survival. On average, survival was increased by 36%. Survival was not increased by high-salt diets. Until attainment of the legal size for capture, survival was 9.6% higher on average, with extremes as low as 1.7% and as high as 38% in individual...

  13. Paternal reproductive strategy influences metabolic capacities and muscle development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasse, Sébastien; Guderley, Helga; Dodson, Julian J

    2008-01-01

    Male Atlantic salmon follow a conditional strategy, becoming either "combatants" that undertake a seaward migration and spend at least a year at sea or "sneakers" that remain in freshwater and mature as parr. A variety of physiological indices showed significant but small differences between the offspring of males that use these two reproductive tactics. Offspring fathered by anadromous male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) showed greater muscular development and muscle metabolic capacities but lower spontaneous movements than those fathered by mature male parr. At hatch and at maximum attainable wet weight (MAWW), offspring fathered by anadromous males had higher activities of mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase and citrate synthase) and glycolytic (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) enzymes than progeny of mature male parr. Enzymatic profiles of progeny of anadromous fathers also suggested greater nitrogen excretion capacity (glutamate dehydrogenase) and increased muscular development (creatine kinase and LDH) than in the progeny of mature parr. At MAWW, juveniles fathered by mature parr made considerably more spontaneous movements, presumably increasing their energy expenditures. For juveniles fathered by anadromous males, total cross-sectional areas of white and red muscle at hatch were higher due to the greater number of large-diameter fibers. We suggest that the slightly lower metabolic capacities and muscular development of alevins fathered by mature parr could reflect differences in energy partitioning during their dependence on vitellus. Greater spontaneous movements of offspring of mature male parr could favor feeding and growth after the resorption of the vitellus.

  14. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  15. Experimental transmission of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsvold, C; Kongtorp, R T; Taksdal, T; Ørpetveit, I; Heum, M; Poppe, T T

    2009-12-03

    Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a disease of unknown aetiology, having significant economic impact as it primarily affects large, farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in seawater, close to harvest. In the present study, we have demonstrated that CMS is a transmissible disease under experimental conditions. Histopathological lesions consistent with CMS were induced in Atlantic salmon post-smolts after injection of tissue homogenate from farmed fish diagnosed with CMS. Six weeks post-injection (p.i.), experimental fish started developing focal to multi-focal lesions in the atrial endo- and myocardium, with subsequent progression to the ventricle. This proceeded into severe endocarditis and subsequent myocarditis with mononuclear cell infiltration of the atrium and, to a lesser degree, the spongy layer of the ventricle. These lesions were consistent with histopathological findings in field outbreaks of CMS. From Week 33 p.i., lesions also appeared in the compact myocardium, with focal epicarditis adjacent to focal myocardial lesions. In conclusion, these results indicate that CMS has an infectious aetiology and should be treated as a potentially contagious disease.

  16. Genetic variation in Norwegian piscine myocarditis virus in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Alarcón, M; Fineid, B; Rode, M; Haugland, Ø

    2013-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., is a severe cardiac disease characterized by a necrotizing myocarditis involving the atrium and the spongious part of the ventricle. The disease is caused by piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), a double-stranded RNA virus likely belonging to the family Totiviridae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variation in Norwegian PMCV isolates focusing on the putative structural proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 3. The virus isolates were sampled from a total of 36 farms along the Norwegian coastline. This study represents the first investigation of PMCV genome variation and shows that Norwegian isolates are highly similar, with the most divergent isolates sharing 98.6% nucleotide identity. Interestingly, amino acid sequence diversity within ORF3 is approximately threefold higher than for ORF1. While phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide data covering ORF1 and ORF3 revealed four main clusters, the maximum sequence variation of 1.4% at the nucleotide level suggests that all Norwegian isolates belong to a single genogroup. Substantial sequence variation within farms was also observed, which may complicate future molecular epidemiological investigations. The genetic homogeneity among the Norwegian isolates might facilitate development of both diagnostic tools and an efficient vaccine against CMS in the future.

  17. An experimental means of transmitting pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. fry in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, I; Joiner, C; Bayley, A; Rimmer, G; Bateman, K; Feist, S W; Stone, D; Paley, R

    2015-03-01

    A challenge model for pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fry, was developed comparing two salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtypes: SAV1 and SAV5. Viral doses of 3 × 10(5) TCID50  mL(-1) for SAV1 and 3 × 10(4) for SAV5 were tested in triplicate tanks, each containing 450 salmon fry. Cumulative mortalities of 1.2% were recorded. Titres of virus recovered from the mortalities ranged from 10(2) to 10(7) TCID50  mL(-1) . Fry were sampled at 3, 5 and 7.5 weeks post-challenge. Sampling after 3 weeks revealed a high prevalence of infection in the absence of clinical signs, and infectious virus was recovered from 80% and 43% of sampled fry infected with SAV1 and SAV5, respectively. After 5 weeks pancreas, heart and red skeletal muscle lesions were generally observed, whilst degeneration in white skeletal muscle was observed only in fish infected with SAV1. In situ hybridisation confirmed the presence of viral genome in infected pancreas, heart and muscle. After 7.5 weeks, infectious virus (both isolates) was recovered from 13.3% of the fish sampled, with a viral titre of 10(2) TCID50  mL(-1) . Clearly, salmon fry are susceptible to SAV infection and pancreas disease.

  18. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  19. The impact of water exchange rate and treatment processes on water-borne hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually maturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled seven-month study was conducted in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) to assess post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) performance in relation to WRAS water exchange rate. Unexpectedly high numbers of precocious sexually mature fish were observed in all WRAS...

  20. Investigating the influence of nitrate nitrogen on post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reproductive physiology in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An 8-month trial was carried out to assess the effects of NO3-N on a variety of performance and physiological outcomes in post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (initial weight 102 plus or minus 1 g) reared in six replicated laboratory-scale water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Three RAS r...

  1. Production of market-size North American strain Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a land-based recirculation aquaculture system using freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is interest in culturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to market-size in land-based, closed containment systems that use recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), as this technology often enables facilities to locate near major markets, obtain permits, exclude obligate pathogens, and/or reduce en...

  2. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-04-01

    In stream-spawning salmonid fishes there is a considerable variation in the timing of when fry leave the spawning nests and establish a feeding territory. The timing of emergence from spawning nests appears to be related to behavioural and physiological traits, e.g. early emerging fish are bolder and more aggressive. In the present study, emerging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins were sorted into three fractions: early, intermediate and late emerging. At the parr stage, behaviour, stress responses, hindbrain monoaminergic activity and forebrain gene expression were explored in fish from the early and late emerging fractions (first and last 25%). The results show that when subjected to confinement stress, fish from the late emerging fraction respond with a larger activation of the brain serotonergic system than fish from the early fraction. Similarly, in late emerging fish, stress resulted in elevated expression of mRNA coding for serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1A), GABA-A receptor-associated protein and ependymin, effects not observed in fish from the early emerging fraction. Moreover, fish from the early emerging fraction displayed bolder behaviour than their late emerging littermates. Taken together, these results suggest that time of emergence, boldness and aggression are linked to each other, forming a behavioural syndrome in juvenile salmon. Differences in brain gene expression between early and late emerging salmon add further support to a relationship between stress coping style and timing of emergence. However, early and late emerging salmon do not appear to differ in hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis reactivity, another characteristic of divergent stress coping styles.

  3. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Association between swimming performance, cardiorespiratory morphometry and thermal tolerance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

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    Katja eAnttila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment tested the hypothesis that swimming performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar parr is connected to cardiorespiratory performance and morphology, as well as maximum heart rate (fHmax related measures of thermal tolerance. Moreover, it was hypothesized that the cardiorespiratory differences between poor and strong swimmers will be retained in a later life stage, i.e., 15 weeks post-smoltification and seawater transfer. This experiment screened a population of 3,200 parr (11.2 ± 0.25 g for their swimming performance, classifying them as poor and good swimmers based on their critical swimming speeds (4.4±0.1 body length s-1 and >6.8±0.1 body length s-1, respectively. Compared with poor performing parr, good swimmers had a significantly thicker compact myocardium (by 23.7% and taller gill secondary lamellae (by 16.2%. In contrast, there was no significant difference in maximum oxygen consumption between the two groups as assessed using a ‘chase’ protocol, and the relationship between heart rate specific measures of thermal tolerance and swim performance was variable. For example, three measures did not differ between the two groups, whereas the Arrhenius breakpoint temperature for fHmax and fHmax were higher and lower, respectively, in the poor swimmers. Importantly, the identified morphological and fHmax differences at the parr stage persisted after 15 weeks of common garden rearing in seawater, and they were associated with an increase in relative ventricular mass and a small, but significant, improvement in growth rate. Therefore, it seems that an early assessment of swimming performance can effectively screen for morphological capacities related to oxygen supply and growth rate, but less so for heart rate related measures of thermal tolerance.

  5. Effects of host genetics and environment on egg-associated microbiotas in brown trout (Salmo trutta).

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    Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Fumagalli, Luca; Wedekind, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies found fish egg-specific bacterial communities that changed over the course of embryogenesis, suggesting an interaction between the developing host and its microbiota. Indeed, single-strain infections demonstrated that the virulence of opportunistic bacteria is influenced by environmental factors and host immune genes. However, the interplay between a fish embryo host and its microbiota has not been studied yet at the community level. To test whether host genetics affects the assemblage of egg-associated bacteria, adult brown trout (Salmo trutta) were sampled from a natural population. Their gametes were used for full-factorial in vitro fertilizations to separate sire from dam effects. In total, 2520 embryos were singly raised under experimental conditions that differently support microbial growth. High-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to characterize bacterial communities on milt and fertilized eggs across treatments. Dam and sire identity influenced embryo mortality, time until hatching and composition of egg-associated microbiotas, but no link between bacterial communities on milt and on fertilized eggs could be found. Elevated resources increased embryo mortality and modified bacterial communities with a shift in their putative functional potential. Resource availability did not significantly affect any parental effects on embryo performance. Sire identity affected bacterial diversity that turned out to be a significant predictor of hatching time: embryos associated with high bacterial diversity hatched later. We conclude that both host genetics and the availability of resources define diversity and composition of egg-associated bacterial communities that then affect the life history of their hosts.

  6. An evolutionary view on tooth development and replacement in wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

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    Huysseune, A; Witten, P E

    2008-01-01

    To gain an insight into the evolution of tooth replacement mechanisms, we studied the development of first-generation and replacement teeth on the dentary of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), a protacanthopterygian teleost, using serially sectioned heads of early posthatching stages as well as adults. First-generation teeth develop within the oral epithelium. The anlage of the replacement tooth is first seen as a placode-like thickening of the outer dental epithelium of the predecessor, at its lingual and caudal side. Ongoing development of the replacement tooth germ is characterized by the elaboration of a population of epithelial cells, termed here the middle dental epithelium, apposed to the inner dental epithelium on the lingual side of the tooth germ. Before the formation of the new successor, a single-layered outer dental epithelium segregates from the middle dental epithelium. The dental organs of the predecessor and the successor remain broadly interconnected. The absence of a discrete successional dental lamina in salmon stands in sharp contrast to what is observed in other teleosts, even those that share with salmon the extraosseous formation of replacement teeth. The mode of tooth replacement in Atlantic salmon displays several characters similar to those observed in the shark Squalus acanthias. To interpret similarities in tooth replacement between Atlantic salmon and chondrichthyans as a case of convergence, or to see them as a result of a heterochronic shift, requires knowledge on the replacement process in more basal actinopterygian lineages. The possibility that the middle dental epithelium functionally substitutes for a successional lamina, and could be a source of stem cells, whose descendants subsequently contribute to the placode of the new replacement tooth, needs to be explored.

  7. Retinoic acid cross-talk with calcitriol activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørnsrud, R; Lock, E J; Glover, C N; Flik, G

    2009-09-01

    Vitamins A (VA) and D (VD) are metabolised by vertebrates to bioactive retinoic acid (RA) and calcitriol (CTR). RA and CTR involvement in bone metabolism requires fine-tuned regulation of their synthesis and breakdown. In mammals antagonism of VA and VD is observed, but the mechanism of interaction is unknown. We investigated VA-VD interactions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) following i.p. injection of RA and/or CTR. VA metabolites, CTR, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) were determined in plasma. Expression of bone matrix Gla protein (mgp), collagen 1 alpha2 chain (col1a2) and alkaline phosphatase (alp) mRNA was quantified to reflect osteogenesis. Branchial epithelial Ca channel (ecac listed as trpv6 in ZFIN Database) mRNA levels and intestinal Ca and P influx were determined to study Ca/P handling targets of RA and CTR. RA-injection (with or without CTR) decreased plasma CTR-levels three- to sixfold. CTR injection did not affect RA metabolites, but lowered CTR in plasma 3 and 5 days after injection. Lowered plasma CTR correlated with decreased mgp and col1a2 expression in all groups and with decreased alp in CTR-injected fish. RA-treated salmon had enhanced alp expression, irrespective of reduced plasma CTR. Expression of ecac and unidirectional intestinal influx of Ca were stimulated following RA-CTR treatment. Plasma Ca, Mg and P were not affected by any treatment. The results suggest cross-talk of RA with the VD endocrine system in Atlantic salmon. Enhanced Ca flux and osteogenesis (alp transcription) in RA-treated fish and inhibition of mgp expression revealed unprecedented disturbance of Ca physiology in hypervitaminosis A.

  8. If and when: intrinsic differences and environmental stressors influence migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Midwood, Jonathan D; Larsen, Martin H; Wilson, Alexander D M; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-06-01

    Partial migration is a common phenomenon, yet the causes of individual differences in migratory propensity are not well understood. We examined factors that potentially influence timing of migration and migratory propensity in a wild population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) by combining experimental manipulations with passive integrated transponder telemetry. Individuals were subjected to one of six manipulations: three designed to mimic natural stressors (temperature increase, food deprivation, and chase by a simulated predator), an injection of exogenous cortisol designed to mimic an extreme physiological challenge, a sham injection, and a control group. By measuring length and mass of 923 individuals prior to manipulation and by monitoring tagged individuals as they left the stream months later, we assessed whether pre-existing differences influenced migratory tendency and timing of migration, and whether our manipulations affected growth, condition, and timing of migration. We found that pre-existing differences predicted migration, with smaller individuals and individuals in poor condition having a higher propensity to migrate. Exogenous cortisol manipulation had the largest negative effect on growth and condition, and resulted in an earlier migration date. Additionally, low-growth individuals within the temperature and food deprivation treatments migrated earlier. By demonstrating that both pre-existing differences in organism state and additional stressors can affect whether and when individuals migrate, we highlight the importance of understanding individual differences in partial migration. These effects may carry over to influence migration success and affect the evolutionary dynamics of sub-populations experiencing different levels of stress, which is particularly relevant in a changing world.

  9. Epithelial Label-Retaining Cells Are Absent during Tooth Cycling in Salmo salar and Polypterus senegalus.

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    Sam Vandenplas

    Full Text Available The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and African bichir (Polypterus senegalus are both actinopterygian fish species that continuously replace their teeth without the involvement of a successional dental lamina. Instead, they share the presence of a middle dental epithelium: an epithelial tier enclosed by inner and outer dental epithelium. It has been hypothesized that this tier could functionally substitute for a successional dental lamina and might be a potential niche to house epithelial stem cells involved in tooth cycling. Therefore, in this study we performed a BrdU pulse chase experiment on both species to (1 determine the localization and extent of proliferating cells in the dental epithelial layers, (2 describe cell dynamics and (3 investigate if label-retaining cells are present, suggestive for the putative presence of stem cells. Cells proliferate in the middle dental epithelium, outer dental epithelium and cervical loop at the lingual side of the dental organ to form a new tooth germ. Using long chase times, both in S. salar (eight weeks and P. senegalus (eight weeks and twelve weeks, we could not reveal the presence of label-retaining cells in the dental organ. Immunostaining of P. senegalus dental organs for the transcription factor Sox2, often used as a stem cell marker, labelled cells in the zone of outer dental epithelium which grades into the oral epithelium (ODE transition zone and the inner dental epithelium of a successor only. The location of Sox2 distribution does not provide evidence for epithelial stem cells in the dental organ and, more specifically, in the middle dental epithelium. Comparison of S. salar and P. senegalus reveals shared traits in tooth cycling and thus advances our understanding of the developmental mechanism that ensures lifelong replacement.

  10. Sequencing and characterisation of an extensive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. microRNA repertoire.

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    Michaël Bekaert

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., a member of the family Salmonidae, is a totemic species of ecological and cultural significance that is also economically important in terms of both sports fisheries and aquaculture. These factors have promoted the continuous development of genomic resources for this species, furthering both fundamental and applied research. MicroRNAs (miRNA are small endogenous non-coding RNA molecules that control spatial and temporal expression of targeted genes through post-transcriptional regulation. While miRNA have been characterised in detail for many other species, this is not yet the case for Atlantic salmon. To identify miRNAs from Atlantic salmon, we constructed whole fish miRNA libraries for 18 individual juveniles (fry, four months post hatch and characterised them by Illumina high-throughput sequencing (total of 354,505,167 paired-ended reads. We report an extensive and partly novel repertoire of miRNA sequences, comprising 888 miRNA genes (547 unique mature miRNA sequences, quantify their expression levels in basal conditions, examine their homology to miRNAs from other species and identify their predicted target genes. We also identify the location and putative copy number of the miRNA genes in the draft Atlantic salmon reference genome sequence. The Atlantic salmon miRNAs experimentally identified in this study provide a robust large-scale resource for functional genome research in salmonids. There is an opportunity to explore the evolution of salmonid miRNAs following the relatively recent whole genome duplication event in salmonid species and to investigate the role of miRNAs in the regulation of gene expression in particular their contribution to variation in economically and ecologically important traits.

  11. Environmental change influences the life history of salmon Salmo salar in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N; Albretsen, J

    2016-02-01

    Annual mean total length (LT) of wild one-sea-winter (1SW) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar of the Norwegian River Imsa decreased from 63 to 54 cm with a corresponding decrease in condition factor (K) for cohorts migrating to sea from 1976 to 2010. The reduction in LT is associated with a 40% decline in mean individual mass, from 2 to 1·2 kg. Hatchery fish reared from parental fish of the same population exhibited similar changes from 1981 onwards. The decrease in LT correlated negatively with near-surface temperatures in the eastern Norwegian Sea, thought to be the main feeding area of the present stock. Furthermore, S. salar exhibited significant variations in the proportion of cohorts attaining maturity after only one winter in the ocean. The proportion of S. salar spawning as 1SW fish was lower both in the 1970s and after 2000 than in the 1980s and 1990s associated with a gradual decline in post-smolt growth and smaller amounts of reserve energy in the fish. In wild S. salar, there was a positive association between post-smolt growth and the sea survival back to the River Imsa for spawning. In addition, among smolt year-classes, there were significant positive correlations between wild and hatchery S. salar in LT, K and age at maturity. The present changes may be caused by ecosystem changes following the collapse and rebuilding of the pelagic fish abundance in the North Atlantic Ocean, a gradual decrease in zooplankton abundance and climate change with increasing surface temperature in the Norwegian Sea. Thus, the observed variation in the life-history traits of S. salar appears primarily associated with major changes in the pelagic food web in the ocean.

  12. EFFECT OF CULTURE CONDITIONS ON REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF BROWN TROUT SALMO TRUTTA L.

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    RANDÁK T.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Progeny from artificial propagation of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L. of the Blanice river, Czech Republic, were farmed to maturity and spawned at ages three, four and five during 2002-2004. Reproductive parameters and biological quality of eggs in this farmed population were compared to those of the original wild population. ANCOVA showed no differences between wild and farmed fish in weight of eggs per female, total fecundity, or relative fecundity in any year. Significantly higher egg diameter (4.57 mm, P = 0.001 and weight (69.3 mg, P = 0.0375 were found in the wild population in 2002 and conversely in 2004, the mean egg weight was higher in the farmed population (94.7 mg, P = 0.0021. Differences in egg diameter in this year (4.64 ± 0.06 and 4.82 ± 0.06 in wild and farmed trout, respectively were close to the level of significance (P = 0.079. Mutual correlations between length or weight and studied reproductive traits were similar in both populations. Fertilization rate, duration of incubation period, egg losses during incubation and mortality of starving hatched fry were monitored in embryos and larvae of farmed population only (FxF, crosses between farmed females and wild males (FxW and wild population only (WxW. Altogether 6.3%, 5.8% and 5.4% of eggs died during incubation period in FxF, FxW and WxW, respectively. There were also no significant differences in duration of incubation period and mortality of starving fry. It can be concluded that farming conditions did not significantly affect the reproductive parameters and quality of eggs in the first generation of farmed broodstock.

  13. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

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    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  14. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans in the vertebrae of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Kohler, Achim; Baeverfjord, Grete; Enersen, Grethe; Ruyter, Bente; Takle, Harald; Hannesson, Kirsten O

    2013-09-24

    We analysed the distribution and expression of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) decorin, biglycan and lumican in vertebral columns of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. with and without radiographically detectable deformities. Vertebral deformities are a reoccurring problem in salmon and other intensively farmed species, and an understanding of the components involved in the pathologic development of the vertebrae is important in order to find adequate solutions to this problem. Using immunohistology and light microscopy, we found that in non-deformed vertebrae biglycan, lumican and decorin were all expressed in osteoblasts at the vertebral growth zones and at the ossification front of the chondrocytic arches. Hence, the SLRPs are expressed in regions where intramembranous and endochondral ossification take place. In addition, mRNA expression of biglycan, decorin and lumican was demonstrated in a primary osteoblast culture established from Atlantic salmon, supporting the in vivo findings. Transcription of the SLRPs increased during differentiation of the osteoblasts in vitro and where lumican mRNA expression increased later in the differentiation compared with decorin and biglycan. Intriguingly, in vertebral fusions, biglycan, decorin and lumican protein expression was extended to trans-differentiating cells at the border between arch centra and osteoblast growth zones. In addition, mRNA expression of biglycan, decorin and lumican differed between non-deformed and fused vertebrae, as shown by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Western blotting revealed an additional band of biglycan in fused vertebrae which had a higher molecular weight than in non-deformed vertebrae. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed more spectral focality in the endplates of vertebral fusions and significantly more non-reducible collagen crosslinks compared with non-deformed vertebrae, thus identifying differences in bone structure.

  15. A Polyprotein-Expressing Salmonid Alphavirus Replicon Induces Modest Protection in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar Against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

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    Azila Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is an important strategy for the control and prevention of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the post-smolt stage in sea-water. In this study, a heterologous gene expression system, based on a replicon construct of salmonid alphavirus (SAV, was used for in vitro and in vivo expression of IPN virus proteins. The large open reading frame of segment A, encoding the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH, as well as pVP2, were cloned and expressed by the SAV replicon in Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214 and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC cells. The replicon constructs pSAV/polyprotein (pSAV/PP and pSAV/pVP2 were used to immunize Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar by a single intramuscular injection and tested in a subsequent IPN virus (IPNV challenge trial. A low to moderate protection against IPN was observed in fish immunized with the replicon vaccine that encoded the pSAV/PP, while the pSAV/pVP2 construct was not found to induce protection.

  16. A highly redundant BAC library of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: an important tool for salmon projects

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    Koop Ben F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As farming of Atlantic salmon is growing as an aquaculture enterprise, the need to identify the genomic mechanisms for specific traits is becoming more important in breeding and management of the animal. Traits of importance might be related to growth, disease resistance, food conversion efficiency, color or taste. To identify genomic regions responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries have previously proven to be of crucial importance. These large insert libraries can be screened using gene or genetic markers in order to identify and map regions of interest. Furthermore, large-scale mapping can utilize highly redundant libraries in genome projects, and hence provide valuable data on the genome structure. Results Here we report the construction and characterization of a highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library constructed from a Norwegian aquaculture strain male of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The library consists of a total number of 305 557 clones, in which approximately 299 000 are recombinants. The average insert size of the library is 188 kbp, representing 18-fold genome coverage. High-density filters each consisting of 18 432 clones spotted in duplicates have been produced for hybridization screening, and are publicly available 1. To characterize the library, 15 expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived overgos and 12 oligo sequences derived from microsatellite markers were used in hybridization screening of the complete BAC library. Secondary hybridizations with individual probes were performed for the clones detected. The BACs positive for the EST probes were fingerprinted and mapped into contigs, yielding an average of 3 contigs for each probe. Clones identified using genomic probes were PCR verified using microsatellite specific primers. Conclusion Identification of genes and genomic regions of interest is greatly aided by the availability of the CHORI-214 Atlantic salmon BAC

  17. Characterization of full-length sequenced cDNA inserts (FLIcs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

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    Lunner Sigbjørn

    2009-10-01

    suggests that the remaining cDNA libraries generated by SGP represent a valuable cCDS FLIc source. The conservation of 7-mers in 3'UTRs indicates that these motifs are functionally important. Identity between some of these 7-mers and miRNA target sequences suggests that they are miRNA targets in Salmo salar transcripts as well.

  18. La croissance de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. sur le bassin de Scorff

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    BAGLINIÈRE J. L.

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée à partir du suivi de cinq cohortes âgées de 0 - à 2 - ans dans quatre milieux différents (Scorff aval et amont, affluent, sous-affluent. D'une manière générale, la taille destruites quelque soit leur âge diminue de l'aval vers l'amont du Scorff et de la rivière à l'affluent et au sous-affluent. Le taux mensuel de croissance G = 2,85 (LnL2 — LnL1/(T2 — T1 diminue de la première à la troisième année de vie quelque soit l'ordre de drainage. Ce taux de croissance varie suivant le milieu pour les deux premières classes d'âge (0 + et 1 +, cet effet milieu étant relié à la densité de population pour les individus 0 +. Le taux de croissance varie également suivant les années mais uniquement chez les plus jeunes truites et cet effet année est relié principalement à la température de l'eau. Un modèle de Von Bertalanffy est proposé pour décrire la relation entre la taille (Lf et la somme des températures moyennes journalières depuis la date moyenne d'émergence (Tmjpendant la première année : Lf = 106,7 (1 — exp [ — 0,0005 (Tmj + 468]. Les résultats sont discutés et permettent de dégager les faits majeurs intervenant sur la croissance de la truite tout au long d'un cycle jusqu'à la maturation sexuelle. Mots-clés : Température - Croissance - Truite commune - Rivière - France.

  19. Linkage maps of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) genome derived from RAD sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Lowe, Natalie R; Cezard, Timothé; Gharbi, Karim; Bishop, Stephen C; Houston, Ross D

    2014-02-27

    Genetic linkage maps are useful tools for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing variation in traits of interest in a population. Genotyping-by-sequencing approaches such as Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) now enable the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide SNP markers suitable for the development of dense SNP linkage maps, including in non-model organisms such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). This paper describes the development and characterisation of a high density SNP linkage map based on SbfI RAD-Seq SNP markers from two Atlantic salmon reference families. Approximately 6,000 SNPs were assigned to 29 linkage groups, utilising markers from known genomic locations as anchors. Linkage maps were then constructed for the four mapping parents separately. Overall map lengths were comparable between male and female parents, but the distribution of the SNPs showed sex-specific patterns with a greater degree of clustering of sire-segregating SNPs to single chromosome regions. The maps were integrated with the Atlantic salmon draft reference genome contigs, allowing the unique assignment of ~4,000 contigs to a linkage group. 112 genome contigs mapped to two or more linkage groups, highlighting regions of putative homeology within the salmon genome. A comparative genomics analysis with the stickleback reference genome identified putative genes closely linked to approximately half of the ordered SNPs and demonstrated blocks of orthology between the Atlantic salmon and stickleback genomes. A subset of 47 RAD-Seq SNPs were successfully validated using a high-throughput genotyping assay, with a correspondence of 97% between the two assays. This Atlantic salmon RAD-Seq linkage map is a resource for salmonid genomics research as genotyping-by-sequencing becomes increasingly common. This is aided by the integration of the SbfI RAD-Seq SNPs with existing reference maps and the draft reference genome, as well as the identification of

  20. Quantitative PCR analysis of CYP1A induction in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, C.B.; McCormick, S.D.; Vanden, Heuvel J.P.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental pollutants are hypothesized to be one of the causes of recent declines in wild populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) across Eastern Canada and the United States. Some of these pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, are known to induce expression of the CYP1A subfamily of genes. We applied a highly sensitive technique, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for measuring the levels of CYP1A induction in Atlantic salmon. This assay was used to detect patterns of CYP1A mRNA levels, a direct measure of CYP1A expression, in Atlantic salmon exposed to pollutants under both laboratory and field conditions. Two groups of salmon were acclimated to 11 and 17??C, respectively. Each subject then received an intraperitoneal injection (50 mg kg-1) of either ??-naphthoflavone (BNF) in corn oil (10 mg BNF ml-1 corn oil) or corn oil alone. After 48 h, salmon gill, kidney, liver, and brain were collected for RNA isolation and analysis. All tissues showed induction of CYP1A by BNF. The highest base level of CYP1A expression (2.56??1010 molecules/??g RNA) was found in gill tissue. Kidney had the highest mean induction at five orders of magnitude while gill tissue showed the lowest mean induction at two orders of magnitude. The quantitative RT-PCR was also applied to salmon sampled from two streams in Massachusetts, USA. Salmon liver and gill tissue sampled from Millers River (South Royalston, Worcester County), known to contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), showed on average a two orders of magnitude induction over those collected from a stream with no known contamination (Fourmile Brook, Northfield, Franklin County). Overall, the data show CYP1A exists and is inducible in Atlantic salmon gill, brain, kidney, and liver tissue. In addition, the results obtained demonstrate that quantitative PCR analysis of CYP1A expression is useful in studying ecotoxicity in populations of Atlantic salmon in the wild. ?? 2003

  1. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, {alpha}- and {beta}- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 {sup o}C, isomerization to two other isoforms, {delta}- and {gamma}- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, {beta}-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the {beta}-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. {beta}-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of {beta}-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the {beta}-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t{sub 1/2}) among the treatment groups: 22.5 {+-} 10.4 (low), 13.5 {+-} 5.9 (med) and 13.8 {+-} 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not

  2. Dietary synbiotic application modulates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) intestinal microbial communities and intestinal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, A; Davies, S J; Waines, P; Emery, M; Castex, M; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Bickerdike, R; Romero, J; Merrifield, D L

    2013-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary administration of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestinal health. Salmon (initial average weight 250 g) were allocated into triplicate sea pens and were fed either a control diet (commercial diet: 45% protein, 20% lipid) or a synbiotic treatment diet (control diet + P. acidilactici at 3.5 g kg(-1) and 7 g kg(-1) scFOS) for 63 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology, intestinal histology and the expression of selected immune-related genes (IL1β, TNFα, IL8, TLR3 and MX-1) in the intestine. Compared to the control fish, the total bacterial levels were significantly lower in the anterior mucosa, posterior mucosa and posterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish. qPCR revealed good recovery (log 6 bacteria g(-1)) of the probiotic in the intestinal digesta of the synbiotic fed fish and PCR-DGGE revealed that the number of OTUs, as well as the microbial community diversity and richness were significantly higher in the anterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish than the control. Compared to the control fed fish, the mucosal fold (villi) length and the infiltration of epithelial leucocytes were significantly higher in the anterior and posterior intestine, respectively, in the synbiotic group. Real-time PCR demonstrated that all of the genes investigated were significantly up-regulated in the anterior and posterior intestine of the synbiotic fed salmon, compared to the control group. At the systemic level, serum lysozyme activity was significantly higher in the synbiotic fed fish and growth performance, feed utilisation and biometric measurements (condition factor, gutted weight and gut loss) were not affected. Together these results suggest that the synbiotic modulation of the gut microbiota has a protective action on the intestinal mucosal cells, improving morphology and stimulating

  3. Evaluation of the rivers Vilnia and Siesartis ecotoxicological state based on morphological indexes of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintarė Sauliutė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study – to evaluate ecotoxicological state of two probably differently polluted salmon rivers: the Vilnia and Siesartis based on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juvenile’s morphological indexes. Statistical analysis of estimated fish morphometric parameters and morphological indexes showed that the Vilnia and Siesartis Rivers’ salmon juveniles differ significantly. Condition factor (CF and the gills-somatic index (GSI were found to be the most sensitive biomarkers reflecting the physiological state of the fish. The Vilnia River salmon juvenile CF and GSI value was significantly different as compared with the Siesartis River’s salmon juvenile indexes, apparently, due to the increased water pollution. Since according to the classical physico-chemical parameters, both rivers’ water was very similar [no significant differences were found (p > 0.1], it was suggested that here exist other non-specific chemical factors (pollutants in water, which determine fish physiological and indicate river ecotoxicological states.

  4. Interpopulation differences in expression of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in winter migrating anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Background: Winter migration of immature brown trout (Salmo trutta) into freshwater rivers has been hypothesized to result from physiologically stressful combinations of high salinity and low temperature in the sea. Results: We sampled brown trout from two Danish populations entering different...... was found in trout from the river entering high saline conditions, while a temperature independent up-regulation of both genes in full-strength seawater was found for trout entering marine conditions with lower salinities. Conclusion: Overall our results support the hypothesis that physiologically stressful...... saline conditions and quantified expression of the hsp70 and Na/K-ATPases alpha 1b genes following acclimation to freshwater and full-strength seawater at 2 degrees C and 10 degrees C. An interaction effect of low temperature and high salinity on expression of both hsp70 and Na/K-ATPase alpha 1b...

  5. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci in 4023 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from 32 tributaries to the Limfjord, Denmark (similar to 200 km) and from two hatcheries used for stocking. Populations differ in their estimated sizes and stocking histories. Mean individual...... inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes...... is true of the eastern, more heavily stocked, area of the Limfjord. Here, a higher proportion of the genetic variance is distributed among locations within rivers than among rivers. Assignment tests reveal that the majority of trout (mean 77% of all fish) are more probably of local origin than hatchery...

  6. Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts Salmo trutta during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Thorstad, EB;

    2015-01-01

    The marine migration of post-spawning anadromous fish remains poorly understood. The present study examined survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. after spawning (kelts) during downriver, fjord, and sea migration. Kelts (n = 49) were captured in the Danish River...... and returned to the fjord. The duration of the entire marine migration, from leaving to entering the river, was on average 163 d. The fish returned from the Kattegat Sea to the fjord between 22 July and 21 October. Upon return, the fish spent 1−90 d passing through Randers Fjord, with most individuals...... completing the reach within 4 d, suggesting that the kelts spent limited time foraging after returning to the fjord. The total survival during the entire marine migration, including the fjord, was a minimum of 29%. Our study provides data that are important for management of anadromous brown trout...

  7. Early enrichment effects on brain development in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): no evidence for a critical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Aarestrup, Kim; Thomassen, Søren T.;

    2012-01-01

    In hatcheries, fish are normally reared in barren environments, which have been reported to affect their phenotypic development compared with wild conspecifics. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins were reared in conventional barren hatchery trays or in either of two types...... of structurally enriched trays. We show that increased structural complexity during early rearing increased brain size in all investigated brain substructures. However, these effects disappeared over time after transfer to barren tanks for external feeding. Parallel to the hatchery study, a group of salmon parr...... was released into nature and recaptured at smoltification. These stream-reared smolts developed smaller brains than the hatchery reared smolts, irrespective of initial enrichment treatment. These novel findings do not support the hypothesis that there is a critical early period determining the brain growth...

  8. Impact of groundwater abstraction on physical habitat of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small Danish stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Bøgh, E.; Pedersen, Stig;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of groundwater abstraction on stream discharge and physical habitat conditions for brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small Danish stream. Stream discharge was simulated using a lumped hydrological model (NAM) and a scenario was set up for stream...... discharge reference conditions. Stream physical habitat conditions (WUA) were simulated for four life stages of trout using a hydraulic habitat model (RHYHABSIM). The impact of groundwater abstraction on WUA for trout was assessed by combined simulations from the NAM-model and the RHYHABSIM-model. The model...... abstraction during summer. WUA for adult trout was mainly controlled by suitable water depths (>40 cm) even under conditions without abstraction. On annual basis WUA for fry and juvenile trout was most affected by abstraction. Future modelling should consider improving simulation of low discharges...

  9. Temporal changes in allele frequencies in a small marble trout Salmo marmoratus population threatened by extreme flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Vincenzi, S; Zane, L; Crivelli, A J

    2016-03-01

    The effect of extreme floods on the genetic composition of marble trout Salmo marmoratus living in Lipovscek, a tributary of the Soca River in Slovenia, which has been affected by multiple destructive flood events for centuries was investigated. By monitoring genetic variability during the period 2004-2011, apparent signatures of genetic erosion including a decline in observed and expected heterozygosities and allelic richness were observed. Contemporary effective population size was estimated between 11 and 55 individuals, which is congruent with census data. The data suggest asymmetric gene flow between the two sections of the river. The existence of substantial downstream migration (15-19%) was confirmed by paternity analysis. A small (1-3%) upstream migration was also suggested, which was confirmed by tagging data. Overall, low genetic diversity has not prevented the survival of the Lipovscek population, which might be a common feature of salmonid freshwater populations.

  10. Prespawning migratory behaviour and spawning success of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the River Gudenaa, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Rasmusssen, Gorm

    2000-01-01

    The migratory behaviour of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was analysed by radio-telemetry in the River Gudenaa, Denmark. The main objectives were to: (1) estimate mortality of returning adults through the fjord; (2) observe rate of progression and migratory pattern in the fjord...... of the spawning period. Eight were retrieved dead from the river during or after the spawning period; four with empty gonads assumed to be successful spawners, and four with intact gonads. In 1994, unsuccessful spawners (found dead with intact gonads) entered the river earlier and had a longer total migration...... distance in the river compared to successful. spawners. This suggests that spawning success of sea-ranched salmon is associated with time of river entry and river migration length...

  11. Seasonal variations in skin pigmentation and flesh quality of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.): implications for quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Eric; Dick, James R; Taylor, John F; Bell, J Gordon; Hunter, Dougie; Migaud, Herve

    2010-06-09

    The external coloration of fish is a key driver in consumer buying decisions and is typically altered during sexual maturation in salmonids. Farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) exhibiting distinct phenotypes from the typical silver and nuptial coloration were described in terms of sexual development, flesh quality, and skin pigment profiles. Reconditioning of skin coloration during storage was also tested (CIE[1976]L*a*b*) with the overall view to optimize quality management. The intermediary phenotype never reflected significant deteriorations of flesh quality. It originated from a lack of purine pigments (guanine and hypoxanthine), revealing the carotenoid compounds dominated by the yellow-orange beta-carotene. The resulting distinctive lightness and yellowness were reduced by direct ice contact at a post-mortem stage. Storage conditions can be optimized to improve and standardize the coloration of whole-fish, yielding superior flesh quality parameters. This would facilitate product quality grading during primary processing and also increase product acceptance and attractiveness.

  12. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    , the proportion of locally assigned trout correlates with the populations' stocking histories, with rivers presently subjected to stocking (hatchery trout) showing low mean similar to0.73), and rivers where stocking was discontinued showing high (mean similar to0.84) proportions of local fish, probably reflecting......We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci in 4023 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from 32 tributaries to the Limfjord, Denmark (similar to 200 km) and from two hatcheries used for stocking. Populations differ in their estimated sizes and stocking histories. Mean individual......, suggesting structure within locations. Five per cent of the genetic variance is distributed among rivers (F-ST = 0.049), but in the western, less heavily stocked, area of the Limfjord a higher proportion of the genetic variance is distributed among rivers than among locations within rivers. The reverse...

  13. Targeted SNP discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar genes using a 3'UTR-primed SNP detection approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høyheim Bjørn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs represent the most widespread type of DNA variation in vertebrates and may be used as genetic markers for a range of applications. This has led to an increased interest in identification of SNP markers in non-model species and farmed animals. The in silico SNP mining method used for discovery of most known SNPs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar has applied a global (genome-wide approach. In this study we present a targeted 3'UTR-primed SNP discovery strategy that utilizes sequence data from Salmo salar full length sequenced cDNAs (FLIcs. We compare the efficiency of this new strategy to the in silico SNP mining method when using both methods for targeted SNP discovery. Results The SNP discovery efficiency of the two methods was tested in a set of FLIc target genes. The 3'UTR-primed SNP discovery method detected novel SNPs in 35% of the target genes while the in silico SNP mining method detected novel SNPs in 15% of the target genes. Furthermore, the 3'UTR-primed SNP discovery strategy was the less labor intensive one and revealed a higher success rate than the in silico SNP mining method in the initial amplification step. When testing the methods we discovered 112 novel bi-allelic polymorphisms (type I markers in 88 salmon genes [dbSNP: ss179319972-179320081, ss250608647-250608648], and three of the SNPs discovered were missense substitutions. Conclusions Full length insert cDNAs (FLIcs are important genomic resources that have been developed in many farmed animals. The 3'UTR-primed SNP discovery strategy successfully utilized FLIc data to detect novel SNPs in the partially tetraploid Atlantic salmon. This strategy may therefore be useful for targeted SNP discovery in several species, and particularly useful in species that, like salmonids, have duplicated genomes.

  14. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, D.S.; Zydlewski, G.B.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salarsmolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival.

  15. pH preference and avoidance responses of adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-03-01

    The pH preferred and avoided by wild, adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta was examined in a series a laboratory tests using gradual and steep-gradient flow-through aquaria. The results were compared with those published for the observed segregation patterns of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams. The adult S. trutta tested showed a preference for pH 4·0 while adult S. fontinalis did not prefer any pH within the range tested. Salmo trutta are not found in Pennsylvania streams with a base-flow pH pH well above 4·0. Adult S. trutta displayed a lack of avoidance at pH below 5·0, as also reported earlier for juveniles. The avoidance pH of wild, adult S. fontinalis (between pH 5·5 and 6·0) and S. trutta (between pH 6·5 and 7·0) did not differ appreciably from earlier study results for the avoidance pH of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta. A comparison of c.i. around these avoidance estimates indicates that avoidance pH is similar among adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in this study. The limited overlap of c.i. for avoidance pH values for the two species, however, suggests that some S. trutta will display avoidance at a higher pH when S. fontinalis will not. The results of this study indicate that segregation patterns of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams could be related to pH and that competition with S. trutta could be mediating the occurrence of S. fontinalis at some pH levels.

  16. GÖKKUŞAĞI ALABALIĞI (SALMO GAİRDNERİİ) HYPOPHYSIS'İNİN ANATOMİK VE HİSTOLOJİK YAPISI

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Mehmet

    1998-01-01

    Salmo gairdnerii, alabalığın bir kültOr tOrOdAr. Alabalık yetiştirmede bugün Salmo gairdnerii akla gelmektedir. Bu balığın biyolojik yapısının bilinmesinin alabalık yetiştiriciliğine-ekonomik bir katkısı olacaktır. Bu nedenle hypophysis'inin anatomik ve histolojik yapısı ele ahndl.Hypophysis'in ağırlığı, balığın yaş ve boyuna bağlı olarak değiştiği tesbit edil· miştir. Histolojik olarak haıırlanan preparatlar lriple ve hematoxilin-eosin ile boyandı. Kes�Jerde hypophysis, oval, or· t...

  17. Speciation, uptake and toxicity of uranium in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teien, Hans-Christian; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Oughton, Deborah H.; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Center of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity (CERAD). P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Thoerring, Haavard [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    To obtain information about the bioavailability of uranium (U) and its chemical toxicity, a significant number of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles (in total about 800 fish) were exposure to commercial available depleted uranium (DU) in controlled experiments conducted in accordance with the OECD guidelines for acute toxicity tests. Speciation, gill accumulation and induced toxicity of U as a function of varying water concentrations of H{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +} and K{sup +} as well as U were studied. In addition to recording mortality, blood samples were collected and analysed for general stress parameters (plasma Cl and glucose) prior to fish dissection and collection of different tissues. The observed dose-response demonstrated that varying concentrations of K{sup +}, Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} had no apparent effect on the U induced toxicity in terms of 96 h LC50-values. U toxicity was, however, strongly dependent on pH. Reducing pH from about 6.7 to 6.0 or 5.5 reduced the LC50-value from 3.1 to 1.4 mg U/l. However, by increasing pH to 7.9, LC50-values increased to 25 mg/L. Fractionation of the exposure waters, demonstrated that U was present as dissolved species less than 10 kDa in size predominantly as anion, and that a fraction (30%) was present as U colloids ( 3-10 kDa). Furthermore, U accumulated in fish gills, and the accumulation of U in the fish gills increased with increasing U concentration in the water. U accumulation at >50 μg U/g dry weight gill was correlated with ion regulation problems and stress response in fish, reflected by reduced plasma Cl concentration and increased blood glucose, and mortality was observed at concentration levels >300 μg/g gill dry weight. Thus, toxic effects in fish were correlated to U concentration in gills, and the concentration of U in gills was highly dependent upon pH in water and the U speciation. As presented in detail on a poster at the present conference (Cagno et al.), U did not only

  18. Observations on the metazoan parasites of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after its reintroduction into the Elbe River basin in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek

    2003-12-01

    In the years 1999-2002, first studies were carried out on the metazoan parasites of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recently reintroduced into the Elbe River drainage system, after more than 50 years after the complete extinction of the Elbe salmon population. A total of six helminth species were recorded from salmon smolts from three streams of the Elbe River basin (Kamenice River, Jestedský and Libocanský Brooks) in North Bohemia, Czech Republic, where S. salar fingerlings have been released since 1998: Gyrodactylus truttae Gläser, 1974, Crepidostomum metoecus Braun, 1900, Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819) metacercariae, Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1799) adults and encapsulated larvae, Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872), and Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780). Except for D. spathaceum, all these freshwater parasites have been received from the helminth fauna of the co-habiting brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.). Due to local ecological conditions, the parasite faunae of both salmon and brown trout exhibited distinct qualitative and quantitative differences in the three localities. The finding of G. truttae on S. salar represents a new host record. Three helminth parasites of marine origin, the cestodes Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779) and Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 plerocercoids, and the nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) larvae were found in the single examined adult S. salar from the Kamenice River. New data on the geographical distribution of some nematode parasites of Salmo trutta fario L., Barbatula barbatula (L.) and Anguilla anguilla (L.) are presented.

  19. 湖泊水质模型SALMO在太湖梅梁湾的应用%Application of lake model SALMO to the Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 陈求稳; 李伟峰

    2012-01-01

    The lake model SALMO (Simulation by Means of an Analytical Lake Model) was applied to simulate the water quality of the Meiliang Bay in Taihu Lake.The model includes 8 state variables:nitrate nitrogen,phosphate phosphorus,detritus,dissolved oxygen,biomass of three algae (Cyanophyta,Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta) and zooplankton.Because SALMO was originally developed for non-shallow lakes (maximum depth 5 m),some improvements were made to SALMO before simulating the shallow Meiliang Bay.The data from the year 2005 were used for model calibration and the data from the year 2006 were used for model verification.The results showed that the modeled biomass of the three algae followed the observed seasonal patterns:Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta were dominant from the end of winter to the beginning of spring,while Cyanophyta was dominant in summer and autumn.The modeled nutrient concentrations also showed a good agreement with the observations.This indicates that after improvement SALMO is applicable for Taihu Lake and can be used to study the mechanisms of algae bloom.%改进了湖泊水质模型SALMO,针对太湖梅梁湾,利用2005年实测数据进行模型参数率定,并模拟了2006年水质.结果发现,绿藻、蓝藻、硅藻3种藻类的模拟结果与藻类的实测年变化格局一致,反应了3种藻类的季节性演替,其中,硅藻、绿藻在冬末春初占优势,蓝藻在夏秋季占优势;溶解氧模拟结果与实测数据非常一致,年平均相对误差为14.3%;NO-3-N和PO3-4-P的变化趋势与实测结果基本一致.研究结果表明,SALMO能很好地模拟藻类和营养盐的浓度动态,并在一定程度上揭示水华机制.

  20. Apresentar o controverso. Judaísmo e judeus dispersos entre tribalistas árabes: teoria e história do Salmo 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ribeiro Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mostrar lo controvertido. El judaísmo y los judíos dispersados entre las autoridades de la sociedad árabe: teoría e historia del Salmo 120ResumoO artigo aborda o judaísmo no contexto dos movimentos vitais do período de predomínio persa no Oriente Próximo antigo; desse período, o Salmo 120 registra em close-up a peculiar vida de judeus entre grandezas sociais árabes em oposição cultural. Pressupostos metodológicos da pesquisa histórica introduzem ao salmo como etnografia canônica, que ganha sentido quando situado como voz social em conflito com uma diversidade cultural que é incapaz de processar. A pesquisa propõe um trabalho de reconstrução interdisciplinar para a busca de conhecimento que tenha por meio os textos da Bíblia hebraica.AbstractThe article debate the Judaism in the context of the vital movements of the period of Persian predominance in the ancient Near East; of this period the Psalm 120 record in close-up the peculiar life of Jews among Arab social greatness in cultural opposition. Methodological estimated of the historical research introduce to Psalm as canonical ethnography, that gains sense when situated as social voice in conflict with a cultural diversity that is incapable to process. The research proposed an interdisciplinary reconstruction work for the knowledge search that has for way the texts of the Hebrew Bible.ResumenEl artículo trata del judaísmo en el contexto de los movimientos substanciales del período de predominio persa en el antiguo Oriente Próximo. El Salmo 120, del mismo período, registra en aproximación, la peculiar vida de los judíos entre las autoridades de la sociedad árabe en oposición cultural. Presupuestos metodológicos de la investigación histórica revelan el salmo como una etnografía canónica, que gana sentido cuando se lo sitúa como voz social en conflicto con una diversidad cultural que es incapaz de procesar.La investigación propone un trabajo de reconstrucci

  1. Salmo salar: morfología ultraestructural de la pared del corion en ovas normales y con problemas de eclosión Salmo salar: ultrastructural morphology of chorion, from normal and with hatching problems ova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jaramillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El “corion duro” es un fenómeno de reciente ocurrencia y se caracteriza porque algunos alevines con ojo no son capaces de degradar el corion que les rodea o lo hacen sólo de manera parcial, produciéndose en ambos casos la muerte del alevín. Este fenómeno ha causado fracasos reproductivos importantes en algunas pisciculturas del sur de Chile, desconociéndose hasta ahora la razón de su ocurrencia. En este estudio se realizaron mediciones del grosor del corion de Salmo salar así como de las fibras que forman parte de éste en ovas fertilizadas, no fertilizadas, con desarrollo normal y ovas que no lograron eclosionar. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las leves variaciones observadas en el grosor del corion entre los diferentes estados de desarrollo de las ovas estudiadas no explican la ocurrencia del “corion duro”. Sin embargo, la disposición de las fibras proteicas que forman el estrato interno del corion parece ser la respuesta a este fenómeno. Las ovas que no eclosionan presentan “corion duro” y exhiben un estrato interno carente de poros a diferencia de lo que se observa en las ovas que desarrollan normalmente y que logran la eclosión. Se propone que problemas en la síntesis de alguna de las sub-unidades que forman la coriogenina serían los responsables de la formación de un estrato interno carente de poros, siendo ésta la razón del “corion duro”.Either eyed alevins unable to digest the chorion or those digesting it partially, are both suffering the “hard chorion” phenomenon; in both cases alevins can not survive producing high mortality rates. During recent years, the salmon farming industry in Southern Chile has been facing massive mortality events caused by “hard chorion”. Since “hard chorion” is a recently observed phenomenon there are no literature reporting its origin. The aim of this study was to find differences in the ultrastructure of chorion fibers from Salmo salar ova at different

  2. A Systematic Approach towards Optimizing a Cohabitation Challenge Model for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Santi, Nina; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for use in evaluating the efficacy of different vaccines used in aquaculture.

  3. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  4. Impacts of episodic acidification on in-stream survival and physiological impairment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.; Keyes, A.; Nislow, K.H.; Monette, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted field studies to determine the levels of acid and aluminum (Al) that affect survival, smolt development, ion homeostasis, and stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in restoration streams of the Connecticut River in southern Vermont, USA. Fish were held in cages in five streams encompassing a wide range of acid and Al levels for two 6-day intervals during the peak of smolt development in late April and early May. Physiological parameters were unchanged from initial sampling at the hatchery and the high water quality reference site (pH > 7.0, inorganic Al cortisol and glucose, and moderately elevated gill Al occurred at less severely impacted sites. Gill Al was a better predictor of integrated physiological impacts than water chemistry alone. The results indicate that Al and low pH under field conditions in some New England streams can cause mortality and impair smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon and provide direct evidence that episodic acidification is impacting conservation and recovery of Atlantic salmon in the northeastern USA.

  5. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke-McKellep, A M; Sanden, M; Danieli, A; Acierno, R; Hemre, G-I; Maffia, M; Krogdahl, A

    2008-06-01

    Physiological and health related responses to dietary inclusion of genetically modified (GM) full-fat soybean meal (Roundup Ready; GM-soy) and maize (MON810 Bt-maize; GM-maize), as well as non-parental, untransformed lines (nGM-soy and nGM-maize D2), were evaluated in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr during the first 8 months of feeding. Significant effects of dietary GM presence were only found in intestinal Na+-dependent d-glucose uptake and SGLT1 protein level in the region pyloric caeca in which the highest values were found in the GM-soy, intermediate in the nGM-soy, and lowest in the standard FM fed groups. Data from this study confirm that GM soybeans (RRS) and maize (MON810) at inclusion levels of about 6% appear to be as safe as commercially available nGM soy and maize in diets for Atlantic salmon parr. Results from studies with higher inclusion levels and with non-modified, isogenic or near-isogenic parental lines as control groups are pending.

  6. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Dale, Ole Bendik; Purcell, Maureen K.; Falk, Knut; Busch, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, three epidemic waves of infectious hematopoietic necrosis, often with high mortality, occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the west coast of North America. We compared the virulence of eleven strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), representing the U, M and L genogroups, in experimental challenges of juvenile Atlantic salmon in freshwater. All strains caused mortality and there was wide variation within genogroups: cumulative mortality for five U-group strains ranged from 20 to 100%, four M-group strains ranged 30-63% and two L-group strains varied from 41 to 81%. Thus, unlike Pacific salmonids, there was no apparent correlation of virulence in a particular host species with virus genogroup. The mortality patterns indicated two different phenotypes in terms of kinetics of disease progression and final per cent mortality, with nine strains having moderate virulence and two strains (from the U and L genogroups) having high virulence. These phenotypes were investigated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe the variation in the course of IHNV disease in Atlantic salmon. The results from this study demonstrate that IHNV may become a major threat to farmed Atlantic salmon in other regions of the world where the virus has been, or may be, introduced.

  7. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success.

  8. A hemagglutinin-esterase-expressing salmonid alphavirus replicon protects Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) against infectious salmon anemia (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Astrid; Hodneland, Kjartan; Frost, Petter; Braaen, Stine; Rimstad, Espen

    2013-01-11

    A replicon expression system based on the salmonid alphavirus (SAV) that encodes the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) was constructed and found to be an efficacious vaccine against infectious salmon anemia (ISA). Following a single intramuscular immunization, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were effectively protected against subsequent ISAV challenge. Additional replicons coding for the ISAV fusion glycoprotein (F) or the ISAV matrix protein (M) were created and tested in combination with the replicon that encodes the HE. The ISAV HE was confirmed as a potent antigen, but neither the F nor the M proteins were found to be essential for immunization-induced protection. Innate immune response induced at the site of vaccination illustrated the immunogenicity of the SAV-based replicon and its ability to activate antiviral responses in Atlantic salmon. The successful testing of the SAV-based replicon as a vaccine model against ISA showed that the replicon approach may represent a novel immunization technology for the aquaculture industry. It offers potential benefits in terms of safety, efficacy, flexibility, and vaccine production complexity.

  9. Atlantic salmon reovirus infection causes a CD8 T cell myocarditis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aase B Mikalsen

    Full Text Available Heart and skeletal inflammation (HSMI of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. is a disease characterized by a chronic myocarditis involving the epicardium and the compact and spongious part of the heart ventricle. Chronic myositis of the red skeletal muscle is also a typical finding of HSMI. Piscine reovirus (PRV has been detected by real-time PCR from farmed and wild salmon with and without typical changes of HSMI and thus the causal relationship between presence of virus and the disease has not been fully determined. In this study we show that the Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV, identical to PRV, can be passaged in GF-1 cells and experimental challenge of naïve Atlantic salmon with cell culture passaged reovirus results in cardiac and skeletal muscle pathology typical of HSMI with onset of pathology from 6 weeks, peaking by 9 weeks post challenge. ASRV replicates in heart tissue and the peak level of virus replication coincides with peak of heart lesions. We further demonstrate mRNA transcript assessment and in situ characterization that challenged fish develop a CD8+ T cell myocarditis.

  10. Effect of ectoparasite infestation density and life history stages on the swimming performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome sustainability obstacles and improve operations, the Atlantic salmon farming industry is testing novel approaches to production. Redistributing farm sites to offshore locations is one such solution; however, tolerance to high-current velocity sites must be considered, particularly if fish health status is compromised by parasites. We tested the effect of parasite density and life-history stage on the swimming performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar using a swim flume. Salmon with 3 different salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis densities (0, 0.02 � 0.01 and 0.11 � 0.01 lice cm-2 [mean � SE] were tested across the 4 major life-history stages of lice (copepodid, chalimus, pre-adult and adult for critical swimming performance (Ucrit. Salmon Ucrit declined slightly by a mean of 0.04 to 0.10 body lengths s-1 with high parasite densities compared to uninfested and low densities, across the lice stages, while progression through the parasite life-history stages had little effect on swimming performance. Our results suggest that increasing infestation density of salmon lice incurs negative fitness consequences for farmed Atlantic salmon held in high-current velocity sites, with little difference in costs associated with attachment by different life-history stages of the lice.

  11. ¹H NMR-based metabolomics studies on the effect of sesamin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liane; Trattner, Sofia; Pickova, Jana; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Moazzami, Ali A

    2014-03-15

    A (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to explore the impact of dietary sesamin on the liver and white muscle metabolic profile of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish were fed diets containing different n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios (V0.5 or V1) and sesamin contents [without (S0), low (SL) 1.16 g/kg feed, and high (SH) 5.8 g/kg feed] for 4 months. Liver and white muscle extracts of aqueous polar and chloroform lipid phases were collected. Multivariate data analyses (PCA and OPLS-DA) of liver chloroform phase showed that high levels of sesamin affected the metabolic profile impartially of the n-6/n-3 ratio. In the aqueous phase, the metabolome of liver and white muscle were affected in fish fed an n-6/n-3 ratio of 1.0 and 0.5, respectively. With high inclusion of sesamin, the levels of several metabolites (e.g. glucose, glycogen, leucine, valine, creatine, carnitine, lactate, nucleosides) were increased. These metabolites are mainly associated with energy metabolism, suggesting that high sesamin inclusion affects liver and white muscle metabolism in fish. This is consistent with lower body weights found in fish fed high sesamin content.

  12. Regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during smoltification

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    MAZURAIS D.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR transcript was investigated in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during the parr-smolt transformation. Sampling of parr and smolt fish was performed between December and July and in particular during the smoltification period occurring in spring. Quantification of GR transcripts revealed differences between the two groups in March and at the beginning of April. During these dates, the amounts of GR mRNA in parr gills were respectively three and two fold lower than those measured in smolts. In order to determine which factors are responsible for these differences, we studied the long-term effects of prolactin and Cortisol treatments on GR transcript in the gills of presmolt fish. The plasma levels of these two hormones respectively drop and rise during smoltification. Contrary to Cortisol long-term treatment which did not modify the amount of gill GR transcript, short-term treatment induced a significant decrease within 12 hours. Prolactin long-term treatment caused a significant increase of GR transcript abundance after 13 days of implant treatment. This result is unexpected with regard to those obtained in the smoltification analysis but is in agreement with previous studies performed in mammary gland revealing a positive control of PRL on GR in epithelial cells. Our data suggest that the regulation of the GR transcript during the parr-smolt transformation probably involves several hormonal factors.

  13. Teratogenicity of elevated egg incubation temperature and egg vitamin A status in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ØRnsrud, R; Gil, L; Waagbø, R

    2004-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that high egg vitamin A (VA) status in combination with elevated egg incubation temperatures may cause deformities in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Egg batches selected for their total VA concentration were exposed to low (normal, 8 degrees C) or elevated (14 degrees C) egg incubation temperatures. Temperature was the main factor causing bone deformities such as warped gill opercula, fin and jaw deformities, but not for the development of spinal deformities where all groups displayed a 'baseline' occurrence of mild deformity (decreased vertebral size in the cephalic region) and no systematic variation in the occurrence of serious spinal deformities (fused vertebrae). A possible effect of egg incubation temperature fluctuation was found for the groups reared at low temperatures. An indication of a negative effect of elevated egg VA status for the development of organ deformities such as missing septum transversum and situs inversus was found in addition to temperature effects, however, no firm conclusions could be drawn from the present data. The phenotypes for temperature-induced deformities resembled the phenotype of VA-induced deformities, but no clear conclusions on the causality of the deformities found in the present study could be drawn. Egg incubation temperatures, both absolute temperature and temperature variations, should therefore be strictly controlled.

  14. The vitamin D receptor and its ligand 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, E J; Ornsrud, R; Aksnes, L; Spanings, F A T; Waagbø, R; Flik, G

    2007-06-01

    Seaward migration of Salmo salar is preceded by preparatory physiological adaptations (parr-smolt transformation) to allow for a switch from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW), which also means a switch in ambient calcium from hypocalcic (vitamin D endocrine system plays a rather enigmatic role in calcium physiology. Here, we give direct evidence for calcitriol involvement in SW migration. We report the full sequence of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (sVDR0) and two alternatively spliced variants resulting from intron retention (sVDR1 and sVDR2). In FW parr, SW adapting smolts, and in SW adults, plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) did not change significantly. Plasma calcitriol concentrations were lowest in FW parr, doubled during smoltification and remained elevated in SW adults. Increased calcitriol coincided with a twofold decrease in sVDR mRNA levels in gill, intestine, and kidney of FW smolts and SW adults, when compared with parr. Clearly, there was a negative feedback and dynamic response of the vitamin D endocrine system during parr-smolt transformation. The onset of these dynamic changes in FW parr warrants a further search for the endocrines that initiate these changes. We speculate that the vitamin D system plays a crucial role in calcium and phosphorus handling in Atlantic salmon.

  15. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  16. Interferon-mediated host response in experimentally induced salmonid alphavirus 1 infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Tharangani K; Thompson, Kim D; Adams, Alexandra; Richards, Randolph H

    2013-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection in cultured salmonids causes severe economic losses across Europe. Immune protection and antiviral mechanisms of the host against SAV are poorly characterised in vivo. Analysis of immune gene expression in head kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) experimentally infected with SAV 1, using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), revealed rapid induction of interferon I (INF-I), interferon II (INF-II) and INF-I associated Mx genes in SAV 1 infected fish compared to control fish injected with tissue culture supernatant. Mx protein was found to be highly expressed in the heart and mucosal membranes of infected fish by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Interestingly, the pathological changes that were observed in the target tissues of the virus became visible some time after peak expression of genes associated with the INF-I-pathway in head kidney tissue. These findings suggest that a non-specific antiviral immune response is rapidly induced during the early stages of SAV infection in salmon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphological variation in a secondary contact between divergent lineages of brown trout (Salmo trutta from the Iberian Peninsula

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    Miguel Hermida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological variation of brown trout (Salmo trutta in the Duero basin, an Atlantic river basin in the Iberian Peninsula, where a spatial segregation of two divergent lineages was previously reported, based on isozyme, microsatellite and mtDNA data. In these studies, two divergent pure regions (Pisuerga and Lower-course and several hybrid populations between them were identified. Morphological variation was evaluated in 11 populations representative of the genetic differentiation previously observed in the Duero basin, using multivariate analysis on 12 morphometric and 4 meristic traits. A large differentiation between populations was observed (interpopulation component of variance: 41.8%, similar to that previously detected with allozymes and microsatellites. Morphometric differentiation was also reflected by the high classification success of pure and hybrid individuals to their respective populations, using multivariate discriminant functions (94.1% and 79.0%, respectively. All multivariate and clustering analyses performed demonstrated a strong differentiation between the pure regions. The hybrid populations, though showing large differentiation among them, evidenced an intermediate position between the pure samples. Head and body shape traits were the most discriminant among the morphometric characters, while pectoral rays and gillrakers were the most discriminant among the meristic traits. These results confirmed the high divergence of the brown trout from the Duero basin and suggest some traits on which selection could be acting to explain the spatial segregation observed.

  18. Morphological variation in a secondary contact between divergent lineages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Miguel; San Miguel, Eduardo; Bouza, Carmen; Castro, Jaime; Martínez, Paulino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological variation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Duero basin, an Atlantic river basin in the Iberian Peninsula, where a spatial segregation of two divergent lineages was previously reported, based on isozyme, microsatellite and mtDNA data. In these studies, two divergent pure regions (Pisuerga and Lower-course) and several hybrid populations between them were identified. Morphological variation was evaluated in 11 populations representative of the genetic differentiation previously observed in the Duero basin, using multivariate analysis on 12 morphometric and 4 meristic traits. A large differentiation between populations was observed (interpopulation component of variance: 41.8%), similar to that previously detected with allozymes and microsatellites. Morphometric differentiation was also reflected by the high classification success of pure and hybrid individuals to their respective populations, using multivariate discriminant functions (94.1% and 79.0%, respectively). All multivariate and clustering analyses performed demonstrated a strong differentiation between the pure regions. The hybrid populations, though showing large differentiation among them, evidenced an intermediate position between the pure samples. Head and body shape traits were the most discriminant among the morphometric characters, while pectoral rays and gillrakers were the most discriminant among the meristic traits. These results confirmed the high divergence of the brown trout from the Duero basin and suggest some traits on which selection could be acting to explain the spatial segregation observed.

  19. Associations between piscine reovirus infection and life history traits in wild-caught Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garseth, Ase Helen; Biering, Eirik; Aunsmo, Arnfinn

    2013-10-01

    Piscine Reovirus (PRV), the putative causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Norway. While HSMI is a common and commercially important disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, the presence of PRV has so far not been associated with HSMI related lesions in wild salmon. Factors associated with PRV-infection were investigated in returning Atlantic salmon captured in Norwegian rivers. A multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model confirmed clustering within rivers and demonstrated that PRV-infection is associated with life-history, sex, catch-year and body length as a proxy for sea-age. Escaped farmed salmon (odds ratio/OR: 7.32, pwild Atlantic salmon. Male salmon have double odds of being PRV infected compared to female salmon (OR: 2.11, p<0.001). Odds of being PRV-infected increased with body-length measured as decimetres (OR: 1.20, p=0.004). Since body length and sea-age are correlated (r=0.85 p<0.001), body length serves as a proxy for sea-age, meaning that spending more years in sea increases the odds of being PRV-infected.

  20. The culturable intestinal microbiota of triploid and diploid juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar - a comparison of composition and drug resistance

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    Cantas Leon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increased use of ploidy manipulation in aquaculture and fisheries management this investigation aimed to determine whether triploidy influences culturable intestinal microbiota composition and bacterial drug resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The results could provide answers to some of the physiological differences observed between triploid and diploid fish, especially in terms of fish health. Results No ploidy effect was observed in the bacterial species isolated, however, triploids were found to contain a significant increase in total gut microbiota levels, with increases in Pseudomonas spp., Pectobacterium carotovorum, Psychrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Vibrio spp., (12, 42, 9, 10, and 11% more bacteria in triploids than diploids, respectively, whereas a decrease in Carnobacterium spp., within triploids compared to diploids was close to significant (8% more bacteria in diploids. With the exception of gentamicin, where no bacterial resistance was observed, bacterial isolates originating from triploid hosts displayed increased resistance to antibacterials, three of which were significant (tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulphonamide. Conclusion Results indicate that triploidy influences both the community and drug resistance of culturable intestinal microbiota in juvenile salmon. These results demonstrate differences that are likely to contribute to the health of triploid fish and have important ramifications on the use of antibacterial drugs within aquaculture.

  1. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to 17beta-estradiol and bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Lisette Bachmann; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2008-05-01

    The impact of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset of xenoestrogen metabolism was examined by measurements of whole body concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and its conjugation product bisphenol A glucuronic acid (BPAGA). Exposure to 500 ng E2/l led to an increase in E2 levels in the embryos and fry while 10 ng E2/l did not. Metabolic conversion of BPA to BPAGA began during the first weeks of embryonic development. Few consistent effects were found on the sex differentiation of the brown trout. Only one intersex fish (4.5%) was found among male fish at 400 dpf exposed to 500 ng E2/l. Females with male germ cells among the normally developing oocytes were observed in all groups (in up to 50% of the female fish, independently of exposure regime). The fact that exposure to 500 ng E2/l only caused subtle effects in a small number of individuals indicates that exposure during early life stages results in little to no induction of endocrine disruption in brown trout.

  2. Gonad histology and vitellogenin concentrations in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Danish streams impacted by sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Lisette B; Madsen, Allan H; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2006-04-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from a number of Danish streams impacted by sewage effluent were examined for alterations to gonadal development and induction of vitellogenin synthesis. Among fish collected in June/July 2000/2001 and November 2002 higher levels of plasma vitellogenin were found in males from six streams impacted by sewage effluent compared to males from their respective reference sites. A direct non-competitive ELISA was developed for brown trout vitellogenin in order to perform the vitellogenin measurements. Intersex in females with no apparent relation to sewage effluent exposure was observed at all sites. In one stream, male brown trout with a very high level of vitellogenin were concomitantly found to have a high degree of vacuolation of the testes and a presence of only the early spermatogenic stage, spermatogonia. The cause of these alterations to the testis structure is unclear. However, as a high level of plasma vitellogenin in these males indicated estrogenic exposure, the vacuolation might also be a result of endocrine disruption causing delayed or disrupted spermatogenesis.

  3. Differential modulation of host genes in the kidney of brown trout Salmo trutta during sporogenesis of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-10-04

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. In Europe, spores of T. bryosalmonae develop in the kidney of infected brown trout Salmo trutta and are released via urine to infect the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana. The transcriptomes of kidneys of infected and non-infected brown trout were compared by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Differential screening and a subsequent NCBI BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags revealed 21 transcripts with functions that included cell stress and cell growth, ribonucleoprotein, signal transduction, ion transporter, immune response, hemoglobin and calcium metabolisms. Quantitative real time PCR was used to verify the presence of these selected transcripts in brown trout kidney at sporogonic stages of T. bryosalmonae development. Expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, prothymosin alpha, transforming protein RhoA, immunoglobulin light chain and major histocompatibility complex class I were up-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. Expression of both the hemoglobin subunit beta and stanniocalcin precursor were down-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. This study suggests that cell stress and cell growth processes, signal transduction activities, erythropoiesis and calcium homeostasis of the host are modulated during sporogonic stages of parasite development, which may support the sporogenesis of T. bryosalmonae in the kidney of brown trout.

  4. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G; Winton, J R; Dale, O B; Purcell, M K; Falk, K; Busch, R A

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, three epidemic waves of infectious hematopoietic necrosis, often with high mortality, occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the west coast of North America. We compared the virulence of eleven strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), representing the U, M and L genogroups, in experimental challenges of juvenile Atlantic salmon in freshwater. All strains caused mortality and there was wide variation within genogroups: cumulative mortality for five U-group strains ranged from 20 to 100%, four M-group strains ranged 30-63% and two L-group strains varied from 41 to 81%. Thus, unlike Pacific salmonids, there was no apparent correlation of virulence in a particular host species with virus genogroup. The mortality patterns indicated two different phenotypes in terms of kinetics of disease progression and final per cent mortality, with nine strains having moderate virulence and two strains (from the U and L genogroups) having high virulence. These phenotypes were investigated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe the variation in the course of IHNV disease in Atlantic salmon. The results from this study demonstrate that IHNV may become a major threat to farmed Atlantic salmon in other regions of the world where the virus has been, or may be, introduced.

  5. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horká Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  6. [Health risks associated with the migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): an epidemiological surveillance programme in Northern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, C; Fernandez, A B; Muzquiz, J L; Ania, S; Gimeno, O

    2005-12-01

    The authors present the results of an epidemiological surveillance programme involving Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in north-eastern Spain. The study investigates the risk factors critical in disease transmission, which include the presence of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms, the innate cell-mediated immune response of the salmon, and the potential interactions between the two. Also taken into account are the biological and migratory cycles of these salmon populations. The results showed that Aeromonas salmonicida and Saprolegnia parasitica were the micro-organisms that played the most important role in the transmission of the disease by virtue of their pathological characteristics, their occurrence in large numbers, and their capacity to transmit disease. With regard to the cell-mediated immune response, the authors observed a wide variability between individuals in some cell groups, as well as certain seasonal and age differences. These may be factors that predispose the animals to infection or to becoming asymptomatic carriers, with the attendant risk of transmitting infection in the course of migration. This could be especially relevant in the case of salmon infected with A. salmonicida and S. parasitica, since it has been observed that such salmon have a decreased number of leucocytes compared to non-infected salmon.

  7. Skeletal muscle protease activities in the early growth and development of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the early post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism, health and fillet nutritional quality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing n-3-rich microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulaki, Katerina; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter; Krasnov, Aleksei; Torgersen, Jacob Seilø; Mørkøre, Turid; Sweetman, John

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights. Fish performance was optimal in all experimental treatments (thermal growth coefficient about 4·0 and feed conversion ratio 0·8-0·9), protein digestibility was equal in all diets, whereas dietary lipid digestibility inversely correlated with the dietary levels of the SFA 16 : 0. Fillet quality was good and similar to the control in all treatments in terms of n-3 long-chain PUFA content, gaping, texture and liquid losses during thawing. Histological fluorescence staining and immunofluorescence analysis of salmon intestines (midgut: base of intestine and villi) revealed significant effects on slime, goblet cell production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with increasing levels of dietary Schizochytrium sp. supplementation. Microarray analysis did not reveal any signs of toxicity, stress, inflammation or any other negative effects from Schizochytrium sp. supplementation in diets for Atlantic salmon.

  9. Consistent boldness behaviour in early emerging fry of domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz-Serrano, J.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. L.; Gjøen, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using......, early and late emerging individuals did not differ. Therefore, this study demonstrates that boldness in a novel environment is uncoupled from other traits of the proactive and reactive stress coping styles in farmed salmonids. It is possible that this decoupling is caused by the low competitive...

  10. Quality of raw and smoked fillets from clinically healthy Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following an outbreak of pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taksdal, T.; Wiik‐Nielsen, J.; Birkeland, S.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease of farmed salmonid fish, which causes huge economic losses. Pathological changes in skeletal muscle, pancreas and heart are hallmarks of PD. Stakeholders in the fish‐smoking industry have claimed that fillets from PD‐affected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L......., are of poor quality. We therefore examined harvest‐ready, clinically healthy Atlantic salmon from a population of fish previously affected by PD. Histopathological changes in skeletal muscle tissues ranged from minor to severe. Fillet quality measurements showed that fish with severe skeletal muscle changes...

  11. Comparative cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The heart is considered the powerhouse of the cardiovascular system. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD) are cardiac diseases of marine farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which commonly affect the heart in addition to the skeletal......) and TUNEL, and moderate levels of caspase 3 immuno-reactivity suggested a high cell turnover where DNA damage/repair might be occurring in the diseased hearts. Interestingly, the apparently similar cardiac diseases exhibited differences in the immunopathological responses in Atlantic salmon....

  12. Spatially and temporally fluctuating selection at non-MHC immune genes: evidence from TAP polymorphism in populations of brown trout ( Salmo trutta , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons;

    2008-01-01

    Temporal samples of Danish brown trout (Salmo trutta) from populations representing varying geographical scales were analysed using eight putatively neutral microsatellite loci and two microsatellite loci embedded in TAP genes (Transporter associated with Antigen Processing). These genes encode....... Moreover, signals of divergent selection among temporal samples within localities suggest that selection also might fluctuate at a temporal scale. These results suggest that immune genes other than the classical MHC class I and II might be subject to selection and warrant further studies of functional...

  13. Relationship between gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and downstream movement in domesticated and first-generation offspring of wild anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Madsen, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between smolt status and downstream movement following release was investigated in two stocks of hatchery- reared anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Yearlings from a domesticated stock (DS) and first-generation offspring (F1) of wild anadromous trout were held under identical...... occasions into the River Salten. Using both dye-marked and radiotagged fish, downstream movement was monitored by either trapping 3 km downstream (dye-marked fish) or radiotracking on a daily basis. The experiments showed a positive correlation between smolt status (gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity...

  14. The relative absorption of fatty acids in brown trout (Salmo trutta) fed a commercial extruded pellet coated with different lipid sources

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Valfré; Vittorio Maria Moretti; Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Sara Panseri; Ivan Giani; Tiziana Mentasti; Giovanni Mario Turchini

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the fatty acid absorption capabilities of brown trout (Salmo trut- ta) fed commercial extruded diets. Five commercial extruded pellets, different only in the lipid sources used for fat coat- ing, were tested on juvenile brown trout for 45 days. The trout were reared in fresh water at 14.6 ± 0.4° C and 7.7 ± 0.3 mg/l, temperature and dissolved oxygen, respectively. The tested lipid sources were fish oil, canola oil, oleine...

  15. Stocking impact and migration pattern in an anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) complex: where have all the stocked spawning sea trout gone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci among sea trout (Salmo trutta) (n = 846) collected from three areas in the Limfjord (Denmark). We then assessed their potential population source by comparing, using a mixed stock analysis (MSA) Bayesian framework, their genetic composition...... to that of brown trout collected from 32 tributaries pooled into nine geographical regions (n = 3801) and two hatcheries (n = 222) used for stocking. For each of the three regional sea trout groups (western, central and eastern Limfjord, n = 91, n = 426, n = 329, respectively), MSA was conducted with (i) all...

  16. 亚东鲑 Salmo trutta fario 肌肉营养成分分析和品质评价%Analysis and Evaluation of Muscular Nutrition in Brown Trout Salmo trutta fario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 户国; 周建设; 谷伟; 李宝海; 白庆利; 王炳谦

    2015-01-01

    N utritionalcom positions in m uscle of brow n troutSalmo trutta fario w ere analyzed by routine m ethods and evaluated by am ino acidsscore(AAS)and chem icalscore(CS).The resultsshow ed thatthe fresh m uscle contained m oisture of70.81% ,crude pro-tein22.63% ,crude fat4.91% and crude ash 1.80% .There w ere totalam ino acid (TA A)of69.51% ,totalessentialam ino acid(EA A) 28.86% and totaldelicious am ino acid (D A A)26.09% in dry m uscle w ith EA A /TA A of41.52% and EA A /N EA A of84.11% .Itw as clearthatthe tw o ratiosin the m uscle w ere in accord w ith the standard ofFA O /W H O(40% and 60% ).The A A S and C S revealed that m ethionine+cysteine and valine w ere the lim ited am ino acids,w ith essentialam ino acidsindex(EAAI)of85.54.A totalof12 kindsof fatty acidsw ere detected in the m uscle ofthe brow n trout,including 19.76% ofsaturated fatty acid (SFA),38.32% ofm onounsaturat-ed fatty acid(M U FA),38.98% ofpolyunsaturated fatty acid(PU FA),and up to 12.31% oftotalcontentofEPA and D H A .In conclu-sion,brow n troutisone ofthe fish w ith good nutritive value and culture values.%本实验通过测定亚东鲑 Salmo trutta fario 肌肉中常规成分、氨基酸含量及脂肪酸含量,评价其营养价值。结果表明:亚东鲑肌肉中水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和粗灰分含量分别为70.81%、22.63%、4.91%,和1.80%。除色氨酸水解外,亚东鲑肌肉中17种氨基酸的总量为69.51%,其中必需氨基酸为28.86%,占氨基酸总量的41.52%,符合 FAO/WHO 标准中必需氨基酸构成比例。4种鲜味氨基酸总量为26.09%,其中谷氨酸的含量最高,占鲜味氨基酸总量的41.47%。亚东鲑肌肉的限制性氨基酸为蛋氨酸+胱氨酸和缬氨酸。必需氨基酸指数为85.54。在亚东鲑肌肉中共检出12种脂肪酸,其中单不饱和脂肪酸含量为38.32%,多不饱和脂肪酸含量为38.98%,二十碳五烯酸和二十二碳六烯酸总量达到12.31%。结果表明:亚东鲑肌肉氨基

  17. Reduced photoperiod (18 h light vs 24 h light) during first-year rearing associated with increased early male maturation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cultured in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early male sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is undesirable for a number of reasons related to production efficiency, and it appears that precocious maturation is a particular problem when raising this species to market size in water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). We investi...

  18. Coping with unpredictability: dopaminergic and neurotrophic responses to omission of expected reward in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Vindas

    Full Text Available Comparative studies are imperative for understanding the evolution of adaptive neurobiological processes such as neural plasticity, cognition, and emotion. Previously we have reported that prolonged omission of expected rewards (OER, or 'frustrative nonreward' causes increased aggression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Here we report changes in brain monoaminergic activity and relative abundance of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and dopamine receptor mRNA transcripts in the same paradigm. Groups of fish were initially conditioned to associate a flashing light with feeding. Subsequently, the expected food reward was delayed for 30 minutes during two out of three meals per day in the OER treatment, while the previously established routine was maintained in control groups. After 8 days there was no effect of OER on baseline brain stem serotonin (5-HT or dopamine (DA activity. Subsequent exposure to acute confinement stress led to increased plasma cortisol and elevated turnover of brain stem DA and 5-HT in all animals. The DA response was potentiated and DA receptor 1 (D1 mRNA abundance was reduced in the OER-exposed fish, indicating a sensitization of the DA system. In addition OER suppressed abundance of BDNF in the telencephalon of non-stressed fish. Regardless of OER treatment, a strong positive correlation between BDNF and D1 mRNA abundance was seen in non-stressed fish. This correlation was disrupted by acute stress, and replaced by a negative correlation between BDNF abundance and plasma cortisol concentration. These observations indicate a conserved link between DA, neurotrophin regulation, and corticosteroid-signaling pathways. The results also emphasize how fish models can be important tools in the study of neural plasticity and responsiveness to environmental unpredictability.

  19. The first months at sea: marine migration and habitat use of sea trout Salmo trutta post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaten, A C; Davidsen, J G; Thorstad, E B; Whoriskey, F; Rønning, L; Sjursen, A D; Rikardsen, A H; Arnekleiv, J V

    2016-09-01

    The early migration and habitat use of brown trout Salmo trutta post-smolts tagged with acoustic transmitters (n = 50) were investigated in a fjord system in central Norway from 30 April to 26 November 2014. The main aims were to investigate return rate, marine residence time and spatial use of the fjord system. Median seaward migration and return to fresh water dates were 22 May and 4 July, respectively. Of the 40 seaward migrating smolts, 26 returned to fresh water, giving a minimum return rate to fresh water of 65%. Entrance to the fjord from the river occurred mainly at night (80% of the S. trutta), however, no such diurnal pattern was observed during the return migration. Mean marine residence time was 38 days, but with large individual variation (22-99 days). The innermost parts of the study area were more utilized than the outer part of the fjord system during the sea residency, and with more use of the near shore habitat than the open, pelagic areas. Many post-smolts also utilized the outer part of the fjord system, however, and 94% of the post-smolts were recorded at least 14 km from the home river mouth. Marine survival and distribution in the fjord were size dependent with the largest individuals utilizing outer fjord areas and having higher return rates to fresh water. As far as is known, this is the first published study on temporal and spatial behaviour in the marine environment of first-time S. trutta migrants during the full course of their first trip to sea.

  20. Hydroxylysyl pyridinoline cross-link concentration affects the textural properties of fresh and smoked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejun; Bickerdike, Ralph; Lindsay, Emma; Campbell, Patrick; Nickell, David; Dingwall, Alastair; Johnston, Ian A

    2005-08-24

    A simple HPLC method is presented to quantify the low concentration of hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (PYD) cross-links in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) muscle. The method involved the extraction of tissue with NaOH prior to hydrolysis, which greatly reduced the amount of protein to be hydrolyzed and made downstream operations easier and more reproducible. The concentration of PYD was 426 pmol g(-)(1) dry mass muscle in post-rigor muscle stored at 0 degrees C and sampled 3 d after death. Hydroxproline (HYP) concentration was determined following NaOH extraction as a measure of collagen content. In post-rigor samples, the alkaline-insoluble HYP fraction comprised 18.3% of the total HYP. Scanning electron microscopy revealed shrinkage of muscle fibers and a retraction of the connective tissue matrix in smoked salmon. PYD concentration was relatively resistant to processing to the smoked product, decreasing by around 11.7%, as compared to a 22.2% decrease in HYP. There was a positive correlation between PYD concentration and the firmness of post-rigor muscle samples as measured by an instrumental texture analyzer, explaining 25% of the total variation. A weaker but still significant correlation was found between PYD concentration and firmness in the smoked product. There was no relationship between fillet firmness and total collagen concentration, although the correlation with HYP in the alkaline-insoluble fraction was significant at the 6% level (P = 0.057). Our results indicate that only 1-3% of collagen molecules are linked by nonreducible mature cross-links in harvest size farmed Atlantic salmon and that PYD concentration is an important raw material characteristic for flesh quality.

  1. External fluorescence retention of calcein-marked juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta raised in natural and artificial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A; O'Rourke, J; Rubin, J-F

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence retention and intensity of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta marked during their first summer were monitored in a hatchery and in four natural streams. A handheld detector was used for direct examination. In the hatchery, three marking treatments (T) were compared: 3·5 min in a 0·5% calcein solution (T0·5-3·5), 7 min in a 0·5% calcein solution (T0·5-7) and 3·5 min in a 1% calcein solution (T1-3·5). The fish were raised indoors for 11 months and then outdoors until 18 months. The fluorescence retention rate was 100% in all treatments at 11 months, although T1-3·5 showed the highest mean fluorescence intensity, followed by T0·5-7 and T0·5-3·5. The fluorescence intensity was not correlated with the final total length (L(T)) of the fish in two treatments, although it significantly decreased with increasing L(T) in T1-3·5. At 18 months, fluorescent, suggesting a negative effect of sunlight exposure. In stream studies, the fluorescence intensity did not significantly differ according to final L(T); an overall mean ± s.d. retention rate of 70·7 ± 26·6% was measured at 12 months with a decrease to 48·6 ± 24·6% at 24 months. Significant differences amongst streams and within reaches of the same stream were observed. Because of a significant positive effect of the shading index on the fluorescence intensity, the use of calcein should be restricted to streams unexposed to direct sunlight. Consequently, the marking method would be reliable for 1 year monitoring studies in shaded streams.

  2. Male dominance linked to size and age, but not to 'good genes' in brown trout (Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanno Guillaume

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males that are successful in intra-sexual competition are often assumed to be of superior quality. In the mating system of most salmonid species, intensive dominance fights are common and the winners monopolise most mates and sire most offspring. We drew a random sample of mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta from two wild populations and determined their dominance hierarchy or traits linked to dominance. The fish were then stripped and their sperm was used for in vitro fertilisations in two full-factorial breeding designs. We recorded embryo viability until hatching in both experiments, and juvenile survival during 20 months after release into a natural streamlet in the second experiment. Since offspring of brown trout get only genes from their fathers, we used offspring survival as a quality measure to test (i whether males differ in their genetic quality, and if so, (ii whether dominance or traits linked to dominance reveal 'good genes'. Results We found significant additive genetic variance on embryo survival, i.e. males differed in their genetic quality. Older, heavier and larger males were more successful in intra-sexual selection. However, neither dominance nor dominance indicators like body length, weight or age were significantly linked to genetic quality measured as embryo or juvenile survival. Conclusion We found no evidence that females can improve their offspring's genetic viability by mating with large and dominant males. If there still were advantages of mating with dominant males, they may be linked to non-genetic benefits or to genetic advantages that are context dependent and therefore possibly not revealed under our experimental conditions – even if we found significant additive genetic variation for embryo viability under such conditions.

  3. Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita under experimental challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Baxter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp. are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.

  4. Expression of Vibrio salmonicida virulence genes and immune response parameters in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Mohn Bjelland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold-water vibriosis (CV, a hemorrhagic septicemia that primarily affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.. The mechanisms of disease development, host specificity and adaptation, as well as the immunogenic properties of V. salmonicida are largely unknown. Therefore, to gain more knowledge on the pathogenesis of CV, 90 Atlantic salmon parr were injected intraperitonellay with 6 x 106 CFU of V. salmonicida LFI1238. Samples from blood and spleen tissue were taken at different time points throughout the challenge for gene expression analysis by two-step reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of a panel of six housekeeping genes, accD, gapA and 16S rDNA were found to be the most suitable references for expression analysis in Vibrio salmonicida. The bacterial proliferation during challenge was monitored based on the expression of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. Before day 4, the concentrations of V. salmonicida in blood and spleen tissue demonstrated a lag phase. From day 4, the bacterial proliferation was exponential. The expression profiles of eight genes encoding potential virulence factors of V. salmonicida were studied. Surprisingly, all tested virulence genes were generally highest expressed in broth cultures compared to the in vivo samples. We hypothesize that this general muting of gene expression in vivo may be a strategy for V. salmonicida to hide from the host immune system. To further investigate this hypothesis, the expression profiles of eight genes encoding innate immune factors were analyzed. The results demonstrated a strong and rapid, but short-lasting innate immune response against V. salmonicida. These results suggest that the bacterium possesses mechanisms that inhibit and/or resist the salmon innate immune system until the host becomes exhausted of fighting the on-going and eventually overwhelming infection.

  5. Effects of algal-produced neurotoxins on metabolic activity in telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, Marit Jorgensen [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, PO Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Horsberg, Tor Einar [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, PO Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: tor.e.horsberg@veths.no

    2007-11-30

    Neurotoxins from algal blooms have been reported to cause mortality in a variety of species, including sea birds, sea mammals and fish. Farmed fish cannot escape harmful algal blooms and their potential toxins, thus they are more vulnerable for exposure than wild stocks. Sublethal doses of the toxins are likely to affect fish behaviour and may impair cognitive abilities. In the present study, changes in the metabolic activity in different parts of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) brain involved in central integration and cognition were investigated after exposure to sublethal doses of three algal-produced neurotoxins; saxitoxin (STX), brevetoxin (BTX) and domoic acid (DA). Fish were randomly selected to four groups for i.p. injection of saline (control) or one of the neurotoxins STX (10 {mu}g STX/kg bw), BTX (68 {mu}g BTX/kg bw) or DA (6 mg DA/kg bw). In addition, {sup 14}C-2-deoxyglucose was i.m. injected to measure brain metabolic activity by autoradiography. The three regions investigated were telencephalon (Tel), optic tectum (OT) and cerebellum (Ce). There were no differences in the metabolic activity after STX and BTX exposure compared to the control in these regions. However, a clear increase was observed after DA exposure. When the subregions with the highest metabolic rate were pseudocoloured in the three brain regions, the three toxins caused distinct differences in the respective patterns of metabolic activation. Fish exposed to STX displayed similar patterns as the control fish, whereas fish exposed to BTX and DA showed highest metabolic activity in subregions different from the control group. All three neurotoxins affected subregions that are believed to be involved in cognitive abilities in fish.

  6. A primary phosphorus-deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, P E; Owen, M A G; Fontanillas, R; Soenens, M; McGurk, C; Obach, A

    2016-02-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post-smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro-anatomical level. Animals that received the P-deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X-ray-based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency-related malformations in farmed S. salar.

  7. Subchronic metabolic effects and toxicity of a simulated pulp mill effluent on juvenile lake trout, Salmo trutta m. lacustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikari, A.; Linstroem-Seppae, P.Ku.; Kukkonen, J.

    1988-12-01

    Juvenile lake trout (Salmo trutta m. lacustris) were exposed for 7 weeks to 0.05X and 0.2X 96-hr LC50 concentrations of simulated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (KME - Sa + CP). A sulfate soap preparation, composed mainly of resin and fatty acids, with added chlorophenols (CP, tri-, tetra-, and penta-CP) was used as the toxicant mixture. Concentrations of free CP in plasma and free and conjugated CP in bile were proportional to their concentrations in the water. The greatest total gradient between bile and water CP was 5.2 X 10(4) for pentachlorophenol. The activity of a liver polysubstrate monooxygenase (PSMO) system, assayed with three model substrates, increased 40 to 67% due to KME - Sa + CP. However, the increase was not directly dependent on the exposure concentration. In contrast to PSMO, activities of conjugating enzymes (p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyl and glutathione transferases) were decreased in the liver. Increased concentration of glutathione was noted in the liver and kidney. In addition, a small (9%) but significant decrease in blood hemoglobin concentration was observed at the higher exposure concentration. Although growth rate of lake trout was markedly decreased due to KME - Sa + CP, hydromineral balance and carbohydrate metabolism in fish were unaffected, indicating possible physiological compensation. On the other hand, lethality tests with lake trout preexposed to KME - Sa + CP at 0.2 X LC50 revealed decreased tolerance, whereas at the lower exposure concentration it was unchanged. We therefore conclude that various physiological adjustments in trout during subchronic exposures were not adaptive in terms of short-term tolerance.

  8. Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) under experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Emily J; Sturt, Michael M; Ruane, Neil M; Doyle, Thomas K; McAllen, Rob; Harman, Luke; Rodger, Hamish D

    2011-04-07

    Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp.) are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita) on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.

  9. Effect of radiologic contrast material on cell volume regulation in proximal renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, H K; Løken, M; Sakariassen, K S

    2000-11-01

    Most radiographic contrast media (CM) are hyperosmotic and pose an osmotic threat to cells they are in contact with. To study these effects at the cellular level, cell volume regulatory mechanisms were observed in proximal renal tubules following exposure to the CM iohexol, ioxaglate, and iodixanol. Isolated renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to 5% vol/vol iohexol (326 mOsm), ioxaglate (314 mOsm), or iodixanol (300 mOsm) or mannitol (to achieve the same osmolalities), and cell volume changes were observed videometrically. Iohexol and ioxaglate solutions induced a rapid shrinkage (12%-13%) not followed by cell volume regulation. Without CM (same osmolality), the cells shrank 11% but then showed a 77%-88% volume recovery. This reswelling was inhibited by 55% with the Na+, K+, Cl- symporter inhibitor bumetanide (50 micromol/L). Iodixanol did not significantly affect cell volume. Tubules preincubated with CM or mannitol were then stimulated with a hypoosmotic Ringer solution (160 mOsm) resulting in a 26%-36% cellular volume increase. Compared with results of experiments without mannitol and CM, preexposure to iohexol or ioxaglate almost completely inhibited the expected regulatory shrinkage phase, while previous exposure to hyperosmotic solutions with mannitol reduced the shrinkage response by 40%-53%. In this system, the hyperosmotic iohexol and ioxaglate cause cell shrinkage followed by an impaired cell volume regulatory response. Exposure to these two CM also inhibits cell volume regulation on hypoosmotic stimulation. The isosmotic iodixanol has no such effects. These changes appear to some extent to be a result of the CM's degree of hyperosmolality, but this property alone does not explain these findings.

  10. Development of intestinal ion-transporting mechanisms during smoltification and seawater acclimation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Henrik; Nilsen, Tom O.; Lindström, Jenny; Hasselberg-Frank, Linda; Stefansson, Sigurd O.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Sundell, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the expression of ion transporters involved in intestinal fluid absorption and presents evidence for developmental changes in abundance and tissue distribution of these transporters during smoltification and seawater (SW) acclimation of Atlantic salmonSalmo salar. Emphasis was placed on Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) and Na+, K+, Cl− co-transporter (NKCC) isoforms, at both transcriptional and protein levels, together with transcription of chloride channel genes. The nka α1c was the dominant isoform at the transcript level in both proximal and distal intestines; also, it was the most abundant isoform expressed in the basolateral membrane of enterocytes in the proximal intestine. This isoform was also abundantly expressed in the distal intestine in the lower part of the mucosal folds. The protein expression of intestinal Nkaα1c increased during smoltification. Immunostaining was localized to the basal membrane of the enterocytes in freshwater (FW) fish, and re-distributed to a lateral position after SW entry. Two other Nka isoforms, α1a and α1b, were expressed in the intestine but were not regulated to the same extent during smoltification and subsequent SW transfer. Their localization in the intestinal wall indicates a house-keeping function in excitatory tissues. The absorptive form of the NKCC-like isoform (sub-apically located NKCC2 and/or Na+, Cl−co-transporter) increased during smoltification and further after SW transfer. The cellular distribution changed from a diffuse expression in the sub-apical regions during smoltification to clustering of the transporters closer to the apical membrane after entry to SW. Furthermore, transcript abundance indicates that the mechanisms necessary for exit of chloride ions across the basolateral membrane and into the lateral intercellular space are present in the form of one or more of three different chloride channels: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I and II and chloride channel

  11. Assessing the sensitivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietary endosulfan exposure using tissue biochemistry and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, Chris N.; Petri, Dietrich [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut-Erik [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway); Jorum, Nanne [Skretting ARC, Stavanger (Norway); Handy, Richard D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Berntssen, Marc H.G. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen (Norway)], E-mail: marc.berntssen@nifes.no

    2007-10-15

    The incorporation of plant-based ingredients, and the possible carry-over of pesticides such as endosulfan, in fish feeds may present new toxicological challenges to aquacultural species. Biological responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to a 35-day dietary endosulfan exposure at levels ranging from 4 to 710 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were assessed using tissue histology and biochemistry. Liver 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deacetylase (EROD) activity was significantly elevated in the highest exposure group (710 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) by day 35. Other hepatic indicators of stress impacts and responses (glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities and hepatic {alpha}-tocopherol content) remained unchanged. Branchial Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly reduced at day 14 in the highest exposure group, but returned to control levels by day 35. Conversely, intestinal Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly inhibited at day 35, but again only at the highest exposure level. In contrast to the biochemical results, hepatic and intestinal histology revealed effects of exposure even at the lowest dose tested (4 {mu}g kg{sup -1}). In the posterior intestine, pathology was characterised by vacuolation and fusion of villi, and in the most severe cases, loss of epithelial integrity in villi tips. In the liver the primary effects were glycogen depletion and lipidosis. These changes were typical of a generalised stress response. While histology endpoints may prove to be the most sensitive indicators of dietary endosulfan exposure, the organismal relevance of these structural changes must be considered in the absence of effects in other biomarkers at dietary levels less than 710 {mu}g kg{sup -1}.

  12. Influence of Development and Dietary Phospholipid Content and Composition on Intestinal Transcriptome of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Christian; Taylor, John F.; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Boltana, Sebastian; Tocher, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of intact phospholipids in the diet is essential during larval development and can improve culture performance of many fish species. The effects of supplementation of dietary phospholipid from marine (krill) or plant (soy lecithin) sources were investigated in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. First feeding fry were fed diets containing either krill oil or soybean lecithin supplying phospholipid at 2.6%, 3.2%, 3.6% and 4.2% of diet. Fish were sampled at ~ 2.5 g (~1,990°day post fertilization, dpf) and ~10 g (2,850°dpf). By comparison of the intestinal transcriptome in specifically chosen contrasts, it was determined that by 2,850°dpf fish possessed a profile that resembled that of mature and differentiated intestinal cell types with a number of changes specific to glycerophospholipid metabolism. It was previously shown that intact phospholipids and particularly phosphatidylcholine are essential during larval development and that this requirement is associated with the inability of enterocytes in young fry to endogenously synthesize sufficient phospholipid for the efficient export of dietary lipid. In the immature phase (~1,990°dpf), the dietary phospholipid content as well as its class composition impacted on several biochemical and morphological parameters including growth, but these differences were not associated with differences in intestinal transcriptomes. The results of this study have made an important contribution to our understanding of the mechanisms associated with lipid transport and phospholipid biosynthesis in early life stages of fish. PMID:26488165

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the host response to early stage salmonid alphavirus (SAV-1) infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Tharangani K; Bron, James E; Thompson, Kim D; Taggart, John B; Adams, Alexandra; Ireland, Jacqueline H; Richards, Randolph H

    2012-05-01

    Salmon pancreas disease, caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) of the family Togaviridae, is an economically important disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Scotland, Norway, and Ireland. The virus causes characteristic lesions in the pancreas, heart, kidney and skeletal muscle of infected fish. The mechanisms responsible for the pathology and the immune responses elicited in infected Atlantic salmon are not fully understood. A microarray-based study was therefore performed to evaluate the host transcriptomic response during the early stages of an experimentally-induced SAV-1 infection. Atlantic salmon parr were injected intra-peritoneally with viral cell culture supernatant or cell culture supernatant without virus. RNA, extracted from head kidney sampled from infected and control fish at 1, 3 and 5 days post-injection (d.p.i.), was interrogated with the 17 k TRAITS/SGP cDNA microarray. The greatest number of significantly differentially expressed genes was recorded at 3 d.p.i., mainly associated with immune and defence mechanisms, including genes involved in interferon I pathways and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and II responses. Genes associated with apoptosis and cellular stress were also found to be differentially expressed between infected and uninfected individuals, as were genes involved in inhibiting viral attachment and replication. The microarray results were validated by follow-on analysis of eight genes by real-time PCR. The findings of the study reflect mechanisms used by the host to protect itself during the early stages of SAV-1 infection. In particular, there was evidence of rapid induction of interferon-mediated responses similar to those seen during mammalian alphavirus infections, and also early involvement of an adaptive immune response. This study provides essential knowledge to assist in the development of effective control and management strategies for SAV-1 infection.

  14. Population dynamics of Vibrio and Pseudomonas species isolated from farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a seasonal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Eva; Neuman, Christina; Stevenson, Hollie; Bowman, John P; Katouli, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio and Pseudomonas species have been shown to be part of the normal microbiota of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), with some strains causing disease in fish. The factors affecting their prevalence and persistence in the salmon gut, however, have not been well studied. In this study, we collected 340 Vibrio and 150 Pseudomonas isolates from the hindgut of farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon, fed with two commercially available diets. Samples were collected every 6-8 weeks between July 2011 and May 2012. Isolates from selective agar were initially identified using biochemical tests and confirmed using genus-specific primers and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR was used to type both Pseudomonas and Vibrio; the latter was further typed using a biochemical fingerprinting method (PhP-RV plates). We observed low species diversity with strains comprising Vibrio ichthyoenteri/Vibrio scophthalmi, Vibrio crassostreae/Vibrio splendidus, Aliivibrio finisterrensis, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Pseudomonas fragi. Out of 340 Vibrio isolates, 238 (70 %) belonged to 21 clonal types and were found predominantly during summer when water temperatures reached 15 to 21 °C. Of these, the four major clonal types were found in multiple samples (70 %). P. fragi, on the other hand, was only found during the colder water temperatures and belonged to 18 clonal types. The presence of both groups of bacteria and their clonal types were independent of the fish diets used, suggesting that the water temperature was the main factor of the prevalence and persistence of these bacteria in the gut of Atlantic salmon.

  15. Comparative analysis of innate immune responses to Streptococcus phocae strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Soraya; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. This fish pathogen shares subspecies status with Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. The present study compared innate immune system mechanisms in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout when challenged with different S. phocae, including two isolates from Atlantic salmon (LM-08-Sp and LM-13-Sp) and two from seal (ATCC 51973(T) and P23). Streptococcus phocae growth was evaluated in the mucus and serum of both species, with rainbow trout samples evidencing inhibitory effects. Lysozyme activity supported this observation, with significantly higher (p < 0.01) expression in rainbow trout serum and mucus as compared to Atlantic salmon. No differences were found in phagocytic capacity between fish species when stimulated with ATCC 51973(T) and P23. Against all S. phocae strains, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed up to two-fold increased bactericidal activity, and rainbow trout demonstrated up to three-fold greater reactive oxygen species production in macrophages. In conclusion, the non-specific humoral and cellular barriers of Atlantic salmon were immunologically insufficient against S. phocae subsp. salmonis, thereby facilitating streptococcosis. Moreover, the more robust response of rainbow trout to S. phocae could not be attributed to any specific component of the innate immune system, but was rather the consequence of a combined response by the evaluated components.

  16. Replacement of fish oil with thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L oil in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-10-01

    Replacing fish oil with that from a docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) rich single cell micro-organism, thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L, in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was investigated. Four experimental diets containing 100% thraustochytrid oil (TO), 100% palm oil (PO) and a 4:1 palm and thraustochytrid oil mixture (MX) were compared to a fish oil (FO) diet over 9 weeks. A saltwater transfer challenge occurred at the end of the trial for 14 days to test the diet treatments on the ability of salmon to smolt. There were no significant differences in the feed consumption of the diets or the digestibility of the omega3 or omega6 PUFA, indicating no differences in the digestibility of fatty acids between diets. No significant differences were noted between the growth of fish on the four diet treatments. Significant differences were noted in the fatty acid profiles of the fish muscle tissues between all diets. Fish on the TO diet had a significantly greater percentage of DHA in muscle tissue compared with fish on all other diets. Blood osmolarity, which is inversely related to the ability of salmon to smolt, from the TO and FO fed fish was significantly lower than that of fish on the PO diet. This study showed that thraustochytrid oil can be used to replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon diets without detriment to the growth of parr. Including thraustochytrid oil in fish diets significantly increases the amount of DHA in Atlantic salmon muscle and therefore is a candidate for use in oil blends for salmon diets. Thraustochytrid oil provides a renewable source of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, for aquafeeds.

  17. Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Odd Terje; Karlsson, Sten; Thorstad, Eva B; Berg, Ole Kristian; Kent, Matthew P; Norum, Ine C J; Hindar, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    The river-resident Salmo salar ("småblank") has been isolated from other Atlantic salmon populations for 9,500 years in upper River Namsen, Norway. This is the only European Atlantic salmon population accomplishing its entire life cycle in a river. Hydropower development during the last six decades has introduced movement barriers and changed more than 50% of the river habitat to lentic conditions. Based on microsatellites and SNPs, genetic variation within småblank was only about 50% of that in the anadromous Atlantic salmon within the same river. The genetic differentiation (F ST) between småblank and the anadromous population was 0.24. This is similar to the differentiation between anadromous Atlantic salmon in Europe and North America. Microsatellite analyses identified three genetic subpopulations within småblank, each with an effective population size Ne of a few hundred individuals. There was no evidence of reduced heterozygosity and allelic richness in contemporary samples (2005-2008) compared with historical samples (1955-56 and 1978-79). However, there was a reduction in genetic differentiation between sampling localities over time. SNP data supported the differentiation of småblank into subpopulations and revealed downstream asymmetric gene flow between subpopulations. In spite of this, genetic variation was not higher in the lower than in the upper areas. The meta-population structure of småblank probably maintains genetic variation better than one panmictic population would do, as long as gene flow among subpopulations is maintained. Småblank is a unique endemic island population of Atlantic salmon. It is in a precarious situation due to a variety of anthropogenic impacts on its restricted habitat area. Thus, maintaining population size and avoiding further habitat fragmentation are important.

  18. Relationship of Broodstock Weight and Hatching Yield of III. Generation (F3 Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Baki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, this was the aimed to determine the reproduction and hatching yields in different weight groups in hatchery origin rootstocks (F3 Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814. In this study, the female fishes which produced from natural rootstock were used average weight 1437±134.6 g (Group I 2737±210.2 g (Group II and 3785±162.3 g (Group III. After the stripping process; according to the groups, were determined respectively eggs absolute fecundity (number of eggs/broodfish is average 2353±205, 5361±506, 6603±491, relative fecundity (number of eggs/kg is average1687±166, 1968±194, 1744±114. The egg diameter (mm 4.89±0.16, 5.28±0.07, 5.31±0.06 egg weight (mg 77±6, 90±4, 96±3 groups I., II. and III. respectively was calculated. The fertilization ratio (% 95.49±1.23, 96.49±1.14, 98.39±0.52, browse rate (% 79.97±5.36, 84.20±5.23, 94.70±1.50, has been identified. The output rate (% 60.57±7.86, 67.66±6.42, 84.83±3.09, the hatchery efficiency (% 58.14±7.95, 69.77±6.25, 83.51±3.29 was found. relative fecundity average value 168±160, 1968±194, 1744±114.The existence of relationship among the weight of the brood-stock, absolute fecundity (0.0198, 0.0012, 0.3499, and relative egg fecundity (0.3415, 0.0494, 0.00 was tested by regression analysis and consequently the difference between groups were significant. This was determined that between fish weight and absolute fecundity relationship is weak directly proportional for each group, between fish weight and relative fecundity is weak inversely proportional in Group I and II, the Group III is weak for directly proportional.

  19. Transcriptomic and physiological responses to fishmeal substitution with plant proteins in formulated feed in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacchi Luca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaculture of piscivorous fish is in continual expansion resulting in a global requirement to reduce the dependence on wild caught fish for generation of fishmeal and fish oil. Plant proteins represent a suitable protein alternative to fish meal and are increasingly being used in fish feed. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar to a high marine protein (MP or low fishmeal, higher plant protein replacement diet (PP, formulated to the same nutritional specification within previously determined acceptable maximum levels of individual plant feed materials. Results After 77 days of feeding the fish in both groups doubled in weight, however neither growth performance, feed efficiency, condition factor nor organ indices were significantly different. Assessment of histopathological changes in the heart, intestine or liver did not reveal any negative effects of the PP diet. Transcriptomic analysis was performed in mid intestine, liver and skeletal muscle, using an Atlantic salmon oligonucleotide microarray (Salar_2, Agilent 4x44K. The dietary comparison revealed large alteration in gene expression in all the tissues studied between fish on the two diets. Gene ontology analysis showed, in the mid intestine of fish fed PP, higher expression of genes involved in enteritis, protein and energy metabolism, mitochondrial activity/kinases and transport, and a lower expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis compared to fish fed MP. The liver of fish fed PP showed a lower expression of immune response genes but a higher expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis processes that may lead to cell reorganization in this tissue. The skeletal muscle of fish fed PP vs MP was characterized by a suppression of processes including immune response, energy and protein metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis which may reflect a more energy efficient tissue. Conclusions The PP

  20. Hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to gamma radiation and depleted uranium singly and in combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, You, E-mail: yso@niva.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Evensen, Øystein [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Lind, Ole Christian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Rosseland, Bjørn Olav [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management (INA), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); and others

    2016-08-15

    Radionuclides are a special group of substances posing both radiological and chemical hazards to organisms. As a preliminary approach to understand the combined effects of radionuclides, exposure studies were designed using gamma radiation (Gamma) and depleted uranium (DU) as stressors, representing a combination of radiological (radiation) and chemical (metal) exposure. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 70 mGy external Gamma dose delivered over the first 5 h of a 48 h period (14 mGy/h), 0.25 mg/L DU were exposed continuously for 48 h and the combination of the two stressors (Combi). Water and tissue concentrations of U were determined to assess the exposure quality and DU bioaccumulation. Hepatic gene expression changes were determined using microarrays in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effects at the higher physiological levels were determined as plasma glucose (general stress) and hepatic histological changes. The results show that bioaccumulation of DU was observed after both single DU and the combined exposure. Global transcriptional analysis showed that 3122, 2303 and 3460 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly regulated by exposure to gamma, DU and Combi, respectively. Among these, 349 genes were commonly regulated by all treatments, while the majority was found to be treatment-specific. Functional analysis of DEGs revealed that the stressors displayed similar mode of action (MoA) across treatments such as induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and disturbance of oxidative phosphorylation, but also stressor-specific mechanisms such as cellular stress and injury, metabolic disorder, programmed cell death, immune response. No changes in plasma glucose level as an indicator of general stress and hepatic histological changes were observed. Although no direct linkage was successfully established between molecular responses and adverse effects at the organism

  1. Hydrolysis of acyl-homogeneous and fish oil triacylglycerols using desalted midgut extract from atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogevik, A S; Oxley, A; Olsen, R E

    2008-07-01

    Despite several studies aimed at evaluating the positional and fatty acid specificity of fish triacylglycerol (TAG) digestive lipases, there is still much uncertainty regarding these issues. The aim of the present study was therefore to address these questions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Crude luminal midgut extracts were collected from fed salmon and the hydrolysis studied for various substrates including triolein (Tri-18:1), trilinolein (Tri-18:2), trilinolenin (Tri-18:3), trieicosapentaenoin (Tri-20:5), tridocosahexaenoin (Tri-22:6) and natural fish oil TAG. Using Tri-18:1, in a time-curve model showed an initial high degree of sn-1 or sn-3 specificity where sn-1,2(2,3)-diacylglycerol (1,2(2,3)-DAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) were the main hydrolytic products up to 15 min. Lack of initial sn-2 specificity was confirmed by negligible sn-1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) being produced. During the further hydrolysis of DAG, all positions appeared susceptible to attack causing a concomitantly small increase in sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol (1(3)-MAG) and 2-MAG, but not at the level expected for an exclusively sn-1,3-specific lipase. Oleic acid (18:1n-9) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were preferred substrates for hydrolysis using both fish oil and acyl-homogeneous TAGs with FFA as the main product of lipolysis. Hydrolysis of the natural fish oil TAG appeared slower yet produced proportionally more MAG and DAG after 5 min, and similar specificities, as for synthetic TAG substrates, were exhibited with 18:1n-9 and 20:5n-3 accumulating in the FFA fraction after 30 min. Notably, 16:0 was particularly conserved in MAG. As TAG resynthesis of absorbed lipid in salmon enterocytes proceeds preferably with 2-MAG as templates, the absorption of 2-MAG, produced during initial stages of TAG hydrolysis, would need to occur rapidly to be effectively utilised via the MAG pathway.

  2. Marine migrations in anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Fjord residency as a possible alternative in the continuum of migration to the open sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Villar, Diego; Aarestrup, Kim; Skov, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration is a common phenomenon in many fish species. Trout (Salmo trutta) is a partially migratory species where some part of the population migrate to the marine environment, while another remains in freshwater. In the years 2008 and 2009, a total of 159 wild sea trout smolts were tagged...... with acoustic and PIT-tags in the river Villestrup (Denmark) to study the initial postsmolt marine behaviour within a fjord system. We found that the strategies of the sea migrants vary: some stay in the fjord, while others migrate to the sea, suggesting that partial migration occurs even in the marine...... environments. Overall, a total of 53% of the tagged smolts migrated from the fjord to the sea, and 47% stayed (or potentially died) in the fjord. The ratios of fjord-resident versus seamigrating postsmolts were consistent at the study times, and no differences between the early and late migration periods...

  3. Short- and long-term effects of dietary l-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Krogdahl, T.; Scholden, J.

    2013-01-01

    The essential amino acid l-tryptophan (Trp) is the immediate precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Supplementing Trp through diet has been shown to suppress the neuroendocrine stress response in vertebrates including teleosts. In salmonid fish, adjusting to the social environment...... as well as habituation to seawater involves the neuroendocrine stress response, suggesting that such environmental factors may modulate the stress-reducing effects of Trp. To date, studies that have investigated the neuroendocrine effects of dietary Trp have only been conducted in rainbow trout...... (. Oncorhynchus mykiss), a salmonid species, under conditions featuring social isolation in the freshwater environment. Here, we address the effects of dietary Trp on post-stress plasma cortisol and hypothalamic monoamines in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (. Salmo salar), reared at densities relevant...

  4. Evaluación de la alimentación de Salmo salar en piscicultura, utilizando dispensadores automáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mardones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de salmones, específicamente Salmo salar es una industria que genera aspectos básicos y aplicados destinado a su producción intensiva. En este contexto, el presente estudio evaluó el crecimiento de salmones en cultivo bajo tres condiciones, alimentador manual con alimentación diurna, con alimentación nocturna, y día y noche, y un grupo control con alimentación manual a saciedad. Se encontró menor crecimiento en el grupo control respecto a los tres grupos alimentados con alimentador artificial. Estos resultados concuerdan con las descripciones de la literatura para el hemisferio norte.

  5. Long-term effective population sizes, temporal stability of genetic composition and potential for local adaptation in anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar;

    2002-01-01

    (3 km) river showed Ne greater than or equal to 300. Assuming a stepping-stone model of gene flow we considered the relative roles of gene flow, random genetic drift and selection to assess the possibilities for local adaptation. The requirements for local adaptation were fulfilled, but only......We examined the long-term temporal (1910s to 1990s) genetic variation at eight microsatellite DNA loci in brown trout (Salmo trutta L) collected from five anadromous populations in Denmark to assess the long-term stability of genetic composition and to estimate effective population sizes (N......-e). Contemporary and historical samples consisted of tissue and archived scales, respectively. Pairwise Theta(ST) estimates, a hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and multidimensional scaling analysis of pairwise genetic distances between samples revealed much closer genetic relationships among...

  6. The effect of Cu (II) on the electro-olfactogram (EOG) of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in artificial freshwater of varying inorganic carbon concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, S; Bjerselius, R; Baatrup, E;

    1993-01-01

    The effect of inorganic copper species was studied by recording the receptor potential, electro-olfactogram (EOG), from the olfactory epithelium of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). In a series of experiments, the olfactory organ was irrigated with aqueous copper solutions with concentrations...... of the free cupric ion (Cu2+) ranging from 0.2 to 9.7 microM. The diverse copper species were created by varying the amount of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in artificial freshwater solutions of equal total copper concentrations. In general, these copper solutions induced a slow depolarization of the baseline followed...... by a hyperpolarization. The amplitudes of these variations in baseline potentials increased with increasing concentrations of Cu2+ ion, i.e., decreasing concentrations of NaHCO3. Stimulating the olfactory epithelium with L-alanine during the copper exposure evoked atypical EOG responses. The amplitudes and form...

  7. Short- and long-term effects of dietary l-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Krogdahl, T.; Scholden, J.;

    2013-01-01

    . Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10. days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2. days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed...... as well as habituation to seawater involves the neuroendocrine stress response, suggesting that such environmental factors may modulate the stress-reducing effects of Trp. To date, studies that have investigated the neuroendocrine effects of dietary Trp have only been conducted in rainbow trout...... (. Oncorhynchus mykiss), a salmonid species, under conditions featuring social isolation in the freshwater environment. Here, we address the effects of dietary Trp on post-stress plasma cortisol and hypothalamic monoamines in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (. Salmo salar), reared at densities relevant...

  8. Genetic mixed-stock analysis of lake-run brown trout Salmo trutta fishery catches in the Inari Basin, northern Finland: implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatdipong, A; Vasemägi, A; Niva, T; Koljonen, M-L; Primmer, C R

    2013-09-01

    Genetic mixed-stock analysis (MSA) of wild lake-run brown trout Salmo trutta fishery catches (n = 665) from the Inari Basin (northern Finland) between 2006 and 2008 was carried out using a previously characterized baseline with 30 populations (n = 813) and 13 microsatellite loci. Altogether, 12 populations contributed significantly to mixed-stock fisheries, with the Ivalojoki system being the major contributor (70%) to the total catch. When catches were analysed regionally, geographically nearby populations were the main contributors to the local catches, indicating that a large proportion of S. trutta occupy lacustrine areas near the natal river mouth rather than dispersing throughout the lake. Similarly, far upstream populations contributed insignificantly to catches. These findings have important implications for the conservation and sustainable fishery management of the Inari system.

  9. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins...... increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels...... of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25 % lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25 % lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25 % defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content...

  10. Influence of dietary sesamin, a bioactive compound on fatty acids and expression of some lipid regulating genes in Baltic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, S; Ruyter, B; Ostbye, T K; Kamal-Eldin, A; Moazzami, A; Pan, J; Gjoen, T; Brännäs, E; Zlabek, V; Pickova, J

    2011-01-01

    The effects of inclusion of sesamin / episesamin in Baltic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets based on vegetable oils were studied. The study was designed as a dose response study with two control diets, one diet based on fish oil (FO) and one diet based on a mixture of linseed and sunflower oil (6:4 by vol.) (MO). As experimental diets three different levels of inclusion of sesamin / episesamin (hereafter named sesamin) to the MO based diet and one diet based on sesame oil and linseed oil (SesO) (1:1 by vol.) were used. The dietary oils were mirrored in the fatty acid profile of the white muscle. Sesamin significantly decreased the levels of 18:3n-3 in the white muscle phospholipid (PL) fraction of all groups fed sesamin, no significant differences were found in the triacylglycerol fraction (TAG). Slightly increased levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) in PL and TAG were found in some of the sesamin fed groups. Sesamin significantly affected the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, scavenger receptor type B and hormone sensitive lipase, in agreement with previous studies on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes published by our group. No significant effects on toxicological response measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was found. The total cytochrome P450 enzymes were significantly higher in MO 0.29 and SesO group. The amount of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in liver and the amount of gamma-tocopherol in white muscle were significantly lower in fish fed the FO diet compared to the MO diet, but no difference after inclusion of sesamin was found in this study. Increased inclusion of sesamin increased the levels of sesamin and episesamin in the liver, but did not affect the amounts in white muscle.

  11. Dose-dependent hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to sublethal doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, You, E-mail: you.song@niva.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Rosseland, Bjørn Olav [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • First study on early stress responses in salmon exposed to low-dose gamma radiation. • Dramatic dose-dependent transcriptional responses characterized. • Multiple modes of action proposed for gamma radiation. - Abstract: Due to the production of free radicals, gamma radiation may pose a hazard to living organisms. The high-dose radiation effects have been extensively studied, whereas the ecotoxicity data on low-dose gamma radiation is still limited. The present study was therefore performed using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to characterize effects of low-dose (15, 70 and 280 mGy) gamma radiation after short-term (48 h) exposure. Global transcriptional changes were studied using a combination of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs; in this article the phrase gene expression is taken as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression can also be regulated, e.g., at protein stability and translational level) were determined and linked to their biological meanings predicted using both Gene Ontology (GO) and mammalian ortholog-based functional analyses. The plasma glucose level was also measured as a general stress biomarker at the organism level. Results from the microarray analysis revealed a dose-dependent pattern of global transcriptional responses, with 222, 495 and 909 DEGs regulated by 15, 70 and 280 mGy gamma radiation, respectively. Among these DEGs, only 34 were commonly regulated by all radiation doses, whereas the majority of differences were dose-specific. No GO functions were identified at low or medium doses, but repression of DEGs associated with GO functions such as DNA replication, cell cycle regulation and response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed after 280 mGy gamma exposure. Ortholog-based toxicity pathway analysis further showed that 15 mGy radiation

  12. Freshwater environment affects growth rate and muscle fibre recruitment in seawater stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ian A; Manthri, Sujatha; Alderson, Richard; Smart, Alistair; Campbell, Patrick; Nickell, David; Robertson, Billy; Paxton, Charles G M; Burt, M Louise

    2003-04-01

    The influence of freshwater environment on muscle growth in seawater was investigated in an inbred population of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The offspring from a minimum of 64 families per group were incubated at either ambient temperature (ambient treatment) or in heated water (heated treatment). Growth was investigated using a mixed-effect statistical model with repeated measures, which included terms for treatment effect and random fish effects for individual growth rate (alpha) and the instantaneous growth rate per unit change in temperature (gamma). Prior to seawater transfer, fish were heavier in the heated (61.6+/-1.0 g; N=298) than in the ambient (34.1+/-0.4 g; N=206) treatments, reflecting their greater growth opportunity: 4872 degree-days and 4281 degree-days, respectively. However, the subsequent growth rate of the heated group was lower, such that treatments had a similar body mass (3.7-3.9 kg) after approximately 450 days in seawater. The total cross-sectional area of fast muscle and the number (FN) and size distribution of the fibres was determined in a subset of the fish. We tested the hypothesis that freshwater temperature regime affected the rate of recruitment and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. There were differences in FN between treatments and a significant age x treatment interaction but no significant cage effect (ANOVA). Cessation of fibre recruitment was identified by the absence of fibres of <10 micro m diameter. The maximum fibre number was 22.4% more in the ambient (9.3 x 10(5)+/-2.0 x 10(4) than in the heated (7.6 x 10(5)+/-1.5 x 10(4)) treatments (N=44 and 40 fish, respectively; P<0.001). For fish that had completed fibre recruitment, there was a significant correlation between FN and individual growth rate, explaining 35% of the total variation. The density of myogenic progenitor cells was quantified using an antibody to c-met and was approximately 2-fold higher in the ambient than in the heated group, equivalent to 2-3% of

  13. Recovery of young brown trout (Salmo trutta) in acidified streams: What are the critical values for acid-neutralizing capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesthagen, T.; Fiske, P.; Saksgård, R.

    2016-12-01

    The recovery of young allopatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) grouped into YoY (age 0+) and older parr (age ≥1+) fish, was studied in acid-sensitive streams in a Norwegian watershed during a 24-year-period (1987-2010). Their abundance was assessed by electrofishing. Most sites typically had 5.0-5.5 in pH, 0.4-0.7 mg L-1 Ca, 10-20 μg L-1 inorganic toxic aluminum (Ali) and acid-neutralizing capacity adjusted for organic acids (ANCOAA) of - 15 to +25 μeq L-1. Densities of both YoY and older parr increased significantly during the study period. Water quality also improved in recent years with respect to pH (5.8-6.0), Ali (5-15 μg L-1) and ANCOAA (10-20 μeq L-1). However, some negative trends in both fish density and water chemistry were found during both the first (1987-1993) and last years (2004-2008) of the study. Initially, YoY densities remained at about 16-20 specimens 100 m-2 (1987-1990), declined to 10-15 specimens 100 m-2 in the early/mid 1990s, and rosed to 30-50 specimens 100 m-2 in recent years (1997-2010). Their densities correlated significantly with ANCOAA, and at least three stages in the recovery process were recognised: (i) Low density with 10-20 specimens 100 m-2 at -18 to -5 μeq L-1, (ii) medium and unstable density with 20-30 specimens 100 m-2 at -5 to 10 μeq L-1, and (iii) increasing density to 40-50 specimens 100 m-2 at 10-25 μeq L-1. The decline in brown trout density in the early-mid 1990s coincided with high sea salt depositions, which caused increased acidification. Component 1 in a PCA explained 51% of the variation in fish densities, including conductivity, Mg, Ca, Na, alkalinity and TOC. Component 2 explained an additional 31% of the variation, including pH, Ali and ANCOAA. Multiple regression analysis coefficients showed that the two components explained 41% of the variance in total fish density. Young brown trout suffered a high mortality during the initial phase of the study in spite of relative low levels of Ali. This is

  14. REPRODUCTION DE LA TRUITE (Salmo trutta L. DANS LETORRENT DE CHEVENNE, HAUTE-SAVOIE.UN FONCTIONNEMENT ORIGINAL ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAMPIGNEULLE A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La reproduction d’une population de truite (Salmo trutta L. de forme essentiellement méditerranéenne est décrite dans le ruisseau du Chevenne, un torrent à forte pente (10 % entrecoupé d’obstacles et limité en substrat de frai, situé dans les Alpes savoyardes. Les reproducteurs (résidents du torrent ou migrants issus du cours principal diffèrent en taille et sexe-ratio. La majorité (58 % des femelles migrantes entrent dans l’affluent déjà ovulées. Il existe une fort gradient décroissant aval-amont dans la répartition des géniteurs et des frayères. Les 157 frayères décrites montrent une grande diversité de microhabitats (5 types principaux utilisés pour la reproduction, avec un pourcentage élevé (65 % de frayères construites dans des sites protégés ayant une faible vitesse de courant (< 20 cm/s. La reproduction débute en radier, l’habitat de frai classique, puis elle s’étend ensuite aux autres microhabitats avant que le frai en milieu radier ne soit achevé. Une évaluation de la disponibilité et de l’utilisation du substrat favorable au frai (taille de 1 à 3 cm dans les divers microhabitats a été réalisée a posteriori. Le microhabitat « côté de pool » (inhabituel pour le frai est autant utilisé que le milieu radier. Les lentilles de substrat favorable, abritées en bordure de berge ou dans les courants sont préférées alors que les lentilles de substrat non protégées dans les courants sont évitées. Une crue en fin de la période de frai a totalement détruit 36 % des frayères avec un taux de destruction totale très variable selon le type de microhabitat de frai. Les frayères creusées en côté de pool et en bordure de berge protégées du courant ont été moins détruites (15-17 % de destruction totale que dans les autres microhabitats (50 à 67 % de destruction totale. La diversité des sites de frai pourrait donc être une composante essentielle à la survie de la population de

  15. Influence of Fishmeal-Free Diets on Microbial Communities in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Recirculation Aquaculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Victor; Davidson, John; Summerfelt, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and causing price instability. Alternative diet formulations without the use of fishmeal provide a potential solution to this challenge. Although the impact of alternative diets on fish performance, intestinal inflammation, palatability, and gut microbiota has been a topic of recent interest, less is known about how alternative feeds impact the aquaculture environment as a whole. The recent focus on recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and the closed-containment approach to raising food fish highlights the need to maintain stable environmental and microbiological conditions within a farm environment. Microbial stability in RAS biofilters is particularly important, given its role in nutrient processing and water quality in these closed systems. If and how the impacts of alternative feeds on microbial communities in fish translate into changes to the biofilters are not known. We tested the influence of a fishmeal-free diet on the microbial communities in RAS water, biofilters, and salmon microbiomes using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene V6 hypervariable region amplicon sequencing. We grew Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to market size in six replicate RAS tanks, three with traditional fishmeal diets and three with alternative-protein, fishmeal-free diets. We sampled intestines and gills from market-ready adult fish, water, and biofilter medium in each corresponding RAS unit. Our results provide data on how fish diet influences the RAS environment and corroborate previous findings that diet has a clear influence on the microbiome structure of the salmon intestine, particularly within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). We conclude that the strong stability of taxa likely involved in water quality processing regardless

  16. How climate change will affect sessile stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in mountain streams of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, José M.; Alonso, Carlos; García de Jalón, Diego; Solana, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Streamflow and temperature regimes are determinant for the availability of suitable physical habitat for instream biological communities. Iberian brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations live in a climatic border in which summer water scarcity and raising temperatures will compromise their viability throughout the current century. Due to their impaired mobility, sessile stages of trout life cycle (i.e. eggs and larvae) are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changing conditions. At a given spawning redd, thermal habitat is limited by the length of the period at which suitable temperatures occur. At the same time, suitable physical habitat is limited by the instream flow regime during spawning and incubation of eggs and larvae. Temperature and flow do also interact, thus producing synergistic effects on both physical and thermal habitats. This study is aimed at quantitatively predicting thermal and physical habitat loss for the sessile stages of brown trout life cycle due to clime change, in mountain streams at the rear edge of the species natural distribution using high-resolution spatial-temporal simulations of the thermal and physical habitat. Two streams of Central Spain have been studied (Cega and Lozoya streams). Daily temperature and flow data from ad hoc downscaled IPCC (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) predictions were used as input variables. Physical habitat changes were simulated from previously predicted stream flow data by means of hydraulic simulation tools (River2D). By taking into account the thermal tolerance limits and the proportion of lost physical habitat, limiting factors for the reproduction of brown trout in the study area were determined. The general increase of mean temperatures shortens the duration of the early developmental stages. This reduction of the sessile period is rather similar in both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios by 2050. Differences between both scenarios become greater by 2099. The duration of sessile developmental is reduced

  17. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  18. Emploi de la fluméquine contre la furonculose des salmonidés : essais thérapeutiques et perspectives pratiques

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, C; GERARD J.-P.; FOURBET B.; Collas, R.; Chevalier, R.

    1980-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of the fluméquine, a synthetic derivative of the « quinolones » family, has been recently recognized and has resulted in its common use in human and veterinary medicine. The availability of an artificial model of trout furunculosis allowed to test its curative properties in Aeromonas saimonicida infection. For this purpose, we have used 2 species of trout (Salmo gairdneri and S. trutta), and 2 pathogenic strains of which LD 50 ranged initially from 400 to 800 bacteri...

  19. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  20. Salmo salar and Esox lucius full-length cDNA sequences reveal changes in evolutionary pressures on a post-tetraploidization genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Robert A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are one of the most intensely studied fish, in part due to their economic and environmental importance, and in part due to a recent whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. This duplication greatly impacts species diversification, functional specialization, and adaptation. Extensive new genomic resources have recently become available for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, but documentation of allelic versus duplicate reference genes remains a major uncertainty in the complete characterization of its genome and its evolution. Results From existing expressed sequence tag (EST resources and three new full-length cDNA libraries, 9,057 reference quality full-length gene insert clones were identified for Atlantic salmon. A further 1,365 reference full-length clones were annotated from 29,221 northern pike (Esox lucius ESTs. Pairwise dN/dS comparisons within each of 408 sets of duplicated salmon genes using northern pike as a diploid out-group show asymmetric relaxation of selection on salmon duplicates. Conclusions 9,057 full-length reference genes were characterized in S. salar and can be used to identify alleles and gene family members. Comparisons of duplicated genes show that while purifying selection is the predominant force acting on both duplicates, consistent with retention of functionality in both copies, some relaxation of pressure on gene duplicates can be identified. In addition, there is evidence that evolution has acted asymmetrically on paralogs, allowing one of the pair to diverge at a faster rate.

  1. Accuracy of Assignment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) to Rivers and Regions in Scotland and Northeast England Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbey, John; Cauwelier, Eef; Coulson, Mark W.; Stradmeyer, Lee; Sampayo, James N.; Armstrong, Anja; Verspoor, Eric; Corrigan, Laura; Shelley, Jonathan; Middlemas, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the habitat use patterns of migratory fish, such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and the natural and anthropogenic impacts on them, is aided by the ability to identify individuals to their stock of origin. Presented here are the results of an analysis of informative single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers for detecting genetic structuring in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and NE England and their ability to allow accurate genetic stock identification. 3,787 fish from 147 sites covering 27 rivers were screened at 5,568 SNP markers. In order to identify a cost-effective subset of SNPs, they were ranked according to their ability to differentiate between fish from different rivers. A panel of 288 SNPs was used to examine both individual assignments and mixed stock fisheries and eighteen assignment units were defined. The results improved greatly on previously available methods and, for the first time, fish caught in the marine environment can be confidently assigned to geographically coherent units within Scotland and NE England, including individual rivers. As such, this SNP panel has the potential to aid understanding of the various influences acting upon Atlantic salmon on their marine migrations, be they natural environmental variations and/or anthropogenic impacts, such as mixed stock fisheries and interactions with marine power generation installations. PMID:27723810

  2. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages.

  3. Effects of dietary lipid, vitamins and minerals on total amounts and redox status of glutathione and ubiquinone in tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Kristin; Torstensen, Bente E; Maage, Amund; Waagbø, Rune; Berge, Rolf K; Albrektsen, Sissel

    2010-10-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) would respond to large variations in supplementation of dietary pro- and antioxidants, and marine lipid, with adjustment of the endogenously synthesised antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) and ubiquinone (UQ). An experiment with 2(7-3) reduced factorial design (the number of cases reduced systematically from 2(7) (full design) to 2(4) (reduced design)) was conducted, where vitamins, minerals and lipid were supplemented in the diet at high and low levels. For the vitamins and minerals the high levels were chosen to be just below anticipated toxic levels and the low levels were just above the requirement (vitamin C, 30 and 1000 mg/kg; vitamin E, 70 and 430 mg/kg; Fe, 70 and 1200 mg/kg; Cu, 8 and 110 mg/kg; Mn, 12 and 200 mg/kg). For astaxanthin, the dietary levels were 10 and 50 mg/kg and for lipid, 150 and 330 g/kg. The experiment was started with post-smolts (148 (sd 17 g)) and lasted for 5 months. The only effect on GSH was a minor increase ( vitamin E, both with regard to total concentration and redox state. Except for an effect of Fe on plasma GSH, the trace elements and vitamin C had no effect on tissue levels and oxidation state of GSH and UQ. This shows that the endogenous redox state is quite robust with regard to variation of dietary pro- and antioxidants in Atlantic salmon.

  4. Dévalaison et survie d'alevins de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. en milieu semi-naturel contrôlé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEALL E.

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans un chenal artificiel expérimental, des œufs de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. ont été pondus naturellement ou ont été enfouis au stade embryonné. A la fin de la résorption de la vésicule, une fraction importante des alevins survivants dévale de la zone de frayère. La dévalaison semble stimulée par des baisses de niveau ou des hausses de température et ralentie en période de pleine lune. D'autres facteurs pouvant être responsables de cette dévalaison sont discutés. La survie jusqu'à la collecte de tous les alevins est estimée à 74 p. 100 pour les sujets issus de la reproduction naturelle et est égale à 80 p. 100 pour ceux issus d'œufs introduits dans le gravier au stade embryonné. Des comparaisons entre ces résultats et ceux obtenus dans d'autres chenaux de fraie ou en milieu naturel montrent la validité de cette méthode pour la production d'alevins de saumon atlantique destinés au repeuplement.

  5. Evidence for small scale variation in the vertebrate brain: mating strategy and sex affect brain size and structure in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, N; Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Brelin, D; Winberg, S

    2009-12-01

    The basis for our knowledge of brain evolution in vertebrates rests heavily on empirical evidence from comparative studies at the species level. However, little is still known about the natural levels of variation and the evolutionary causes of differences in brain size and brain structure within-species, even though selection at this level is an important initial generator of macroevolutionary patterns across species. Here, we examine how early life-history decisions and sex are related to brain size and brain structure in wild populations using the existing natural variation in mating strategies among wild brown trout (Salmo trutta). By comparing the brains of precocious fish that remain in the river and sexually mature at a small size with those of migratory fish that migrate to the sea and sexually mature at a much larger size, we show, for the first time in any vertebrate, strong differences in relative brain size and brain structure across mating strategies. Precocious fish have larger brain size (when controlling for body size) but migratory fish have a larger cerebellum, the structure in charge of motor coordination. Moreover, we demonstrate sex-specific differences in brain structure as female precocious fish have a larger brain than male precocious fish while males of both strategies have a larger telencephalon, the cognitive control centre, than females. The differences in brain size and structure across mating strategies and sexes thus suggest the possibility for fine scale adaptive evolution of the vertebrate brain in relation to different life histories.

  6. Altitudinal and thermal gradients of hepatic Cyp1A gene expression in natural populations of Salmo trutta from high mountain lakes and their correlation with organohalogen loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarque, Sergio; Gallego, Eva [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi [Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300-Blanes, Catalonia (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: bpcbmc@cid.csic.e [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The biomarker of xenobiotic exposure cytochrome p450A1 (Cyp1A) was used to analyze the biological response to chemical pollution in Salmo trutta (brown trout) from nine high mountain European lakes in Norway, Tatras, Tyrol, and central Pyrenees. Hepatic Cyp1A mRNA levels correlated both with the reciprocal of absolute annual average air temperatures of the sampled lakes and with muscle concentrations of several hydrophobic organohalogen compounds (OC), including chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), DDE, and DDT. The correlation between Cyp1A expression and OC content was observed across the whole temperature range (between -0.7 deg. C and +6.2 deg. C), but also in the absence of any thermal gradient. We concluded that airborne pollutants accumulate in high mountain lake fish at concentrations high enough to increase Cyp1A expression, among other possible effects. As geographical distribution of semi-volatile OC is strongly influenced by air temperatures, future climate modifications will potentially enhance their physiological effects in lake ecosystems. - Altitudinal gradients of hepatic Cyp1A gene expression in mountain trout correlate with geographic and individual organohalogen distribution.

  7. Biochemical Evidence for a Putative Inositol 1,3,4,5-Tetrakisphosphate Receptor in the Olfactory System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongdong Pang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar appear to use a phosphoinositide-directed phospholipase C (PLC in odorant signal transduction. The consequences of odor-activated PLC depend on its product, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3. Therefore, a plasma membrane rich (PMR fraction, previously characterized from salmon olfactory rosettes, was used to study binding sites for IP3 and its phosphorylation product, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4. Binding sites for IP3 were present at the lower limit for detection in the PMR fraction but were abundant in a microsomal fraction. Binding sites for IP4 were abundant in the PMR fraction and thus colocalized in the same subcellular fraction with odorant receptors for amino acids and bile acids. Binding of IP4 was saturable and high affinity (Kd = 83 nM. The rank order for potency of inhibition of IP4 by other inositol polyphosphates (InsPx followed the phosphorylation number with InsP6 > InsP5 > other InsP4 isomers > InsP3 isomers > InsP2 isomers, with the latter showing no activity. The consequences of PLC activity in this system may be dictated in part by a putative receptor for IP4.

  8. Diet, feeding patterns, and prey selection of subyearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Nash, K. J.; Chiavelli, R. A.; DiRado, J. A.; Mackey, G. E.; Knight, J. R.; Diaz, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Since juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) occupy a similar habitat in Lake Ontario tributaries, we sought to determine the degree of diet similarity between these species in order to assess the potential for interspecific competition. Atlantic salmon, an historically important but currently extirpated component of the Lake Ontario fish community, are the focus of a bi-national restoration effort. Presently this effort includes the release of hatchery produced juvenile Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries. These same tributaries support substantial numbers of naturally reproduced juvenile Pacific salmonids including Chinook salmon. Subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling Chinook salmon had significantly different diets during each of the three time periods examined. Atlantic salmon fed slightly more from the benthos than from the drift and consumed mainly chirononmids (47.0%) and ephemeropterans (21.1%). The diet of subyearling Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the drift and consisted mainly of chironomids (60.2%) and terrestrial invertebrates (16.0%). Low diet similarity between subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling Chinook salmon likely minimizes competitive interactions for food between these species in Lake Ontario tributaries. However, the availability of small prey such as chironomids which comprise over 50% of the diet of each species, soon after emergence, could constitute a short term resource limitation. To our knowledge this is the first study of interspecific diet associations between these two important salmonid species.

  9. Cloning and functional characterisation of a peroxiredoxin 1 (NKEF A) cDNA from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its expression in fish infected with Neoparamoeba perurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Grace H; Sutton, Drew L; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2012-06-01

    Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx 1), also known as natural killer enhancing factor A (NKEF A), has been implicated in the immune response of both mammals and fish. Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by Neoparamoeba perurans, is a significant problem for the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) aquaculture industry based in Tasmania, Australia. Here we have cloned and functionally characterized a Prx 1 open reading frame (ORF) from Atlantic salmon liver and shown that Prx 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the gills of Atlantic salmon displaying symptoms of AGD. The Prx 1 ORF encoded all of the residues and motifs characteristic of typical 2-Cys Prx proteins from eukaryotes and the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed thioredoxin (Trx)-dependent reduction of H(2)O(2), cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH) and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bOOH) with K(m) values of 122, 77 and 91 μM, respectively, confirming that it was a genuine 2-Cys Prx. The recombinant protein also displayed a double displacement reaction mechanism and a catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) with H(2)O(2) of 1.5 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) which was consistent with previous reports for the 2-Cys Prx family of proteins. This is the first time that a Prx 1 protein has been functionally characterized from any fish species and it paves the way for further investigation of this important 2-Cys Prx family member in fish.

  10. Toxicity of road deicing salt (NaCl) and copper (Cu) to fertilization and early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrosh, Urma; Kleiven, Merethe; Meland, Sondre; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2014-09-15

    In many countries, salting of ice or snow covered roads may affect aquatic organisms in the catchment directly or indirectly by mobilization of toxic metals. We studied the toxicity of road deicing salt and copper (Cu) on the vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), from fertilization till hatching. Controlled episodic exposure to road salt (≥ 5,000 mg/L) during fertilization resulted in reduced swelling and less percent egg survival. Exposure to Cu both during and post fertilization caused delayed hatching. Larval deformities were, however found as an additional effect, when eggs were exposed to high salt concentration (≥ 5,000 mg/L) mixed with Cu (10 μg Cu/L) during fertilization. Thus, it appears that the sensitivity of early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon increased when exposed to these stressors, and road salt application during spawning can pose threat to Atlantic salmon in water bodies receiving road runoff. The study gives insight on assessment and management of risks on Atlantic salmon population posed by road related hazardous chemicals.

  11. Selective precipitation reaction: a novel diagnostic test for tissue pathology in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, infected with salmonid alphavirus (SAV3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braceland, M; Tinsley, J; Cockerill, D; Bickerdike, R; McLoughlin, M F; Eckersall, P D

    2017-08-01

    While investigating biomarkers for infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the cause of pancreas disease (PD), a selective precipitation reaction (SPR) has been discovered in serum which could be an on-farm qualitative test and an in-laboratory quantitative assay for health assessments in aquaculture. Mixing serum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with SAV infection with a sodium acetate buffer caused a visible precipitation which does not occur with serum from healthy salmon. Proteomic examination of the precipitate has revealed that the components are a mix of muscle proteins, for example enolase and aldolase, along with serum protein such as serotransferrin and complement C9. The assay has been optimized for molarity, pH, temperature and wavelength so that the precipitation can be measured as the change in optical density at 340 nm (Δ340 ). Application of the SPR assay to serum samples from a cohabitation trial of SAV infection in salmon showed that the Δ340 in infected fish rose from undetectable to a maximum at 6 weeks post-infection correlating with histopathological score of pancreas, heart and muscle damage. This test may have a valuable role to play in the diagnostic evaluation of stock health in salmon. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bilan des efforts d'introduction de la truite brune (Salmo trutta dans les eaux de la plaine de Montréal, Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMONT P.

    1990-10-01

    de la truite brune sont limitées par des mesures réglementaires qui visent à protéger l'intégrité des communautés aquatiques établies au nord du 46e degré de latitude Nord. Toutefois, vu que l'espèce, à l'instar de plusieurs autres salmonidés non indigènes, est déjà présente dans les bassins des Grands Lacs, du fleuve Saint-Laurent et de divers cours d'eau de plusieurs provinces et états de la Côte Atlantique, il paraît probable qu'elle s'établira dans les tributaires de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent, où elle pourrait éventuellement entrer en interaction avec les peuplements anadromes et dulcicoles de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar, d'omble de fontaine (Salvelinus fontinalis et d'omble chevalier (Salvelinus salvelinus.

  13. Ascent ability of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and two Iberian cyprinids − Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei, and northern straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma duriense − in a vertical slot fishway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ronda, Fco. Javier; Bravo-Cordoba, F.J.; Fuentes-Perez, J.F.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage performance of brown trout (Salmo trutta), Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) was investigated in a vertical slot fishway in the Porma River (Duero River basin, Spain) using PIT telemetry. We analysed the effects of different fishway discharges on motivation and passage success. Both cyprinid species ascended the fishway easily, performing better than the trout despite their theoretically weaker swimming performance. Fishway discharge affected fish motivation although it did not clearly influence passage success. Observed results can guide design and operation criteria of vertical slot fishways for native Iberian fish.

  14. Relationship between gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and downstream movement in domesticated and first-generation offspring of wild anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, Christian; Madsen, Steffen

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between smolt status and downstream movement following release was investigated in two stocks of hatchery-reared anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Yearlings from a domesticated stock (DS) and first-generation offspring (F1) of wild anadromous trout were held under identical...... occasions into the River Salten. Using both dye-marked and radiotagged fish, downstream movement was monitored by either trapping 3 km downstream (dye-marked fish) or radiotracking on a daily basis. The experiments showed a positive correlation between smolt status (gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity...

  15. Pop-up satellite archival tag effects on the diving behaviour, growth and survival of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedger, R D; Rikardsen, A H; Thorstad, E B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of large, externally attached pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were compared with those of small implanted data storage tags (DSTs) on adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar during their ocean migration in regards to depth utilization, diving depth, diving rate, diving speed and temperatures experienced. Additionally the return rate and growth of individuals tagged with PSATs was compared with those of small acoustic tags and DSTs. Overall, the depth distribution of individuals tagged with PSATs was similar to that of those tagged with DSTs, reflecting the pelagic nature of S. salar at sea. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, dived less frequently and to shallower depths, and dived and surfaced at slower velocities. Sea surface temperatures experienced by individuals tagged with PSATs were similar to those experienced by those tagged with DSTs for the same time of year, suggesting that there were no large differences in the ocean migration. Return rates did not depend on whether individuals were tagged with PSATs or not, indicating that survival at sea was not impacted by PSATs in comparison to small internal tags. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, had a smaller increase in body mass than those tagged with acoustic tags or DSTs. It was concluded that PSATs are suitable for use in researching large-scale migratory behaviour of adult S. salar at sea, but that some effects on their behaviour from tagging must be expected. Effects of PSATs may be largest in the short term when S. salar are swimming in bursts at high speeds. Even though individuals tagged with PSATs performed deep and frequent dives, the results of this study suggest that untagged individuals would perform even deeper and more frequent dives than tagged individuals. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Alginate Microencapsulation for Oral Immunisation of Finfish: Release Characteristics, Ex Vivo Intestinal Uptake and In Vivo Administration in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bikramjit; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility of alginate microcapsules manufactured using a low-impact technology and reagents to protect orally delivered immunogens for use as immunoprophylactics for fish. Physical characteristics and protein release kinetics of the microcapsules were examined at different pH and temperature levels using a microencapsulated model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Impact of the microencapsulation process on contents was determined by analysing change in bioactivity of microencapsulated lysozyme. Feasibility of the method for oral immunoprophylaxis of finfish was assessed using FITC-labelled microcapsules. These were applied to distal intestinal explants of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to investigate uptake ex vivo. Systemic distribution of microcapsules was investigated by oral administration of FITC-labelled microcapsules to Atlantic salmon fry by incorporating into feed. The microcapsules produced were structurally robust and retained surface integrity, with a modal size distribution of 250-750 nm and a tendency to aggregate. Entrapment efficiency of microencapsulation was 51.2 % for BSA and 43.2 % in the case of lysozyme. Microcapsules demonstrated controlled release of protein, which increased with increasing pH or temperature, and the process had no significant negative effect on bioactivity of lysozyme. Uptake of fluorescent-labelled microcapsules was clearly demonstrated by intestinal explants over a 24-h period. Evidence of microcapsules was found in the intestine, spleen, kidney and liver of fry following oral administration. Amenability of the microcapsules to intestinal uptake and distribution reinforced the strong potential for use of this microencapsulation method in oral immunoprophylaxis of finfish using sensitive immunogenic substances.

  17. Comparaison des performances de deux souches de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. (domestique et hybride sauvage x domestique introduites au stade alevin dans un ruisseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIHOUARN A.

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available La production d'un hybride mâle sauvage x femelle domestique, chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta a parfois été proposée pour le repeuplement (CUINAT, 1971. Nos précédents travaux (MAISSE et al., 1983 ont montré que ces sujets sont plus difficiles à élever que ceux dont les deux parents sont domestiques. La présente étude a porté sur la comparaison des performances des hybrides et des domestiques déversés simultanément dans un ruisseau où la reproduction de la truite est compromise par le colmatage du fond. Les déversements ont été effectués sur la totalité du ruisseau, en mai, deux années de suite. Des inventaires ont été réalisés sur des secteurs représentatifs en mai, avant les déversements, et en octobre. Les résultats ont montré que les taux d'implantation, tant en 0+ qu'en 1+, ne différaient pas suivant l'origine des poissons. De plus, sur chacun des secteurs inventoriés, les individus d'origine domestique ont gardé l'avantage de taille qu'ils avaient au moment du déversement. L'intérêt d'un tel croisement est discuté en fonction des diverses stratégies de repeuplement à mettre en œuvre.

  18. A chemometrics approach applied to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for monitoring the spoilage of fresh salmon (Salmo salar) stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, C; Vasconcelos, H; de Almeida, José M M M

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect and predict the bacterial load of salmon fillets (Salmo salar) stored at 3, 8 and 30°C under three packaging conditions: air packaging (AP) and two modified atmospheres constituted by a mixture of 50%N2/40%CO2/10%O2 with lemon juice (MAPL) and without lemon juice (MAP). Fresh salmon samples were periodically examined for total viable counts (TVC), specific spoilage organisms (SSO) counts, pH, FTIR and sensory assessment of freshness. Principal components analysis (PCA) allowed identification of the wavenumbers potentially correlated with the spoilage process. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of infrared spectral data was performed to support sensory data and to accurately identify samples freshness. The effect of the packaging atmospheres was assessed by microbial enumeration and LDA was used to determine sample packaging from the measured infrared spectra. It was verified that modified atmospheres can decrease significantly the bacterial load of fresh salmon. Lemon juice combined with MAP showed a more pronounced delay in the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Photobacterium phosphoreum, psychrotrophs and H2S producers. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) allowed estimates of TVC and psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and H2S producer counts from the infrared spectral data. For TVC, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value was 0.78logcfug(-1) for an external set of samples. According to the results, FTIR can be used as a reliable, accurate and fast method for real time freshness evaluation of salmon fillets stored under different temperatures and packaging atmospheres.

  19. ANESTHÉSIE ET PROCÉDURES CHIRURGICALES POUR L’IMPLANTATION DE RADIO ÉMETTEURS DANS LA CAVITÉ VENTRALE DE TRUITES COMMUNES ADULTES (SALMO TRUTTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSSET C.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la meilleure technique d’implantation chirurgicale intra-abdominale de radioémetteurs chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta. Deux types d’anesthésie, chimique au clou de girofle et par l’électricité sont comparés. Deux types d’émetteurs, à antenne filaire externe et à antenne interne enroulée et deux emplacements de l’incision de la paroi abdominale, en avant et en arrière de la ceinture pelvienne, sont testés. Le clou de girofle est un anesthésique satisfaisant mais l’anesthésie par l’électricité est immédiate, et ne semble pas occasionner de stress post-opératoire. Elle offre un meilleur confort d’intervention que l’anesthésie chimique et ne présente aucun danger pour le poisson et l’expérimentateur. Elle convient donc parfaitement pour l’insertion chirurgicale des émetteurs de radiopistage. Si on ne recherche pas une distance d’émission maximale, l’émetteur à antenne interne est préférable à l’émetteur à antenne externe : il est plus stable à l’intérieur de l’abdomen et son expulsion semble moins fréquente. Toutefois, la perte d’émetteur est relativement fréquente dans les deux cas et doit être prise en compte lors de toute surveillance par radiopistage, d’une durée supérieure à 40 jours. L’emplacement de l’incision n’a aucune influence sur la survie, le risque d’expulsion, la cicatrisation et le positionnement des marques dans l’abdomen.

  20. Sequence analysis of the genome of piscine orthoreovirus (PRV associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Markussen

    Full Text Available Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV is associated with heart- and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. We have performed detailed sequence analysis of the PRV genome with focus on putative encoded proteins, compared with prototype strains from mammalian (MRV T3D- and avian orthoreoviruses (ARV-138, and aquareovirus (GCRV-873. Amino acid identities were low for most gene segments but detailed sequence analysis showed that many protein motifs or key amino acid residues known to be central to protein function are conserved for most PRV proteins. For M-class proteins this included a proline residue in μ2 which, for MRV, has been shown to play a key role in both the formation and structural organization of virus inclusion bodies, and affect interferon-β signaling and induction of myocarditis. Predicted structural similarities in the inner core-forming proteins λ1 and σ2 suggest a conserved core structure. In contrast, low amino acid identities in the predicted PRV surface proteins μ1, σ1 and σ3 suggested differences regarding cellular interactions between the reovirus genera. However, for σ1, amino acid residues central for MRV binding to sialic acids, and cleavage- and myristoylation sites in μ1 required for endosomal membrane penetration during infection are partially or wholly conserved in the homologous PRV proteins. In PRV σ3 the only conserved element found was a zinc finger motif. We provide evidence that the S1 segment encoding σ3 also encodes a 124 aa (p13 protein, which appears to be localized to intracellular Golgi-like structures. The S2 and L2 gene segments are also potentially polycistronic, predicted to encode a 71 aa- (p8 and a 98 aa (p11 protein, respectively. It is concluded that PRV has more properties in common with orthoreoviruses than with aquareoviruses.

  1. The effects of ionic strength on the toxicity of aluminium to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar under non-steady state chemical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B.S. POLÉO

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We have tested the influence of water ionic strength on the toxicity of aluminium in fish by comparing the mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar parr exposed to Al-rich water with additions of Ca2+ or Na+. The fish were exposed in parallel to Al-rich water (Al 500 μg l-1, pH 5.8 under non-steady state conditions, with and without the addition of one of the two base cations. The amount of Na+ and Ca2+ added to the water was calculated in order to obtain an identical increase in water ionic strength. Fish mortality was dependent on water residence time and whether or not base cations were added to the Al-rich water. In all Al-exposures, the highest mortality was always observed in fish exposed to water with the shortest residence time. Mortality decreased systematically with increasing water residence time through the exposure set-up. The addition of a base cation, Ca2+ or Na+, to the Al-rich water reduced fish mortality significantly compared to the Al-only exposures. Furthermore, increasing ionic strength with Na+ reduced mortality to a larger extent than the corresponding increase in ionic strength by the addition of Ca2+. The variation in mortality between the various aluminium and base cation treatments is discussed in terms of aluminium chemistry, specific mitigating effects of Ca2+ and Na+, and the general importance of water ionic strength. This study clearly demonstrates that Ca2+ does not play an unique role as an ameliorating cation for Al-toxicity in fish under non-steady state chemical conditions. Thus, ionic strength seems to be important, probably for the interaction between aluminium and the gill surface, reducing the possibility for positively charged aluminium species to bind to negatively charged sites.

  2. Investigations on the effects of growth rate and dietary vitamin C on skeletal muscle collagen and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline cross-link concentration in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejun; Bickerdike, Ralph; Nickell, David; Campbell, Patrick; Dingwall, Alistair; Johnston, Ian A

    2007-01-24

    We have investigated the interactions between dietary vitamin C levels (at 33, 79, 135, and 424 mg kg-1 of wet mass feed) and growth rate on the collagen and cross-link contents of fast muscle in farmed juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The growth rate was measured over an 11 week period using the thermal growth coefficient (TGC). Alkaline-soluble (0.1 M NaOH) (a-s) hydroxyproline (HYP) and alkaline-insoluble (i-s) HYP were determined as a measure of collagen content and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (PYD) as a measure of mature collagen cross-link concentration. There was a approximately 5-fold increase in muscle vitamin C concentration at similar feed conversion ratios ( approximately 0.82) as dietary vitamin C levels increased from 39 to 424 mg kg-1 of wet mass feed. However, even the lowest dietary vitamin C was sufficient for normal skeletal development and growth. The lowest dietary vitamin C level tested resulted in a approximately 27% decrease in the a-sHYP concentration relative to the other diets, whereas there was no significant effect of vitamin C on the i-sHYP and PYD concentrations. ANOVA revealed no significant interaction between vitamin C and growth rate, whereas the covariate TGC was significant for i-sHYP and PYD but not for a-sHYP. Pyridinoline cross-link and i-s HYP concentrations were 11.1 and 7.7% lower, respectively, in high (TGC > 3.9) mass than low (TGC salmon reared under controlled growth conditions, the dietary vitamin C inclusion of 79 mg kg-1 of wet mass feed was sufficient to produce the required synthesis of soluble muscle collagen. Furthermore, post-translational modifications of the collagen leading to cross-linking showed a small decrease with increasing growth rate but was independent of vitamin C concentration in the diet at these levels.

  3. Comparison of transcriptomic responses to pancreas disease (PD) and heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in heart of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Lill-Heidi; Thim, Hanna L; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Afanasyev, Sergey; Strandskog, Guro; Taksdal, Torunn; Fremmerlid, Kjersti; McLoughlin, Marion; Jørgensen, Jorunn B; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2015-10-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) and heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) are viral diseases associated with SAV (salmonid alphavirus) and PRV (piscine reovirus), which induce systemic infections and pathologies in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L), resulting in severe morbidity and mortality. While general features of the clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of salmonid viral diseases are relatively well studied, much less is known about molecular mechanisms associated with immunity and disease-specific changes. In this study, transcriptomic analyses of heart tissue from PD and HSMI challenged Atlantic salmon were done, focusing on the mature phases of both diseases at respectively 28-35 and 42-77 days post infection. A large number of immune genes was activated in both trials with prevalence of genes associated with early innate antiviral responses, their expression levels being slightly higher in PD challenged fish. Activation of the IFN axis was in parallel with inflammatory changes that involved diverse humoral and cellular factors. Adaptive immune response genes were more pronounced in fish with HSMI, as suggested by increased expression of a large number of genes associated with differentiation and maturation of B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T cells. A similar down-regulation of non-immune genes such as myofiber and mitochondrial proteins between diseases was most likely reflecting myocardial pathology. A suite of genes important for cardiac function including B-type natriuretic peptide and four neuropeptides displayed differential expression between PD and HSMI. Comparison of results revealed common and distinct features and added to the understanding of both diseases at their mature phases with typical clinical pictures. A number of genes that showed disease-specific changes can be of interest for diagnostics.

  4. Dietary soybean protein concentrate-induced intestinal disorder in marine farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar is associated with alterations in gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Smullen, Richard; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-09-27

    The aquaculture industry has made substantial progress in reducing the fishmeal content of feeds for carnivorous species, driven by demand for improved sustainability and reduced cost. Soybean protein concentrate (SPC) is an attractive replacement for fishmeal, but intestinal disorders have been reported in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed these diets at high seawater temperatures, with preliminary evidence suggesting SPC induces these disorders by altering the intestinal microbiota. We compared the intestinal microbiota of marine-farmed S. salar fed experimental diets with varying levels of SPC in mid- and late-summer. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA clone library analysis revealed the microbiota adherent to the intestinal tract of salmon is complex at the population level, but simple and highly variable at the individual level. Temporal changes were observed with the bacterial diversity increasing in the intestinal tract in late summer. A Verrucomicrobia was the most frequently observed ribotype in early summer, whilst an Aliivibrio was the most frequently observed ribotype in late summer. Feeding SPC to salmon increased the bacterial diversity of the intestinal tract and resulted in the presence of bacteria not normally associated with marine fish (Escherichia and Propionibacterium). These diet-induced changes to the intestinal-microbiome could be ameliorated by inclusion of a prebiotic (mannan-oligosaccharide or MOS) to the diet. None of the experimental diets induced inflammation of the intestine as assessed by histopathology and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Our results support the "dysbiosis" hypothesis that SPC adversely affects the intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon.

  5. Migratory patterns of hatchery and stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the Connecticut River, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Haro, Alexander; Lerner, Darren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The timing of downstream migration and detection rates of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and stream-reared smolts (stocked 2 years earlier as fry) were examined in the Connecticut River (U.S.A.) using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted into fish and then detected at a downstream fish bypass collection facility at Turners Falls, MA (river length 192 km). In two successive years, hatchery-reared smolts were released in mid-April and early May at two sites: the West River (river length 241 km) or the Passumpsic (river length 450 km). Hatchery-reared smolts released higher in the catchment arrived 7 to 14 days later and had significantly lower detection rates than smolts stocked lower in the catchment. Hatchery-reared smolts released 3 weeks apart at the same location were detected downstream at similar times, indicating that early-release smolts had a lower average speed after release and longer residence time. The size and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity of smolts at the time of release were significantly greater for detected fish (those that survived and migrated) than for those that were not detected. Stream-reared pre-smolts (>11·5 cm) from four tributaries (length 261–551 km) were tagged in autumn and detected during smolt migration the following spring. Stream-reared smolts higher in the catchment arrived later and had significantly lower detection rates. The results indicate that both hatchery and stream-reared smolts from the upper catchment will arrive at the mouth of the river later and experience higher overall mortality than fish from lower reaches, and that both size and gill NKA activity are related to survival during downstream migration.

  6. Effect of nutritional status and sampling intensity on recovery after dorsal aorta cannulation in free-swimming Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, B; Kristensen, T; Øverli, Ø; Rosseland, B O; Kiessling, A

    2012-02-01

    Recovery from implantation of a cannula in the dorsal aorta (DA) of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was studied in relation to nutritional status and sampling intensity. The incentive for the study was the inconsistency between published reports and our own experience of recovery and longevity of fish exposed to this protocol. In two studies using starved fish, blood (0.3 ml) was sampled 0, 1 and 24 h after DA-cannulation, and thereafter at 48 and 72 h and thereafter once weekly for four weeks. In a third study using fed fish, four consecutive samples (0, 3, 6 and 12 h after a meal) were obtained twice a week over a four-week period. All fish displayed a sharp increase in pCO(2) and haematocrit (Hct) during surgery, followed by a marked raise in cortisol, glucose, sodium and potassium (1 h). pCO(2), pH and Hct approached baseline levels as early as the 1 h post-surgery sample, while this was not the case for cortisol and electrolytes before the 24 h post-surgery sample. Glucose did not display any significant changes post surgery. From then on, all variables displayed minor but non-significant (P > 0.05) changes indicating a steady state close to baseline values for unstressed fish. This pattern was independent of sampling procedure, i.e. repeated single or multiple samples and thus volume of blood removed. Nutritional status (fed vs. starved) did not affect post-surgical recovery pattern. Only K(+) and Hct displayed consistent and significant post-prandial patterns. We found marked differences between baseline level of cannulated fish and uncannulated control fish, in pH, K(+) and Hct indicating that cannulation may be the preferred method to obtain representative resting values in fish.

  7. Nutritional Evaluation of an EPA-DHA Oil from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Post-Smolt Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica B Betancor

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils (VO are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar were fed for 11-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either fish oil (FO, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO or transgenic Camelina oil (DCO as added lipid source to evaluate fish performance, nutrient digestibility, tissue n-3 LC-PUFA, and metabolic impact determined by liver transcriptome analysis. The DCO diet did not affect any of the performance or health parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of EPA and DHA compared to the WCO diet. The level of total n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in all the tissues of DCO-fed fish than in WCO-fed fish with levels in liver similar to those in fish fed FO. Endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic activity was observed in fish fed both the Camelina oil diets as indicated by the liver transcriptome and levels of intermediate metabolites such as docosapentaenoic acid, with data suggesting that the dietary combination of EPA and DHA inhibited desaturation and elongation activities. Expression of genes involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol metabolism followed a similar pattern in fish fed DCO and WCO despite the difference in n-3 LC-PUFA contents.

  8. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging by the application of lytic bacteriophage preparation SalmoFreshTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets, as a surface and dip application. The effectiveness of phage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the ability of phage preparation in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets at room temperature was also evaluated. Chicken breast fillets inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis were treated with bacteriophage (10(9) PFU/mL) as either a dip or surface treatment. The dip-treated samples were stored at 4°C aerobically and the surface-treated samples were stored under aerobic and MAP conditions (95% CO2/5% O2) at 4°C for 7 d. Immersion of Salmonella-inoculated chicken breast fillets in bacteriophage solution reduced Salmonella (P chicken breast fillets when the samples were surface treated with phage and stored under MAP conditions. The Salmonella counts were reduced by 1.2, 1.1, and 1.2 log CFU/g on d 0, 1, and 7 of storage, respectively. Bacteriophage surface application on chicken breast fillets stored at room temperature reduced the Salmonella counts by 0.8, 0.9, and 0.4 log CFU/g after 0, 4, and 8 h, respectively, compared to the untreated positive control. These findings indicate that lytic phage preparation was effective in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic and modified atmosphere conditions.

  9. Forest-stream linkages: effects of terrestrial invertebrate input and light on diet and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a boreal forest stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erős, Tibor; Gustafsson, Pär; Greenberg, Larry A; Bergman, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2×2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-month-long experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  10. Consistent boldness behaviour in early emerging fry of domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Serrano, J; Ruiz-Gomez, M L; Gjøen, H M; Skov, P V; Huntingford, F A; Overli, O; Höglund, E

    2011-06-01

    Individual variation in the way animals cope with stressors has been documented in a number of animal groups. In general, two distinct sets of behavioural and physiological responses to stress have been described: the proactive and the reactive coping styles. Some characteristics of stress coping style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using individuals with an early or late time to emerge. Initially, compared to late emerging individuals, early emerging individuals showed a shorter time to resume feeding after transfer to rearing in isolation. Resumption of feeding after isolation was suggested to be related to boldness behaviour, rather than hunger, in the present study. This observation was repeated five months after emergence, demonstrating behavioural consistency over time in this trait. However, in other traits of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, such as social status, resting metabolism or post stress cortisol concentrations, early and late emerging individuals did not differ. Therefore, this study demonstrates that boldness in a novel environment is uncoupled from other traits of the proactive and reactive stress coping styles in farmed salmonids. It is possible that this decoupling is caused by the low competitive environment in which fish were reared. In natural populations of salmonids, however, the higher selection pressure at emergence could select for early emerging individuals with a proactive coping style.

  11. Comparison of vaccine efficacy for different antigen delivery systems for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a cohabitation challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Fredriksen, Børge N; Mutoloki, Stephen; Brudeseth, Bjørn; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Marjara, Inderjit S; Dalmo, Roy A; Evensen, Øystein

    2012-06-01

    Two strains of IPNV made by reverse genetics on the Norwegian Sp strain NVI-015 (GenBank AY379740) backbone encoding the virulent (T(217)A(221)) and avirulent (P(217)T(221)) motifs were used to prepare inactivated whole virus (IWV), nanoparticle vaccines with whole virus, Escherichia coli subunit encoding truncated VP2-TA and VP2-PT, VP2-TA and VP2-PT fusion antigens with putative translocating domains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin, and plasmid DNA encoding segment A of the TA strain. Post challenge survival percentages (PCSP) showed that IWV vaccines conferred highest protection (PCSP=42-53) while nanoparticle, sub-unit recombinant and DNA vaccines fell short of the IWV vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) postsmolts challenged with the highly virulent Sp strain NVI-015 (TA strain) of IPNV after 560 degree days post vaccination. Antibody levels induced by these vaccines did not show antigenic differences between the virulent and avirulent motifs for vaccines made with the same antigen dose and delivery system after 8 weeks post vaccination. Our findings show that fish vaccinated with less potent vaccines comprising of nanoparticle, DNA and recombinant vaccines got infected much earlier and yielded to higher infection rates than fish vaccinated with IWV vaccines that were highly potent. Ability of the virulent (T(217)A(221)) and avirulent (P(217)T(221)) motifs to limit establishment of infection showed equal protection for vaccines made of the same antigen dose and delivery systems. Prevention of tissue damage linked to viral infection was eminent in the more potent vaccines than the less protective ones. Hence, there still remains the challenge of developing highly efficacious vaccines with the ability to eliminate the post challenge carrier state in IPNV vaccinology.

  12. Acyl-coenzyme A oxidases 1 and 3 in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario): Can peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation be regulated by estrogen signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A oxidases 1 (Acox1) and 3 (Acox3) are key enzymes in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Endogenous and exogenous factors can disrupt their normal expression/activity. This study presents for the first time the isolation and characterization of Acox1 and Acox3 in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Additionally, as previous data point to the existence of a cross-talk between two nuclear receptors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and estrogen receptors, it was here evaluated after in vitro exposures of trout hepatocytes the interference caused by ethynylestradiol in the mRNA levels of an inducible (by peroxisome proliferators) and a non-inducible oxidase. The isolated Acox1 and Acox3 show high levels of sequence conservation compared to those of other teleosts. Additionally, it was found that Acox1 has two alternative splicing isoforms, corresponding to 3I and 3II isoforms of exon 3 splicing variants. Both isoforms display tissue specificity, with Acox1-3II presenting a more ubiquitous expression in comparison with Acox1-3I. Acox3 was expressed in almost all brown trout tissues. According to real-time PCR data, the highest estrogenic stimulus was able to cause a down-regulation of Acox1 and an up-regulation of Acox3. So, for Acox1 we found a negative association between an estrogenic input and a directly activated PPARα target gene. In conclusion, changes in hormonal estrogenic stimulus may impact the mobilization of hepatic lipids to the gonads, with ultimate consequences in reproduction. Further studies using in vivo assays will be fundamental to clarify these issues.

  13. TaqMan real-time RT-PCR detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded Atlantic salmon Salmo salar tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, M G; Kibenge, F S; Kibenge, M J; Olmos, P; Ovalle, L; Yañez, A J; Avendaño-Herrera, R

    2010-05-18

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of a TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) fish tissues from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with and without clinical signs of infection, and to compare it with histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. Sixteen fish samples obtained in 2007 and 2008 from 4 different farms in Chile were examined. The real-time RT-PCR allowed the detection of ISAV in FFPE samples from 9 of 16 fish, regardless of the organs analyzed, whereas 4 of the real-time RT-PCR negative fish were positive as indicated by histological examination and 3 of the real-time RT-PCR positive fish were negative as indicated by immunohistochemistry evaluation. The presence of ISAV in RT-PCR positive samples was confirmed by amplicon sequencing. This work constitutes the first report on the use of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of ISAV in FFPE sections. The assay is very useful for the examination of archival wax-embedded tissues, and allows for both prospective and retrospective evaluation of tissue samples for the presence of ISAV. However, the method only confirms the presence of the pathogen and should be used in combination with histopathology, which is a more precise tool. The combination of both techniques would be invaluable for confirmatory diagnosis of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), which is essential for solving salmon farm problems.

  14. Forest-stream linkages: effects of terrestrial invertebrate input and light on diet and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta in a boreal forest stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Erős

    Full Text Available Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2×2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-month-long experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  15. Basin-scale phenology and effects of climate variability on global timing of initial seaward migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jaime; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Castro-Santos, Ted; Leonardsson, Kjell; Storvik, Geir O; Jonsson, Bror; Dempson, Brian; Russell, Ian C; Jensen, Arne J; Baglinière, Jean-Luc; Dionne, Mélanie; Armstrong, John D; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Letcher, Benjamin H; Kocik, John F; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Poole, Russell; Rogan, Ger; Lundqvist, Hans; Maclean, Julian C; Jokikokko, Erkki; Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Kennedy, Richard J; Niemelä, Eero; Caballero, Pablo; Music, Paul A; Antonsson, Thorolfur; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Veselov, Alexey E; Lamberg, Anders; Groom, Steve; Taylor, Benjamin H; Taberner, Malcolm; Dillane, Mary; Arnason, Fridthjofur; Horton, Gregg; Hvidsten, Nils A; Jonsson, Ingi R; Jonsson, Nina; McKelvey, Simon; Naesje, Tor F; Skaala, Oystein; Smith, Gordon W; Saegrov, Harald; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Migrations between different habitats are key events in the lives of many organisms. Such movements involve annually recurring travel over long distances usually triggered by seasonal changes in the environment. Often, the migration is associated with travel to or from reproduction areas to regions of growth. Young anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) emigrate from freshwater nursery areas during spring and early summer to feed and grow in the North Atlantic Ocean. The transition from the freshwater ('parr') stage to the migratory stage where they descend streams and enter salt water ('smolt') is characterized by morphological, physiological and behavioural changes where the timing of this parr-smolt transition is cued by photoperiod and water temperature. Environmental conditions in the freshwater habitat control the downstream migration and contribute to within- and among-river variation in migratory timing. Moreover, the timing of the freshwater emigration has likely evolved to meet environmental conditions in the ocean as these affect growth and survival of the post-smolts. Using generalized additive mixed-effects modelling, we analysed spatio-temporal variations in the dates of downstream smolt migration in 67 rivers throughout the North Atlantic during the last five decades and found that migrations were earlier in populations in the east than the west. After accounting for this spatial effect, the initiation of the downstream migration among rivers was positively associated with freshwater temperatures, up to about 10 °C and levelling off at higher values, and with sea-surface temperatures. Earlier migration occurred when river discharge levels were low but increasing. On average, the initiation of the smolt seaward migration has occurred 2.5 days earlier per decade throughout the basin of the North Atlantic. This shift in phenology matches changes in air, river, and ocean temperatures, suggesting that Atlantic salmon emigration is responding to the

  16. An EST-based approach for identifying genes expressed in the intestine and gills of pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzhubei Alexei

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Atlantic salmon is an important aquaculture species and a very interesting species biologically, since it spawns in fresh water and develops through several stages before becoming a smolt, the stage at which it migrates to the sea to feed. The dramatic change of habitat requires physiological, morphological and behavioural changes to prepare the salmon for its new environment. These changes are called the parr-smolt transformation or smoltification, and pre-adapt the salmon for survival and growth in the marine environment. The development of hypo-osmotic regulatory ability plays an important part in facilitating the transition from rivers to the sea. The physiological mechanisms behind the developmental changes are largely unknown. An understanding of the transformation process will be vital to the future of the aquaculture industry. A knowledge of which genes are expressed prior to the smoltification process is an important basis for further studies. Results In all, 2974 unique sequences, consisting of 779 contigs and 2195 singlets, were generated for Atlantic salmon from two cDNA libraries constructed from the gills and the intestine, accession numbers [Genbank: CK877169-CK879929, CK884015-CK886537 and CN181112-CN181464]. Nearly 50% of the sequences were assigned putative functions because they showed similarity to known genes, mostly from other species, in one or more of the databases used. The Swiss-Prot database returned significant hits for 1005 sequences. These could be assigned predicted gene products, and 967 were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms for molecular function, biological process and/or cellular component, employing an annotation transfer procedure. Conclusion This paper describes the construction of two cDNA libraries from pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and the subsequent EST sequencing, clustering and assigning of putative function to 1005 genes expressed in the gills and/or intestine.

  17. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  18. Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR gill expression after seawater transfer in smolts (0+) of different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, P.M.; Gharbi, K.; Ballantyne, J.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Wright, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoltification involves morphological and physiological changes in the gills that prepare anadromous salmonids to osmoregulate efficiently in seawater. In a previous study, we found that different families of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts vary in their ability to osmoregulate when abruptly transferred to cold seawater and that these differences are correlated with gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Here we extend these findings to test whether other key transport proteins, namely Na+/K+/2Cl- contransporter (NKCC) and the Cl- channel or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), play a significant role in osmoregulatory differences between families. To facilitate molecular analysis of NKCC, we first isolated a gill cDNA containing the complete coding region (1147 aa) of an isoform previously reported as a partial sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this isoform is most closely related to isoforms of the NKCC1a subfamily found in European eel and Mozambique tilapia. In a second step, we quantified NKCC protein abundance as well as mRNA expression levels for NKCC1a and two CFTR isoforms (CFTRI and CFTRII) in 0+ smolts from three families prior to and following seawater transfer. The family with the lowest salinity tolerance also showed significant increases in gill NKCC1a mRNA after seawater transfer. Taken together with our previous study, these data indicate that family differences in expression of transport proteins are in part related to salinity tolerance, although the best indicator of osmoregulatory performance between families may be gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity and CFTR I mRNA levels, rather than Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1a mRNA levels or NKCC protein abundance. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stroke in ancient times: a reinterpretation of Psalms 137:5,6 Acidente vascular cerebral nos velhos tempos: uma reinterpretação dos Salmos 137 (versículos 5,6

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    Luiz Antonio de Lima Resende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke was probably first described in Psalms 136: 5-6 of the Catholic Bible, and Psalms 137:5-6 of the Evangelical Bible. Based on the Portuguese, Spanish, English, German, Dutch, Russian, Greek, and original Hebrew Bible, the significance of this Psalm is the invocation of a punishment, of which the final result would be a stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, causing motor aphasia and right hemiparesis.Acidente vascular cerebral foi descrito pela primeira vez provavelmente na Bíblia, nos Salmos 136, versículos 5 e 6, da bíblia católica, e 137, versículos 5 e 6, da bíblia evangélica. Nas bíblias escritas em português, espanhol, inglês, alemão, holandês, russo, grego e no original hebraico, o significado destes Salmos seria a invocação de um castigo, que poderia corresponder a acidente vascular da artéria cerebral média esquerda, levando a afasia motora com hemiplegia direita.

  20. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, M.Y.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 ??g l-1 Ali) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Ali. There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24 h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl- levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3???,5???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T4) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24 h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T3. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Etude de la croissance de la truite commune Salmo trutta fario (L dans deux rivières du Finistère

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    PROUZET P.

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Des inventaires piscicoles réalisés depuis 1974 dans deux rivières du Finistère ont permis de préciser la croissance des populations de truites communes (Salmo trutta fario L. par deux méthodes différentes : scalimétrie et structure de population. Les résultats font apparaître une croissance faible à modérée comparable à celle des populations de truites de certaines rivières du Pays Basque et du Massif Central ou d'Angleterre et d'Irlande du Nord. La taille moyenne à 3 ans, lors de la première ponte, est comprise entre 19 et 23,5 cm. Compte tenu de la taille légale (tolérée en Bretagne à 18 cm, la plupart des truites sont pêchées avant d'avoir pu se reproduire. L'application du modèle de RICKER à une population de truites non exploitée, en faisant varier l'effort de pêche (exploitation modérée ou forte et la taille de première capture (15, 18 et 20 cm montre que, dans le cas d'une exploitation modérée, l'augmentation de la taille tolérée diminuerait le nombre des prises sans augmenter le potentiel reproducteur. Si l'exploitation est forte, l'augmentation de la taille tolérée à 20 cm permet d'accroître le potentiel reproducteur tout en conservant des captures comparables en nombre et en poids à celles effectuées dans le cadre d'une exploitation modérée à partir d'une longueur totale de 18 cm. Cet exemple théorique fait apparaître la nécessité d'une connaissance approfondie des paramètres régissant la population de truites et en particulier le taux d'exploitation afin de définir une taille limite de capture appropriée.

  2. First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in Chile

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    Calbucura Marlene

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar caused by ISA virus (ISAV, which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I of the highly polymorphic region (HPR group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE

  3. Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for resistance against infectious salmon anaemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar: comparing survival analysis with analysis on affected/resistant data

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    Lien Sigbjørn

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA is a viral disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar worldwide. The identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting resistance to the disease could improve our understanding of the genetics underlying the trait and provide a means for Marker-Assisted Selection. We previously performed a genome scan on commercial Atlantic salmon families challenge tested for ISA resistance, identifying several putative QTL. In the present study, we set out to validate the strongest of these QTL in a larger family material coming from the same challenge test, and to determine the position of the QTL by interval mapping. We also wanted to explore different ways of performing QTL analysis within a survival analysis framework (i.e. using time-to-event data, and to compare results using survival analysis with results from analysis on the dichotomous trait 'affected/resistant'. Results The QTL, located on Atlantic salmon linkage group 8 (following SALMAP notation, was confirmed in the new data set. Its most likely position was at a marker cluster containing markers BHMS130, BHMS170 and BHMS553. Significant segregation distortion was observed in the same region, but was shown to be unrelated to the QTL. A maximum likelihood procedure for identifying QTL, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, was developed. QTL mapping was also done using the Haley-Knott method (affected/resistant data, and within a variance-component framework (affected/resistant data and time-to-event data. In all cases, analysis using affected/resistant data gave stronger evidence for a QTL than did analysis using time-to-event data. Conclusion A QTL for resistance to Infectious Salmon Anaemia in Atlantic salmon was validated in this study, and its more precise location on linkage group eight was determined. The QTL explained 6% of the phenotypic variation in resistance to the disease. The linkage group also displayed

  4. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jessie L.; McGeer, James C., E-mail: jmcgeer@wlu.ca

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to 18 nM waterborne Cd induced plasma Ca loss that recovered by day 30 for lake whitefish but not brown trout. • Ucrit measured after an initial swim to 85% of Ucrit and a 30 min rest period was reduced in 18 nM Cd exposed fish compared to controls. • Swimming to 85% of Ucrit resulted in decreased muscle glycogen and increased lactate that was not recovered in the 30 min recovery period. • Second swim impairment is not related to metabolic processes in white muscle. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18 nM) in moderately hard water (120 mg L{sup −1} CaCO{sub 3}) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (U{sub crit}) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the U{sub crit} of control fish, a 30 min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine U{sub crit}. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim U{sub crit} and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure

  5. Identification of a gene set to evaluate the potential effects of loud sounds from seismic surveys on the ears of fishes: a study with Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C D; Payne, J F; Rise, M L

    2014-06-01

    Functional genomic studies were carried out on the inner ear of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar following exposure to a seismic airgun. Microarray analyses revealed 79 unique transcripts (passing background threshold), with 42 reproducibly up-regulated and 37 reproducibly down-regulated in exposed v. control fish. Regarding the potential effects on cellular energetics and cellular respiration, altered transcripts included those with roles in oxygen transport, the glycolytic pathway, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Of these, a number of transcripts encoding haemoglobins that are important in oxygen transport were up-regulated and among the most highly expressed. Up-regulation of transcripts encoding nicotinamide riboside kinase 2, which is also important in energy production and linked to nerve cell damage, points to evidence of neuronal damage in the ear following noise exposure. Transcripts related to protein modification or degradation also indicated potential damaging effects of sound on ear tissues. Notable in this regard were transcripts associated with the proteasome-ubiquitin pathway, which is involved in protein degradation, with the transcript encoding ubiquitin family domain-containing protein 1 displaying the highest response to exposure. The differential expression of transcripts observed for some immune responses could potentially be linked to the rupture of cell membranes. Meanwhile, the altered expression of transcripts for cytoskeletal proteins that contribute to the structural integrity of the inner ear could point to repair or regeneration of ear tissues including auditory hair cells. Regarding potential effects on hormones and vitamins, the protein carrier for thyroxine and retinol (vitamin A), namely transthyretin, was altered at the transcript expression level and it has been suggested from studies in mammalian systems that retinoic acid may play a role in the regeneration of damaged hair cells. The microarray experiment

  6. Ionocyte Immunolocalization and the Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Their Abundance and Distribution in the Alenins of Caspian Sea Salmon,Salmo Trutta Caspius

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    Saber Khodabandeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: On a global scale, stratospheric ozone depletion has caused an increase inUV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface. Ultraviolet radiation has long been suspectedto be harmful to aquatic organisms.Materials and Methods: In order to study ionocyte localization (by Na+/K+-ATPase immunolocalizationand the effects of UV radiation on the ionocytes of skin and gills, the alevinsof Salmo trutta caspius were exposed to different doses of UV radiation [unit low doses(ULD of: 60 μw/cm2 UVC; 100 μw/cm2 UVB and 40 μw/cm2 UVA and unit high doses(UHD of: 90 μw/cm2 UVC; 130 μw/cm2 UVB and 50 μw/cm2 UVA] using two adjustableF8T5 UV-B, 302 nm lamps (Japan for 15 minutes once a day in laboratory conditions.Alevins not subjected to UV exposure served as a control group.Results: In both UV exposure groups, all the alevins died on the ninth day. No mortalitywas observed in the control group. The Na+/K+-ATPase immunolocalization study indicatedthat ionocytes were located, in lessening order, on the yolk sac, trunk, gills, operculaand rarely on the head skin. Immunohistochemical results showed significant reductionin the number of ionocytes on the yolk sac, with lesser reduction on the trunk in both UVexposure groups. In contrast, the number of immunofluorescence cells on the gill wassignificantly elevated. Our results also showed that the size of ionocytes was reduced onthe trunk and yolk sac in the UV exposure groups, but not significantly. Deformation anddestruction of ionocytes on the yolk sac and trunk were observed with scanning electronmicroscope (SEM in the UV exposure groups.Conclusion: Our results showed that ionocytes were located mainly on the yolk sac,in lesser amounts on the trunk, gills and opercula, and rarely also on the head skinof alevins. UV radiation caused deformation and reduction in the number and size ofionocytes on the trunk and yolk sac. As the skin cells of trout alevins possess essentialfunctions for respiration

  7. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  8. Family-specific differences in growth rate and hepatic gene expression in juvenile triploid growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingheng; Feng, Charles Y; Hori, Tiago S; Plouffe, Debbie A; Buchanan, John T; Rise, Matthew L

    2013-12-01

    Growth hormone transgenic (GHTg) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have enhanced growth when compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, and this trait can be beneficial for aquaculture production. Biological confinement of GHTg Atlantic salmon may be achieved through the induction of triploidy (3N). The growth rates of triploid GH transgenic (3NGHTg) Atlantic salmon juveniles were found to significantly vary between families in the AquaBounty breeding program. In order to characterize gene expression associated with enhanced growth in juvenile 3NGHTg Atlantic salmon, a functional genomics approach (32K cDNA microarray hybridizations followed by QPCR) was used to identify and validate liver transcripts that were differentially expressed between two fast-growing 3NGHTg Atlantic salmon families (AS11, AS26) and a slow-growing 3NGHTg Atlantic salmon family (AS25); juvenile growth rate was evaluated over a 45-day period. Of 687 microarray-identified differentially expressed features, 143 (116 more highly expressed in fast-growing and 27 more highly expressed in slow-growing juveniles) were identified in the AS11 vs. AS25 microarray study, while 544 (442 more highly expressed in fast-growing and 102 more highly expressed in slow-growing juveniles) were identified in the AS26 vs. AS25 microarray study. Forty microarray features (39 putatively associated with fast growth and 1 putatively associated with slow growth) were present in both microarray experiment gene lists. The expression levels of 15 microarray-identified transcripts were studied using QPCR with individual RNA samples to validate microarray results and to study biological variability of transcript expression. The QPCR results agreed with the microarray results for 12 of 13 putative fast-growth associated transcripts, but QPCR did not validate the microarray results for 2 putative slow-growth associated transcripts. Many of the 39 microarray-identified genes putatively associated at the transcript expression

  9. Intestinal cellular localization of PCNA protein and CYP1A mRNA in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. exposed to a model toxicant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsvik Pål A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the intestinal cellular localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and cytochrome P450 A1 (CYP1A expression in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. exposed to a model toxicant. The stress response was induced by intraperitoneal injection of four salmon with a single dose (50 mg/kg of the CYP1A inducer β-naphthoflavone (BNF and intestinal tissue (mid and distal intestine; MI and DI was sampled seven days later. Samples for histology and gene transcription analysis were collected from four exposed fish and four control fish. PCNA was assessed by immunohistochemistry, CYP1A mRNA was studied by in situ hybridization (ISH and finally the transcription of five genes was quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time RT-PCR; two detoxifying genes (CYP1A and glutathione S-transferase; GST, a stress marker gene (heat shock protein 70; HSP70, PCNA and a gene marker of apoptosis (caspase 6A. Results PCNA protein and CYP1A mRNA were successfully localized in the intestinal cells (MI of both experimental groups. At the cellular level, BNF significantly lowered intestinal cell proliferation and increased the CYP1A mRNA levels compared to the control group. The real-time RT-PCR data, which showed an increased mRNA expression both in the MI and DI of 139- and 62-fold, respectively, confirmed the increased cellular CYP1A mRNA levels detected using ISH. HSP70 expression was also up-regulated in the exposed fish. The other examined genes did not show any differential regulation in the experimental fish group. Conclusion This study showed that CYP1A mRNA had a specific intestinal cellular transcription pattern in Atlantic salmon exposed to BNF. At the cellular level CYP1A mRNA expression was always observed at or around the cell nucleus close to the basolateral cell membrane and at the tissue level CYP1A mRNA expression was most frequently observed in the basal and apex area of the intestinal

  10. Application d'une méthode de détermination externe du sexe chez le Saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. dans les rivières des Asturies (Espagne

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    PRÉVOST E.

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Une méthode de détermination externe du sexe basée sur le dimorphisme sexuel de la longueur relative de la mâchoire supérieure est appliquée chez le Saumon Atlantique (Salmo salar L.. 78 adultes capturés en juin et juillet 1990 dans trois rivières des Asturies (Nord de l'Espagne sont étudiés. L'Analyse Linéaire Discriminante sur un échantillon de 63 poissons donne un pourcentage d'erreurs de moins de 10 %. Les résultats sont comparés à ceux obtenus sur d'autres cours d'eaux d e l'aire de répartition du Saumon atlantique et sont discutés en fonction de la composition de l'échantillon.

  11. Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvheim, Anita R.; Torstensen, Bente E.; Lin, Yu Hong;

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA...... in the salmon fillet. The effect on fish consumers of such a replacement remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the effect of excessive dietary LA from soyabean oil (SO) on endocannabinoid levels in Atlantic salmon and mice, and study the metabolic effects in mice when SO replaces FO in feed......, arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated...

  12. An assessment of the risk of spreading the fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris to uninfected territories in the European Union with the movement of live Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeler, E.; Thrush, M.; Paisley, Larry;

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater, monogenean fish ecto-parasite, Gyrodactylus salaris, was introduced into Norway through the importation of juvenile salmon from Sweden in the 1970s and resulted in dramatic declines in the number of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in 45 Norwegian rivers. From May 1, 2004, a change....... This risk assessment was undertaken to establish whether exports of live Atlantic salmon from coastal sites increased the risk of G. salaris introduction and establishment in uninfected EU territories. A scenario tree of events necessary for the introduction and establishment of the parasite was constructed......). Transmission from seawater sites, where salinity is greater than 25 parts per thousand, is only possible if infected fish were introduced hours before export. Furthermore, transport via wellboat in full-strength seawater (33 parts per thousand) reduced the risk of introduction to a negligible level. Similarly...

  13. A description of Echinorhynchus baeri Kostylew, 1928 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae from Salmo trutta in Turkey, with notes on synonymy, geographical origins, geological history, molecular profile, and X-ray microanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A population of Echinorhynchus baeri Kostylew, 1928 with 18–24 rows of 8–10 proboscis hooks each and long fusiform eggs measuring 95–110 × 18–22 μm collected from Salmo trutta (Salmonidae in a branch of the Murat River in Turkey is described and specimens are designated as neotype. Specimens of two similar populations of E. baeri (E. baeri Kostylew, 1928 and E. sevani Dinnik, 1932 were previously described from Salmo ischchan in Lake Sevan, Armenia. Waters of Lake Sevan and the Murat River were previously joined during the Middle Miocene-Pliocene. The two populations from Lake Sevan and ours from Turkey had identical morphology and size eggs. The proboscis armature and eggs, among other features of our Turkish specimens, proved intermediate between E. baeri and E. sevani, thus eliminating the significance of the described differences between these two species and confirming their synonymy with priority to Echinorhynchus baeri (junior synonym: Echinorhynchus sevani Dinnik, 1932. Echinorhynchus baeri is apparently a highly variable species. The two descriptions from Lake Sevan did not include features or illustrations of females, except for references to trunk and egg size but the eggs were illustrated. Complete morphometric comparisons are made and females of the Turkish material are described for the first time. DNA sequencing (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene; nuclear 18S rRNA gene results from two available E. baeri individuals were equivocal. New features to the Acanthocephala include the presence of rootless uncalcified apical proboscis hooks studied with X-ray microanalysis.

  14. Effect of polyunsatured aldehyde (A3 as an antiparasitary ingredient of Caligus rogercresseyi in the feed of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Efecto del aldehído poli-insaturado (A3 como ingrediente antiparasitario de Caligus rogercresseyi en la alimentación de salmón del atlántico, Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Troncoso

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs such as 2-trans, 4-trans decadenial (A3 have a detrimental effect on the development of copepod sharmful to the salmon industrysuch as Caligus rogercresseyi (sea lice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of A3 as a salmon feed ingredient in order to reduce reproduction of Caligus rogercresseyi in infested Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The toxicity of A3 was assessed histopathologically for 7 days, using intra-peritoneal injections of different doses (0, 0.24, 0.47, 2.37, 11.86, and 23.71 mg kg-1 in brain, intestine, skin, liver, and muscletissues of Salmosalar at the end of each treatment. The effect of A3 on sea lice was evaluated using 250 Atlantic salmon in an open-flow system of seawater (~13°C. The effect of the dosage in the fish diet was evaluated at two levels (9 mg kg-1, 18 mg kg-1 and considering a control (without A3 for 4, 8, and 12 days, once the sea lice had reached maturity. As a complement, the persistent effect of diluted A3 in sea water (0.5 g L-1 was evaluated at 10, 12, and 14°C for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 days; and the maximum persistence was found at 10 days at 10°C. The results showed that the dosages over 0.47 mg kg-1 had no toxic effect on Atlantic salmon, but induced a detrimental effect on Caligus rogercresseyi (reduction of 15% of mature females with a dose of 18 mg kg-1, which could be attributed to alterations in the embryonic development of the sea lice. A3 is a potential supplement in the diet of salmon. However, studies ofits mechanism of action should be undertaken prior to its use.Algunos aldehídos poli-insaturados (PUAs tales como 2-trans, 4-trans decadenal (A3 tienen efecto perjudicial para el desarrollo de copépodos perjudiciales para la industria del salmón, tales como Caligus rogercresseyi (piojo de mar. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el uso potencial de A3 en alimentación de salmones, de forma de reducir la reproducción de

  15. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  16. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, Michelle Y., E-mail: michelle.monette@yale.edu [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); USGS, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States); Yada, Takashi [Freshwater Fisheries Research Department, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Nikko (Japan); Matey, Victoria [Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); McCormick, Stephen D. [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); USGS, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24 h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl{sup -} channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time

  17. Water quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. exposed to short term reductions in pH and increased aluminum simulating episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kristensen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea salt episodes can still cause short term drops in pH and elevated concentrations of bioavailable aluminum. Technical malfunction in lime dozers will cause short termed episodic spates in the limed rivers. The current situation has prompted a need for dose-response relationships based on short term exposures of Atlantic salmon to assess the potential population effects of episodic acidification. Water quality guidelines for salmon have been lacking, despite a large number of experiments, all demonstrating dose-response relationships between water chemistry and fish health. We have summarized results from 347 short-term (<14 days exposures of salmon parr and smolt performed between 1990 and 2003 in Norway. The experiments have been performed as bioassays, where fish have been exposed in tanks fed river water, in tanks where the river water quality has been manipulated (added H+ and Al and as Carlin-tagged smolt releases after preexposure to moderately acidic waters. The results from the various bioassays are compared to water quality limits proposed on basis of the relationship between water quality and population status/health in Norwegian rivers. The focus of this article is placed on chemical-biological interactions that can be drawn across experiments and exposure protocols. We propose dose-response relationships for acid neutralizing capacity (ANC, pH, cationic Al and gill accumulated Al, versus mortality in freshwater, effects on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity in seawater challenge tests and on smolt to adult survival in release experiments. The "no effect" dose

  18. Water quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. exposed to short term reductions in pH and increased aluminum simulating episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kristensen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea salt episodes can still cause short term drops in pH and elevated concentrations of bioavailable aluminum. Technical malfunction in lime dozers will cause short termed episodic spates in the limed rivers. The current situation has prompted a need for dose-response relationships based on short term exposures of Atlantic salmon to assess the potential population effects of episodic acidification. Water quality guidelines for salmon have been lacking, despite a large number of experiments, all demonstrating dose-response relationships between water chemistry and fish health. We have summarized results from 347 short-term (<14 days exposures of salmon parr and smolt performed between 1990 and 2003 in Norway. The experiments have been performed as bioassays, where fish have been exposed in tanks fed river water, in tanks where the river water quality has been manipulated (added H+ and Al and as Carlin-tagged smolt releases after preexposure to moderately acidic waters. The results from the various bioassays are compared to water quality limits proposed on basis of the relationship between water quality and population status/health in Norwegian rivers. The focus of this article is placed on chemical-biological interactions that can be drawn across experiments and exposure protocols. We propose dose-response relationships for acid neutralizing capacity (ANC, pH, cationic Al and gill accumulated Al, versus mortality in freshwater, effects on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity in seawater challenge tests and on smolt to adult survival in release experiments. The "no effect" dose

  19. Efecto de reducir la frecuencia de alimentación en la supervivencia, crecimiento, conversión y conducta alimenticia en juveniles de salmón del Atlántico Salmo salar (Linnaeus, 1758: experiencia a nivel productivo Effect of reducing the feeding frequency on the survival, growth, conversion, and feeding behavior of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus, 1758: an experience at the productive level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, la mayoría de las empresas de cultivo de salmones en la fase parr alimentan a los peces con 24 raciones/día; por otra parte, el alimento en el estómago de los peces, puede permanecer cerca de 4 a 5 h. Este trabajo evalúa en base a procedimientos y protocolos productivos, la disminución en la frecuencia de raciones de alimento y su efecto en la supervivencia, crecimiento, conversión y conducta de alimentación de los peces. Se trabajó en condiciones normales de producción comercial, con aproximadamente 1.200.000 peces de 0,17 g durante cuatro meses. Hubo dos tratamientos, el control con 24 raciones/día y el ensayo, que al inicio de la experiencia se entrego 12 raciones/día y al finalizar la experiencia se proporcionó 4 raciones/día. Se emplearon cinco estanques de 18 m³ para cada tratamiento. La disminución en la frecuencia de alimentación, no afectó la supervivencia de Salmo salar, se obtuvo mayor crecimiento en los peces del ensayo, con mejor conversión de alimento, se logró reducción de alimento depositado en el fondo de los estanques y se visualizó mejor apetito en los peces.In Chile, most salmon-farming companies feed fish in the parr phase 24 rations/day. However, food can remain in fish stomachs for around four or five hours. Using productive procedures and protocols, this study evaluates less frequent food rations and how they affect the survival, growth, conversion, and feeding behavior of the fish. The study was conducted over four months under normal commercial production conditions, using approximately 1,200,000 fish of 0.17 g each. There were two treatments: the control, which received 24 rations/day, and the assay, which received 12 rations/day at the onset of the study and 4 rations/day at the end of this. Five tanks, each 18 m³, were used for each treatment. The lower feeding frequency did not affect the survival of Salmo salar. The fish in the assay obtained greater growth and had better food

  20. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  1. Lipid metabolism and tissue composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of capelin oil, palm oil, and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil as dietary lipid sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstensen, B E; Lie, O; Frøyland, L

    2000-06-01

    Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed four diets containing different oils as the sole lipid source, i.e., capelin oil, oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of capelin oil and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, and palm oil (PO). The beta-oxidation capacity, protein utilization, digestibility of dietary fatty acids and fatty acid composition of lipoproteins, plasma, liver, belly flap, red and white muscle were measured. Further, the lipid class and protein levels in the lipoproteins were analyzed. The different dietary fatty acid compositions did not significantly affect protein utilization or beta-oxidation capacity in red muscle. The levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and protein in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and plasma were not significantly affected by the dietary fatty acids. VLDL, LDL, and HDL fatty acid compositions were decreasingly affected by dietary fatty acid composition. Dietary fatty acid composition significantly affected both the relative fatty acid composition and the amount of fatty acids (mg fatty acid per g tissue, wet weight) in belly flap, liver, red and white muscle. Apparent digestibility of the fatty acids, measured by adding yttrium oxide as inert marker, was significantly lower in fish fed the PO diet compared to the other three diets.

  2. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish.

  3. A new specific reference gene based on growth hormone gene (GH1) used for detection and relative quantification of Aquadvantage® GM salmon (Salmo salar L.) in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Zellama, Mohamed Salem; Said, Khaled; Chaouachi, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Genetic transformation of fish is mainly oriented towards the improvement of growth for the benefit of the aquaculture. Actually, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is the species most transformed to achieve growth rates quite large compared to the wild. To anticipate the presence of contaminations with GM salmon in fish markets and the lack of labeling regulations with a mandatory threshold, the proper methods are needed to test the authenticity of the ingredients. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used in this study. Ct values were obtained and validated using 15 processed food containing salmon. The relative and absolute limits of detection were 0.01% and 0.01 ng/μl of genomic DNA, respectively. Results demonstrate that the developed QRT-PCR method is suitable specifically for identification of S. salar in food ingredients based on the salmon growth hormone gene 1 (GH1). The processes used to develop the specific salmon reference gene case study are intended to serve as a model for performing quantification of Aquadvantage® GM salmon on future genetically modified (GM) fish to be commercialized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. beta-Oxidation capacity of red and white muscle and liver in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of increasing dietary rapeseed oil and olive oil to replace capelin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubhaug, Ingunn; Frøyland, Livar; Torstensen, Bente E

    2005-01-01

    Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed six diets in which capelin oil was replaced with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% rapeseed oil (RO; low-erucic acid) or 50% olive oil (OO). The experimental diets were fed to single groups of Atlantic salmon for 42 wk, whereas the 100% capelin oil (0% RO) diet was fed in duplicate. The beta-oxidation capacity of palmitoyl-CoA was determined, using a method optimized for salmon tissues, at the start of the experiment, after 21 wk (October), and after 42 wk (March) in red and white muscle and in liver. Red muscle showed the highest specific beta-oxidation capacity, but when expressed as total beta-oxidation capacity for the whole tissue, white muscle was the most important tissue for the beta-oxidation of FA. From the initial to the final sampling, the beta-oxidation capacity of white muscle increased significantly, whereas the beta-oxidation capacity in liver decreased significantly. After 22 wk, white muscle exhibited an increased beta-oxidation capacity when the dietary RO content was raised from 25 to 75%, with similar effects in red muscle and liver after 42 wk of feeding. The present results also show that the beta-oxidation capacity increased with an increase in fish size.

  5. Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Vacuum-Packaged Blue Spotted Emperor (Lethrinus sp), Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets Stored at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Amaya, Luisa Fernanda; Munyard, Steve; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Howieson, Janet

    2016-05-01

    Quality assessment of finfish fillets during storage is important to be able to predict the shelf life of the fresh product during distribution. Microbial, chemical (pH, TMA, and TVB-N), and sensory (Quality index assessment QIA, Torry scheme) changes in vacuum-packaged blue-spotted emperor (Lethrinus sp), saddletail (Lutjanus malabaricus), crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at 4°C were evaluated for 5 days. Microbiological study included evaluation of TVC (total viable counts), total psychrotrophic organisms, and H2S-producing bacteria. Numbers increased during storage time and reached an average of 8.5, 8.5, and 9.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively, for the five different fish species. These levels were above accepted microbiological limits for fish fillets. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in quality, none of the finfish fillets were considered unacceptable at the end of the storage trial. Chemically, there was a slight pH increase, but trimethylamine (TMA) levels remained low. However, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels increased over time, reaching levels above 35 mg/100 g for blue spotted emperor, saddletail snapper, and crimson snapper by the end of the storage period. Results show that the deterioration of finfish fillet quality is a complex event of biochemical, sensory, and microbial factors, and multiple analyses may be required to define acceptability.

  6. An analysis of genetic stock identification on a small geographical scale using microsatellite markers, and its application in the management of a mixed-stock fishery for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, D; Crozier, W W; Boylan, P; O'Maoiléidigh, N; McGinnity, P

    2013-06-01

    A genetic stock identification (GSI) study was undertaken in a fishery for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to determine the effects of restrictive fishery management measures on the stock composition of the fishery, and if accurate and precise stock composition estimates could be achieved on the small geographical scale where this fishery operates, using a suite of only seven microsatellite loci. The stock composition of the Foyle fishery was shown to comprise almost exclusively of Foyle origin fish in the 3 years after restrictive measures were introduced in 2007, compared to 85% the year before. This showed that the restrictive measures resulted in the Foyle fishery being transformed from a mixed-stock fishery to an almost exclusively single-stock fishery, and showed how GSI studies can guide and evaluate management decisions to successfully manage these fisheries. Highly accurate and precise stock composition estimates were achieved in this study, using both cBAYES and ONCOR genetic software packages. This suggests accurate and precise stock composition is possible even on small geographical scales. © 2013 AFBINI. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Measurement of total Zn and Zn isotope ratios by quadrupole ICP-MS for evaluation of Zn uptake in gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential use of stable zinc isotopes in toxicity studies measuring zinc uptake by the gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The use of stable isotopes in such studies has several advantages over the use of radioisotopes, including cost, ease of handling, elimination of permit requirements, and waste disposal. A pilot study using brown trout was performed to evaluate sample preparation methods and the ability of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) system to successfully measure changes in the 67Zn/66Zn ratios for planned exposure levels and duration. After completion of the pilot study, a full-scale zinc exposure study using rainbow trout was performed. The results of these studies indicate that there are several factors that affect the precision of the measured 67Zn/66Zn ratios in the sample digests, including variations in sample size, endogenous zinc levels, and zinc uptake rates by individual fish. However, since these factors were incorporated in the calculation of the total zinc accumulated by the gills during the exposures, the data obtained were adequate for their intended use in calculating zinc binding and evaluating the influences of differences in water quality parameters.

  8. Activité nycthémérale et utilisation de la séquence radier-profond par les truitelles d'un an (Salmo trutta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUSSEL J. M.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Le comportement d'un groupe de dix truitelles d'un an (Salmo trutta L. a été étudié au cours de deux cycles d'observation de 3 jours dans une séquence radier-profond reconstituée en milieu semi-naturel. Des changements de préférences d'habitat ont été mis en évidence à l'échelle du nycthémère et correspondent à des changements d'activité (repos, nage et alimentation. Lorsqu'elles sont en nage statique et en alimentation sur la dérive, les truitelles défendent leur poste et occupent le radier et le profond en pleine eau. Au repos, elles sont posées sur le fond du contre-courant et du profond, et elles n'exhibent pas de comportement agonistique. De plus, les truitelles ont montré un rythme d'activité diurne prononcé.

  9. Comparison of the susceptibility of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and four rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains to the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Daniel S; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2009-11-12

    Differences in susceptibility to the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD), between four strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were evaluated. Fish were exposed to water enzootic for the parasite in the field for 5 days and were subsequently transferred to the laboratory. Relative parasite load was determined after 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-exposure (wpe) by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of kidney samples and number of parasite stages was determined in immunohistochemical stained sections of kidney, liver and spleen tissues. According to qPCR results, the highest amount of parasite DNA per equal amount of host tissue at all time points was measured in brown trout. Two of the rainbow trout strains showed lower relative parasite load than all other groups at the beginning of the experiment, but the parasite multiplied faster in these strains resulting in an equal level of relative parasite load for all rainbow trout strains at 4 wpe. A weak negative correlation of fish size and parasite load was detected. Only in samples of a few fish, single stages of T. bryosalmonae were found in sections stained by immunohistochemistry impeding quantitative evaluation of parasite numbers by this method. The results indicate a differential resistance to T. bryosalmonae between the rainbow trout strains investigated and between rainbow trout and brown trout.

  10. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    Volume I of this report describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the freeze brand data used in the analysis of travel time for Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Brand recoveries for Lower Monumental dam also are presented. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data.

  11. Histochemical demonstration of two mercury pools in trout tissues: mercury in kidney and liver after mercuric chloride exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Nielsen, M G; Danscher, G

    1987-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to 100 ppb mercury (as HgCl2) in the water for 14 days. Concentrations of mercury in water and fish organs were monitored using radiolabeled mercury. Tissues from kidney and liver were fixed, and sections were developed by autometallography......, a method whereby accumulations of mercury sulfides and/or mercury selenides are silver amplified. In the kidney, mercury was found within lysosomes and extracellularly in the basal lamina of proximal tubules. In the liver, mercury was found within lysosomes of the hepatocytes. Additional groups of mercury...

  12. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Semi-annual report No. 1, 1 November 1976-1 April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.; Eble, A.F.

    1977-05-01

    A pilot aquaculture facility utilizing heated river water from condenser cooling (Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, New Jersey) is being used to culture the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) during the warmer months of the year and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) during the colder months. Laboratory tests are also being conducted at Rutgers University to develop shrimp feeds with supplemented amino acids in order to reduce feed costs. Most of the work during the first six months of the proof-of-concept phase of the Mercer Aquaculture Project has been concerned with facility design, groundwater well construction and trials of the groundwater on trout.

  13. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRO FISCHERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (W...

  14. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRIO FISCHERI TO TOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing online toxicity monitors(OTMs) and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system. Source waters o...

  15. Selective predation by bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) on three species of Diaptomus (Copepoda) from subtropical Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, J.L.; Vodopich, D.S.; Hoover, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    The electivity of young bluegills (Lepomis marochirus) feeding on three species of Diaptomus was examined experimentally in aquaria. Young bluegills consumed more adult female D. floridanus than D. mississippiensis, with D. dorsalis being consumed in the smallest numbers. An experiment was conducted with a nonvisual siphon device in an attempt to separate the visibility and escape ability components of the feeding electivity. Although somewhat variable, escape ability was linearly related to body size of the copepods, with D. dorsalis being captured least often by the siphon, D. floridanus being caught an intermediate number of times, and D. mississippiensis being caught most often. Comparisons of the two experiments indicated that differences in numbers of D. dorsalis and D. floridanus eaten by bluegills were determined primarily by disparities in visibility attributable to pigmentation, whereas differences in numbers of D. dorsalis and D. mississippiensis eaten could be accounted for by their escape ability alone. Trends in numbers of D. mississippiensis and D. floridanus eaten were influenced by both their visibility, as determined by body size, and their escape ability. The finding of this study support the hypothesis that D. floridanus and D. mississippiensis could be excluded by fish predation from lakes in which D. dorsalis occurs. 21 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  16. The effects of acute temperature change on swimming performance in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily A; Jong, Arianne S; Ellerby, David J

    2008-05-01

    Many fish change gait within their aerobically supported range of swimming speeds. The effects of acute temperature change on this type of locomotor behavior are poorly understood. Bluegill sunfish swim in the labriform mode at low speeds and switch to undulatory swimming as their swimming speed increases. Maximum aerobic swimming speed (U(max)), labriform-undulatory gait transition speed (U(trans)) and the relationships between fin beat frequency and speed were measured at 14, 18, 22, 26 and 30 degrees C in bluegill acclimated to 22 degrees C. At temperatures below the acclimation temperature (T(a)), U(max), U(trans) and the caudal and pectoral fin beat frequencies at these speeds were reduced relative to the acclimation level. At temperatures above T(a) there was no change in these variables relative to the acclimation level. Supplementation of oxygen levels at 30 degrees C had no effect on swimming performance. The mechanical power output of the abductor superficialis, a pectoral fin abductor muscle, was measured in vitro at the same temperatures used for the swimming experiments. At and below T(a), maximal power output was produced at a cycle frequency approximately matching the in vivo pectoral fin beat frequency. At temperatures above T(a) muscle power output and cycle frequency could be increased above the in vivo levels at U(trans). Our data suggest that the factors triggering the labriform-undulatory gait transition change with temperature. Muscle mechanical performance limited labriform swimming speed at T(a) and below, but other mechanical or energetic factors limited labriform swimming speed at temperatures above T(a).

  17. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  18. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ogura

    Full Text Available The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  19. Prevention of soya-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by bacteria grown on natural gas is dose dependent and related to epithelial MHC II reactivity and CD8α+ intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarheim, Odd H; Hetland, Dyveke L; Skrede, Anders; Øverland, Margareth; Mydland, Liv T; Landsverk, Thor

    2013-03-28

    An experiment was carried out to study the preventive effect of bacterial meal (BM) produced from natural gas against plant-induced enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmon were fed a diet based on fish meal (FM) or seven diets with 200 g/kg solvent-extracted soyabean meal (SBM) to induce enteritis in combination with increasing levels of BM from 0 to 300 g/kg. Salmon fed a SBM-containing diet without BM developed typical SBM-induced enteritis. The enteritis gradually disappeared with increasing inclusion of BM. By morphometry, no significant (P>0.05) differences in the size of stretches stained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen were found with 150 g/kg BM compared with the FM diet. Increasing BM inclusion caused a gradual decline in the number of cluster of differentiation 8 α positive (CD8α+) intraepithelial lymphocytes, and fish fed BM at 200 g/kg or higher revealed no significant difference from the FM diet. Histological sections stained with antibody for MHC class II (MHC II) showed that fish with intestinal inflammation had more MHC II-reactive cells in the lamina propria and submucosa, but less in the epithelium and brush border, compared with fish without inflammation. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in growth among the diets, but the highest levels of BM slightly reduced protein digestibility and increased the weight of the distal intestine. In conclusion, the prevention of SBM-induced enteritis by BM is dose dependent and related to intestinal levels of MHC II- and CD8α-reactive cells.

  20. Purine-induced expression of urate oxidase and enzyme activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Cloning of urate oxidase liver cDNA from three teleost species and the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Øivind; Aas, Turid S; Skugor, Stanko; Takle, Harald; van Nes, Solveig; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Helland, Ståle J; Terjesen, Bendik F

    2006-07-01

    The peroxisomal enzyme urate oxidase plays a pivotal role in the degradation of purines in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, knowledge about the purine-induced expression of the encoding gene is lacking in vertebrates. These are the first published sequences of fish urate oxidase, which were predicted from PCR amplified liver cDNAs of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and African lungfish (Protopterus annectens). Sequence alignment of different vertebrate urate oxidases revealed amino acid substitutions of putative functional importance in the enzyme of chicken and lungfish. In the adult salmon, expression of urate oxidase mRNA predominated in liver, but was also identified in several nonhepatic organs including brain, but not in skeletal muscle and kidney. Juvenile salmon fed diets containing bacterial protein meal (BPM) rich in nucleic acids showed a significant increase in liver urate oxidase enzyme activity, and urea concentrations in plasma, muscle and liver were elevated. Whereas salmon fed the 18% BPM diet showed a nonsignificant increase in liver mRNA levels of urate oxidase compared with the 0% BPM-fed fish, no further increase in mRNA levels was found in fish receiving 36% BPM. The discrepancy between urate oxidase mRNA and enzyme activity was explained by rapid mRNA degradation or alternatively, post-translational control of the activity. Although variable plasma and liver levels of urate were detected, the substrate increased only slightly in 36% BPM-fed fish, indicating that the uricolytic pathway of Atlantic salmon is intimately regulated to handle high dietary purine levels.

  1. Effects of decontaminated fish oil or a fish and vegetable oil blend on persistent organic pollutant and fatty acid compositions in diet and flesh of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Matthew; Bendiksen, Eldar A; Dick, James R; Strachan, Fiona; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Berntssen, Marc H G; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, John Gordon

    2010-05-01

    The health benefits of seafood are well documented and based on the unique supply of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture now contributes about 50 % of food-grade seafood globally and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a rich source of n-3 HUFA. However, salmon and other oily fish can accumulate lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP), including dioxins (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), derived largely from feed. In the present study, triplicate groups of salmon, of initial weight 0.78 kg, were fed one of three experimental diets for 11 weeks. The diets were coated with either a northern fish oil (FO) with a high POP content (cNFO), the same oil that had been decontaminated (deNFO) or a blend of southern fish oil, rapeseed and soyabean oils (SFO/RO/SO). Dietary PCDD/F+dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) concentrations were 17.36, 0.45 and 0.53 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg, respectively. After 11 weeks, the flesh concentrations in fish fed the cNFO, deNFO and SFO/RO/SO diets were 6.42, 0.34 and 0.41 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. There were no differences in flesh EPA and DHA between fish fed the cNFO or deNFO diets although EPA and DHA were reduced by 50 and 30 %, respectively, in fish fed the SFO/RO/SO diet. Thus, decontaminated FO can be used to produce salmon high in n-3 HUFA and low in POP. Salmon produced using deNFO would be of high nutritional value and very low in POP and would utilise valuable fish oils that would otherwise be destroyed due to their high pollutant concentrations.

  2. Cytochemical demonstration of mercury deposits in trout liver and kidney following methyl mercury intoxication: differentiation of two mercury pools by selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Danscher, G

    1988-01-01

    The amount and the ultrastructural distribution of mercury was studied in seven different organs of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings following exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg)-contaminated fodder for periods of 2 and 7 weeks. The amounts of mercury retained by the whole fish and the s......The amount and the ultrastructural distribution of mercury was studied in seven different organs of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings following exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg)-contaminated fodder for periods of 2 and 7 weeks. The amounts of mercury retained by the whole fish...... and the selected organs were determined by measuring the uptake of 203Hg-labeled MeHg. Spleen, liver, and kidney had the highest concentrations after both experimental periods, while the largest relative increases were found in brain, muscle, and kidney. The subcellular distribution of mercury accumulations...... killed, were compared with those of fish not treated with selenium, two distinct pools of mercury could be demonstrated, the HgS pool, and the HgSe pool. The HgS pool, supposed to represent inorganic mercury, was found exclusively within lysosomes. The increase of this pool from 2 to 7 weeks was most...

  3. Application d'un modèle de dynamique de population de truite commune (Salmo trutta sur un bassin de Basse-Normandie : premières simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOURAUD V.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Afin d'évaluer l'impact des différents usages de l'eau sur l'écosystème aquatique, des outils de simulation de plus en plus nombreux voient actuellement le jour ; dans ce cadre, un modèle de dynamique de population de truite (Salmo trutta est en cours de développement. Pour enrichir les nombreuses observations déjà disponibles sur le bassin de l'Oir (Basse-Normandie, des inventaires assortis d'expérimentations spécifiques ont été effectués en 1996 pour conforter et compléter les différentes composantes du modèle, en particulier en ce qui concerne les fonctions biologiques impliquées. En particulier, l'étude de l'habitat permet de déterminer la capacité d'accueil du milieu et ainsi une composante densité-dépendante de la survie des jeunes truitelles ; le potentiel reproducteur est appréhendé à l'aide de prélèvements sanguins et du sacrifice de quelques femelles matures. D'éventuels échanges avec l'aval du bassin sont quantifiés à l'aide d'un système de piégeage. Les résultats de ces expérimentations permettent d'effectuer une première application sur l'ensemble du bassin et de comparer les simulations obtenues aux données issues des inventaires piscicoles. L'utilisation d'un pas de temps de calcul hebdomadaire semble plus appropriée qu'un pas de temps mensuel pour représenter l'effet de la température sur la population. Cependant, le modèle dans son état actuel ne permet pas de représenter de façon satisfaisante l'impact du fort accident climatique observé en été 91 ; il donne par contre une bonne image de la restauration de la population de géniteurs à partir de 1992.

  4. Bt-maize (MON810 and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinni Gu

    Full Text Available Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles (fry fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810 expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize. One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level, with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile

  5. TAILLE À 3 ANS DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS LES RIVIÈRES DES PYRÉNÉES FRANÇAISES : RELATIONS AVEC LES CARACTÉRISTIQUES MÉSOLOGIQUES ET INFLUENCE DES AMÉNAGEMENTS HYDROÉLECTRIQUES. TOTAL LENGTH OF AGE-3 BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN FRENCH PYRENEAN STREAMS : RELATIONSHIPS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND INFLUENCE OF HYDROELECTRIC FACILITIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAGARRIGUE T.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de populations de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée sur 84 cours d'eau répartis sur l'ensemble de la chaîne des Pyrénées. Pour cela, des échantillons d'écailles ont été récoltés dans 215 sites situés à des altitudes comprises entre 185 et 2000 m, pour des largeurs variant de 1,2 à 60 m. La croissance des individus a été déterminée par scalimétrie. La longueur totale moyenne atteinte par les individus à l'âge de 3 ans a été retenue comme variable biologique. La taille moyenne à 3 ans des individus est fortement structurée par l'altitude, ce gradient altitudinal représentant en grande partie un gradient thermique. Elle est corrélée négativement avec l'altitude et la densité totale en truites communes et positivement avec la largeur du cours d'eau et la conductivité estivale. La nature du débit joue également un rôle important sur la croissance puisqu'à altitude et à température moyenne estivale équivalentes, la taille moyenne à 3 ans est significativement plus faible en site soumis à un débit réservé qu'en site à débit naturel. Selon la nature du débit, deux modèles prédictifs de la taille moyenne à 3 ans (T3 en fonction de l'altitude (ALT et de la largeur du cours d'eau (L ont été établis par régression multiple pas à pas : - sites à débit naturel : Log (T3 = 2.457 - 0.007 x sgrt ALT + 0.066 x Log (L 65.5 % (p The growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta L. populations has been studied on 84 streams distributed over the whole range of the Pyrenees. Samples of scales were collected in 215 sites located at altitudes ranging between 185 and 2000 m, for width varying from 1,2 to 60 m. The growth of individuals was determined by scale reading. The mean total length of age-3 trout was selected as the biological variable. The mean total length of age-3 trout was strongly structured by altitude, this altitudinal gradient mainly representing a thermal gradient. It is

  6. EFFICACITÉ DES REPEUPLEMENTS EN TRUITES (Salmo trutta L. et Oncorhynchus mykiss W. DE UN AN POUR LA PÊCHE PROFESSIONNELLE AUX FILETS ET LA PÊCHE AMATEUR À LA TRAÎNE DANS LE LAC DU BOURGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAMPIGNEULLE A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available L’étude visait à évaluer l’efficacité d’une pratique de repeuplement courante dans le lac du Bourget (4 400 ha consistant à déverser directement en lac des truitelles de un an avec pour objectif de soutenir des captures de truite du lac. Les recaptures par la pêche amateur et professionnelle ont été évaluées pour un lot de 15 900 truites fario (Salmo trutta L. domestiques de un an (longueur totale moyenne de 177 mm déversées fin avril 1988. Elles sont respectivement de 3,8 % (33 kg/1 000 truitelles pour la pêche professionnelle aux filets maillants et de 1,0 % (6 kg/1 000 truitelles pour la pêche amateur à la traîne en bateau. En relation avec une forte croissance, l’essentiel des recaptures a été réalisé en fin de saison 1988 et en début de saison 1989. Les recaptures par la pêche professionnelle aux filets maillants ont été évaluées pour un lot de 10 000 truitelles fario domestiques (longueur totale moyenne de 179 mm en comparaison avec un lot de 10 800 truitelles arc en ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss W. de un an (longueur totale moyenne de 219 mm déversées en mai 1990. Les recaptures ont été respectivement de 3,2 % (20 kg/1 000 truitelles pour la fario et de 7,0 % (42 kg/1 000 truitelles pour l’arc en ciel. Pour la truite arc-en-ciel, l’essentiel des recaptures a été réalisé très rapidement sur une période brève : milieu et fin de saison 1990. Pour le lot de fario, l’essentiel de l’exploitation a été réalisé sur une période courte mais un peu plus tardive (fin de saison 1990 et début de saison 1991 que pour l’arc-en-ciel. Les repeuplements en mai avec des truitelles domestiques de un an conduisent effectivement à des captures de truite de lac en lac mais avec un rendement plutôt faible et en prenant des risques (écologiques et pathologiques. Ceci suggère de mobiliser les efforts de gestion vers la production naturelle et donc durable de la ressource truite de lac dans le lac du

  7. REPEUPLEMENTS EN ALEVINS NOURRIS ET DÉMOGRAPHIE DE LA POPULATION DE TRUITE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS LE REDON, UN AFFLUENT DU LAC LÉMAN INTERROMPU PAR UN OBSTACLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAMPIGNEULLE A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La démographie d’une population de truite (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée, dans un contexte de repeuplements en alevins nourris, sur le Redon, un affluent du lac Léman. On trouve sur le Redon une situation typique de nombreux affluents du Léman : une zone aval ouverte sur le lac mais rapidement interrompue par un obstacle empêchant la remontée des truites de lac. Des relâchers d’alevins nourris issus d’œufs de géniteurs sauvages de truite de lac ou de géniteurs domestiques, pratiqués en fin de printemps-début été à des densités de 40-60 ind./100 m2, fournissent un recrutement additionnel important pouvant constituer la part dominante du peuplement automnal en 0 +, puis 1 +. Sur les zones ouvertes à la pêche, colonisées ou non par la truite de lac, la densité de la population automnale en place s’effondre entre le stade 1 + et les stades > 1 +. Les résultats comparatifs entre zones ouvertes ou fermées à la pêche indiquent que la pêche peut être un facteur de mortalité important. La dynamique comparée des truites d’origine lacustre ou sédentaire suggère l’existence d’un taux de sédentarisation plus faible pour les 1 + issus de truites de lac comparativement aux 1 + issus de la fraie de truites sédentaires en zone de réserve. Une expérimentation suggère l’existence de mouvements de dévalaison ayant lieu avant octobre et touchant préférentiellement les 0 + d’origine lacustre ayant eu la croissance initiale la plus forte. L’étude montre que : - des alevins nourris d’origine lacustre ou domestique, relâchés en fin de printemps-début été, fournissent des géniteurs de truite de lac remontant dans la rivière de relâcher, avec cependant une proportion moindre (4 fois dans le cas de l’origine domestique comparativement à l’origine lacustre. Malgré leur forte contribution aux stades de juvéniles 0 + et 1 +, les alevins domestiques de pisciculture contribuent peu aux retours de g

  8. Relations entre les caractéristiques de l'habitat et les populations de truites communes (Salmo trutta L. de la vallée de la Neste d'Aure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARAN P.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Les relations entre les caractéristiques de l'habitat et les biomasses et densités de truites communes (Salmo trutta L. ont été recherchées dans 33 stations de la rivière Neste d'Aure et trois de ses affluents : la Neste du Louron, la Neste du Rioumajou et le ruisseau d'Espiaube dans le département des Hautes-Pyrénées. L'étude a été conduite sur un cycle annuel. Dans un premier temps, la validité du modèle d'Indice de Qualité d'Habitat (HQI (BINNS et EISERMAN, 1979, basé sur 10 variables de l'habitat, a été testée. Les biomasses théoriques prévues par le modèle ne sont pas linéairement corrélées aux biomasses observées par pêche électrique. Le meilleur ajustement linéaire est obtenu grâce à des transformations par les logarithmes. Toutefois, la pente de la droite de régression est significativement différente de 1 (t = 2.53(p < 0.01. Le modèle de l'Indice de Qualité d'Habitat ne constitue pas, dans le cas de la vallée d'Aure, un outil satisfaisant de prévision des biomasses de truites. Dans un deuxième temps, l'influence de chaque variable de l'habitat a été testée individuellement. Les biomasses observées sont significativement corrélées à l'altitude (entre 1350 et 600 m, aux surfaces d'abris, à la température mensuelle maximale (pour une gamme allant de 10 à 16 °C, à la conductivité électrique, à la vitesse moyenne au fond, à la profondeur moyenne et au rapport largeur/profondeur. Les densités sont significativement corrélées aux mêmes variables, à l'exception de la profondeur moyenne ; il faut également ajouter des corrélations significatives avec la pente de la ligne d'eau et la largeur de la rivière. L'étude par classe d'âge montre que l'abondance de la cohorte 0+ est liée à l'altitude, la température et la conductivité. La largeur moyenne constitue la seule caractéristique de l'habitat physique corrélée avec les biomasses et densités de 0+. L'étude par saison indique

  9. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, AND LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS TO COPPER AND CYANIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here was designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (WQEWS). Source waters ...

  10. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, AND LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS TO COPPER AND CYANIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here was designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (WQEWS). Source waters ...

  11. Efficacy of benzocaine as an anesthetic for salmonid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilderhus, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested in the laboratory to determine the effective concentrations for anesthetizing juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha an rainbow trout O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri ). Tests were conducted at three water temperatures, in waters ranging from very soft to very hard, and with groups of rainbow trout from 5 to 47 cm long and chinook salmon 20 cm long. Effective concentrations were defined as those that rendered the fish fully handleable in 3 min or less, allowed recovery of most fish within 10 min, and caused no mortality after 15-min exposures. Concentrations of 25-45 mg/L anesthetized both species over the entire range of conditions tested. Although efficacy was essentially unrelated to species or water quality, it was related to water temperature and size of fish; the concentrations of benzocaine required were highest at the lowest water temperature and for the largest fish.

  12. Protection of Wild Adult Steelhead in Idaho by Adipose Fin Removal: 1984-1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Rodney C.

    1986-03-01

    All Idaho hatchery-reared steelhead released in the spring of 1985 received an adipose fin clip to differentiate between natural or wild and hatchery, fish, thus allowing for protection of wild fish in the sport harvest. Between 25 September and 14 December 1984, 6,360,542 steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) were marked by excising the adipose fin. A total of 10,336 man hours were required to complete the operation. Clip quality and healing, mortality, and adipose fin composition were determined. Quality checks indicated less than 1% of the fish had more than 25% of the fin remaining. Combined mortality at all three hatcheries was 0.3% of the total fish marked. Observed and in vivo test showed complete healing of the excision within 3-4 weeks (observed) and 22 days (in vivo). Bibliographies were compiled for fin regeneration, marked fish survival, hooking mortality, and related catch-and-release studies.

  13. Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp. (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume II. Final report Jul 74--Oct 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eble, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that all life-cycle stages of the tropical freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, can be cultured successfully using waste-heat effluents of the Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, N.J. Further, high-density culture of the prawn is possible and practical. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) culture has also been successfully demonstrated utilizing the waste-heat discharges of an electric generating station. Efficient systems have been designed for intensive annual two-crop production. Postlarval prawns are grown in indoor heated nurseries in early spring, and placed in outdoor ponds in mid-May at sizes of 5 to 6cm and harvested in late October as 11 to 12cm adults. Experiments culturing the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in waste-heat discharge waters of the generating system have been successful. Presented in Volume 2 is the research work conducted in this study. (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  14. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Semi-annual report, No. 2, 1 November 1977--1 June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.

    1978-06-01

    The principal objective is to evaluate, at proof-of-concept scale, the potential of intensive aquaculture operations using power plant thermal discharges to enhance productivity. The field experiments involve the rearing of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) for successive periods (semi-annual) in accordance with the temperature of the thermal effluents. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are also being tested in smaller, laboratory size culture systems. The above mentioned species were selected because of their economic importance. They will be evaluated for food quality and marketability with the cooperation of potential commercial users. Aquaculture facilities were constructed at a steam electric generating plant for studies determining use for waste heat released into condenser cooling water. Growth rates, food conversion ratios, disease problems and mortality rates are being studied in the project. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white) (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  15. Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp. (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume 3. Final report, July 1974--October 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmanfarmian, A.

    1977-01-01

    The principal objective of this project is to develop procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant (Trenton, N.J.). The energy source for this power plant is coal. Discharge water from this plant was used in a preliminary assessment of the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio of the mentioned aqua species. It was shown that acute or chronic exposure to power plant intake and discharge water, discharge with or without coal particles, and discharge with or without slurry overflow mix, does not significantly affect metabolism, short-term survival, growth, or conversion efficiency of shrimp and trout.

  16. Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume I. Final report 1 Jul 74-31 Oct 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.; Eble, A.F.; Farmanfarmian, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to establish the bilogical feasibility of rearing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri in the thermal effluents from PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station. A new approach in aquaculture involving semiannual grow-out periods, diseasonal aquaculture was the result of the large seasonal variation in Delaware River temperature (0.2 to 29/sup 0/C), since it was determined that no commercially important species could take this wide temperature range. Secondary objectives of this study were to make preliminary evaluations of the engineering and economic feasibility of rearing the above-mentioned species in thermal effluents, and to obtain a preliminary assessment of product quality.

  17. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Volume III. Final report, 1 November 1976-1 November 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmanfarmaian, A.

    1980-03-01

    This report is part of a three year research study on the constructive use of electric generating station waste heat in cooling water effluents for fish production. It describes procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant in Trenton, New Jersey. Discharge water from this plant was used in a preliminary assessment of the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio of these species. It was shown that acute or chronic exposure to power plant intake and discharge water; discharge with or without coal particles; and discharge with or without slurry overflow mix does not significantly affect metabolism, short-term survival, growth, or conversion efficiency of shrimp or trout.

  18. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified brain acetylcholinesterase of three freshwater fishes by organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaonan, Li; Xianchuan, Xie; Guonian, Zhu; Yajun, Tan

    2004-07-14

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was purified from the brain of three fresh-water fishes, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and rainbow trout (Oncorrhychus mykiss, formerly named Salmo gairdneri) by PEG2000/phosphate-salt two phases extraction, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified enzymes by organophosphates were then studied. Although the crude enzyme from the trout displayed a different specific activity, kinetic curve, Vmax, and sensitivity to inhibition by oxidized malathion and triazopos compared with the two cyprinoids (i.e. topmouth gudgeon and goldfish), the purified enzymes of all the three species showed no significant difference in all aspects. The result suggested a negligible intrinsic difference of brain AChEs among the tested species.

  19. Correlation between biochemical parameters and susceptibility of freshwater fish to malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Shao-Non; Fan De-Fang

    1996-07-01

    Acute toxicity (96-h LC50) of malathion was tested using five species of freshwater fish, namely, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus), nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Correlation was found between susceptibility and biochemical parameters such as activity of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and in vitro resistance of the enzyme to inhibition (IC50) of malaoxon (a major metabolite of malathion). The in vitro study also showed that malaoxon instead of malathion was the main inhibitor of AChE. Susceptibility to malathion was considerably changed as the fish was pretreated with piperonyl butoxide (PB, a P-450 inhibitor) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase), respectively. Toxicity of malathion was significantly increased by TPP, but the responses of fish to PB were quite different among species. This suggested that both carboxylesterase and monooxygenase played an important role in susceptibility determination, and great variations existed among species in activity of monooxygenase.

  20. Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production Potential on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: Annual Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinith, Robert

    1987-12-01

    In 1987, The Warm Springs Indian Reservation Anadromous Fish Production and Habitat Improvement Program was in the sixth year of a scheduled eleven year program. To date, 21 kilometers of reservation stream habitat have been enhanced for salmonid production benefits. Unusual climatic conditions created a severe drought throughout the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek in 1987. Temperature extremes and low annual discharges ensued throughout reservation waters. Study sites, located in the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek, continued to be monitored for physical biological parameters. Post treatment evaluation of bioengineering work in Mill Creek (Strawberry Falls Project) was conducted. Despite low discharges, physical habitat parameters were improved and notable gains were observed in both spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytascha) and summer steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) abundance and biomass at post treatment sites. Major bioengineering work was completed at the Mill Creek (Potter's Pond) Site. 19 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume I, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of post-seasonal analyses including timing and relative magnitude of the outmigration, travel time for marked hatchery releases, and survival in mid-Columbia and lower Snake River index reaches. Travel time of marked yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) is measured between specific sampling points in the system. Marked groups usually represent major hatchery production stocks. Survival estimates are computed for specific spring chinook and steelhead marked groups. Arrival time and duration of outmigration of the chinook, sockeye, coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead runs are reported at key sampling points. Hatchery and brand release information for 1986 is also listed.

  2. Biological and Physical Inventory of the Streams within the Nez Perce Reservation; Synopsis, 1982-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Ross K.; Kucera, P.A.; Johnson, D.B. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1985-08-01

    This report provides a synopsis for three years of inventory work on the streams in the Lower Clearwater Basin, Idaho. The main emphasis of the study was to document which streams presently support anadromous salmonids, the extent of production in those streams and the identification of those streams which may best respond to enhancement restoration activities. Rainbow-steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) were the most abundant anadromous salmonid found. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were found rarely except in the Lolo Creek Drainage. The main environmental problem affecting these streams was the extreme flow variations which commonly occur. This is due primarily to poor land management practices. Enhancement recommendations are suggested for these streams which include passage around barriers, barrier removal, riparian enhancement, instream habitat improvement, and better land use practices.

  3. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  4. Correlation of Biological Characteristics of Smolts with Survival and Travel Time, 1987 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Beeman, John W.; Free, Mary E. (Seattle National Fishery Research Center, Columbia River Field Station, Cook, WA)

    1988-06-01

    The biological characteristics of smolts were examined to determine their effect on estimates of survival in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Freeze branded groups of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) from Lyons Ferry State Fish Hatchery (SFH) and Wells SFH and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Winthrop National Fish Hatchery (NFH) were used to estimate survival. Past estimates of survival, using a ratio of test and control fish recaptured at McNary Dam, have resulted in estimates > 100%, presumably due to some unknown bias. Study objectives were to determine if stress and descaling, degree of smoltification, and prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) differed among test and control groups of fish, thereby biasing survival estimates. 19 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. An analysis of the energetic cost of the branchial and cardiac pumps during sustained swimming in trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FARRELL, AP; STEFFENSEN, JF

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data are available for the oxygen cost of the branchial and cardiac pumps in fish. These data were used to theoretically analyze the relative oxygen cost of these pumps during rest and swimming in rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri. Efficiency of the heart increases with activity and so...... the relative oxygen cost of the cardiac pumps decreased from 4.6% at rest to 1.9% at the critical swimming speed. The relative oxygen cost of the branchial pump is significant in the resting and slowly swimming fish, being 10 to 15% of total oxygen uptake. However, when swimming trout switch to a ram mode...... of ventilation, a considerable saving in oxygen cost is accrued by switching the cost of ventilation from the branchial to the tail musculature. Thus, the relative oxygen cost of the branchial and cardiac pumps actually decreases at critical swimming speed compared to rest and therefore is unlikely to be a major...

  6. Characterization of the host response to the myxosporean parasite, Ceratomyxa shasta (Noble), by histology, scanning electron microscopy, and immunological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Smith, C.E.; Rohovec, J.S.; Fryer, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The tissue response of Salmo gairdneri Richardson, against the myxosporean parasite. Ceratomyxa shasta (Noble), was investigated using histological techniques, scanning electron microscopy and immunological methods. The progress of infection in C. shasta-susceptible and resistant steelhead and rainbow trout was examined by standard histological techniques and by indirect fluorescent antibody methods using monoclonal antibodies directed against C. shasta antigens. Trophozoite stages were first observed in the posterior intestine and there was indication that resistance was due to the inability of the parasite to penetrate this tissue rather than to an inflammatory response. Examination of a severely infected intestine by scanning electron microscopy showed extensive destruction of the mucosal folds of the posterior intestine. Western blotting and indirect fluorescent antibody techniques were used to investigate the immunological component of the host response. No antibodies specific for C. shasta were detected by either method.

  7. Etude expérimentale des composés fluores et des phosphogypses rejetes en Baie de Seine-Rapport de synthèse

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Au cours de la deuxième phase du programme d'étude sur les lésions des poissons et mammifères marins, et dans le cadre de ce programme, les effets de divers effluents industriels rejetés en Baie de Seine ont été recherchés. Le présent rapport rassemble les résultats obtenus d'une part au terme des travaux effectués sur les composés fluorés et sur les phosphogypses et présentés en détail dans chacun des documents suivants : 1. Etude expérimentale chez Salmo gairdneri, des effets toxiques du fl...

  8. Histologic and skeletal abnormalities in benzo(a)pyrene-treated rainbow trout alevins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hose, J.E.; Hannah, J.B.; Puffer, H.W.; Landolt, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    Histological and skeletal examinations were performed on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) alevins reared in 0.00, 0.08, 0.21, 0.39, 1.48, 2.40 or 2.99 ng/ml aqueous benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Nuclear pycnosis and karyorrhexis were most common in neuroectodermal and mesodermal derivatives and in liver of BaP-treated alevins. Microphthalmia was observed in 17% of the test fish and was frequently associated with a patent optic fissure. Depressed mitotic rates in the retina and brain (but not liver) were observed in alevins reared in 0.21 to 1.48 ng/ml aqueous BaP. Test alevins had a significantly higher incidence of skeletal malformations in the skull and vertebral column, and abnormalities of vertebral arcualia often corresponded to areas of kyphoscoliotic flexures. 43 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Spiral swimming behavior due to cranial and vertebral lesions associated with Cytophaga psychrophila infections in salmonid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Groff, J.M.; Morrison, J.K.; Yasutake, W.T.; Holt, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    C. psychrophila infections of the cranium and anterior vertebrae in salmonid fishes were associated with ataxia, spiral swimming along the axis of the fish, and death. The syndrome was observed in 2-10% of underyearling coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri, and steelhead trout S. gairdneri at several private, state, and federal hatcheries in Washington and Oregon, USA, between 1963 and 1987. Affected fish did not recover and ultimately died. Histological examination consistently revealed subacute to chronic periostitis, osteitis, meningitis, and ganglioneuritis. Inflammation and periosteal proliferation of the anterior vertebrae at the junction of the vertebral column with the cranium with extension into the cranial case was a consistent feature. The adjacent nervous tissue, particularly the medulla, was often compressed by the proliferative lesion, and this may have caused the ataxia. Though bacteria were seldom observed in these lesions. C. psychrophilawas isolated in culture from the cranial cavity of all affected fish that were tested. Epidemiological observations suggested that this bacterium is the causative agent because the spiral swimming behaviour and lesions were observed only in populations that had recovered from acute C. psychrophila infections.

  10. Fouling organisms composition and secondary productivity of discharged water ponds of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) indoor intensive culture system%大西洋鲑工厂化养殖排放水池塘的污损生物组成及次级生产力评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李应东; 刘媛; 崔朝霞

    2015-01-01

    为了对水产养殖废水进行综合利用,以减少对环境污染,增加养殖效益,2014年7—10月对大西洋鲑( Salmo salar)工厂化养殖车间排放水池塘中底栖生物的组成和次级生产力进行了调查和评估。结果显示,排放水池塘中沉积物量和底栖生物量与养殖废水的排放时间成正比;沉积物中,共检出底栖无脊椎动物4种,分别为线虫( Turbatrxi sp.)、才女虫( Polydora sp.)、小头虫( Capitella sp.)和钩虾( Corophium sp.),均为污损指示生物。其中,才女虫和钩虾的生物量和丰度与沉积物量呈显著正相关(P<0.05),小头虫、才女虫和钩虾的次级生产力分别为11.1、1149.1和702.2 g/m2 a,显著高于正常海域( P<0.05)。研究表明,该养殖废水中底栖污损生物的次级生产力高,具有较高的再利用价值。%To provide guidance for utilizing aquaculture wastewater, reducing environmental pollution and increasing farming profits, we investigated the benthonic organisms composition and secondary productivity in discharged water ponds of Salmo salar indoor intensive culture workshop, from July to October in 2014. Results showed that the sediments volume and biomasses of benthic organisms in discharge water ponds were directly proportional to the drainage time.Four species of zoobenthos were identified, including Turbatrix sp., Polydora sp., Capitella sp.and Corophium sp., which are all bioindicators, and there was a significant positive correlation between the amount of sediments and the biomasses of Capitella sp.and Corophium sp.as well as their richness (P<0.05).Secondary productivity of Capitella sp., Polydora sp.and Corophium sp. were 11.1, 1149.1 and 702.2 g/m2 a, respectively, which was significantly higher than those of outdoor seas (P<0.05).In conclusion, the fouling organisms of discharged water have high valuable potential as baits for other aquatic animals.

  11. The impacts of Aeromonas salmonicida on swimming behavior and numbers of blood cells of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)%杀鲑气单胞菌对大西洋鲑游泳行为和血细胞数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣萌萌; 孙国祥; 杜以帅; 刘鹰; 王顺奎; 于凯松

    2015-01-01

    为探讨利用鱼类行为及血细胞数量变化预警杀鲑气单胞菌(Aeromonas salmonicida)病害发生的可行性,监测了生产中感染杀鲑气单胞菌的大西洋鲑(Salmo salar L.)的游泳行为,以及杀鲑气单胞菌攻毒后大西洋鲑血细胞数量的变化。实验采用同一养殖基地和同一批次的大西洋鲑,其中现场实验鱼选自生产车间健康的和感染杀鲑气单胞菌的养殖鱼,攻毒实验中处理组实验鱼每尾背肌注射100µL、浓度为3.05×107CFU/mL的菌液,对照组注射等体积灭菌生理盐水。现场实验表明,感染杀鲑气单胞菌的大西洋鲑临界游泳速度较健康鱼低26.7%(P<0.05),摆尾频率与游泳速度的线性回归方程的斜率也存在显著差异(P<0.05)。攻毒实验表明,从攻毒的第4天开始,处理组大西洋鲑白细胞、淋巴细胞、单核细胞和粒细胞数量较对照组均发生显著变化,其中第6天的变化最为显著,白细胞总数、粒细胞数分别降低了2.8%和43.9%(P<0.05),淋巴细胞数及单核细胞数分别升高了63.3%和23.9%(P<0.05),且处理组4种血细胞数随时间呈现显著的线性变化(P<0.05)。研究结果表明通过监测大西洋鲑游泳行为(临界游泳速度和摆尾频率)以及血细胞相关指标的变化可快速判断其健康状况,为病害的早期预警提供依据。%We investigated the feasibility of monitoring the health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to facilitate development of an early warning system for disease. To do this, we recorded changes in the swimming behavior and blood composition in the salmon after challenge with Aeromonas salmonicida. The fish used for the in situ challenge experiments were the same batch from the same farm. Healthy fish and fish infected with A. salmonicida were used for the in situ experiments. Salmon were injected in the dorsal muscle with 100 µL of A. salmonicida at 3.05×107 colony forming units (CFU)/mL per fish

  12. EVIDENCE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BLUEGILL SUNFISH (LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS) LIVER MICROSOMES SIMULTANEOUSLY EXPOSURE TO SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND ANTHRACENE. (R823873)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens produced by agriculturally important crops such as clover, alfalfa and soya have the potential of leaching from the soil into streams. Concentrations of phytoestrogens in freshwater systems ranging from the low nanogram to low microgram per litre range have been demonstrated. However...

  14. An H1 histone gene from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, J; Connor, W; Winkfein, R J; Dixon, G H

    A 1.7-kbp DNA region from the 10.2-kb cluster containing the five rainbow trout histone genes has been subcloned in pBR322 and completely sequenced. It contains a trout histone H1 gene together with its 5' and 3' flanking sequences. This H1 gene codes for a H1 variant different from the major trout testis H1 previously sequenced by Macleod et al. (1977). Northern blots of total RNA from trout testis, kidney, and liver indicate that this H1 gene is expressed in all three tissues but that the level of H1 mRNA is much higher in testis than in other tissues. The lack of heterogeneity in the sizes and 5' initiation sites of trout H1 mRNAs is surprising in view of the substantial heterogeneity of H1 variant proteins observed previously. The coding sequence of the H1 gene shows strong evidence of repeated partial duplications of a hexapeptide motif of the form Ala.Ala.Ala.Lys.Lys.Pro and of a pentapeptide phosphorylation-site sequence, Lys.Ser.Pro.Lys.Lys, during its evolution. Comparisons are drawn between this gene and the coding sequences of other vertebrate H1 genes from chicken and Xenopus, and a strong homology is seen in the region of amino acids 22-101, which form the hydrophobic "head" of the H1 molecule. The 5' and 3' regulatory signals in the trout H1 are also compared with those of H1 genes from other sequences.

  15. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens produced by agriculturally important crops such as clover, alfalfa and soya have the potential of leaching from the soil into streams. Concentrations of phytoestrogens in freshwater systems ranging from the low nanogram to low microgram per litre range have been demonstrated. However...

  16. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  17. Why are not there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D. L. [Vermont Univ., School of Natural Resources, Vermont Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Burlington, VT (United States); Behnke, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gephard, S. R. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmnetal Protection, Fisheries Div., Old Lyme, CT (United States); McCormick, S. D. [Anadromous Fish Research Center, USGS/Biological Resources Div., Turners Falls, MA (United States); Reeves, G. H. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The causes of decline and extirpation of salmon on a global scale are investigated. In some cases single factors such as dams, pollution and dewatering, increased density of humans near salmon rivers, overfishing, changes in ocean conditions or intensive aquaculture could be identified as likely causes. The available evidence is not sufficient to link cause and effect for most declines because they are the result of multiple factors, and data that would help to discriminate factors on scales of space or time are lacking. For this reason, it is not possible to allocate the proportional impact of multiple factors that contribute to the the demise of salmon populations. More rigorous methodologies, including more effective sampling techniques, testing of multiple effects integrated across space and time, and adaptive management are needed to account for the continuing decline of salmon.

  18. A NOR-associated repetitive element present in the genome of two Salmo species (Salmo salar and S. trutta)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abuin, M.; Clabby, C.; Martinez, P.; Goswami, U.; Flavin, F.; Wilkins, N.P.; Houghton, J.A.; Powell, R.; Sanchez, L.

    . Southern blot analysis revealed the repetitive element to be unique to Atlantic salmon and brown trout species. In situ hybridization analysis showed this element to be localized at the main nucleolar organizer region bearing chromosomes of Atlantic salmon...

  19. Fish responses (Salmo salar) after exposure to trisodiumcitrate; Fiskeresponser (Salmo salar) som foelge av eksponering av trinatriumsitrat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroglund, Frode

    2012-07-01

    Statkraft Development AS wants to build an osmotic power plant in Sunndalsoera, Norway. Osmotic power means that the osmotic pressure between fresh and saltwater is utilized where the two water sources are separated by a membrane. These membranes need to be washed. A few times a year washing will include use of chemicals. Trisodiumcitrate is here a relevant chemical. The toxicity of trisodiumcitrate with respect to fish is poorly documented. To bridge this knowledge gap prior to finalizing the project plans, a range-finder test was performed to identify possible adverse effects of the chemical. Trisodiumcitrate is a chelator and will bind to and create loose complexes with ions. Fish can respond negatively to the chemical in itself and/or to water quality changes caused by the chemical addition. The exposures were performed using wild salmon parr, collected by electrofishing in Storelva. Norway. Salmon is normally the most sensitive species to contaminants in Norwegian rivers. The most sensitive life stage is the smolt stage, when the fish undergo physiological changes in preparation for a marine life. Smolt is not present in fall. The use of hatchery reared fall-smolt is not recommended due to differences in size. To provide data to be used in the planning of the power plant, exposures were therefore performed using parr (1+). The wash water will be released over a four hour time span to ensure sufficient dilution. The fish were exposed for 6 days to provoke possible negative responses to the chemicals. Following dilution in the river/estuary, a nominal dose of trisodiumcitrate will be in the range of 10 mg/l. To identify concentrations that could cause negative responses, fish were exposed to a concentration gradient that was 0.1, 0.3, 3 and 10 times the nominal dose. The exposure were performed in a flow-through setup where the chemicals were added continuously to the water. No fish died during the exposure. There were no statistically of biologically significant difference in blood chemistry between the groups and the control. There was a slight tendency towards fish exposed to 30 or 100 mg trisodiumcitrate/l had reduced fright response. This change occurred first after day 4, and was subtle. Salmon is the most sensitive fish species present in Norwegian rivers. The parr stage is less sensitive than the smolt stage. The main smolt run lasts for 2 to 3 weeks in spring with around 6 weeks from start to end. The test can be repeated using smolt to verify the lack of toxicity. It should be possible to avoid discharge of wash water during the main smolt run-period. Based on this exposure, trisodiumcitrate up to 100 mg/l has no visible adverse effect on salmon parr. (Author)

  20. 饲料中植物油替代鱼油对大西洋鲑肝细胞油酸跨膜吸收的影响%OLEIC ACID TRANS-MEMBRANE UPTAKE IN HEPATOCYTES OF ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALARL.) AND EFFECT OF REPLACING DIETARY FISH OIL WITH VEGETABLE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继术; Bente E. Torstensen; Ingunn Stubhaug

    2014-01-01

    Taking [1-14C] OA (oleic acid;18:1n-9) as the indicator, the uptake of OA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocyte with different membrane fatty acid composition induced by dietary fish oil (FO) and vegetable oil (VO) diets was determined to investigate the effect of replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oil on fatty acid uptake and to pro-vide the probability of replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oil in Atlantic salmon diet. Atlantic salmon post smolt was fed diets containing either 100% FO or VO for 5 months to produce hepatocytes with typical FO and VO fatty acid composition, then OA uptake in isolated hepatocytes were studied by incubating with [1-14C] OA and 37.5 µmol/L OA (1/30, mol/mol, 0.3 µCi/flask) for 2h and by calculating the radioactivity in the cells. Meanwhile total RNA of the other same batch of FO and VO hepatocytes were extracted and the relative expression of FATP (fatty acid transport protein) and FAT/CD36 (fatty acid translocase) were determined by RT-PCR. The result showed that OA uptake in FO and VO was (0.924±0.258) nmol/(h·million cells) cells and (0.888±0.179) nmol/(h·million cells) respectively and there was no significant different between them (P>0.05). The relative expression ofFATP andFAT/CD36 were not significantly di-fferent between FO and VO hepatocytes too. The results indicate that by the same OA uptake between FO and VO hepatocytes, replacing dietary FO with VO was available in Atlantic salmon diet.%以[1-14C]油酸(oleic acid;18:1n-9, OA)为指示剂,研究了不同饲料油源饲喂下大西洋鲑肝细胞膜脂肪酸组成受到改变时该细胞对OA吸收的状况,以探讨植物油(Vegetable oil, VO)替代鱼油(Fish oil, FO)对大西洋鲑肝细胞脂肪酸跨膜吸收的影响,为大西洋鲑饲料中植物油替代鱼油的可行性提供理论依据。试验先以鱼油和大豆油为油源配制两种全价配合饲料,分别饲喂大西洋鲑幼鲑5个月,使其产生不同的脂肪酸组

  1. Evaluation of Lower Umatilla River Channel Modifications Below Three Mile Dam, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Ward, David L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes results of the first year of a study initiated in September 1984 to evaluate the adequacy of channel modifications made in the lower Umatilla River to improve adult anadromous salmonid passage to Three Mile Dam (RKm 5.6), determine if fish passage or delay problems exist at Three Mile Dam and recommend site specific corrective measures if needed. Movements of steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were monitored using mark and recapture and radio telemetry techniques. Thirty-four steelhead were marked with T-anchor tags and released in the lower river. Fifteen of those marked were also fitted with radio transmitters. Three radiotagged steelhead migrated through channel modifications to Three Mile Dam. Two of these fish migrated to the dam in less than 26 hours, but held just below the dam for 7 and 10 days before entering the ladders. The third steelhead delayed for 30 days and entered the west ladder within 24 hours of arrival at the dam. Two other radiotagged steelhead moved upstream through some of the channel modifications but did not migrate to the dam. Only one of 19 marked steelhead not fitted with transmitters was recovered at Three Mile Dam. 14 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Residues of benzocaine in rainbow trout, largemouth bass, and fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of the anesthetic benzocaine in muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides ) were determined after exposure of the fish to 50 mg benzocaine/L for 15 min and withdrawal times of 0-24 h. The mean concentration of benzocaine residues in fish sampled immediately after exposure was 14.0 mu g/g in rainbow trout and 10.6 mu g/g in largemouth bass. Residues were below the control value after 8 h of withdrawal in largemouth bass and near the control value after 4 h of withdrawal in rainbow trout. Although residues of benzocaine were high in fish immediately after exposure, the concentration declined rapidly when the fish were held in flowing fresh water. Fish meal prepared from Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) that had been anesthetized with benzocaine or tricaine (MS-222) contained residues of 45.1 mu g benzocaine/g or 47.7 mu g tricaine/g.

  3. Methylmercury in fish from Owyhee Reservoir in southeast Oregon: scientific uncertainty and fish advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C M; Kauffman, K W; Gilroy, D J

    1997-10-01

    Data collected during 1987-1994 showed elevated levels of mercury (Hg) in fish tissue from the Owyhee Reservoir in southeastern Oregon. Sixty-five percent of the samples analyzed had total Hg levels exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) health screening value of 0.6 mg/kg. Eighteen out of 89 (20%) fish tissue samples also had total Hg levels greater than the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mercury action level of 1.0 mg/kg. The overall mean Hg content for all fish collected from the reservoir was 0.75 mg/kg wet weight (wet wt.). Fish muscle taken from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) had the highest mean Hg levels of 0.92, 0.87 and 0.82 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) had the lowest mean Hg content of 0.37 mg/kg. Increases in total Hg concentrations were found to be positively correlated with size for rainbow trout and yellow perch. A weak but significant correlation was also observed between total mercury content and age for smallmouth bass. Based on these data, in 1994 the Oregon Health Division (OHD) issued a fish consumption advisory for the Owyhee Reservoir using a conservative risk-based approach. The process of defining and communicating these consumption limits is the subject of this paper.

  4. Characterization of a complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region germ-line gene of rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, T; Chen, T; Törmänen, V

    1990-10-01

    A germ-line heavy-chain variable region (VH) gene (RTVH431) has been isolated from a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and characterized by complete nucleotide sequencing. It is characteristic of VH, as shown by the conserved octamer and TATA motif in the 5' region, the heptamernonamer recombination signal sequence in the 3' region, and the 18-amino-acid-long hydrophobic leader interrupted by an intron. The 98-amino-acid-long VH coding region has 50-70% nucleotide sequence homology and 40-60% amino acid sequence homology with VHS of various vertebrate species. We have also found unique or species-specific amino acid residues in the VHS of rainbow trout, amphibia (Xenopus), reptile (Caiman), and shark (Heterodontus) in our sequence analyses. The RTVH431 has an unusual amino acid in the conserved 34th position in complementarity-determining region 1 of VH. Southern hybridization results suggest the presence of a large gene family related to RTVH431 in the trout genome. The complex evolution of antibody V genes is discussed.

  5. Orofino Creek Passage Project Biological and Engineering Feasibility Report: Completion Report 1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1988-10-01

    If implemented, the Orofino Creek Passage Project will provide adult fish passage at barrier waterfalls on Orofino Creek, Idaho, and give anadromous salmonids access to upstream habitat. Anadromous fish are currently blocked at Orofino Falls, 8.3 km above the stream's confluence with the Clearwater River. This report summarizes results of a study to determine the potential for increasing natural production of summer steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Orofino Creek drainage by enhancing adult fish passage. Data on fish habitat, migration barriers, stream temperatures and fish populations in the drainage were collected during 1987 and provided a basis for estimating the potential for self-sustaining anadromous salmonid production above Orofino Falls. Between 84.7 and 103.6 km of currently inaccessible streams would be available to anadromous fish following project implementation, depending on the level of passage enhancement above Orofino Falls. These streams contain habitat of poor to good quality for anadromous salmonids. Low summer flows and high water temperatures reduce habitat quality in lower mainstem Orofino Creek. Several streams in the upper watershed have habitat that is dominated by brook trout and may be poorly utilized by steelhead or salmon. 32 refs., 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Annual report No. 1, 1 November 1976-31 October 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A pilot aquaculture facility utilizing heated river water from condenser cooling (PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, New Jersey) is being used to culture the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) during the warmer months of the year, and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) during the colder months near Trenton, New Jersey. Twelve thousand trout were harvested from the last grow-out season. During June, 1977, juvenile shrimp 4.5 cm long were stocked at 31/sq m of total surface area in an outdoor raceway. By the end of September, 1977, the shrimp reached an average length of 7.9 cm at 11/sq m and suffered a high mortality of 58 percent. The density of 11/sq m confirms previous results in preceding years. Laboratory tests are also being conducted at Rutgers University to develop shrimp feeds with supplemented amino acids, and improve existing commercial shrimp feeds by incorporating better food binders which do not allow these food pellets to disintegrate in water as quickly.

  7. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

  8. Activity of esterases from different tissues of freshwater fish and responses of their isoenzymes to inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S N; Fan, D F

    1997-06-06

    Activity of nonspecific esterase from different tissues (i.e., liver, gallbladder, heart, intestine, and muscle) of five species of freshwater fish, namely, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus), nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was tested using alpha-naphthyl acetate as substrate. The results indicated that activity of the enzyme was mainly concentrated in the digestive system (i.e., intestine, liver, bile). The overall activity was highest in nile tilapia, followed by mosquitofish, topmouth gudgeon, goldfish, and lowest in rainbow trout. Electrophoresis and the following in vitro treatment of the isoenzymes with triphenol phosphate (TPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase) indicated the TPP-sensitive esterase was mainly distributed in liver of the five species. The enzyme was not found in the other five tissues (including gill) except in gallbladder of topmouth gudgeon and goldfish. The correlation was obviously improved between susceptibility and detoxification capacity if activity of the TPP-sensitive esterase was employed instead of that of the nonspecific esterase to make the comparison. In vitro treatment of nonspecific esterase in liver with malaoxon proved that the active metabolite of malathion inhibited a different isoenzyme from the TPP-sensitive one.

  9. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  10. Serum enzymes in rainbow trout as tools in the diagnosis of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, W.; Hinterleitner, S.

    1980-08-01

    The activities of serum enzymes are likely to reflect the metabolic state of fish in much the same way as they do in mammals. Thus it can be expected that toxic agents or factors which lead to chronic impairment of the animals' metabolism will cause changes, usually increases, of the activities of some serum enzymes. Many studies have been conducted in which fish were experimentally stressed and the ensuing changes in serum enzyme activities recorded. Some of these responses are likely to be of a more general nature, i.e., indicating the organism's answer to a situation of stress brought about by a general deterioration of water quality. We have tested this idea further by measuring the activities of two transaminases, glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (GOT, E.C.2.6.1.1.) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT, E.C.2.6.1.8.) in the serum (S) of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) caught at various distances from the outflow of a sewage plant into the river Inn near Innsbruck. The quality of the river water was also tested by measuring, at the points where the fish were caught, the concentration of NH/sub 3/, NO/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/.

  11. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  12. Induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout exposed to ciprofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J H; Kostecki, P T; Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    1990-07-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), average body weight of 450 g, were treated with 15, 25, or 35 mg/kg of ciprofibrate via intraperitoneal injection every other day for 2 to 3 weeks. The effects on hepatic peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, polypeptide PPA-80, catalase, and liver weight were measured. The treatment of trout with ciprofibrate showed significant dose-related increases in peroxisomal acyl-CoA activity, polypeptide PPA-80, and catalase after 3 weeks of exposure. Peroxisomal oxidase activity showed a significant (p = 0.0008) increase (78%) at 35 mg/kg and a marginal (p = 0.1) increase (27%) at 25 mg/kg after 3 weeks of exposure. Densitometric analysis of polypeptide PPA-80 and catalase showed increases up to 48 and 236% at 35 mg/kg, respectively. Morphometric analysis on livers of trout administered 35 mg/kg for 3 weeks showed a 2.3-fold increase of peroxisomal volume density, as compared to control. This study demonstrates the induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout administered ciprofibrate, a known peroxisome proliferator in rodents.

  13. Postlarval muscle growth in fish: a DNA flow cytometric and morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfei, L; Maggi, F; Parvopassu, F; Bertoncello, G; De Vita, R

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of postlarval fish myotomal growth was investigated in trout (Salmo gairdneri) by means of morphometric and cytofluorometric analysis. The mechanism by which new fibres are added during postlarval growth (hyperplasia) is not fully understood. In histological cross sections these new fibres have a small diameter which give the muscle a "mosaic" appearance. One hypothesis suggested that they could be derived from the proliferative activity of satellite cells. DNA cytofluorometric analysis of nuclei suspensions obtained from trout white myotomal muscle during different developmental stages (eleutherembyronic; alevin; yearling and adult) showed a consistently low S-cytometric phase during all stage in which myofibres of small diameters were present. The percentage of such small fibres, determined by morphometric analysis, suggested that satellite cells are the proliferative population. In fact, their percentages, as determined by morphometric analysis in histological section, bear a linear relationship with the S-cytometric phase percent nuclei (R = 0.927). Only in adults (67 cm in size) there was a significant decrease in the S-cytometric phase. At this stage, in histological sections, the myotomal muscle no longer had a "mosaic" appearance because of the disappearance of the small fibres. It may, therefore, be supposed that in the cm 67 adult specimens, the proliferative population is entering the G0 phase. It is known, in fact, that muscle growth proceeds only by fibre hypertrophy in trout longer than 70 cm in length (Stickland, 1983).

  14. Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.

    2007-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ??g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  15. Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov., the redmouth (RM) bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, W.H.; Ross, A.J.; Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of the redmouth (RM) bacterium, one of the etiological agents of redmouth disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and certain other fishes, were characterized by means of their biochemical reactions, by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, and by determination of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratios in DNA. The DNA relatedness studies confirmed the fact that the RM bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and that they comprise a single species that is not closely related to any other species of Enterobacteriaceae. They are about 30% related to species of both Serratia and Yersinia. A comparison of the biochemical reactions of RM bacteria and serratiae indicated that there are many differences between these organisms and that biochemically the RM bacteria are most closely related to yersiniae. The G+C ratios of RM bacteria were approximated to be between 47.5 and 48.5% These values are similar to those of yersiniae but markedly different from those of serratiae. On the basis of their biochemical reactions and their G+C ratios, the RM bacteria are considered to be a new species of Yersinia, for which the name Yersinia ruckeri is proposed. Strain 2396-61 (= ATCC 29473) is designated the type strain of the species.

  16. Use of a Fish Transportation Barge for Increasing Returns of Steelhead Imprinted for Homing, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Jerrel R.

    1984-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine if transporting steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, smolts by barge from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to a release site in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam would result in increased returns of adults to the fishery and hatchery. Eight separately identifiable groups of about 30,000 steelhead each were marked and released in 1982. During 1983, over 251,000 smolts were marked - about 30,000 fish for each of four test lots (barged) and four control lots (released into the Clearwater River near the hatchery). The health and status of smoltification of the juvenile fish were monitored from March to the release date for each group. The fish sampled were considered to be in good health and well advanced in smoltification at release. Fish from the control release were recovered at dams and in the estuary along their migration route. Approximately 29% of the fish from the control release were transported from collector dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary) as part of the routine transportation program. The relatively large number of 1-ocean age adult steelhead (179) recovered at adult collector dams (Lower Granite, McNary, and Bonneville) and in the Indian fishery (Columbia River Zone 6) indicates a high survival of steelhead released as smolts in the spring of 1982. A large return of 2-ocean age adults is expected in 1984. 3 refs.

  17. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statler, David P.

    1988-05-01

    Dworshak Dam and Reservoir is a Corps of Engineers facility located on the North Fork Clearwater River 3.2 km upstream from the Mainstem Clearwater confluence. Since initial filling in 1971, conversion of 87 km of river habitat to a 6644 hectare impoundment has had a profound influence on resident fisheries. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative effort to study these impacts. The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka assessment is included in the IDFG agreement, and is not addressed in this report. This project pertains primarily to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and forage species. For the period November 1987 through February 1988, an estimated 4339 angler-hours were expended to catch 430 rainbow trout. An estimated 20 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, 4 smallmouth bass, and 4 suckers Catostomus spp. were also caught. Catch rates were generally poor through the period, at .091 fish per hour for all species combined (excluding kokanee). Shasta strain hatchery rainbow trout were dominant in the creel, comprising 53.9 percent of the catch, although this strain was last planted in the reservoir in June 1986. Bank anglers caught a higher percentage (93.5 percent) of the total catch of Shasta strain rainbows than Kamloops strain rainbows (33.3 percent). 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Epidemiología de la difilobotriasis en la cuenca del río Valdivia, Chile Epidemiologia de difílobotriase na bacia do rio Valdivia, Chile Epidemiology of diphyllobothriasis in the Valdivia River basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de marzo y octubre de 1987 fueron examinados 1295 personas de seis distritos ribereños de la cuenca del río Valdivia, determinándose un 1,2% de prevalencia de infección por Diphyllobothrium en los distritos de Riñihue y Las Huellas. Además, se comprobó un 5,3% y un 9,8% de prevalencia en perros de los distritos de Riñihue y Malihue, respectivamente, pero no se observó infección en gatos y cerdos. Los parásitos recuperados después del tratamiento fueron identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. La infección humana por D. latum en los distritos afectados se favorece por el consumo de peces ahumados o sometidos a cocción insuficiente. La investigación de 1450 peces (4 especies introducidas y 11 autóctonas capturados entre 1986-1987 en la cuenca del río Valdivia, demostró la existencia de plerocercoides de D. latum y/o Diphyllobothrium dendriticum en Salmo gairdneri y Salmo trutta, entre los peces introducidos, y en algunas especies autóctonas. La prevalencia e intensidad media en las infecciones de los peces así como el grado de agregación de las infrapoblaciones varía en los distintos sectores. Algunas especies de peces actuarían como huésped intermediario y otras como huéspedes paraténicos de Diphyllobothrium spp. en la cuenca del río Valdivia. Como medidas de control para la difilobotriasis en los distritos afectados se propone un mejoramiento de las condiciones de saneamiento básico, educación sanitaria y tratamiento de las personas infectadas.Foram examinadas 1.295 pessoas de seis localidades situadas às margens da bacia do rio Valdivia (Chile, encontrando-se uma prevalência de infecção por Diphyllobothrium igual a 1,2% em Riñihue e Las Huellas. Em cães a prevalência foi de 5,3% e e 9,8% em Riñihue e Malihue, respectivamente, não tendo sido observada infecção em gatos nem porcos. Os parasitas obtidos após tratamento foram identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. A infecção humana

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic salmon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon Salmo salar Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Salmo_salar_L.png Salmo_salar_NL.png Salmo_salar..._S.png Salmo_salar_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+sala...r&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NS ...

  20. Behavioural ecology of captive otters Lutra lutra in the Breeding Centre of the Natural Park of Ticino Valley (Piemonte Region, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fumagalli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted on a pair of otters (Lutra lutra housed in an enclosure of 1.64 ha, located within a wet wood in the Natural Park of the Ticino Valley (northern Italy, Piemonte region. This enclosure contained two ponds (0.2 and 0.45 ha with fairly good cover vegetation, where a fish biomass of 201.5 kg/ha, represented by 14 fish species, was assessed by electrofishing. Though the food supply for otter was fairly good, the animals were daily fed with 1.5 kg of chicks, meat or rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri. In order to evaluate the habitat selection of otters, the enclosure was divided into 15 environmental units (EU. Hunting, swimming and playing (exclusively in pair were the main behavioural activities and were preferentially performed close to the ponds' bank, where a thick cover occurred. Otters selected patches for foraging where fish was concentrated and particularly vulnerable to predation. The hunting impact in a given EU (defined as ratio between the number of prey caught in the EU and the total number of prey was correlated with the hunting time spent in the same EU. Habitat use evaluated by direct observations differed from that determined by considering the marking level (number of spraints and anal secretions. The consumption of the different fish species did not seem to be determined by their relative abundance. Perca fluviatilis was particularly selected. Riassunto Ecologia comportamentale della lontra Lutra lutra nel centro di studio del Parco Naturale della Valle del Ticino (Regione Piemonte - Lo studio è stato condotto su una coppia di lontra (Lutra lutra tenuta in un ampio recinto (1.64 ha, situato nel Parco Naturale della Valle del Ticino (Regione Piemonte, Provincia di Novara. L'area cintata è ritagliata all'interno di un bosco planiziale e comprende 2 bacini idrici (0,2 e 0,4 ha bordati da discreta copertura

  1. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For anti-Mullerian hormone and guanine nucleotide binding protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 expression changes in precocious males mirrored mature adults (November but for collagen 1A and beta-globin the pattern was more complex. Conclusions Expression changes in the fish brain during the process of precocious sexual maturation were small compared to those in the testes. Microarray analysis suggested down-regulation of housekeeping functions and up-regulation of a small number of specific processes. Transcriptional changes in the testes were much more pronounced with anti-Mullerian hormone playing a major role. Expression profiles for mature parr and maturing adult testes indicate subtle differences in gene expression between these two related groups.

  2. Candida utilis and Chlorella vulgaris counteract intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Grammes

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE. In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM, a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU, Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV. Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.

  3. Extraction and characterization of candidate bioactive compounds in different tissues from salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Mikalsen, S. O.; Joensen, H.

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in bioprospecting organisms from the aquatic environment to find novel bioactive compounds with health promoting or other functional properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate extracts from untreated and heat-treated salmon tissues for their radical scavenging activities...... in several fractions from different tissues but most pronounced in gills. One family was defined according to content of a specific amino acid sequence (PW). Three families were defined by the m/z value of the smallest compound reported in each family (219, 434 and 403). The three latter families did...... not contain standard unmodified amino acids, indicating peptides with modified amino acids or other kinds of molecules.Industrial relevance. Bioprospecting in fish tissue traditionally regarded as waste can lead to detection of novel natural bioactive compounds including peptides, which could have nutritional...

  4. Genetic monitoring of supportive breeding in brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.), using microsatellite DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Ruzzante, D.E.;

    2000-01-01

    Stocking with offspring of local wild fish, so-called supportive breeding, is often advocated as an alternative to stocking domesticated fish. However, it is important to ensure that supportive breeding does not result in inbreeding and loss of genetic variability. We analysed eight microsatellite...

  5. Uptake of yeast cells in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkka, Guro; Falk, Knut; Austbø, Lars; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2014-11-01

    The intestinal mucosa is an important port of entry for many pathogens. Information of antigen uptake mechanisms is essential to understand and to possibly prevent infections. In teleosts, several studies have aimed at investigating particulate uptake in the gastrointestinal system that seems to vary dependent on fish species and antigen. In the present study, particulate uptake in the Atlantic salmon intestine by anal intubation of yeast cells has been investigated. In the anal intubated fish, yeast were found in the epithelium close to nuclei of macrophage-like cells and inside large mononuclear cells in the intestinal lumen, indicating uptake and possible transport of large antigen particles over the epithelium by macrophage-like cells.

  6. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore inf...

  7. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to light, infrasound and sound stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bui

    Full Text Available Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331 ± 364 g to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low or no light (control. Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz, a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.

  8. Estuarine predation on radiotagged wild and domesticated sea trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, C.; Pedersen, Stig; Pedersen, Michael Ingemann

    2001-01-01

    Avian predation on emigrating wild and domesticated sea trout smolts was investigated in a fjord in the western Baltic Sea. In April 1997, 50 domesticated and 50 wild smolts were intraperitoneally tagged with radio-transmitters and released in a small coastal stream. Predation was recorded by sig...... increase in postsmolt mortality may be found also in moderately saline environments (20-23 ppt)....

  9. Increased diversity of egg-associated bacteria on brown trout (Salmo trutta) at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Rogivue, Aude; Schütz, Frédéric; Fumagalli, Luca; Wedekind, Claus

    2015-11-27

    The taxonomic composition of egg-associated microbial communities can play a crucial role in the development of fish embryos. In response, hosts increasingly influence the composition of their associated microbial communities during embryogenesis, as concluded from recent field studies and laboratory experiments. However, little is known about the taxonomic composition and the diversity of egg-associated microbial communities within ecosystems; e.g., river networks. We sampled late embryonic stages of naturally spawned brown trout at nine locations within two different river networks and applied 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to describe their bacterial communities. We found no evidence for a significant isolation-by-distance effect on the composition of bacterial communities, and no association between neutral genetic divergence of fish host (based on 11 microsatellites) and phylogenetic distances of the composition of their associated bacterial communities. We characterized core bacterial communities on brown trout eggs and compared them to corresponding water samples with regard to bacterial composition and its presumptive function. Bacterial diversity was positively correlated with water temperature at the spawning locations. We discuss this finding in the context of the increased water temperatures that have been recorded during the last 25 years in the study area.

  10. A novel totivirus and piscine reovirus (PRV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nederbragt Alexander J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS is a severe disease affecting large farmed Atlantic salmon. Mortality often appears without prior clinical signs, typically shortly prior to slaughter. We recently reported the finding and the complete genomic sequence of a novel piscine reovirus (PRV, which is associated with another cardiac disease in Atlantic salmon; heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI. In the present work we have studied whether PRV or other infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of CMS. Results Using high throughput sequencing on heart samples from natural outbreaks of CMS and from fish experimentally challenged with material from fish diagnosed with CMS a high number of sequence reads identical to the PRV genome were identified. In addition, a sequence contig from a novel totivirus could also be constructed. Using RT-qPCR, levels of PRV in tissue samples were quantified and the totivirus was detected in all samples tested from CMS fish but not in controls. In situ hybridization supported this pattern indicating a possible association between CMS and the novel piscine totivirus. Conclusions Although causality for CMS in Atlantic salmon could not be proven for either of the two viruses, our results are compatible with a hypothesis where, in the experimental challenge studied, PRV behaves as an opportunist whereas the totivirus might be more directly linked with the development of CMS.

  11. Lice pressure from salmon farms on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta in a Norwegian fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are external parasites on salmonids in the marine environment. However, during recent years, salmon lice abundance has increased due to the presence of salmon farming. Scientific studies shows that salmon farming increases the abundance of lice in the marine habitat and that salmon lice in the most intensively farmed areas have negatively affected wild fish populations. The present study assesses the spatiotemporal distribution of salmon lice infestations on wild sea trout population in the Romsdalsfjord region (Norway, and the potential relationship with fish-farming activity and environmental parameters in this area. Salmon lice at farms varied among localities or farming areas, although infestation levels were under the safety established thresholds (max: 0.5 adult females per fish in most of the cases. However, salmon farms with these levels might produce and release millions of copepods, potentially infecting wild salmonids. In accordance, low lice loads were recorded on wild sea trout captured in areas with low farming activity, while higher mean loads were recorded in areas with higher farming activity. A clear seasonal pattern and a positive correlation between lice on sea trout and sea water temperature were observed throughout the study period. The estimated production of copepods at farms and the mobile lice counted on wild sea trout one month later were correlated, suggesting the potential use of lice monitoring on sea trout as a proxy indicator of salmon lice infestation risks.

  12. A novel betaproteobacterial agent of gill epitheliocystis in seawater farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R Toenshoff

    Full Text Available Epitheliocystis, a disease characterised by cytoplasmic bacterial inclusions (cysts in the gill and less commonly skin epithelial cells, has been reported in many marine and freshwater fish species and may be associated with mortality. Previously, molecular and ultrastructural analyses have exclusively associated members of the Chlamydiae with such inclusions. Here we investigated a population of farmed Atlantic salmon from the west coast of Norway displaying gill epitheliocystis. Although 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis', previously reported to be present in such cysts, was detected by PCR in most of the gill samples analysed, this bacterium was found to be a rare member of the gill microbiota, and not associated with the observed cysts as demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization assays. The application of a broad range 16 S rRNA targeted PCR assay instead identified a novel betaproteobacterium as an abundant member of the gill microbiota. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that this bacterium, tentatively classified as 'Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola', was the cyst-forming agent in these samples. While histology and ultrastructure of 'Ca. B. cysticola' cysts revealed forms similar to the reticulate and intermediate bodies described in earlier reports from salmon in seawater, no elementary bodies typical of the chlamydial developmental cycle were observed. In conclusion, this study identified a novel agent of epitheliocystis in sea-farmed Atlantic salmon and demonstrated that these cysts can be caused by bacteria phylogenetically distinct from the Chlamydiae.

  13. Forensic identification of severely degraded Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvin Sussie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaculture is a globally important and rapidly growing industry. It contributes positively to the economy and sustainability of coastal communities, but it is not without regulatory challenges. These challenges are diverse, and may include identification of fish discarded in an illegal manner, biological discharge from fish ensilage tanks, and partially destroyed or processed tissues. Robust genetic tools are required by management authorities to address these challenges. In this paper, we describe nine species-specific primer sets amplifying very short DNA fragments within the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI gene, which were designed to permit diagnostic identification of degraded DNA from two of the most commonly farmed salmonids in Europe and North America. Results Of the nine designed primer sets, six were found to be species-specific (four Atlantic salmon, two rainbow trout, whereas the remaining three sets (two Atlantic salmon, one rainbow trout also amplified a product from other, closely related, salmonid DNA templates. Screening of DNA templates from 11 other non-salmonid native fish species did not produce PCR products with any of the primer sets. Specific tests confirmed the ability of these markers to identify Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout tissues in treated food products, chemically treated ensilage waste and fillets left to degrade in saltwater for up to 31 days at 15°C. Importantly, these markers provided diagnostic identification in cases where other genetic methods failed because of degraded DNA quality. Conclusions Results from this study demonstrate that amplification of very short DNA fragments using species-specific primers represents a robust and versatile method to create cheap and efficient genetic tests that can be implemented in a range of forensic applications. These markers will provide fishery, aquaculture and food regulatory authorities with a method to investigate and enforce regulations within these industries.

  14. Sensory and chemical changes in farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.B.; Jensen, Benny

    1998-01-01

    during storage. The content of lipid hydroperoxides and free fatty acids also increased during storage, and the changes were fastest in salmon stored at -10 degrees C. A decrease in highly unsaturated fatty acids was observed in salmon stored at -10 and -20 degrees C. Peroxide values and the content...... taste, and bitter taste in the fillets. This was shown by mixed model analysis of variance and canonical variates analysis. Volatile lipid peroxidation products such as aldehydes and ketones were identified and quantified in the salmon. For most of the peroxidation products the concentration increased...

  15. Forensic identification of severely degraded Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Sussie; Glover, Kevin A; Sørvik, Anne Ge; Seliussen, Bjørghild B; Taggart, John B

    2010-11-03

    Aquaculture is a globally important and rapidly growing industry. It contributes positively to the economy and sustainability of coastal communities, but it is not without regulatory challenges. These challenges are diverse, and may include identification of fish discarded in an illegal manner, biological discharge from fish ensilage tanks, and partially destroyed or processed tissues. Robust genetic tools are required by management authorities to address these challenges. In this paper, we describe nine species-specific primer sets amplifying very short DNA fragments within the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI) gene, which were designed to permit diagnostic identification of degraded DNA from two of the most commonly farmed salmonids in Europe and North America. Of the nine designed primer sets, six were found to be species-specific (four Atlantic salmon, two rainbow trout), whereas the remaining three sets (two Atlantic salmon, one rainbow trout) also amplified a product from other, closely related, salmonid DNA templates. Screening of DNA templates from 11 other non-salmonid native fish species did not produce PCR products with any of the primer sets. Specific tests confirmed the ability of these markers to identify Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout tissues in treated food products, chemically treated ensilage waste and fillets left to degrade in saltwater for up to 31 days at 15°C. Importantly, these markers provided diagnostic identification in cases where other genetic methods failed because of degraded DNA quality. Results from this study demonstrate that amplification of very short DNA fragments using species-specific primers represents a robust and versatile method to create cheap and efficient genetic tests that can be implemented in a range of forensic applications. These markers will provide fishery, aquaculture and food regulatory authorities with a method to investigate and enforce regulations within these industries.

  16. Nutritional and environmental impacts on skin and mucus condition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linda Beate

    2015-01-01

    The skin and associated mucus layer of Atlantic salmon constitutes its first line of defence against the aqueous environment. Through intensive farming, a range of stressors including both mechanical and environmental factors are known to have an impact on the skin condition of fish. Damaged skin can serve as a portal of entry for primary pathogens and secondary infections. Two of the current main problems in the salmon farming industry are skin related: ectoparasitism with sea...

  17. Pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, M A; McLoughlin, M F; Rice, D A; Kennedy, D G

    1994-12-01

    A study was instigated to investigate the histopathological and clinical pathological lesions associated with a naturally occurring pancreas disease (PD) outbreak in farmed Atlantic salmon. An attempt was made to reduce the severity of PD and associated lesions by altering the antioxidative and peroxidative substrates in the diets. The results do not support the hypothesis that PD leads to a vitamin E deficiency which induces a myopathy. PD was not associated with a reduction in tissue vitamin E concentrations. Despite high tissue vitamin E concentrations, pancreatic lesions and cardiac and skeletal myopathy occurred almost simultaneously. Severe myopathy appeared to be associated with high mortality. Dietary vitamin E concentrations > 500 mg/kg did not increase plasma and muscle vitamin E concentrations, which appear to be saturated. Liver concentrations were also high. However, differing concentrations of dietary vitamin E and fat were associated with differing mortality rates.

  18. Vitamins C and E interact in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, K; Waagbø, R; Berge, R K; Lie, O

    1997-01-01

    A two way regression study was performed to investigate the interactions between vitamins C and E, and the influence of dietary vitamin C on the development of vitamin E deficiency in first feeding Atlantic salmon. The fish were fed three levels of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg), each with six levels of ascorbate monophosphate (0, 7.5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg ascorbic acid equivalents). Vitamin C protected the fish against vitamin E deficiency in a dose dependent manner, as seen from the data on growth, mortality, hematology, and lipid oxidation in the liver, indicated by the concentration of malondialdehyde. Vitamin C did not influence the tissue levels of vitamin E, except in vitamin C deficiency, which induced a large drop in liver vitamin E concentration. The liver level of vitamin C increased in response to supplementation of both vitamins. The results indicate two different interaction mechanisms: a synergistic effect of simultaneous protection of the water and lipid phases against oxidation, and regeneration of vitamin E from the vitamin E radical by ascorbic acid.

  19. Vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamylcarboxylase in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krossøy, Christel; Lock, Erik-Jan; Ørnsrud, Robin

    2010-09-01

    Due to problems with bone deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon, there is a growing interest in the possible involvement of vitamin K in normal bone development, and sensitive biomarkers for evaluating vitamin K status are therefore needed. The vitamin K-dependent (VKD) enzyme gamma-glutamylcarboxylase (GGCX, EC 6.4.x.x) requires vitamin K as a cofactor for its post-translational modification of glutamic acid (Glu) residues to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues in VKD proteins, and is required for their function in haemostasis and bone metabolism. The present study was designed to evaluate the enzyme assay for GGCX activity in isolated liver microsomes and its distribution in the tissues of Atlantic salmon. The effect of KH(2) and menadione on the GGCX activity in salmon liver was also compared. Results from the present study show a widespread tissue distribution and expression of GGCX in Atlantic salmon. The GGCX activity and ggcx expression in all bony tissues examined imply the presence of vitamin K, and suggest the involvement of vitamin K in bone metabolism of Atlantic salmon. We propose the GGCX assay as a sensitive marker for vitamin K status, and confirm that menadione does not work as a cofactor for GGCX in Atlantic salmon liver.

  20. Extraction and characterization of candidate bioactive compounds in different tissues from salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Skanderup Falkenberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. There is an interest in bioprospecting organisms from the aquatic environment to find novel bioactive compounds with health promoting or other functional properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate extracts from  untreated and heat-treated salmon tissues for their radical scavenging activities and for their ability to inhibit activity of the proteases angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4. In vitro assays were used to detect these activities and the corresponding candidate bioactive compounds were characterized by LC-MS/MS.Radical scavenging activity was detected in <10kDa extracts of gills, belly flap muscle and skin with EC50 values of 39, 82 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. No ACE or DPP-4 inhibiting activity could be detected. LC-MS/MS analysis of dominating compounds in active fractions from size exclusion chromatography showed that families of related compounds were found in several fractions from different tissues but most pronounced in gills. One family was defined according to content of a specific amino acid sequence (PW. Three families were defined by the m/z value of the smallest compound reported in each family (219, 434 and 403. The three latter families did not contain standard unmodified amino acids, indicating peptides with modified amino acids or other kinds of molecules.Industrial relevance. Bioprospecting in fish tissue traditionally regarded as waste can lead to detection of novel natural bioactive compounds including peptides, which could have nutritional, pharmaceutical or other functional value and be used in health and functional foods, thus increasing the value adding of secondary marine products. A number of  naturally occurring antimicrobial  peptides have been characterized from fish skin and gills, such as piscidins, but these and other fish tissues may contain numerous other compounds with bioactive properties. Such compounds could be extracted by the subsection of the fish industry that processes marine secondary products and further developed to commercial products. Thus, the identification of novel bioactive compounds could be utilized by the pharmaceutical and biotech industry to develop new products.Keywords. Salmon tissue; natural compounds; radical scavenging; marine by-products

  1. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Seasonal development and seawater acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Tom O; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Kiilerich, Pia

    2008-01-01

    between strains, or any increase during smoltification. Gill IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA levels increased in anadromous salmon during smoltification, with no changes observed in landlocked fish. Gill PRLR mRNA levels remained stable in both strains during spring. Plasma cortisol levels...

  2. Autopolyploidy genome duplication preserves other ancient genome duplications in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, William S.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonids (e.g. Atlantic salmon, Pacific salmon, and trouts) have a long legacy of genome duplication. In addition to three ancient genome duplications that all teleosts are thought to share, salmonids have had one additional genome duplication. We explored a methodology for untangling these duplications from each other to better understand them in Atlantic salmon. In this methodology, homeologous regions (paralogous/duplicated genomic regions originating from a whole genome duplication) from the most recent genome duplication were assumed to have duplicated genes at greater density and have greater sequence similarity. This assumption was used to differentiate duplicated gene pairs in Atlantic salmon that are either from the most recent genome duplication or from earlier duplications. From a comparison with multiple vertebrate species, it is clear that Atlantic salmon have retained more duplicated genes from ancient genome duplications than other vertebrates--often at higher density in the genome and containing fewer synonymous mutations. It may be that polysomic inheritance is the mechanism responsible for maintaining ancient gene duplicates in salmonids. Polysomic inheritance (when multiple chromosomes pair during meiosis) is thought to be relatively common in salmonids compared to other vertebrate species. These findings illuminate how genome duplications may not only increase the number of duplicated genes, but may also be involved in the maintenance of them from previous genome duplications as well. PMID:28241055

  3. Effect of selective breeding on collagen properties of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H M; Jacq, C; Montero, M P; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Borderías, A J; Mørkøre, T

    2016-01-01

    Collagen content and properties of skeletal muscle were studied among selected (FP) and unselected (WP) Atlantic salmon lines that were reared together to avoid any environmental effects. The FP group had significantly higher body weight at harvesting, softer texture and lower connective tissue yield compared with the WP group. The relative collagen fractions (acid, pepsin, insoluble) were similar, but the FP group had a greater abundance of amino acids involved in collagen triple helix conformation and stabilisation (Gly, Pro, Hyp and Hyl), whilst the Lys content was greater for the WP group, indicating a more aggregated collagen. The connective tissue denaturation temperature was lower for the FP group, coinciding with a lower degree of collagen self-assembly and intermolecular-crosslinks. It is concluded that selective breeding has resulted in lower connective tissue stability of Atlantic salmon fillets.

  4. Improved recapture rate of vaccinated sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, K.; Larsen, J.L.; Therkildsen, Birgit

    2001-01-01

    vaccine-components and the third group was used as a non-vaccinated control. One month after vaccination these groups were allocated to three separate net-pens located 500 m from the coastline of the island. After 4 months in the net-pens, 1000 fish from each cage were tagged with Carlin-tags below...

  5. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on in vitro hormonal and biotransformation responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne S; Arukwe, Augustine

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the biocide tributyltin (TBT) and its metabolites affect the hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways in aquatic species are not well understood. In this study hepatocytes isolated from salmon were used to evaluate the mechanistical effects of TBT on fish hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways. Cells were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 5 microM TBT and samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, or 48 h following exposure. Gene expression patterns were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated enzyme activities were evaluated by ethoxyresorufin, benzyloxyresorufin, and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD, BROD, and PROD, respectively) activity assays. Generally, exposure of hepatocytes to 1 microM (at 48 h) and 5 microM TBT (at 12, 24, and 48 h) consistently produced reductions in all mRNA species investigated. TBT produced significant decreases of vitellogen (Vtg) expression at 48 h and modified the expression patterns of estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta) that were dependent on time and TBT concentration. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, TBT produced differential expression patterns that were dependent on exposure time and concentration for all salmonid AhR2 isoforms (AhR2alpha, AhR2beta, AhR2delta, and AhR2gamma). For CYP1A1, CYP3A, AhRR, and Arnt mRNA, TBT produced exposure- and time-specific modulations. Catalytic CYP activities showed that BROD activity increased in an apparent concentration-specific manner in cells exposed to TBT for 12 h. Interestingly, EROD activity showed a TBT concentration-dependent increase at 24 h and PROD at 12 and 48 h of exposure. In general our data show that TBT differentially modulated hormonal and biotransformation responses in the salmon in vitro system. The apparent and consistent decrease of the studied responses with time in 1 and 5 microM exposed hepatocytes suggest a possible transcription inhibitory effect of TBT.

  6. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Seasonal development and seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Kiilerich, P.; Bjornsson, B. Th; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, S.D.; Stefansson, S.O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares developmental changes in plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and cortisol, and mRNA levels of their receptors and the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in the gill of anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon during the spring parr-smolt transformation (smoltification) period and following four days and one month seawater (SW) acclimation. Plasma GH and gill GH receptor (GHR) mRNA levels increased continuously during the spring smoltification period in the anadromous, but not in landlocked salmon. There were no differences in plasma IGF-I levels between strains, or any increase during smoltification. Gill IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA levels increased in anadromous salmon during smoltification, with no changes observed in landlocked fish. Gill PRLR mRNA levels remained stable in both strains during spring. Plasma cortisol levels in anadromous salmon increased 5-fold in May and June, but not in landlocked salmon. Gill glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were elevated in both strains at the time of peak smoltification in anadromous salmon, while mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA levels remained stable. Only anadromous salmon showed an increase of gill 11??-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11??-HSD2) mRNA levels in May. GH and gill GHR mRNA levels increased in both strains following four days of SW exposure in mid-May, whereas only the anadromous salmon displayed elevated plasma GH and GHR mRNA after one month in SW. Plasma IGF-I increased after four days in SW in both strains, decreasing in both strains after one month in SW. Gill IGF-I mRNA levels were only increased in landlocked salmon after 4 days in SW. Gill IGF-IR mRNA levels in SW did not differ from FW levels in either strain. Gill PRLR mRNA did not change after four days of SW exposure, and decreased in both strains after one month in SW. Plasma cortisol levels did not change following SW exposure in either strain. Gill GR, 11??-HSD2 and MR mRNA levels increased after four days in SW in both strains, whereas only the anadromous strain maintained elevated gill GR and 11??-HSD2 mRNA levels after one month in SW. The results indicate that hormones and receptors of the GH and cortisol axes are present at significantly lower levels during spring development and SW acclimation in landlocked relative to anadromous salmon. These findings suggest that attenuation of GH and cortisol axes may, at least partially, result in reduced preparatory upregulation of key gill ion-secretory proteins, possibly a result of reduced selection pressure for marine adaptations in landlocked salmon. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth Parameter of Wild and Selected Strains of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) on Two Experimental Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic salmon parr from Penobscot (wild) and St. John’s River (selected) strains were cultured in 0.265m3 tanks filled with 2-3 ppt salinity well water and connected to a common bio-filter system. Salmon parr were stocked at 100 fish/tank and fed one of two experimental diets in a 2 x 2 factorial...

  8. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon.

  9. Determination of shelf life of sous vide salmon (Salmo salard) based on sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

    2009-10-01

    Sous vide technology permits precooked dishes of high sensory and nutritional quality to be obtained with a longer shelf life than is possible using other cooking-cooling methods. Salmon portions (200 g; 0.5, w:w; greased with olive oil) were par-roasted (300 degrees C/3 min), cooked using sous vide technology (80 degrees C/43 min), and maintained in anaerobic conditions at 2 degrees C for 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 25 d. At each control day, Enterobacteriaceae counts were made and the attributes of sensory spoilage were determined (3 visual, 2 odor, 2 flavor, and 3 texture attributes) by a panel of trained judges. A loss of smell, taste, color, and juiciness was detected during storage, along with the appearance of off-odors and off-flavors. The shelf life of the sous vide salmon based on sensory analysis was established at 18 d.

  10. Histological and stereological characterization of brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) trunk kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Albina D; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Malhão, Fernanda; Franquinho, Filipa; Monteiro, Rogério A F; Rocha, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The large variability in kidney morphology among fish makes it difficult to build a "universal" model on its function and structure. Therefore, a morphological study of brown trout trunk kidney was performed, considering potential seasonal and sex effects. Three-year-old specimens of both sexes were collected at four stages of their reproductive cycle. Kidney was processed for light and electron microscopy. The relative volumes of renal components, such as renal corpuscles and different nephron tubules, were estimated by stereological methods. Qualitatively, the general nephron structure of brown trout was similar to that described for other glomerular teleost species. Quantitatively, however, differences in the relative volume of some renal components were detected between sexes and among seasons. Particularly, highest values of vacuolized tubules and new growing tubules were observed after spawning, being more relevant in females. Despite seasonal changes, more linear correlations were found between those parameters and the reno-somatic index than the gonado-somatic index. Thus, we verified that some brown trout renal components undergo sex dependent seasonal variations, suggesting a morphological adaptation of the components to accomplish physiological needs. These findings constitute a baseline for launching studies to know which factors govern the morphological variations and their functional consequences.

  11. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. as a Marine Functional Source of Gamma-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Menoyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma tocopherol (gT exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the transfer of dietary gT into salmon. To this end, fish were fed a diet supplemented with 170 ppm gT for 16 weeks whereby alpha tocopherol levels were adjusted to 190 ppm in this and the control diet. Feeding gT-rich diets resulted in a three-fold increase in gT concentrations in the liver and fillet compared to non-gT-supplemented controls. Tissue alpha tocopherol levels were not decreased indicating no antagonistic interaction between gamma- and alpha tocopherol in salmon. The concentration of total omega 3 fatty acids slightly increased in response to dietary gT. Furthermore, dietary gT significantly decreased malondialdehyde in the fillet, determined as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. In the liver of gT fed salmon we observed an overall down-regulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Additionally, gT improved the antioxidant capacity by up-regulating Gpx4a gene expression in the pyloric caeca. We suggest that Atlantic salmon may provide a marine functional source capable of enriching gT for human consumption.

  12. Spawning migration of sea trout ( Salmo trutta (L)) in a Danish river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels

    1998-01-01

    to stay on the southern side of the main river, and Males spent significantly more time of the freshwater stay in spawning tributaries than females. Most of the trout ascended the main spawning tributary, the River Lillea, where none passed a weir, 2 km upstream the confluence, despite the presence...

  13. Jellyfish as vectors of bacterial disease for farmed salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Hugh W; Delannoy, Christian M J; Hay, Stephen; Nicolson, James; Sutherland, David; Crumlish, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Swarms or blooms of jellyfish are increasingly problematic and can result in high mortality rates of farmed fish. Small species of jellyfish, such as Phialella quadrata (13 mm in diameter), are capable of passing through the mesh of sea cages and being sucked into the mouth of fish during respiration. Results of the current study show that the initial damage to gills of farmed Atlantic salmon, likely produced by nematocyst-derived toxins from the jellyfish, was compounded by secondary bacterial infection with Tenacibaculum maritimum. Results also demonstrate that these filamentous bacteria were present on the mouth of the jellyfish and that their DNA sequences were almost identical to those of bacteria present on the salmon gills. This suggests that the bacterial lesions were not the result of an opportunistic infection of damaged tissue, as previously thought. Instead, P. quadrata is probably acting as a vector for this particular bacterial pathogen, and it is the first time that evidence to support such a link has been presented. No prior literature describing the presence of bacteria associated with jellyfish, except studies about their decay, could be found. It is not known if all jellyfish of this and other species carry similar bacteria or the relationship to each other. Their source, the role they play under other circumstances, and indeed whether the jellyfish were themselves diseased are also not known. The high proteolytic capabilities of T. maritimum mean that partially digested gill tissues were readily available to the jellyfish, which rely heavily on intracellular digestion for their nutrition.

  14. Vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effects in brown trout, Salmo trutta: laboratory and field investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Hansen, Pernille R; Larsen, Katrine J; Erratico, Claudio; Korsgaard, Bodil; Holbech, Henrik

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of juvenile brown trout towards estrogenic chemicals (17beta-estradiol [E2], estrone [E1], 17alpha-ethinylestradiol [EE2], 4-tert-octylphenol [OP], and n-butylparaben [BP]) was tested in laboratory experiments with plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations as endpoints. Vitellogenin concentrations were also assessed in juvenile brown trout collected in streams affected by agricultural runoff and discharges from scattered houses in the open land. In the laboratory, juvenile brown trout were exposed to the chemicals in flow-through tanks for 7 to 12 d and concentration-response relationships for the induction of vitellogenin synthesis were obtained. The actual exposure concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The median plasma vitellogenin concentration in first year control brown trout reared in recirculated groundwater was 165 ng/ml with 783 ng/ml as the highest value. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for vitellogenin induction (based on plasma concentrations) were 3.7 ng EE2/L, 15 ng E2/L, 88 ng E1/L, 68 microg BP/L, and 7 microg OP/L. Median effective concentrations derived from liver vitellogenin concentrations were similar. The 166 brown trout caught in the field were mainly first and second year fish and a few third year fish. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations were below 1000 ng/L in 146 of the fish, between 1000 ng/L and 4234 ng/L in 19 fish and 5.3 x 10(6) ng/L in one male fish. Vitellogenin concentrations did not differ between first and second year fish, but were elevated in third year fish. The data may indicate that juvenile (<2 years) trout with plasma vitellogenin concentrations above 1000 ng/ml have had their vitellogenin synthesis induced by exposure to estrogens in the environment. Plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations were closely correlated in brown trout with elevated vitellogenin concentrations. It is noteworthy, however, that exposure to synthetic estrogens (EE2, BP, and OP) resulted in higher liver concentrations (for the same plasma concentration) than exposure to the natural estrogens E1 and E2.

  15. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-01-01

    In stream-spawning salmonid fishes there is a considerable variation in the timing of when fry leave the spawning nests and establish a feeding territory. The timing of emergence from spawning nests appears to be related to behavioural and physiological traits, e.g. early emerging fish are bolder...

  16. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  17. Aromatase activity in brain and pituitary of immature and mature atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, E.; Borg, B.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Brain homogenates from Atlantic salmon parr converted tritiated androstenedione to testosterone, estrone, and 17β-estradiol. The formation of estrogens was markedly higher in homogenates of whole brains from mature parr males than from immature parr males. The highest estrogen synthesis was found in

  18. Extraction and characterization of naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2011-01-01

    is therefore to extract and identify naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from salmon. A number of aqueous extracts were made from gills, skin and belly flap. In order to preserve the bioactivity of the peptides mild extraction procedures as acidic, basic and aqueous solutions were...... number of bio-components such as bioactive peptides for this purpose. Tissue and proteins from e.g. fish gills, skin and viscera could be a new source of peptides that could have a nutritional and pharmaceutical value, and be used in health and functional foods and thereby increasing the value adding...... of secondary marine products. Only few naturally occurring bioactive peptides have been characterized such as the antimicrobial polypeptide piscidines from gills. It is therefore hypothesized, that fish tissue also contains numerous other peptides with other bioactive properties. The approach in this project...

  19. Lysine intake affects gene expression of anabolic hormones in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevrøy, E M; El-Mowafi, A; Taylor, R G; Olsvik, P A; Norberg, B; Espe, M

    2007-05-15

    Nutritional factors influence regulation of the growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in fish, but so far there are no published studies describing how single indispensable amino acids influence these systems. Therefore, the present study aimed to test whether lysine (Lys) intake at low (LL=2.85 g/16 gN), medium (ML=4.91 g/16 gN) and high levels (HL=9.19 g/16 gN) affected the expression of genes related to the GH-IGF system (i.e. GH receptor, GH-R, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein 1, IGFBP-1, IGF-I receptor IGF-IR) in Atlantic salmon during seawater growth phase. Salmon fed the HL diet significantly up-regulated hepatic IGF-I mRNA level by a factor of 2.2 as compared to those with medium Lys intake. In addition a significant up-regulation of 2.7-fold in muscle IGF-II mRNA was present. Low Lys intake decreased the nitrogen deposition and muscle protein accretion in fish and significantly down-regulated hepatic IGFBP-1 as well as muscle GH-R and IGF-II, as compared to those fed the ML diet. mRNA of IGF-IR on the other hand was not affected by Lys intake. High Lys intake resulted in a 7-fold up-regulation of muscle IGF-II mRNA level as compared to low Lys intake, and thus might be an important local anabolic regulator in fast muscle tissue. The single indispensable amino acid Lys indeed affected signalling through the genes of IGF-I, IGFBP-1 in hepatic tissue and GH-R, IGF-II in fast muscle in Atlantic salmon. Concomitantly the higher Lys intake increased nitrogen deposition to a certain level.

  20. Genomic organization of duplicated major histocompatibility complex class I regions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously identified associations between major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and resistance towards bacterial and viral pathogens in Atlantic salmon. To evaluate if only MHC or also closely linked genes contributed to the observed resistance we ventured into sequencing of the duplicated MHC class I regions of Atlantic salmon. Results Nine BACs covering more than 500 kb of the two duplicated MHC class I regions of Atlantic salmon were sequenced and the gene organizations characterized. Both regions contained the proteasome components PSMB8, PSMB9, PSMB9-like and PSMB10 in addition to the transporter for antigen processing TAP2, as well as genes for KIFC1, ZBTB22, DAXX, TAPBP, BRD2, COL11A2, RXRB and SLC39A7. The IA region contained the recently reported MHC class I Sasa-ULA locus residing approximately 50 kb upstream of the major Sasa-UBA locus. The duplicated class IB region contained an MHC class I locus resembling the rainbow trout UCA locus, but although transcribed it was a pseudogene. No other MHC class I-like genes were detected in the two duplicated regions. Two allelic BACs spanning the UBA locus had 99.2% identity over 125 kb, while the IA region showed 82.5% identity over 136 kb to the IB region. The Atlantic salmon IB region had an insert of 220 kb in comparison to the IA region containing three chitin synthase genes. Conclusion We have characterized the gene organization of more than 500 kb of the two duplicated MHC class I regions in Atlantic salmon. Although Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are closely related, the gene organization of their IB region has undergone extensive gene rearrangements. The Atlantic salmon has only one class I UCA pseudogene in the IB region while trout contains the four MHC UCA, UDA, UEA and UFA class I loci. The large differences in gene content and most likely function of the salmon and trout class IB region clearly argues that sequencing of salmon will not necessarily provide information relevant for trout and vice versa.

  1. Extraction and characterization of naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2011-01-01

    (Free Radical Scavenging assay). A number of extracts showed high ACE inhibiting and anti-oxidative activity. The extracts were then size fractionated by ultrafiltration using a 10 kDa filter, and relevant fractions below 10 kDa from gills, skin and belly flap were further fractionated by gel...... number of bio-components such as bioactive peptides for this purpose. Tissue and proteins from e.g. fish gills, skin and viscera could be a new source of peptides that could have a nutritional and pharmaceutical value, and be used in health and functional foods and thereby increasing the value adding...... is therefore to extract and identify naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from salmon. A number of aqueous extracts were made from gills, skin and belly flap. In order to preserve the bioactivity of the peptides mild extraction procedures as acidic, basic and aqueous solutions were...

  2. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Richland and Wapato Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1987 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Abernethy, C.Scott; Lusty, E.William; Wampler, Sally J.

    1988-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of new fish screening facilities at the Richland and Wapato canals in south-central Washington State. The screen integrity tests at the Richland Screens indicated that 100% of fall chinook salmon fry (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released in front of the screens were prevented from entering the canal behind the screens. Our estimate is based on a 61% catch efficiency for control fish planted behind the screens. At the Wapato Canal, we estimated that between 3% and 4% of the test fish were either impinged on the screen surface and passed over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based on a greater than 90% capture of control fish released in front of the screens. At the Wapato Screens, we estimated that 0.8% of steelhead smolts (Salmo gairdneri) and 1.4% of spring chinook salmon smolts released during low canal flow tests wee descaled. During full canal flow tests, 1.6% of the steelhead and 3.1% of the spring chinook salmon released were descaled. The fish return pipe at the Wapato Canal was tested: the estimate of descaled test fish wa not different from the estimate of descaled control fish. The time required for fish to exit from the Wapato Screen forebay varied with species and with canal flow. During low canal flows, 43.2% of steelhead and 61.6% of spring chinook salmon smolts released at the trash racks were captured in the fish return within 96 hr. 11 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B. (Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise, ID (USA)

    1988-04-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  4. ANALYSE DE LA VARIABILITÉ DE LA CROISSANCE D'UNE POPULATION DE TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS UN TORRENT PYRÉNÉEN. GROWTH VARIABILITY ANALYSIS OF A BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. POPULATION IN A PYRENEAN MOUNTAIN STREAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAGARRIGUE T.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La population de truite commune de la Neste d'Oueil, sous - affluent pyrénéen de la Garonne, a été suivie entre juillet 1996 et mars 1999. Durant 2 ans et 9 mois, 9 échantillonnages ont eu lieu en février-mars, juillet et septembre sur 2 secteurs de rivière, afin de suivre l'évolution saisonnière de la croissance, de la densité totale et de la biomasse totale en truites communes. Parallèlement à l'étude de la population, 652 truites communes d'âge compris entre 1+ et 6+ ans, pour des tailles comprises entre 100 et 290 mm, ont été marquées en mars 1998 par implants visibles numérotés afin de suivre l'évolution de la croissance individuelle. Les taux de recapture entre campagne ont varié de 19.5 à 74 %, suivant la saison considérée. La croissance des truites communes présente une forte variabilité saisonnière, validée par le marquage. Elle est quasiment nulle, avec des pertes de poids pour les individus d'âge > 1+, en automne et en hiver, en raison de températures rigoureuses et d'un probable effet de la reproduction. Elle se réalise quasi exclusivement au printemps, avant d'atteindre l'optimum thermique de croissance. Elle est très faible en période estivale, malgré les conditions thermiques optimales. En été, le ralentissement de la croissance semble résulter de l'action conjuguée de la maturation gonadique, de la saturation de la capacité d'accueil du milieu physique et de la compétition intra-spécifique maximale à cette période du fait i de l'arrivée probable dans le cours principal d'individus 1+ et 2+ dévalants des affluents et ii de la diminution de la "quantité et de la qualité" de l'habitat physique à l'étiage régulant l'accessibilité à la ressource trophique potentiellement disponible abondante en densité mais constituée de très petites proies, peu rentables énergétiquement. Le rôle de la croissance dans la dynamique de la population de truite commune de la Neste d’Oueil est discuté. The brown trout population of the Neste d'Oueil, a Pyrenean tributary of the Garonne river, was studied between July 1996 and March 1999. During the period of two years and nine months, nine sampling experiments were carried out in February-March, July and September on two sectors of the river. Thus, we could follow the seasonal variation of growth, total density and total biomass of brown trout. Moreover, 652 brown trouts of age ranging between 1+ and 6+ years, for sizes ranging between 100 and 290 mm, were marked individually by visible implants in March 1998. The recapture rates observed varied from 19.5 to 74%, following the season considered. Growth rates showed a strong seasonal variability, validated by individual tagging experiments. Because of reproduction and rigorous temperatures experienced by trout during autumn and winter, growth rates observed were almost null and individuals >1+ lost weight during this period. In spite of theoretically non-optimal thermal conditions, growth occurred almost exclusively in spring. Poor growth rates observed during summer are not due to thermal factor which was theoretically optimal for growth in this season and could be attributed to the sexual maturation, to the saturation of the carrying capacity of physical habitat and to the strong intraspecific competition caused by i likely arrivals of 1+ and 2+ individuals emigrating from tributaries and ii reduction in "quantity and quality" of physical habitat at low-flow limiting accessibility and availability of energetically profitable prey. The role of growth in the dynamics of the brown trout population of the Neste d'Oueil River is discussed.

  5. Genetic restoration of a stocked brown trout Salmo trutta population using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jensen, L.F.;

    2006-01-01

    -admixed individuals nevertheless remained in the wild-caught samples. In addition, two resident populations in isolated tributaries were found to be indigenous. The indigenous anadromous individuals from the Skjern River were unlikely to have been recruited from either the isolated tributary populations......1. Gene flow from domesticated to wild populations is a major threat to wild salmonid fish. However, few studies have addressed how populations could be restored after admixture has occurred. We analysed the prospects for restoring the previously intensively stocked brown trout population...... of the Skjern River, Denmark, by identifying remaining non-admixed individuals to be used for supportive breeding. 2. We analysed microsatellite DNA markers in historical (1940-50s) and contemporary (1992-2004) samples from the Skjern River system, from the strain of domesticated trout previously used...

  6. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  7. Vaccination improves survival of Baltic salmon ( Salmo salar ) smolts in delayed release sea ranching (net-pen period)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht;

    1997-01-01

    with a non-mineral oil-adjuvanted vaccine consisting of formalin killed Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum (serotype O1 and O2). A second group was vaccinated by 1 h bathing in a corresponding vaccine without adjuvant. A third group was left as untreated control. Subsequently...

  8. Dietary soyasaponin supplementation to pea protein concentrate reveals nutrigenomic interactions underlying enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortner Trond M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds is impeded by high contents of antinutritional factors such as saponins, which may cause various pharmacological and biological effects. In this study, transcriptome changes were analyzed using a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon fed diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soybean saponins. Results Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed or horsebean produced minor effects while the combination of saponins with pea protein concentrate caused enteritis and major transcriptome changes. Acute inflammation was characterised by up-regulation of cytokines, NFkB and TNFalpha related genes and regulators of T-cell function, while the IFN-axis was suppressed. Induction of lectins, complement, metalloproteinases and the respiratory burst complex parallelled a down-regulation of genes for free radical scavengers and iron binding proteins. Marked down-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism was also observed, possibly increasing vulnerability of the intestinal tissue. A hallmark of metabolic changes was dramatic down-regulation of lipid, bile and steroid metabolism. Impairment of digestion was further suggested by expression changes of nutrient transporters and regulators of water balance (e.g. aquaporin, guanylin. On the other hand, microarray profiling revealed activation of multiple mucosal defence processes. Annexin-1, with important anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties, was markedly up-regulated. Furthermore, augmented synthesis of polyamines needed for cellular proliferation (up-regulation of arginase and ornithine decarboxylase and increased mucus production (down-regulation of glycan turnover and goblet cell hyperplasia could participate in mucosal healing and restoration of normal tissue function. Conclusion The current study promoted understanding of salmon intestinal pathology and establishment of a model for feed induced enteritis. Multiple gene expression profiling further characterised the inflammation and described the intestinal pathology at the molecular level. Ethical approval The present experiment was approved by the Norwegian Animal Research Authority and conducted according to prevailing animal welfare regulations: FOR-1996-01-15-23 (Norway, European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes (Strasbourg, 18.III.1986 and COUNCIL DIRECTIVE of 24 November 1986 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States regarding the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes (86/609/EEC.

  9. Spectral changes of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) muscle during cold storage as affected by the oxidation state of heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Izumi; Olsen, Ragnar L; Heia, Karsten

    2012-09-26

    The spectra of fresh salmon fillets change due to storage and packaging atmospheres. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of heme oxidation states on spectral development in salmon fillets and to investigate the origin of a shoulder peak representing important spectral variations during storage. Hyperspectral images of fresh salmon fillets and mince with various water contents were collected during storage under different atmospheres. In addition, the absorption spectra of extracted salmon hemoglobin and its derivatives (methemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin) were obtained. Air storage resulted in an increased similarity between spectra of methemoglobin and salmon fillets in principal component analysis. Results from the mince storage demonstrated that absorption features at the shoulder peak could be related to water content in the salmon muscle. This study established that the formation of oxidized heme is the primary source of spectral variations that occur during air storage of fresh salmon. Changes in the status of heme due to storage and packaging can influence the appearance of the underlying water absorption at the shoulder peak and create variations in the salmon spectra.

  10. Effect of pancreas disease (PD) on quality attributes of raw and smoked fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerfall, Jørgen; Larsson, Thomas; Birkeland, Sveinung

    2012-01-01

    .92), whereas the fillet protein content was lowest in PD0 (20.2%). Fillet fat content did not vary significantly between the groups, but the muscle pH was 0.2 units higher in PD12 as compared to Control. Astaxanthin (Ax) and idoxanthin (Ix) content were significantly lowest for PD0. Ax recovered six months...... after the outbreak, but the Ix content remained lower in the PD affected salmon. The Ax level after smoking was similar for all groups, but Ix showed a similar pattern to that of raw fillets. Results of the colorimetric analyses (L*, a*, b*) indicated darkest colour for the control group and palest...... colour for PD0, whereas PDchronic showed highest differences between raw and smoked fillets. Firmness of raw fillets was lowest in PDchronic, but after smoking a significantly higher firmness was found in PDchronic, PD0 and PD6 (16.7–19.7N) compared with that of Control and PD12 (14.1N). Changes...

  11. Moritella viscosus infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) express genes during infection associated with quality changes after recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    The gram-negative bacterium Moritella viscosus comprise a huge problem for farmed salmonid fish during cold periods and is the main aetiological agent of winter ulcers. Infection by M. viscosus causes excessive development of punctual lesions in the musculature of the fish, which can cover large...... become permanently affected and filets from formerly infected fish are usually downgraded in quality at slaughter. The quality down grade is possibly related to deposition of connective tissue during tissue regeneration. Tissue responses following infection were examined in post smolt Atlantic salmon...

  12. Identifying the source of farmed escaped Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Bayesian clustering analysis increases accuracy of assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Skaala, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    Farmed Atlantic salmon escapees represent a significant threat to the genetic integrity of natural populations. Not all escapement events are reported, and consequently, there is a need to develop an effective tool for the identification of escapees. In this study, > 2200 salmon were collected from...... 44 cages located on 26 farms in the Hardangerfjord, western Norway. This fjord represents one of the major salmon farming areas in Norway, with a production of 57,000 t in 2007. Based upon genetic data from 17 microsatellite markers, significant but highly variable differentiation was observed among...... of precision. This study demonstrates the potential to identify the farm of origin for escapees in a region with a large number of salmon farms. The approaches described here will be of relevance to a range of other species reared in culture where identification of escapees may be required....

  13. PCBs, dioxin-like PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Maine and eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, S.D.; Brenner, D.; Bourakovksy, A. [Marine Environmental Research Inst., Blue Hill, ME (United States); Carpenter, D.O. [Albany Univ., Albany, NY (United States). Inst. for Health and the Environment; Kannan, K.; Hong, C.S. [New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center

    2005-07-01

    This study examined possible intra-regional differences in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in farmed salmon. Skin-on and skin-off samples were analyzed to determine to what extent the presence of skin may contribute to contaminant loads. A total of 70 farmed and wild salmon were collected from wholesale and retail outlets in the state of Maine between August 2003 and May 2004. Salmon samples originated from 2 farms in eastern Maine; 3 farms in eastern Canada; an organic farm in Norway; and wild Chinook salmon from Alaska. Ten whole fish were obtained from each location and pooled into 3 composite samples of 3 fish each. Fillets from the 3 fish were then homogenized on a high-speed processor to make skin-off and skin-on composites. Samples were analyzed for dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and OC pesticides. PCB concentrations in farmed salmon were significantly higher than values obtained for wild salmon. POP concentrations in Maine and Canadian salmon were similar. The highest POP concentrations were found in organically grown salmon from Norway. Wild-caught Alaskan salmon had the lowest concentrations of POPs. HCH concentrations of HCH in the Alaskan samples exceeded those found in the Norwegian samples. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations were higher in the wild salmon than in the farmed salmon samples. Lipid content varied significantly in the salmon samples. The Norwegian samples had the highest lipid profiles. It was concluded that ongoing determination of dioxin-like compounds in farmed salmon is needed to assess human dietary exposure rates. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease of marine farmed Atlantic salmon where the pathological changes associated with the disease involve necrosis and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into different regions of the heart and skeletal muscle. The aim of this work...... was to characterize cardiac changes and inflammatory cell types associated with a clinical HSMI outbreak in Atlantic salmon using immunohistochemistry. Different immune cells and cardiac tissue responses associated with the disease were identified using different markers. The spectrum of inflammatory cells associated...

  15. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background: Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference...... in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design: A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection...... was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results: A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences...

  16. Characterisation of a novel paralog of scavenger receptor class B member I (SCARB1 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red flesh colour is a unique trait found in some salmonid genera. Carotenoid pigments are not synthesized de novo in the fish, but are provided by dietary uptake. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake and deposition of carotenoids could potentially be used to improve the low muscle deposition rate that is typically found in farmed Atlantic salmon. In addition, from an evolutionary point of view, the establishment and maintenance of this trait is still poorly understood. It has been demonstrated in several species that scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SCARB1 is involved in intestinal absorption of carotenoids, which makes this gene a possible source of genetic variation in salmonid flesh pigmentation. Results In this study, a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2 was detected through screening for genetic variation in Atlantic salmon SCARB1. Full length SCARB1-2 encodes a protein with 89% identity to Atlantic salmon SCARB1, except for the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail that shows only 12% identity. The most prominent site of SCARB1 mRNA expression was in the mid gut, while a five-fold lower level was detected in Atlantic salmon skeletal muscle and liver. The SCARB1-2 mRNA was equally expressed in liver, muscle and mid gut, and at a lower level than SCARB1 mRNA. A total of seven different SCARB1-2 alleles comprising repetitive enhancer of zeste motifs (EZH2 were identified in the founding parents of a resource Atlantic salmon population. We mapped the SCARB1-2 paralog to a region on Atlantic salmon chromosome 1, containing a putative QTL for flesh colour. Addition of the SCARB1-2 marker increased the significance of this QTL, however the large confidence interval surrounding the QTL precludes confirmation of SCARB1-2 as a causative gene underlying variation in this trait. Conclusion We have characterised a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2, have mapped it to Atlantic salmon chromosome 1 and have described its expression in various tissues. Mapping with SCARB1-2 alleles added further evidence for a QTL affecting flesh colour on this chromosome, however further studies are needed to confirm a functional role for this gene in flesh colour pigmentation.

  17. Pathogenesis of liver lesions caused by experimental infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendras, F E; Fuentealba, I C; Frederick Markham, R F; Speare, D J

    2000-11-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiologic agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), or piscirickettsiosis, causes substantial economic losses to the salmon industry. The pathogenesis of the disease has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study is to describe the hepatic lesions associated with experimental P. salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon juveniles. Fish were maintained in fresh water and inoculated intraperitoneally (IP), orally, or on the gill surface with P. salmonis. A group of uninfected fish was kept as control. Liver samples from 5 fish in each inoculated group and 3 controls were collected weekly and processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Thickening of the liver capsule by inflammatory cells was a characteristic histologic feature of IP inoculated fish. Three weeks post-IP inoculation, 8 fish had died and 2 fish were sampled. Histological changes at this time consisted of vasculitis, presence of fibrin thrombi, vacuolated hepatocytes and focal areas of necrosis. Leukocytes containing intracytoplasmic basophilic microorganisms were seen within hepatic sinusoids. Vasculitis and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were prominent features in fish inoculated orally and on the gill surface. The presence of P. salmonis within hepatocellular vacuoles, endothelial cells, and leucocytes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The intracellular location of P. salmonis and the vascular damage seen in infected fish are characteristic of rickettsial infections. Histological lesions induced by experimental infection with P. salmonis using the oral and gill surface routes were similar to those observed in natural outbreaks of piscirickettsiosis. The tropism of P. salmonis for endothelial cells explains the vascular lesions observed in SRS, whereas hepatic lesions are due to ischemic necrosis and direct injury by intracytoplasmic organisms.

  18. Estimation des caractéristiques biologiques des truites de mer adultes (Salmo trutta du Rhin supérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMBREDANE D.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available L'analyse des longueurs totales et des écailles d'un échantillon de 120 truites de mer adultes capturées essentiellement par pêche à l'électricité dans le Rhin supérieur (700 km de la mer du Nord de 1989 à 1996 a permis de caractériser la population de cette ressource piscicole en voie de restauration. L'utilisation des Captures Par Unité d'Effort (CPUE, calculées pour les pêches de 1994 à 1996, permet d'appréhender le rythme de migration et d'améliorer l'estimation des caractéristiques générales de la population. Dans cette partie du Rhin, la migration anadrome de la truite de mer se déroule en deux pics successifs de juin à décembre, les individus les plus âgés arrivant les premiers. La population est caractérisée par une très forte prédominance des groupes d'âge de mer 1 + (49,2 % et 2+ (45,8 %, soit un Age Moyen de Mer (AMM de 1,54 an. L'Age Moyen de Smoltification (AMS et de première Reproduction (AMR sont estimés respectivement à 1,30 an et 1,39 an. Par ailleurs, il est constaté que l'âge marin de première maturité des adultes du Rhin augmente quand leur âge de smoltification diminue. Les résultats sont discutés en fonction de la méthodologie employée et comparés à ceux obtenus sur d'autres populations françaises et plus nordiques. Il ressort que les caractéristiques de la population de truite de mer du Rhin traduisent bien la position latitudinale mais aussi l'importance de ce réseau hydrographique.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA in macrophage-like cells from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammes Fabian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial Atlantic salmon is fed diets with high fat levels to promote fast and cost-effective growth. To avoid negative impact of obesity, food additives that stimulate fat metabolism and immune function are of high interest. TTA, tetradecylthioacetic acid, is a synthetic fatty acid that stimulates mitochondrial β-oxidation most likely by activation of peroxysome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. PPARs are important transcription factors regulating multiple functions including fat metabolism and immune responses. Atlantic salmon experiments have shown that TTA supplemented diets significantly reduce mortality during natural outbreaks of viral diseases, suggesting a modulatory role of the immune system. Results To gain new insights into TTA effects on the Atlantic salmon immune system, a factorial, high-throughput microarray experiment was conducted using a 44K oligo nucleotide salmon microarray SIQ2.0 and the Atlantic salmon macrophage-like cell line ASK. The experiment was used to determine the transcriptional effects of TTA, the effects of TTA in poly(I:C elicited cells and the effects of pretreating the cells with TTA. The expression patterns revealed that a large proportion of genes regulated by TTA were related to lipid metabolism and increased mitochondrial β-oxidation. In addition we found that for a subset of genes TTA antagonized the transcriptional effects of poly(I:C. This, together with the results from qRT-PCR showing an increased transcription of anti-inflammatory IL10 by TTA, indicates anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusions We demonstrate that TTA has significant effects on macrophage-like salmon cells that are challenged by the artificial dsRNA poly(I:C. The immune stimulatory effect of TTA in macrophages involves increased lipid metabolism and suppressed inflammatory status. Thus, suggesting that TTA directs the macrophage-like cells towards alternative, anti-inflammatory, activation. This has positive implications for TTA as a feed additive.

  20. Vitamin E and selenium interrelations in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): gross, histological and biochemical deficiency signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, H A; Combs, G F; Leibovitz, L

    1976-07-01

    Either simultaneous or separate dietary deficiencies of vitamin E and selenium in Atlantic salmon during first 4 weeks of feeding caused twice the mortality shown in fish fed both supplemental vitamin E (0.5 IU/g dry diet) and selenium (0.1 mug/g). Subsequent dietary repletion with both vitamin E and selenium significantly reduced mortality during the following 2 weeks. Larger salmon (0.9 g initial mean weight), with vitamin E deficiency with or without selenium resulted in the following deficiency signs: extreme anemia, pale gills, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis, elevated plasma protein, exudative diathesis, dermal depigmentation, in vitro ascorbic acid-stimulated peroxidation in hepatic microsomes, yellow-orange liver color, yellow-brown intestinal contents, enlarged gall bladder distended with dark green bile, low vitamin E in carcass and hepatic tissue, muscular dystrophy, increased carcass fat and water, and a response to handling characterized by a transitory fainting with interruption in swimming. A deficiency of dietary selenium suppressed plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplemental selenium with vitamin E significantly increased tocopherol activity in hepatic, but not carcass tissues. Supplements of both vitamin E and selenium were necessary to prevent muscular dystrophy.

  1. Dietary vitamin A supplementation ameliorates the effects of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntssen, Marc H G; Ørnsrud, Robin; Rasinger, Josef; Søfteland, Liv; Lock, Erik-Jan; Kolås, Kjersti; Moren, Mari; Hylland, Ketil; Silva, Joana; Johansen, Johan; Lie, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 195±0.15g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10mgkg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721IUkg(-1)) separately or combined for 2.5 months in a 2×2 factorial design, with triplicate net-pens per diet. Dietary PAH significantly reduced hepatic VA storage, and VA-enriched diets restored hepatic VA. There was a significant PAH-VA interaction effect on hepatic BaP, but not Phe, accumulation, with reduced hepatic BaP concentrations in fish fed VA+PAH compared to fish fed PAH alone. Concurrently, PAH and VA significantly interacted in their effects on CYP1A phase I biotransformation as observed from increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, increased CYP1A protein concentration, and elevated transcription (cyp1a1 gene expression) in fish fed PAH+VA compared to PAH alone. Dietary VA supplementation alone had no significant effect on CYP1A phase I biotransformation. Metabolomic assessment showed that dietary VA caused a restoration of metabolic intermediates involved in energy metabolism that were affected by dietary PAH. Moreover, a PAH-induced growth inhibition was partially ameliorated by dietary VA supplementation. In conclusion, dietary VA interacted with PAH toxicity on the level of CYP1A-mediated detoxification, hepatic PAH accumulation, energy allocation, and growth.

  2. Impacts of episodic acidification on in-stream survival and physiological impairment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, S.D.; Monette, M.Y. [United States Geological Survey, Turners Falls, MA (United States). Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center; Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program; Keyes, A. [United States Geological Survey, Turners Falls, MA (United States). Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center; Nislow, K.H. [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program; United States Dept. of Agriculture, Amherst, MA (United States). Northern Research Station

    2009-02-20

    Episodic acidification is negatively impacting the conservation and recovery of Atlantic salmon in the northeastern United States. This article described a set of field studies conducted to determine the impacts of acid and aluminium (Al) levels on the survival, smolt development, ion homeostasis, and stress in Atlantic salmon smolts located in Connecticut River restoration streams in Vermont. The fish were observed in cages in 5 separate streams that encompassed a range of different acid and Al levels for two 6-day intervals at the peak of smolt development. The study showed that physiological parameters remained unchanged for smolts located in the high water quality reference site. However, mortality, loss of plasma chloride, and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and elevated gill Al occurred at the sites with the highest levels of inorganic Al and the lowest pH levels. Losses of plasma chloride, moderately elevated gill Al, and increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels occurred at less severely impacted sites. The study also demonstrated that gill Al was a more accurate predictor of integrated physiological impacts than water chemistry. It was concluded that Al and low pH can cause mortality and impair smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Short-and long term niche segregation and individual specialization of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in species poor Faroese lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Jakob; Malmquist, Hilmar J.; Landkildehus, Frank

    2012-01-01

    by comparing relative abundance, stable isotope ratios and diet in multiple habitats. In the presence of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a higher proportion of the trout population was found in the pelagic habitat, and trout in general relied on a more pelagic diet base as compared to trout...... living in allopatry or in sympatry with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Diet analyses revealed, however, that niche-segregation may be more complex than described on a one-dimensional pelagic-littoral axis. Trout from both littoral and offshore benthic habitats had in the presence of sticklebacks...... a less benthic diet as compared to trout living in allopatry or in sympatry with charr. Furthermore, we found individual habitat specialization between littoral/benthic and pelagic trout in deep lakes. Hence, our findings indicate that for trout populations interspecific competition can drive shifts...

  4. Genomic organization and evolution of the trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) repertoire in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarolo, Jordan A; Tabesh, Mohammad J; Nesbitt, Michael; Davidson, William S

    2014-04-22

    There is strong evidence that olfaction plays a key role in the homing of salmonids to their natal spawning grounds, particularly in the freshwater phase. However, the physiological and genetic mechanisms behind this biological phenomenon are largely unknown. It has been shown that Pacific salmon respond to dissolved free amino acids from their natal streams. This indicates that amino acids comprise part of the olfcatory cues for imprinting and homing in salmonids. As trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), a class of olfactory receptors that are close relatives of the G protein-coupled aminergic neurotransmitter receptors, recognize amino acid metabolites, we hypothesize that TAARs play an important role in salmon homing by recognizing olfactory cues. Therefore, to better understand homing in Atlantic salmon, we set out to characterize the TAAR genes in this species. We searched the first assembly of the Atlantic salmon genome for sequences resembling TAARs previously characterized in other teleosts. We identified 27 putatively functional TAAR genes and 25 putative TAAR pseudogenes, which cluster primarily on chromosome 21 (Ssa21). Phylogenetic analysis of TAAR amino acid sequences from 15 vertebrate species revealed the TAAR gene family arose after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. The TAARs group into three classes with salmon possessing class I and class III TAARs. Within each class, evolution is characterized by species-specific gene expansions, which is in contrast to what is observed in other olfactory receptor families (e.g., OlfCs and oras).

  5. 50 CFR 226.217 - Critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Northport, Searsmont, Searsport, Swanville, Waldo. (iii) Counties and towns partially or entirely within..., Oakland, Pittston, Randolph, Rome, Sidney, Vassalboro, Vienna, Waterville, West Gardiner, Windsor, Winslow... criteria for critical habitat, and those excluded under ESA section 4(b)(2): Penobscot Bay SHRU HUC 10 Code...

  6. Environmental contaminants in fillets of sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2008 and 2010, skin‐on fillets from seven dead adult sea‐run Atlantic salmon from the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment (GOM DPS) were analyzed for...

  7. Effects of plant protein blends on growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the greatest challenges is to increase the amount of plant protein in the diet of carnivorous fishes because they have been shown to have decreased growth and protein utilization when fed diets containing plant proteins such as soybean meal. The purpose of this study was to determine the eff...

  8. Effects of Cortisol on the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response during Cohabitant Challenge with IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, Lars; Sundh, Henrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik;

    2014-01-01

    that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune...... post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased m......RNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head...

  9. Effects of cortisol on the intestinal mucosal immune response during cohabitant challenge with IPNV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Niklasson

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8α lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1β increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol.

  10. The influence of fishmeal-free diets on microbial communities in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and promoting price instability. Advances in alternative diet for...

  11. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sahlmann

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph. Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight.

  12. Soyasaponins resist extrusion cooking and are not degraded during gut passage in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Røn, Ø.; Baardsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    protein concentrates by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The total level of saponins in the 15 samples of commercial defatted soybean meal ranged from 4.8-6.8 mu mol/g (5.1-7.0 g/kg). The two full fat meals contained 4.4 and 4.7 mu mol/g whereas no saponins could be detected......-conjugated group B saponins and non-DDMP-conjugated group B saponins was slightly reduced. A soybean-containing diet was fed to seawater adapted Atlantic salmon for 9 weeks. Yttrium oxide was included in the feed as an inert marker in order to estimate the disappearance of saponins during gut passage. High levels...... of intact non-DDMP-conjugated group B soyasaponins were found in feces whereas only low levels of DDMP-conjugated saponins could be detected. The overall disappearance of saponins was close to zero, and the concentration of intact saponins in dry feces reached levels several fold higher than dietary levels...

  13. Effects of 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Anne S. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no

    2007-11-30

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ER{alpha}, ER{beta}) and androgen receptor-{beta} (AR{beta}). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-{alpha} (AhR{alpha}) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhR{beta} was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50 ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO produced significant time-dependent induction of estrogenic (ER{alpha}, Vtg and Zr-protein) responses, compared with blank (i.e. without DMSO) controls at day 7 post-exposure. The effect of DMSO totally underscored the observed EE2 effect at day 7 after exposure. In general, these findings support previous reports on the endocrine effects of EE2, in addition to effects on hepatic biotransformation system. In view of the data presented here and our recent studies, the use of DMSO as carrier vehicle in endocrine toxicological experimental studies should be re-evaluated.

  14. Toxicokinetic model assessment on the dechlorination of dietary toxaphene CHB-62 into CHB-44 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntssen, M H G; Lock, E J; Zeilmaker, M J; Van Eijkeren, J C H

    2013-01-01

    European Union legislation on the upper limits of toxaphene in feed and food include the congeners CHB-26, CHB-62 and CHB-50 and is set at 50 µg kg⁻¹ feed for the sum of these three congeners. However, due to their elevated presence in fish, the congeners CHB-40 and CHB-41, CHB-44, and CHB-42 should also be included according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2005. Earlier trials with model zebra fish have shown in vivo dechlorination of dietary CHB-62 to CHB-44 and, to a lesser degree, of CHB-50 to CHB-40. Biomagnification patterns of Atlantic salmon, fed with technical toxaphene-enriched feeds, indicated that Atlantic salmon have a similar dechlorination. In the present study, a serial one-compartment physiological kinetic model, which includes differentiated growth of body components, is used to quantify the contribution of dechlorination to the congener-specific fillet accumulation of a mixture of dietary toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon. The model is assessed from experimental uptake and elimination kinetics of Atlantic salmon smolt fed with technical toxaphene for 122 days followed by a depuration period of 75 days in which the fish were fed toxaphene-free control feed. The serial one-compartment model shows that about 31% of CHB-44 that accumulated in the fillet originated from dietary CHB-62. In contrast, dechlorination of CHB-50 into CHB-40 is not significant. The results show that previously demonstrated in vivo dechlorination of CHB-62 into CHB-44 in zebra fish also occurs in the farmed fish species Atlantic salmon. This dechlorination can at least partly explain the relatively elevated CHB-44 observed in toxaphene fish surveys.

  15. DIFFERENCES IN POST HATCH METABOLIC RATE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATE IN ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR L): EVIDENCE FOR COMPENSATORY GROWTH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    in six out of 91 families, the three families with earliest and the three families with latest time to hatch. Measurements were done on two occasions, at 570-580 (T1) and 600-610 (T2) day degrees from fertilization. Generally, VO2 increased and yolk was consumed between T1 and T2. Late hatching larvae...... and had higher metabolic rate in T1 suggests that these inherited differences can be even out by accelerated post hatch growth....

  16. Modulation of xenobiotic biotransformation system and hormonal responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after exposure to tributyltin (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne Skjetne; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-04-01

    Multiple biological effects of tributyltin (TBT) on juvenile salmon have been investigated. Fish were exposed for 7 days to waterborne TBT at nominal concentrations of 50 and 250 microg/L dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Hepatic samples were analyzed for gene expression patterns in the hormonal and xenobiotic biotransformation pathways using validated real-time PCR method. Immunochemical and several cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin: EROD, benzyloxyresorufin: BROD, methoxyresorufin: MROD and pentoxyresorufin: PROD) assays were analyzed. Our data show that TBT produced concentration-specific decrease of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) and increase of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta) in the hormonal pathway. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, TBT produced apparent increase and decrease at respective low and high concentration, on aryl hydrocarbon receptor-alpha (AhRalpha), AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA. The expression of CYP1A1 and GST showed a TBT concentration-dependent decrease. The AhRbeta, CYP3A and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) mRNA expressions were significantly induced after exposure to TBT. Immunochemical analysis of CYP3A and CYP1A1 protein levels confirmed the TBT effects observed at the transcriptional levels. The effect of TBT on the biotransformation enzyme gene expressions partially co-related but did not directly parallel enzyme activity levels for EROD, BROD, MROD and PROD. In general, these findings confirm previous reports on the endocrine effects of TBT, in addition to effects on hepatic CYP1A isoenzyme at the transcriptional level that transcends to protein and enzymatic levels. The induced expression patterns of CYP3A and UGT mRNA after TBT exposure, suggest the involvement of CYP3A and UGT in TBT metabolism in fish. The effect of TBT on CYP3A is proposed to represent another hormonal effect of TBT not previously reported in any fish or lower vertebrate. The proposed androgenic effect is supported by the observation that TBT also induced ARbeta mRNA expression in a concentration-specific manner. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has simultaneously studied multiple responses after exposure to TBT in fish.

  17. Genetic diversity and differentiation of sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Lithuanian rivers assessed by microsatellite DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Kontautas, Antanas; Gross, Riho

    2009-11-01

    The genetic diversity and differentiation of sea trout were studied in three river basins in Lithuania: Akmena-Dane, Bartuva, and Nemunas. A total of 282 individuals were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. A similar level of genetic diversity was found in all of the populations studied: mean allelic richness ranged from 3.64 to 5.03, and average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.588 to 0.721. Significant genetic divergence was observed among the different river basins as well as between populations within the drainages. All pairwise F (ST) values were highly significant, ranging from 0.027 to 0.197. The analysis of molecular variance showed rather weak hierarchical population structuring within the Nemunas basin, which may be explained by extensive gene flow among different river basins or, alternatively, reflect the influence of artificial breeding. Information on genetic diversity and differentiation of the Lithuanian sea trout populations will be useful for future management decisions.

  18. Gut evacuation rate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with different physical properties. A CREATE project

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Turid Synnøve; Ytrestøyl, Trine; Hatlen, Bjarne; Sixten, Hanne Jorun; Hillestad, Marie; Sveier, Harald; Selset, Roger; Åsgård, Torbjørn Einar

    2014-01-01

    To measure the effect of physical feed quality on gut evacuation, Atlantic salmon with mean weight 1047 g (measured after finishing the sampling) was fed two extruded feeds with different physical quality to satiation. Each feed quality was produced in three batches to contain three different markers (La, Yb and Y). The measured hardness for Diet 1 was 128.5, 140.5 and 152.1 N for the batches added La, Yb and Y, respectively. For Diet 2, the corresponding figures were 148.2, 172.0 and 153.3 N...

  19. Expression of olfactory receptors in different life stages and life histories of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, K A; Lubieniecki, K P; Koop, B F; Davidson, W S

    2011-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that salmonids use olfactory cues to return to their natal rivers and streams. However, the key components of the molecular pathway involved in imprinting and homing are still unknown. If odorants are involved in salmon homing migration, then olfactory receptors should play a critical role in the dissipation of information from the environment to the fish. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of a suite of genes encoding olfactory receptors and other olfactory-related genes in the olfactory rosettes of different life stages in two anadromous and one non-anadromous wild Atlantic salmon populations from Newfoundland, Canada. We identified seven differentially expressed OlfC genes in juvenile anadromous salmon compared to returning adults in both populations of anadromous Atlantic salmon. The salmon from the Campbellton River had an additional 10 genes that were differentially expressed in juveniles compared to returning adults. There was no statistically significant difference in gene expression of any of the genes in the non-anadromous population (P wild North American Atlantic salmon, has identified seven OlfC genes that may be involved in the imprinting and homeward migration of anadromous Atlantic salmon.

  20. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...... resident and sea trout from a stocked section of the river. Genetic differentiation between the hatchery strain and the local wild population was modest (microsatellite F-ST = 0.06). Using assignment tests, more than 90% of individuals from the baseline samples were classified correctly. Assignment tests...... to the hatchery strain suggested that interbreeding took place between hatchery and wild trout. The latter result also indicated that male hatchery trout contributed more to interbreeding than females. We suggest that stronger selection acts against stocked hatchery trout that become anadromous compared...

  1. Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Rosenberger, Thad A; Johnson, LuAnn K; Wolters, William W; Burr, Gary S; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-02-01

    Enhanced n-3 fatty acid intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (eg, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized three-period crossover-designed trial (4-week treatment, 4- to 8-week washout) to compare the effects of twice per week consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women (mean age 40 to 65 years) and a body mass index between 25 and 34.9. All study visits were conducted at the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. Eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 concentrations were increased (Pacid did not change in response to treatment, whereas arachidonic acid (Pfatty acids decreased dose dependently (fatty acid proportions of n-3 and n-6 in a level associated with decreased risk for CVD.

  2. Trade-off between resource allocation and acquisition in anadromous adult male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vladic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual energetic limitations in variable environments lead to life-history trade-offs between investment in somatic growth and gonadal tissue, causing individuals to adopt specific behavioural tactics to attain reproduction. We investigated energy allocation in primary and secondary sexual traits in Atlantic salmon by estimating the life history characters (smolt size, sea age, first sea year growth rate by back-calculation of scales. Adult size increased with the fish sea age (years at sea and exerted a strong allometric effect on the energy investment pattern into secondary sexual traits. A compensatory mechanism at the ejaculate level is identified by which males investing less in secondary sexual traits produce ejaculates of higher quality. Distinct differences in investment into primary and secondary sexual traits between the fish that spent a single year in the sea before returning to the spawn (grilse and multi-sea-year adults were detected, indicating that their energy allocation strategy in reproductive effort reflects alternative developmental pathways. Grilse ejaculate investment depended more on the resource allocation, whereas multi-sea-year male ejaculate investment depended more on the resource acquisition.

  3. Coping with unpredictability: Dopaminergic and neurotrophic responses to omission of expected reward in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Sørensen, Christina; Johansen, Ida;

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies are imperative for understanding the evolution of adaptive neurobiological processes such as neural plasticity, cognition, and emotion. Previously we have reported that prolonged omission of expected rewards (OER, or 'frustrative nonreward') causes increased aggression....... Subsequently, the expected food reward was delayed for 30 minutes during two out of three meals per day in the OER treatment, while the previously established routine was maintained in control groups. After 8 days there was no effect of OER on baseline brain stem serotonin (5-HT) or dopamine (DA) activity...

  4. 17-Beta estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Skovbølling, Søren; Nielsen, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2004-06-10

    The effect of 17-beta estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged by increased gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and 24 h sea water (SW)-tolerance. Starting late March, three groups of 150 fish were each given 6 serial injections over 20 days of 2 microg/g body weight E2, 120 microg/g 4-NP dissolved in peanut oil or peanut oil (4 microl/g) as control. After the last injection, all fish were individually tagged (Passive Integrated Transponder tags) and a non-lethal gill biopsy was taken. Two days later (8 April), 100 fish per group were transported to the field site and released into a small stream. Smolt migration was registered by measuring arrival time at a trap downstream of the release site. Serum vitellogenin levels increased several-fold in both male and female E2- and 4-NP-treated fish. Overall, E2- and 4-NP-treatment impaired smolting as judged by elevated condition factor, reduced gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and alpha-subunit Na+, K+ -ATPase mRNA level, reduced muscle water content and increased mortality following 24 h SW-challenge. After release, control fish initiated downstream migration immediately, with 50% of the total number of migrants appearing in the trap within 10 days. E2- and 4-NP-treated fish appeared in the trap with a delay in comparison to controls of 6 and 8 days, respectively. After the smolt run, no fish were registered by electro-fishing upstream of the trap. The total number of fish reaching the trap and thus post-release survival was in the order control (81%), E2 (53%), 4-NP (12%). Representatives from all treatment groups held under simulated natural conditions in the laboratory survived 100% through the migration period, suggesting that a combination of behavioural and in-stream factors (predation by herons) may contribute to the differential mortality. The study indicates that short-term exposure to natural and environmental estrogens may impair smolt development and survival and delay subsequent downstream migration in Atlantic salmon.

  5. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background: Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference...

  6. Déclin et restauration de la population de truites lacustres (Salmo trutta lacustris L. du lac de Constance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUHLÉ C.

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Le déclin de la population de truites migratrices du lac de Constance a débuté vers 1950 quand un barrage a été construit sur le Rhin, affluent principal de ce lac, coupant ainsi l'accès aux plus importantes frayères. Ceci a suffi de prétexte pour renoncer à une longueur de capture garantissant la reproduction naturelle. Par la suite, la population en train de diminuer a servi de justification pour des déversements importants de truites arc-en-ciel. Un désintérêt croissant pour le maintien de frayères dans les affluents secondaires a, finalement, contribué à la baisse des captures de 12.000 kg à 3.000 kg entre 1950 et 1980.Les mesures réalisées au cours des dernières années pour restaurer la population de truites lacustres ont du succès. Il s'agit surtout de : — la détermination d'une nouvelle longueur de capture ainsi que de périodes de protection respectant la reproduction des truites migrant à longue et à courte distance,— l'élevage de stocks de géniteurs, — les déversements forcés et effectués surtout en affluents (au lieu du lac,— l'interdiction d'immersions de truites arc-en-ciel,— l'abolition de barrages. Le succès se manifeste par un nombre croissant de truites observées frayant dans les affluents ainsi que par des captures de plus en plus nombreuses faites par la pêche professionnelle.

  7. Local and systemic gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to infection with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse (SL is an ectoparasitic caligid crustacean infecting salmonid fishes in the marine environment. SL represents one of the major challenges for farming of salmonids, and veterinary intervention is necessary to combat infection. This study addressed gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon infected with SL, which may account for its high susceptibility. Results The effects of SL infection on gene expression in Atlantic salmon were studied throughout the infection period from copepodids at 3 days post infection (dpi to adult lice (33 dpi. Gene expression was analyzed at three developmental stages in damaged and intact skin, spleen, head kidney and liver, using real-time qPCR and a salmonid cDNA microarray (SFA2. Rapid detection of parasites was indicated by the up-regulation of immunoglobulins in the spleen and head kidney and IL-1 receptor type 1, CD4, beta-2-microglobulin, IL-12β, CD8α and arginase 1 in the intact skin of infected fish. Most immune responses decreased at 22 dpi, however, a second activation was observed at 33 dpi. The observed pattern of gene expression in damaged skin suggested the development of inflammation with signs of Th2-like responses. Involvement of T cells in responses to SL was witnessed with up-regulation of CD4, CD8α and programmed death ligand 1. Signs of hyporesponsive immune cells were seen. Cellular stress was prevalent in damaged skin as seen by highly significant up-regulation of heat shock proteins, other chaperones and mitochondrial proteins. Induction of the major components of extracellular matrix, TGF-β and IL-10 was observed only at the adult stage of SL. Taken together with up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, this classifies the wounds afflicted by SL as chronic. Overall, the gene expression changes suggest a combination of chronic stress, impaired healing and immunomodulation. Steady increase of MMP expression in all tissues except liver was a remarkable feature of SL infected fish. Conclusion SL infection in Atlantic salmon is associated with a rapid induction of mixed inflammatory responses, followed by a period of hyporesponsiveness and delayed healing of injuries. Persistent infection may lead to compromised host immunity and tissue self-destruction.

  8. Genetic architecture of threshold reaction norms for male alternative reproductive tactics in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepais, Olivier; Manicki, Aurélie; Glise, Stéphane; Buoro, Mathieu; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Alternative mating tactics have important ecological and evolutionary implications and are determined by complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Here, we study the genetic effect and architecture of the variability in reproductive tactics among Atlantic salmon males which can either mature sexually early in life in freshwater or more commonly only after completing a migration at sea. We applied the latent environmental threshold model (LETM), which provides a conceptual framework linking individual status to a threshold controlling the decision to develop alternative traits, in an innovative experimental design using a semi-natural river which allowed for ecologically relevant phenotypic expression. Early male parr maturation rates varied greatly across families (10 to 93%) which translated into 90% [64–100%] of the phenotypic variation explained by genetic variation. Three significant QTLs were found for the maturation status, however only one collocated with a highly significant QTL explaining 20.6% of the variability of the maturation threshold located on chromosome 25 and encompassing a locus previously shown to be linked to sea age at maturity in anadromous Atlantic salmon. These results provide new empirical illustration of the relevance of the LETM for a better understanding of alternative mating tactics evolution in natural populations. PMID:28281522

  9. Alternative Protein Sources in the Diet Modulate Microbiota and Functionality in the Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Torres, Alexander; Kortner, Trond M.; Merrifield, Daniel L.; Tinsley, John; Bakke, Anne Marie; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets. IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal health status and effects of diet. The present study aimed to gain information about whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the Atlantic salmon intestine and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in alterations in host intestinal function and health status. We demonstrate here that there are substantial differences between the intestinal digesta and mucosa in the presence and abundance of bacteria. The digesta-associated microbiota showed clear dependence on the diet composition, whereas mucosa-associated microbiota appeared to be less affected by diet composition. Most important, the study identified bacterial groups associated with diet-induced gut dysfunction that may be utilized as microbial markers of gut health status in fish. PMID:27986728

  10. Pre-migratory differentiation of wild brown trout Salmo trutta into migrant and resident individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Nørum, Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    a smolt-like appearance before the onset of migration and had higher rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than fish remaining residents. The rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was independent of the distance migrated to the trap (3-28 km). Thus in bimodal wild brown trout populations...

  11. Genome-wide association study (GWAS for growth rate and age at sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro P Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Early sexual maturation is considered a serious drawback for Atlantic salmon aquaculture as it retards growth, increases production times and affects flesh quality. Although both growth and sexual maturation are thought to be complex processes controlled by several genetic and environmental factors, selection for these traits has been continuously accomplished since the beginning of Atlantic salmon selective breeding programs. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS we used a 6.5K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array to genotype ∼ 480 individuals from the Cermaq Canada broodstock program and search for SNPs associated with growth and age at sexual maturation. Using a mixed model approach we identified markers showing a significant association with growth, grilsing (early sexual maturation and late sexual maturation. The most significant associations were found for grilsing, with markers located in Ssa10, Ssa02, Ssa13, Ssa25 and Ssa12, and for late maturation with markers located in Ssa28, Ssa01 and Ssa21. A lower level of association was detected with growth on Ssa13. Candidate genes, which were linked to these genetic markers, were identified and some of them show a direct relationship with developmental processes, especially for those in association with sexual maturation. However, the relatively low power to detect genetic markers associated with growth (days to 5 kg in this GWAS indicates the need to use a higher density SNP array in order to overcome the low levels of linkage disequilibrium observed in Atlantic salmon before the information can be incorporated into a selective breeding program.

  12. Survival of migrating sea trout (Salmo trutta ) smolts during their passage of an artificial lake in a Danish lowland stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinn, Michael; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lake development is often used as a management tool to reduce nutrient runoff to coastal waters. Denmark has restored more than 10 000 ha of wetlands and lakes in the last 14 years as a consequence of ‘Action Plans for the Aquatic Environment’, which aim to meet the demands......) smolts were investigated by using radio, acoustic and Passive Integrated Transponder telemetry both before and after the development of an artificial lake in a small Danish lowland stream. In 2005 and 2006, before the lake developed, survival was estimated to be 100% in the river stretch where the lake...... later developed. In 2007 and in the period between 2009 and 2015, mean yearly survival decreased to 26%. Mean time for passing the area increased significantly after the development of the lake from 0.42 to 5.95 days. Generalized additive models were used to model the probability of a successful passage...

  13. Effects of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne S; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-11-30

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ERalpha, ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-alpha (AhRalpha) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhRbeta was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO produced significant time-dependent induction of estrogenic (ERalpha, Vtg and Zr-protein) responses, compared with blank (i.e. without DMSO) controls at day 7 post-exposure. The effect of DMSO totally underscored the observed EE2 effect at day 7 after exposure. In general, these findings support previous reports on the endocrine effects of EE2, in addition to effects on hepatic biotransformation system. In view of the data presented here and our recent studies, the use of DMSO as carrier vehicle in endocrine toxicological experimental studies should be re-evaluated.

  14. Emploi de la fluméquine contre la furonculose des salmonidés : essais thérapeutiques et perspectives pratiques

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    MICHEL C.

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal activity of the fluméquine, a synthetic derivative of the « quinolones » family, has been recently recognized and has resulted in its common use in human and veterinary medicine. The availability of an artificial model of trout furunculosis allowed to test its curative properties in Aeromonas saimonicida infection. For this purpose, we have used 2 species of trout (Salmo gairdneri and S. trutta, and 2 pathogenic strains of which LD 50 ranged initially from 400 to 800 bacteria/fish, intramuscularly (IM. Fish, divided in 3 groups, received respectively 20 g, 40 g an 80 g of Flumix (fluméquine powder with 3 % of active component per 100 kg of b.w./day during 6 days, representing 1, 2 and 4 times the mammalian dose. The drug was stuck on dry pellets supplied twice a day as 1 % of b.w. Fingerlings were arranged in 30 subjects groups maintained in 15°C flow-through tanks, and experimentally infected by IM injection of about 1 or 10 LD 50. A preliminary administration of 200g/100kg of fish of Flumix was done on a sample during a fortnight and did not result in any observation of acute toxicity. A conspicuous protective effect of the drug was noticed in all cases the treatment was carried on at the same day as the infection. Differences between mortality percentages in controls and treated fish were about 60 p. 100, whatever the trout species ant the bacterial strain. Variations were of trifling importance according to the therapeutic doses, and when testing fish with high doses of pathogen ([MATH] 10 LD 50 the effect seemed better, resulting of the higher mortality of controls. In some cases, the treatment was started 20 hours after inoculation of Aeromonas. Except in one case, the protection was then very lowered, and this has been ascribed to the loss of appetite of diseased subjects In conclusion, the efficacy of fluméquine treatments in control of furunculosis is stated and some practical indications are given. The dose of 40

  15. The trade-off between food and temperature in the habitat choice of bluegill sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the trade-off between food and temperature in bluegills Lepomis macrochirus, where temperature was the primary factor used in determining the patch in which to reside.

  16. Evaluation of Management of Water Release for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1984-11-01

    Baseline fisheries and habitat data were gathered during 1983 and 1984 to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental water releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir in improving the fisheries resource in the Bitterroot River. Discharge relationships among main stem gaging stations varied annually and seasonally. Flow relationships in the river were dependent upon rainfall events and the timing and duration of the irrigation season. Daily discharge monitored during the summers of 1983 and 1984 was greater than median values derived at the U.S.G.S. station near Darby. Supplemental water released from Painted Rocks Reservoir totaled 14,476 acre feet in 1983 and 13,958 acre feet in 1984. Approximately 63% of a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release of supplemental water conducted during April, 1984 was lost to irrigation withdrawals and natural phenomena before passing Bell Crossing. A similar loss occurred during a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release conducted in August, 1984. Daily maximum temperature monitored during 1984 in the Bitterroot River averaged 11.0, 12.5, 13.9 and 13.6 C at the Darby, Hamilton, Bell and McClay stations, respectively. Chemical parameters measured in the Bitterroot River were favorable to aquatic life. Population estimates conducted in the Fall, 1983 indicated densities of I+ and older rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were significantly greater in a control section than in a dewatered section (p < 0.20). Numbers of I+ and older brown trout (Salmo trutta) were not significantly different between the control and dewatered sections (p > 0.20). Population and biomass estimates for trout in the control section were 631/km and 154.4 kg/km. In the dewatered section, population and biomass estimates for trout were 253/km and 122.8 kg/km. The growth increments of back-calculated length for rainbow trout averaged 75.6 mm in the control section and 66.9mm in the dewatered section. The growth increments of back-calculated length for brown trout averaged 79.5 mm in the

  17. Salmod tähistavad juubeleid / Ralf Mae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mae, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    2008. a. tähistab Eesti suurimate kalastustarvete hulgimüüjate hulka kuuluv Salmo&Luts OÜ 10. tegevusaastat, selle Lätis asuv emafirma SIA Salmo aga 20. tegevusaastat. Ettevõtte arengust ja tulevikuplaanidest räägib Salmo&Luts OÜ juhataja Aleksei Antiptshik

  18. 17-Beta estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Skovbølling, Søren; Nielsen, Christian;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 17-beta estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged...

  19. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    began during the first weeks of embryonic development. Few consistent effects were found on the sex differentiation of the brown trout. Only one intersex fish (4.5%) was found among male fish at 400 dpf exposed to 500 ng E2/l. Females with male germ cells among the normally developing oocytes were...

  20. Clostridium botulinum Toxin Production in Relation to Spoilage of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Packaged in Films of Varying Oxygen Permeabilities and with Different Atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Shelf life of fish packaged under modified atmosphere (MA) is extended, but within the United States, commercial application of MA with impermeable packaging films is restricted due to concerns that botulinum toxin production would precede spoilage when contaminated fish are held at abusive storage temperatures. Use of semipermeable packaging films has been advocated; however, previous studies are inconclusive in determining the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of a film that is needed to achieve an acceptable margin of safety (i.e., toxin production occurs only after spoilage). This study was conducted to determine the influence of OTR (target OTRs of 3 to 15,000) on the development of spoilage volatiles and toxin in salmon inoculated with type E Clostridium botulinum and subjected to air, vacuum, or 75:25 CO2:N2 MA and storage temperatures of 4, 8, 12, or 16°C. The most dominant headspace volatile peak that was produced during spoilage of samples at 4, 8 or 12°C was a peak, having a Kovats retention index (KI) of 753, and at which external standards of 2- or 3-methyl 1-butanol also eluted. Under anaerobic conditions, both the aerobic microbial populations and the size of the KI 753 spoilage peak were less in inoculated samples compared with uninoculated samples. C. botulinum-inoculated samples that were stored at 12 or 16°C under conditions favorable for anaerobic growth were also characterized by a KI 688 peak. Using a previously developed model that related the percentage of elderly consumers who would prepare a sample having the KI 753 spoilage peak of a specific size, it was determined that for salmon packaged with 3 or 3,000 OTR films under any atmosphere and stored at 12 or 16°C, 2 to 61% of the consumers could potentially prepare toxin-contaminated samples. Hence, when abusive storage conditions are suspected, the fish should not be consumed.

  1. An assessment of the spatial scale of local adaptation in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): footprints of selection at microsatellite DNA loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte;

    2011-01-01

    to spawning intrusion by farmed conspecifics that experience selection regimes fundamentally different from wild populations. This prompts the question if adaptive differences between wild populations and hatchery strains are more pronounced than between different wild populations? We addressed these issues...... of outliers between regions was evident. There was no evidence for more outliers in comparisons involving hatchery trout, but the loci under putative selection generally were not the same as those found to be outliers between wild populations. Our study supports the notion of local adaption being increasingly......Local adaptation is considered a paradigm in studies of salmonid fish populations. Yet, little is known about the geographical scale of local adaptation. Is adaptive divergence primarily evident at the scale of regions or individual populations? Also, many salmonid populations are subject...

  2. Modelling scenarios on feed-to-fillet transfer of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in future feeds to farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntssen, Marc H G; Sanden, Monica; Hove, Helge; Lie, Øyvind

    2016-11-01

    The salmon feed composition has changed the last decade with a replacement of traditionally use of fish oil and fishmeal diets with vegetable ingredients and the use decontaminated fish oils, causing reduced concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon. The development of novel salmon feeds has prompted the need for prediction on dioxins and dl-PCB concentrations in future farmed salmon. Prediction on fillet dioxins and dl-PCB concentrations from different feed composition scenarios are made using a simple one-compartmental transfer model based on earlier established dioxin and dl-PCB congener specific uptake and elimination kinetics rates. The model is validated with two independent feeding trials, with a significant linear correlation (r(2) = 0.96, y = 1.0x, p dioxin and dl-PCB concentrations from 1999 (1.05 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww) and 2013 (0.57 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww) are in line with the data observed in national surveillance programs of those years (1.1 and 0.52 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww, respectively). Future use of high replacement and decontaminated oils feeds gave predicted fillet concentrations of 0.27 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww, which is near the limit of quantification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Entre salmos e parábolas: Leitura bíblica a partir da análise teológico-literária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fonseca Alonso Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theological and literary analysis of biblical texts. To do so, it uses the contributions of literary critics and theologians whose researches have focused on the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Bibles. Such texts are considered an essential literal heritage to understand human life in our time. In addition, they represent guidance for religious life (Jewish and Christian, which, in turn, is expressed in various literary forms.As a theological and literary experimentation, the development of this article ends with the observation of poetry in the biblical texts and poetry of this wellspring of ambiguity, concluding with a reading of the text of Job.

  4. Functional feeds reduce heart inflammation and pathology in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) following experimental challenge with Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Morais, Sofia; Evensen, Øystein; Wadsworth, Simon; Ruohonen, Kari; Vecino, Jose L G; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI), recently associated with a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV), is currently one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases in commercial Atlantic salmon farms in Norway. Mortality varies from low to 20%, but morbidity can be very high, reducing growth performance and causing considerable financial impact. Clinical symptoms, including myocarditis, myocardial and red skeletal muscle necrosis, correlate with the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the present study, the effects of two functional feeds (FF1 and FF2) were compared to a standard commercial reference feed (ST) in Atlantic salmon subjected to an ASRV challenge. The functional feeds had reduced levels of total lipid and digestible energy, and different levels and proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The objective was to determine whether these feeds could provide effective protection by decreasing the inflammatory response associated with HSMI. Histopathology, viral load, fatty acid composition and gene expression of heart tissue were assessed over a period of 16 weeks post-infection with ASRV. The viral load and histopathology scores in heart tissue in response to ASRV infection were reduced in fish fed both functional feeds, with FF1 showing the greatest effect. Microarray hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the functional feeds greatly affected expression of inflammation/immune related genes over the course of the ASRV infection. Viral load correlated with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes at the early-mid stages of infection in fish fed the ST diet. Expression of inflammatory genes 16-weeks after ASRV challenge reflected the difference in efficacy between the functional feeds, with fish fed FF1 showing lower expression. Thus, severity of the lesions in heart tissue correlated with the intensity of the innate immune response and was associated with tissue fatty acid compositions. The present study demonstrated that dietary modulation through clinical nutrition had major influences on the development and severity of the response to ASRV infection in salmon. Thus, HSMI was reduced in fish fed the functional feeds, particularly FF1. The modulation of gene expression between fish fed the different feeds provided further insight into the molecular mechanisms and progression of the inflammatory and immune responses to ASRV infection in salmon.

  5. Functional feeds reduce heart inflammation and pathology in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. following experimental challenge with Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martinez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI, recently associated with a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV, is currently one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases in commercial Atlantic salmon farms in Norway. Mortality varies from low to 20%, but morbidity can be very high, reducing growth performance and causing considerable financial impact. Clinical symptoms, including myocarditis, myocardial and red skeletal muscle necrosis, correlate with the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the present study, the effects of two functional feeds (FF1 and FF2 were compared to a standard commercial reference feed (ST in Atlantic salmon subjected to an ASRV challenge. The functional feeds had reduced levels of total lipid and digestible energy, and different levels and proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. The objective was to determine whether these feeds could provide effective protection by decreasing the inflammatory response associated with HSMI. Histopathology, viral load, fatty acid composition and gene expression of heart tissue were assessed over a period of 16 weeks post-infection with ASRV. The viral load and histopathology scores in heart tissue in response to ASRV infection were reduced in fish fed both functional feeds, with FF1 showing the greatest effect. Microarray hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the functional feeds greatly affected expression of inflammation/immune related genes over the course of the ASRV infection. Viral load correlated with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes at the early-mid stages of infection in fish fed the ST diet. Expression of inflammatory genes 16-weeks after ASRV challenge reflected the difference in efficacy between the functional feeds, with fish fed FF1 showing lower expression. Thus, severity of the lesions in heart tissue correlated with the intensity of the innate immune response and was associated with tissue fatty acid compositions. The present study demonstrated that dietary modulation through clinical nutrition had major influences on the development and severity of the response to ASRV infection in salmon. Thus, HSMI was reduced in fish fed the functional feeds, particularly FF1. The modulation of gene expression between fish fed the different feeds provided further insight into the molecular mechanisms and progression of the inflammatory and immune responses to ASRV infection in salmon.

  6. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnæs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned.

  7. Significance of volatile compounds produced by spoilage bacteria in vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon ( Salmo salar ) analyzed by GC-MS and multivariate regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel; Huss, Hans Henrik; Dalgaard, Paw

    2001-01-01

    Changes were studied in the concentration of 38 volatile compounds during chilled storage at 5 degreesC of six lots of commercially produced vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon and sterile cold-smoked salmon. The majority of volatile compounds produced during spoilage of cold-smoked salmon were......, 1- penten-3-ol, and 1-propanol. The potency and importance of these compounds was confirmed by gas chromatography- olfactometry. The present study provides valuable information on the bacterial reactions responsible for spoilage off-flavors of cold-smoked salmon, which can be used to develop...

  8. Use of agent-based modelling to predict benefits of cleaner fish in controlling sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, M L; Cox, R; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are ectoparasites of farmed and wild salmonids. Infestations can result in significant morbidity and mortality of hosts in addition to being costly to control. Integrated pest management programmes have been developed to manage infestations, and in some salmon farming areas, these programmes include the use of wrasse. Wrasse prey upon the parasitic life stages of L. salmonis and can be stocked on farms at varying densities. Despite considerable variation in the usage of wrasse, there are few quantitative estimates of how well they can control sea lice and how best to optimize their use. To explore at what densities wrasse should be stocked in order to meet specific control targets, we built an individual-based model that simulates sea lice infestation patterns on a representative salmonid host. Sea lice can be controlled through the use of chemical treatments as well as by wrasse predators. We found that the wrasse can effectively control sea lice, and the densities of wrasse needed for effective control depend upon the source of the infestation and the targeted level of control. Effective usage of wrasse can result in decreased use of chemical treatments and improved control of sea lice.

  9. Mise en évidence de l'écotype truite de mer dans les captures de grandes truites (Salmo trutta L. du Rhin supérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCHE P.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1989 et 1990, des écailles de 26 grandes truites ont été prélevées par des pêcheurs aux lignes dans le Rhin entre Iffezheim et Strasbourg, et dans l'III près de sa confluence avec le Rhin. La structure des écailles ainsi que leur teneur en strontium ont été comparées à celles d'écaillés de truites sédentaires du Rhin. 22 truites avaient une structure d'écaillés du type truite de mer et quatre truites s'apparentaient au type sédentaire. La teneur moyenne en strontium du groupe "mer" était de 394 µg/g, valeur significativement plus élevée que celle du groupe "sédentaire" (201 µg/g. Un seul individu du type mer avait une valeur de strontium recoupant les valeurs du type sédentaire. La méthode de discrimination par l'analyse chimique des écailles est discutée, et des éléments sur l'origine et les caractéristiques des truites de mer du Rhin sont donnés.

  10. The enzyme profiles in the connective tissue attaching pin bones to the surrounding tissue is specific in farmed salmon (Salmo salar) and cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Tram T; Rønning, Sissel B; Kolset, Svein O; Pedersen, Mona E

    2017-02-01

    Post mortem storage is a necessary process for removal of pin bones without destruction of fillets, thereby avoiding volume and economic loss. However, the enzymes involved in loosening pin bones during storage have not been studied to a great extent. In this study, the activities and localization of MMPs in the connective tissue (CT) of pin bones dissected from fillet of salmon and cod were investigated. Interestingly, the enzyme activity profile in these two species was different during post mortem storage of fish fillets. Adding MMP inhibitor (GM6001) and serine protease inhibitor (Pefabloc) revealed different effects in the two species, suggesting different regulations in salmon and cod. In situ zymography with the same inhibitors verified MMP and serine protease activity in CT close to pin bone at early post mortem (6 h) in salmon. However, MMP inhibition was not evident in cod in this area at that time point. Immunohistochemistry further revealed MMP9 and MMP13 were located more to the outer rim of CT, facing the pin bone and adipose tissue, while MMP7 was more randomly distributed within CT in salmon. In contrast, all these three MMPs were randomly distributed in CT in cod. In summary, our study reveals different MMP enzyme profiles in salmon and cod in the pin bone area, influenced by serine proteases, and suggests that MMPs and serine proteases must be taken in consideration when studying the conditions for early pin bone removal.

  11. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar require increased dietary levels of B-vitamins when fed diets with high inclusion of plant based ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro-Ingunn Hemre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to re-evaluate current recommendations for nutrient supplementations when Atlantic salmon are fed diets based on plant ingredients, two regression experiments, with parr and post-smolt, were conducted. A control diet was included to evaluate if ingredients supplied sufficient nutrients without any added nutrient package (NP. The nutrient package consisted of vitamins B, C, E, minerals, cholesterol, methionine, taurine and histidine. This paper focus on B-vitamins. In parr, growth, health and welfare parameters responded on NP additions, but this was not observed in the seawater stage. During three months of feeding, parr tripled their weight. Parr given diets added the NP above NRC (2011 showed improved protein retention, and reduced liver and viscera indices. Post-smolt fed the same diets during five months showed a doubling of weight, but did not respond to the variation in NP to the same extent as parr. Significant regressions were obtained in body compartments for several of the B-vitamins in the premix. Whole body biotin concentration was unaffected by micronutrient premix level, and mRNA expression of the enzymes dependent of biotin showed only weak increases with increased biotin. Muscle thiamine plateaued at a diet level similar to NRC (2011 recommendation in freshwater, and showed stable values independent on premix addition in seawater. The mRNA expression of the enzyme G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is sensitive to thiamine availability; results did not indicate any need to add thiamine above levels recommended for fish in general. Niacin showed a steady increase in whole body concentrations as feed niacin increased. Muscle riboflavin peaked at a diet level of 12.4 mg kg−1. Sufficient riboflavin is important to avoid e.g., development of cataract. Cataract was not registered to be any problem, neither in fresh- nor in seawater. Cobalamin (B 12 in muscle and liver was saturated at 0.17 mg kg−1 diet. Muscle pyridoxine showed a dose-dependent level in muscle, and peaked around 10 mg kg −1 diet. White muscle ASAT (asparagine amino transferase activity steadily increased, with indications of stable values when dietary pyridoxine was around 10–16 mg kg −1 diet. Pantothenic acid increased in gill tissue up to a level of 5.5 mg kg −1 soft gill tissue; at a dietary level of 22 mg kg−1. Improved performance, and coverage of metabolic need for niacin was at a dietary level of 66 mg kg −1, riboflavin 10–12 mg kg−1, pyridoxine 10 mg kg−1 and panthotenic acid 22 mg kg−1. Based on these results, recommended B-vitamin supplementation in plant based diets for Atlantic salmon should be adjusted.

  12. Effects of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Denggao; Xu, Shihong; Song, Changbin; Chi, Liang; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting regimes have been successfully used to inhibit sexual maturity of Atlantic salmon in confinement. However, when these operations are applied in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) using standard lighting technology, sexual maturation is not suppressed. In this study, an L9 (33) orthogonal design was used to determine the effects of three factors (spectral composition, photoperiod, and light intensity) on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon in RAS. We demonstrated that the photoperiod at the tested levels had a much greater effect on the gonadosomatic index and female Fulton condition factor than spectral composition and light intensity. The photoperiod had a significant effect on the secretion of sex steroids and melatonin ( P0.05). The optimum lighting levels in female and male Atlantic salmon were LD 8:16, 455 nm (or 625 nm), 8.60 W/m2; and LD 8:16, 8.60 W/m2, 455 nm respectively. These conditions not only delayed gonadal development, but also had no negative effects on Atlantic salmon growth in RAS. These results demonstrate that a combination of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity is effective at delaying the gonadal development of both male and female salmon in RAS.

  13. Intestinal barrier function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. post smolts is reduced by common sea cage environments and suggested as a possible physiological welfare indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish farmed under high intensity aquaculture conditions are subjected to unnatural environments that may cause stress. Therefore awareness of how to maintain good health and welfare of farmed fish is important. For Atlantic salmon held in sea cages, water flow, dissolved oxygen (DO levels and temperature will fluctuate over time and the fish can at times be exposed to detrimentally low DO levels and high temperatures. This experimental study investigates primary and secondary stress responses of Atlantic salmon post smolts to long-term exposure to reduced and fluctuating DO levels and high water temperatures, mimicking situations in the sea cages. Plasma cortisol levels and cortisol release to the water were assessed as indicators of the primary stress response and intestinal barrier integrity and physiological functions as indicators of secondary responses to changes in environmental conditions. Results Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish exposed to low (50% and 60% saturation DO levels and low temperature (9°C, at days 9, 29 and 48. The intestinal barrier function, measured as electrical resistance (TER and permeability of mannitol at the end of the experiment, were reduced at 50% DO, in both proximal and distal intestine. When low DO levels were combined with high temperature (16°C, plasma cortisol levels were elevated in the cyclic 1:5 h at 85%:50% DO group and fixed 50% DO group compared to the control (85% DO group at day 10 but not at later time points. The intestinal barrier function was clearly disturbed in the 50% DO group; TER was reduced in both intestinal regions concomitant with increased paracellular permeability in the distal region. Conclusions This study reveals that adverse environmental conditions (low water flow, low DO levels at low and high temperature, that can occur in sea cages, elicits primary and secondary stress responses in Atlantic salmon post smolts. The intestinal barrier function was significantly affected by prolonged hypoxic stress even when no primary