WorldWideScience

Sample records for macrochirus fathead minnow

  1. Comparison of chlorine and chlorine dioxide toxicity of fathead minnows and bluegill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Soracco, R.J.; Mayack, L.A.; Shealy, R.L.; Broadwell, T.L.; Steffen, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The comparative toxicity of total residual chlorine (TRC) and chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) was evaluated by conducting 96 h flow-through bioassays with three types of fish. The fish were subjected to an intermittent exposure regime in which biocide residuals were present for approximately 2-h periods beginning at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h into the tests. These conditions simulated the antifouling procedure (1 h day/sup -1/ biocide addition) used to control biofouling of nuclear reactor heat exchangers at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. LC/sub 50/ values showed that ClO/sub 2/ was approximately 2 to 4 times more toxic than TRC to: (1) juvenile and 1-year-old fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas); and (2) young-of-the-year bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The TRC mean 96-h LC/sub 50/ values were: 0.08 mg l/sup -1/ for juvenile fathead minnows, 0.35 mg l/sup -1/ for adult fathead minnows and 0.44 mg l/sup -1/ for young-of-the-year bluegills. The ClO/sub 2/ mean LC/sub 50/ values were: 0.02 mg l/sup -1/ for juvenile fathead minnows, 0.17 mg l/sup -1/ for adult fathead minnows and 0.15 mg l/sup -1/ for young-of-the-year bluegills. 31 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  2. Gene prediction in the fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas] genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow is a well-established model organism which has been widely used for regulatory ecotoxicity testing and research for over half century. While much information has been gathered on the organism over the years, the fathead minnow genome, a critical source of infor...

  3. Bringing the fathead minnow into the genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow is a well-established ecotoxicological model organism that has been widely used for regulatory ecotoxicity testing and research for over a half century. While a large amount of molecular information has been gathered on the fathead minnow over the years, the la...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: fathead minnow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Pimephales_promelas_L.png Pim...ephales_promelas_NL.png Pimephales_promelas_S.png Pimephales_promelas_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pime...phales+promelas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+...promelas&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=NS ...

  5. Conversion of environmental estrone to estradiol by male fathead minnows

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set describes experiments that were conducted to investigate whether exposure of male fathead minnows to environmentally-relevant estrone concentrations...

  6. First Generation Annotations for the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) Genome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is a laboratory model organism widely used in regulatory toxicity testing and ecotoxicology research. Despite, the wealth of...

  7. MICROSATELLITE DNA VARIATION IN TWO FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) STOCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse effects on more than 2000 species of fish in the U.S. and Canada are estimated by sensitvity results of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) acute toxicity tests. Whether survival and susceptibility to toxicants are influenced by genetic variation is still under question...

  8. I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...

  9. Male Fathead Minnow Urine-Based Metabolomics for Assessing Impacts of Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed the potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was us...

  10. Effect of exposure to wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adult fathead minnows were exposed to dilutions of a historically estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent in a 21-d reproduction study. This dataset is...

  11. Effects of antiandrogen flutamide on steroidogenesis and gene expression in female fathead minnow ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms underlying reproductive impacts of antiandrogens in fish are not well-characterized and effective biomarkers of antiandrogen exposure are lacking. This work sought to identify genes and pathways affected by antiandrogen exposure in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promel...

  12. Propiconazole inhibits steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed effects of the conazole-fungicide propiconazole on endocrine function and reproductive success of the fathead minnow, using an experimental approach based on previously defined adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that inhibit steroidogenesis in fish...

  13. Influence of Ovarian Stage on Transcript Profiles in Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) Ovary Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small fish species with an asynchronous pattern of gonad development and reproduction are commonly used test organisms in aquatic ecotoxicology and more recently in ecotoxicogenomics. This study applies coordinated histological examination and fathead minnow oligonucleotide micr...

  14. SEQUENCING AND DE NOVO DRAFT ASSEMBLIES OF A FATHEAD MINNOW (Pimpehales promelas) reference genome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset provides the URLs for accessing the genome sequence data and two draft assemblies as well as fathead minnow genotyping data associated with estimating...

  15. Effect of toluene on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, E.W.; Brammer, J.D.; Puyear, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    The environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons present in freshwater systems have been poorly characterized. This study examines the effect of toluene, a major water-soluble component of petroleum fuels on teleost development under controlled conditions. The fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, was chosen as a model teleost for this study. Live embryos as well as serial sections of paraffin-embedded embryos were examined to determine effects of the toxicant. The toluene concentrations utilized ranged from 30 to 45 mg/L. Abnormalities noted under these conditions included distorted embryonic axis, abnormal heart and circulatory system development, hydration and swelling of the pericardial coelom, hemorrhaging an overall stunted appearance, microphthalmia, and a unique migration of the ventrally located yolk syncytial layer and its associated nuclei.

  16. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2011-01-17

    Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

  17. Embryotoxicity of maternally transferred methylmercury to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristin N; Soulen, Brianne K; Overturf, Carmen L; Drevnick, Paul E; Roberts, Aaron P

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and potent neurotoxin. In aquatic environments, Hg can be transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), which bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs, including fish. Methylmercury has been shown to transfer from female fish to developing eggs; however, relatively little is known regarding the effects of maternally transferred MeHg on fish embryos. The present study evaluated the effects of maternally transferred MeHg on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos. Embryos were collected from adult fatheads exposed for 30 d to 1 of 3 diets spiked with MeHg: a control diet (0.02 ppm Hg dry wt), a low diet (0.87 ppm Hg dry wt), or a high diet (5.5 ppm Hg dry wt). No effects on spawning frequency, clutch size, or total egg output were observed. In embryos, Hg concentration was a function of female diet and the duration (number of days) of female exposure. Compared with controls, embryos from the low-diet treatment displayed altered embryonic movement patterns (hyperactivity) and decreased time to hatch. Embryos from the high-diet treatment had delayed hatching and increased mortality compared with the other treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that maternally transferred Hg may impact survival, behavior, and developmental milestones of the embryo-larval stages of fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1436-1441. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Conversion of estrone to estradiol in male fathead minnows ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogens are frequently observed in aquatic environments associated with anthropogenic influence, such as agricultural runoff and wastewater treatment effluent. While 17â-estradiol (E2) is the most potent naturally-occurring estrogen, estrone (E1) is often found at higher environmental concentrations. However, exogenous sources of E1 could potentially be converted to the more potent E2 through the action of endogenous 17â-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, specifically, the 17â-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 isoform (HSD17B1). Observation of increased plasma E2 concentrations without measureable changes in aromatase (cytochrome P45019a) expression in male fish caged in ambient waters containing elevated concentrations of E1, but low or non-detectable concentrations of E2, suggested this may be occurring in the field. If so, exogenous E1 may have a greater impact on reproductive function in aquatic vertebrates than previously assumed. The present study was conducted to evaluate this hypothesis. Male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to aqueous concentrations of 16.7, 50, and 150 ng E1/L in the laboratory exhibit significantly (pplasma E2 concentrations relative to control. Plasma testosterone (T) was elevated at a low E1 exposure concentration (1.8 ng E1/L) and depressed at the highest level of exposure (150 ng E1/L). Additionally, vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression was significantly elevated at concentrations of 50 and 10

  19. Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Palić, Dušan

    2014-11-01

    Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail.

  20. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Papoulias, D.M.; Whyte, J.J.; Richter, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, the widely used herbicide, has shown to affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in certain vertebrate species, but few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical on fish. Our study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (e.g., gonad development) and biochemical (e.g., hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in fathead minnows. Adult virgin breeding groups of 1 male and 2 females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 ??g/L of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 30 days. Total egg production was lower (19-39%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine treated fish were significant by 17-20 days of exposure. Reductions in egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to reduced numbers of spawning events with increased atrazine exposure concentrations. Gonad abnormalities were observed in both male and female fish of atrazine-exposed fish. Our results also indicate that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reproductive effects observed in this study warrant further investigation and evaluation of the potential risks posed by atrazine, particularly feral populations of fish from streams in agricultural areas with high use of this herbicide. ?? 2010.

  1. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  2. Sequencing and De novo Draft Assemblies of the Fathead Minnow (Pimphales promelas)Reference Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to develop genome-scale resources for the fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas) an important model organism widely used in both aquatic ecotoxicology research and in regulatory toxicity testing. We report on the first sequencing and two draft assemblies fo...

  3. Gene prediction in the fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas] genome-presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow is a well-established ecotoxicological model organism, having been widely used for regulatory ecotoxicity testing and research for over a half century. While a large amount of molecular information has been gathered on the organism over the years, to date, the ...

  4. Sequencing and De novo Draft Assemblies of the Fathead Minnow (Pimphales promelas)Reference Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to develop genome-scale resources for the fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas) an important model organism widely used in both aquatic ecotoxicology research and in regulatory toxicity testing. We report on the first sequencing and two draft assemblies fo...

  5. VITELLOGENIN ELISA FOR FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) USING A COMPLETELY HOMOLOGOUS ASSAY SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The indication of vitellogenin in fish has been used as a biomarker for estrogen-receptor mediated gene induction pathways resulting from exposure to environmental estrogens. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) have been selected as one of the test models to investigate reprodu...

  6. VITELLOGENIN ELISA FOR FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) USING A COMPLETELY HOMOLOGOUS ASSAY SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The indication of vitellogenin in fish has been used as a biomarker for estrogen-receptor mediated gene induction pathways resulting from exposure to environmental estrogens. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) have been selected as one of the test models to investigate reprodu...

  7. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  8. Sex-specific gonadal and gene expression changes throughout development in fathead minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish in endocrine disruption studies, none have characterized sex-specific baseline expression of genes involved in sex differentiation during development in this species. Using a sex-linked DNA marker t...

  9. Direct Effects, Compensation, and Recovery in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to a Model Aromatase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports on the effects of a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, on molecular and biochemical endpoints within the fathead minnow reproductive axis. Unlike previous studies, this work incorporated extensive time-course characterization over the course of an 8 d exposu...

  10. Social Status Modulates Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiles in the Fathead Minnow Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow (FHM) is a valuable small fish model for genomic research in ecotoxicology. Our recent studies have successfully used genomic and metabolomic analyses to evaluate responses to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in urine of the FHM, but these results indicate...

  11. NMR ANALYSIS OF MALE FATHEAD MINNOW URINARY METABOLITES: A POTENTIAL APPROACH FOR STUDYING IMPACTS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for profiling endogenous metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures was explored using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy w...

  12. Sequencing and de novo draft assemblies of a fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Frank R; Cogburn, Amarin L; Ankley, Gerald T; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Waits, Eric; Chang, Yun-Juan; Llaca, Victor; Deschamps, Stephane D; Jackson, Raymond E; Hoke, Robert Alan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide the foundation for development of genome-scale resources for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), an important model organism widely used in both aquatic toxicology research and regulatory testing. The authors report on the first sequencing and 2 draft assemblies for the reference genome of this species. Approximately 120× sequence coverage was achieved via Illumina sequencing of a combination of paired-end, mate-pair, and fosmid libraries. Evaluation and comparison of these assemblies demonstrate that they are of sufficient quality to be useful for genome-enabled studies, with 418 of 458 (91%) conserved eukaryotic genes mapping to at least 1 of the assemblies. In addition to its immediate utility, the present work provides a strong foundation on which to build further refinements of a reference genome for the fathead minnow.

  13. Characterization of basic immune function parameters in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a common model in environmental toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Leah M; LeSueur, Meriel C; Yost, Alexandra T; Stephens, Dane A; Oris, James T; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2017-02-01

    The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is an environmental sentinel species, commonly used in toxicity testing. However, there is a lack of data regarding basic immune function in this species. To improve the usefulness of the fathead minnow as a model for basic immune function and immunotoxicity, this study sought to 1) compare the differential expression of immune function genes in naïve fathead minnows and 2) determine the effects of pathogen exposure on immune gene expression and spleen index. To accomplish this, kidney, spleen and liver tissue were collected three days post injection (dpi) from adult male fathead minnows from each of the following groups: 1) uninjected control 2) sham-injected (Hank's balanced salt solution) and 3) pathogen-injected (Yersinia ruckeri). Spleen tissue was also collected at seven and 14 dpi. Differential tissue expression of immune function genes was evaluated in naïve minnows and expression patterns were similar to those found in other fish species, with liver tissue generally having the highest amount of expression. Following pathogen injection, the expression of complement component 3 (c3) (4.4-fold, kidney; 2.5-fold, liver), interleukin 11 (il11) (4.8-fold, kidney; 15.2-fold, liver) and interleukin 1β (il1β) (8.2-fold, kidney; 17.2-fold, spleen; 2.6-fold, liver) were significantly upregulated. Elastase 2 (elas2) was significantly downregulated (5.8-fold) in liver tissue. A significant increase in spleen index at seven dpi was also observed in pathogen-injected minnows. This study has identified endpoints that are part of the normal response to pathogen in fathead minnows, an essential step toward the development of the fathead minnow as a model for immunotoxicity evaluations.

  14. Effects of environmental exposure to diazepam on the reproductive behavior of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Choe, Ree; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceutical drugs are continuously discharged into the aquatic environment primarily through wastewater discharge; therefore, their possible effects on wildlife is a reason of concern. Diazepam is a widely prescribed benzodiazepine drug used to treat insomnia and anxiety disorders, and it has been found in wastewater effluents worldwide. The present study tested the effects of diazepam on fecundity and the reproductive behavior of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a fish that exhibits male parental care. Sexually mature fathead minnows were housed at a ratio of one male and two females per tank and exposed to nominal (measured) concentrations of 0, 0.1 (0.14 ± 0.06), 1.0 (1.04 ± 0.15), 10 (13.4 ± 1.5) µg L(-1) for 21 days. Fish receiving the low diazepam treatment had significantly larger clutches than fish receiving the highest concentration but neither were different from controls. Diazepam exposure was not associated with a significant change in fertilization rate, hatchability or time to hatch, but a trend toward a higher number of eggs/day was observed in fish exposed to the low diazepam concentration relative to those exposed to the medium concentration. There were no significant differences in any of the behaviors analyzed when responses were averaged over time. The results showed that exposure to diazepam at concentrations as high as 13 µg L(-1) did not significantly impact the reproductive behavior of fathead minnow.

  15. Fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish life-stage responses to 17β-estradiol exposure in outdoor mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Rearick, Daniel C.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental and reproductive effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on two generations of fathead minnows and one generation of bluegill sunfish were assessed. Fish were exposed to E2 for six continuous weeks in outdoor mesocosms simulating natural lake environments. First generation fish were exposed while sexually mature. Second generation fathead minnows were exposed either during early development, sexual maturity, or both stages. Multiple endpoints were measured to assess effects of E2 exposure on fecundity and fish health and development. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations were highly variable in all fish. Differences in egg production timing for both species indicate differences in fecundity between females exposed to E2 and controls. First generation fathead minnows exposed to E2 had lower body condition factors and reduced secondary sexual characteristic expression by males. Only a difference in relative liver weight was observed in second generation fathead minnows. First generation bluegill males exposed to E2 had significantly smaller testes compared to controls. Although fish response was highly variable, results indicate that exposure to E2 at environmentally relevant concentrations affect fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish health and development, which may have implications for the health and sustainability of fish populations. Furthermore, exposure timing and environmental factors affect fish response to E2 exposure.

  16. NMR analysis of male fathead minnow urinary metabolites: A potential approach for studying impacts of chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, D.R. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States)], E-mail: ekman.drew@epa.gov; Teng, Q. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Jensen, K.M.; Martinovic, D.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Ankley, G.T. [Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. EPA, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Collette, T.W. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States)

    2007-11-30

    The potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures was explored using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was used for the assignment of metabolites in urine from unexposed fish. Because fathead minnow urine is dilute, we lyophilized these samples prior to analysis. Furthermore, 1D {sup 1}H NMR spectra of unlyophilized urine from unexposed male fathead minnow and Sprague-Dawley rat were acquired to qualitatively compare rat and fish metabolite profiles and to provide an estimate of the total urinary metabolite pool concentration difference. As a small proof-of-concept study, lyophilized urine samples from male fathead minnows exposed to three different concentrations of the antiandrogen vinclozolin were analyzed by 1D {sup 1}H NMR to assess exposure-induced changes. Through a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and measurements of {sup 1}H NMR peak intensities, several metabolites were identified as changing with statistical significance in response to exposure. Among those changes occurring in response to exposure to the highest concentration (450 {mu}g/L) of vinclozolin were large increases in taurine, lactate, acetate, and formate. These increases coincided with a marked decrease in hippurate, a combination potentially indicative of hepatotoxicity. The results of these investigations clearly demonstrate the potential utility of an NMR-based approach for assessing chemical exposures in male fathead minnow, using urine collected from individual fish.

  17. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  18. Human low density lipoprotein as a substrate for in vitro steroidogenesis assays with fathead minnow ovary explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonad explant in vitro steroidogenesis assays are used as part of a multifaceted strategy to detect endocrine active chemicals capable of altering steroid hormone synthesis. An in vitro steroidogenesis assay used in our laboratory involves exposing fathead minnow (FHM) gonad exp...

  19. Fishy aroma of social status: Urinary chemo-signaling of territoriality in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exhibit life history traits which may be conducive to evolution of systems that use chemical communication to confer information about an individual’s social status. Reproduction in males of this species is dependent upon their ability ...

  20. Modulation of estrogenic exposure effects via alterations in salinity and dissolved oxygen in male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory exposure data indicate that estrogens and estrogen mimics can cause endocrine disruption in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). In the wild, conditions are not static as is often the case in the laboratory. Changes in water quality parameters, such as salinity influx due to road s...

  1. Observed and modeled effects of pH on bioconcentration of diphenhydramine, a weakly basic pharmaceutical, by fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the influence of pH on uptake and accumulation of ionizable pharmaceuticals by fish was recently identified as a major research need. In the present study, fathead minnows were exposed to diphenhydramine (DPH), a weakly basic pharmaceutical (pKa = 9.1). Fish were ...

  2. Human low density lipoprotein as a substrate for in vitro steroidogenesis assays with fathead minnow ovary explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonad explant in vitro steroidogenesis assays are used as part of a multifaceted strategy to detect endocrine active chemicals capable of altering steroid hormone synthesis. An in vitro steroidogenesis assay used in our laboratory involves exposing fathead minnow (FHM) gonad exp...

  3. Observed and modeled effects of pH on bioconcentration of diphenhydramine, a weakly basic pharmaceutical, by fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the influence of pH on uptake and accumulation of ionizable pharmaceuticals by fish was recently identified as a major research need. In the present study, fathead minnows were exposed to diphenhydramine (DPH), a weakly basic pharmaceutical (pKa = 9.1). Fish were ...

  4. SUBCHRONIC SENSITIVITY OF ONE-, FOUR-, AND SEVEN-DAY-OLD FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) LARVAE TO FIVE TOXICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow (pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test was used to evaluate the relative sensitivity of 1-,4-, and 7-d-old larvae to five contaminants, KC1, NaC1, 1-octanol, carbaryl, and benzaldehyde. The no observable effect concentration (NOEC) for survival o...

  5. Investigation of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a biological control agent of Culex mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Patrick; Paskewitz, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Many urban areas have engineered storm-water runoff control structures such as ditches and detention ponds. These often serve as excellent habitats for Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, the primary enzootic vectors of West Nile virus in the Midwest. We evaluated predation and control of these species by a fish species native to Wisconsin, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In the lab, a single minnow consumed an average of 74 Cx. pipiens larvae in a 24-h period. Minnow gender and age had minimal effect on predation of 2nd and 4th instars. In the field, fathead minnows (1,000 fish/ha) were introduced 1 time into 3 storm-water ditches with an additional 9 sites serving as controls. Sites where fish were introduced required no Bacillus sphaericus (VectoLex) treatments during the 10-week experiment. The control sites required 19 VectoLex treatments during the same 10-week time span. Survival analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in time to first VectoLex treatment between fish sites and control sites. Our results suggest fathead minnows may provide a long-lasting and ecologically and economically feasible alternative to the use of VectoLex for Culex larval control.

  6. Effects of a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, dexamethasone, on fathead minnow reproduction, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Olmstead, Allen W; Medlock, Elizabeth K; Kahl, Michael D; Jensen, Kathleen M; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Blanksma, Chad A; Cavallin, Jenna E; Thomas, Linnea M; Seidl, Sara M; Skolness, Sarah Y; Wehmas, Leah C; Johnson, Rodney D; Ankley, Gerald T

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are pharmaceutical compounds prescribed in human and veterinary medicine as anti-inflammatory agents and have the potential to contaminate natural watersheds via inputs from wastewater treatment facilities and confined animal-feeding operations. Despite this, few studies have examined the effects of this class of chemicals on aquatic vertebrates. To generate data to assess potential risk to the aquatic environment, we used fathead minnow 21-d reproduction and 29-d embryo-larvae assays to determine reproductive toxicity and early-life-stage effects of dexamethasone. Exposure to 500 µg dexamethasone/L in the 21-d test caused reductions in fathead minnow fecundity and female plasma estradiol concentrations and increased the occurrence of abnormally hatched fry. Female fish exposed to 500 µg dexamethasone/L also displayed a significant increase in plasma vitellogenin protein levels, possibly because of decreased spawning. A decrease in vitellogenin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in liver tissue from females exposed to the high dexamethasone concentration lends support to this hypothesis. Histological results indicate that a 29-d embryo-larval exposure to 500 µg dexamethasone/L caused a significant increase in deformed gill opercula. Fry exposed to 500 µg dexamethasone/L for 29 d also exhibited a significant reduction in weight and length compared with control fry. Taken together, these results indicate that nonlethal concentrations of a model glucocorticoid receptor agonist can impair fish reproduction, growth, and development. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Joint acute toxicity of esfenvalerate and diazinon to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Debra L; Wheelock, Craig E; Murray, Shauna A; Deanovic, Linda A; Hammock, Bruce D; Hinton, David E

    2003-02-01

    California (USA) agriculture employs pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides to control insects in orchards and other crops. Diazinon and esfenvalerate were selected for this study because of their application overlaps. Toxicological and biochemical responses of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed singly and in combinations to esfenvalerate and diazinon were determined. Exposures were 96-h static renewal tests that used standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute toxicity test methods. After pesticide exposures, larvae were evaluated for carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity, and histopathological effects. Carboxylesterase activity was examined because of its potential influence on the toxicity of both organophosphates and pyrethroids. In vivo studies demonstrated that diazinon significantly inhibited carboxylesterase activity at nominal water concentrations as low as 50 microg/L. However, esfenvalerate did not affect carboxylesterase activity at any concentration tested. Liver glycogen depletion was the only histopathological effect observed; this effect was demonstrated with the individual pesticides and pesticide combinations (i.e., mixtures). The combinations of diazinon and esfenvalerate causing acute toxicity to fathead minnow larvae appeared to be greater than additive (i.e., synergistic) in all three tests.

  8. Investigations of transcript expression in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) brain tissue reveal toxicological impacts of RDX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Kurt A; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Habib, Tanwir; Yoo, Leslie; Wintz, Henri; Vulpe, Chris D; Perkins, Edward J

    2011-01-17

    Production, usage and disposal of the munitions constituent (MC) cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) has led to environmental releases on military facilities. The chemical attributes of RDX are conducive for leaching to surface water which may put aquatic organisms at risk of exposure. Because RDX has been observed to cause aberrant neuromuscular effects across a wide range of animal phyla, we assessed the effects of RDX on central nervous system (CNS) functions in the representative aquatic ecotoxicological model species, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). We developed a fathead minnow brain-tissue cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially expressed in response to RDX and trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. All 4,128 cDNAs were sequenced, quality filtered and assembled yielding 2230 unique sequences and 945 significant blastx matches (E ≤10(-5)). The cDNA library was leveraged to create custom-spotted microarrays for use in transcript expression assays. The impact of RDX on transcript expression in brain tissue was examined in fathead minnows exposed to RDX at 0.625, 2.5, 5, 10mg/L or an acetone-spike control for 10 days. Overt toxicity of RDX in fathead minnow occurred only at the highest exposure concentration resulting in 50% mortality and weight loss. Conversely, Bayesian analysis of microarray data indicated significant changes in transcript expression at concentrations as low as 0.625 mg/L. In total, 154 cDNAs representing 44 unique transcripts were differentially expressed in RDX exposures, the majority of which were validated by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Investigation of molecular pathways, gene ontology (GO) and individual gene functions affected by RDX exposures indicated changes in metabolic processes involved in: oxygen transport, neurological function, calcium binding/signaling, energy metabolism, cell growth/division, oxidative stress and ubiquitination. In total, our study indicated that RDX exposure affected

  9. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  10. A time-course analysis of effects of the steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of fathead minnows (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  11. Sex-specific gene expression in early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) throughout development and after exposure to synthetic hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...

  12. Laboratory assessment of the toxicity of urban runoff on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, C.; Coler, R.A.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The early life stage effects of urban runoff (rain and snowmelt) on hatching, growth and survival of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was assessed in static and flow-through systems. The data indicate a Maximum Allowable Toxicant Concentration (MATC) and a reduction of growth to 50% of controls at 28% and 60% runoff, respectivley. Hatchability and average lengths were not as sensitive indicators of stress as millimeters produced per treatment. The data indicate a maximum toxicity in the fall which coincided with the reported drop in macroinvertebrate diversity during the same period, when untreated runoff events can contribute up to 1/4 of the river flow. The reduced diversity may be attributed to leachability and potential availability of sorbed concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, and cadmium in river sediments.

  13. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas): raw data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Richter, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The herbicide, atrazine, routinely is observed in surface and groundwaters, particularly in the “corn belt” region, a high-use area of the United States. Atrazine has demonstrated effects on reproduction in mammals and amphibians, but the characterization of endocrine-related effects in fish has received only limited attention. Peak concentrations of atrazine in surface water of streams from these agricultural areas coincide with annual spawning events of native fishes. Consequently, there was an unacceptable level of uncertainty in our understanding of the risks associated with the periods of greatest atrazine exposure and greatest vulnerability of certain species of fishes. For this reason, a study of the effects of atrazine on fathead minnow reproduction was undertaken (Tillitt and others, 2010). This report provides the raw data from that study.

  14. Environmentally relevant exposure to 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol affects the telencephalic proteome of male fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyn@unb.ca [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States); Kroll, Kevin J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Estrogens are key mediators of neuronal processes in vertebrates. As such, xenoestrogens present in the environment have the potential to alter normal central nervous system (CNS) function. The objectives of the present study were (1) to identify proteins with altered abundance in the male fathead minnow telencephalon as a result of low-level exposure to17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}), and (2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) feedback in this important neuroendocrine tissue. Male fathead minnows exposed to a measured concentration of 5.4 ng EE{sub 2}/L for 48 h showed decreased plasma E{sub 2} levels of approximately 2-fold. Of 77 proteins that were quantified statistically, 14 proteins were down-regulated after EE{sub 2} exposure, including four histone proteins, ATP synthase, H+ transporting subunits, and metabolic proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B4, malate dehydrogenase 1b). Twelve proteins were significantly induced by EE{sub 2} including microtubule-associated protein tau (Mapt), astrocytic phosphoprotein, ependymin precursor, and calmodulin. Mapt showed an increase in protein abundance but a decrease in mRNA expression after EE{sub 2} exposure{sub ,} suggesting there may be a negative feedback response in the telencephalon to decreased mRNA transcription with increasing Mapt protein abundance. These results demonstrate that a low, environmentally relevant exposure to EE{sub 2} can rapidly alter the abundance of proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, neuron network morphology, and long-term synaptic potentiation. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of the molecular responses underlying E{sub 2} feedback in the brain and demonstrate that quantitative proteomics can be successfully used in ecotoxicology to characterize affected cellular pathways and endocrine physiology.

  15. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, L.; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a fire-retardant chemical to fathead minnows in experimental streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Each year millions of liters of fire-retardant chemicals are applied to wildfires across the nation. Recent laboratory studies with long-term fire-retardant chemicals indicate a significant photoenhanced toxicity of products containing sodium ferrocyanide corrosion inhibitors. Our objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of fire-retardant chemicals to fathead minnows during exposure in experimental outdoor streams. Methods. Stream tests were conducted to determine the potential toxicity of a pulse of exposure as might occur when fire retardant chemical is rinsed from the watershed by rainfall. Two artificial 55-meter experimental streams were dosed with different concentrations of Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, or uncontaminated for a control. Replicate groups of fathead minnows were added to screened containers (10 fish per container) and exposed to retardant chemicals in the recirculating flow of the stream for up to 6 hours. Results and Discussion. Under field conditions toxicity of GTS-R only occurred in the presence of sunlight. When GTS-R was tested on sunny days, 100% mortality occurred. However, when tested during heavily overcast conditions, no mortality occurred. Conclusions. Lethal concentrations of cyanide were measured when GTS-R with YPS exposures were conducted under sunny conditions, but not under cloudy conditions, indicating that a minimum UV level is necessary to induce toxicity as well as the release of cyanide from YPS. The toxicity observed with GTS-R was likely associated with lethal concentrations of cyanide. Rainwater runoff following applications of this fire-retardant at the recommended rate could result in lethal concentrations in small ponds and streams receiving limited water flow under sunny conditions. Recommendations and Outlook. In addition to avoiding application to aquatic habitats, it is important to consider characteristics of the treated site including soil binding affinity and erosive properties.

  17. Gene expression responses in male fathead minnows exposed to binary mixtures of an estrogen and antiestrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Edward J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquatic organisms are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, many of which can interfere with their endocrine system, resulting in impaired reproduction, development or survival, among others. In order to analyze the effects and mechanisms of action of estrogen/anti-estrogen mixtures, we exposed male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas for 48 hours via the water to 2, 5, 10, and 50 ng 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2/L, 100 ng ZM 189,154/L (a potent antiestrogen known to block activity of estrogen receptors or mixtures of 5 or 50 ng EE2/L with 100 ng ZM 189,154/L. We analyzed gene expression changes in the gonad, as well as hormone and vitellogenin plasma levels. Results Steroidogenesis was down-regulated by EE2 as reflected by the reduced plasma levels of testosterone in the exposed fish and down-regulation of genes in the steroidogenic pathway. Microarray analysis of testis of fathead minnows treated with 5 ng EE2/L or with the mixture of 5 ng EE2/L and 100 ng ZM 189,154/L indicated that some of the genes whose expression was changed by EE2 were blocked by ZM 189,154, while others were either not blocked or enhanced by the mixture, generating two distinct expression patterns. Gene ontology and pathway analysis programs were used to determine categories of genes for each expression pattern. Conclusion Our results suggest that response to estrogens occurs via multiple mechanisms, including canonical binding to soluble estrogen receptors, membrane estrogen receptors, and other mechanisms that are not blocked by pure antiestrogens.

  18. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. 17alpha-ethynylestradiol-induced vitellogenin gene transcription quantified in livers of adult males, larvae, and gills of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattier, David L; Reddy, Tirumuru V; Gordon, Denise A; Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E; Williams, Daniel E; Wiechman, Barry; Flick, Robert W; Miracle, Ann L; Toth, Gregory P

    2002-11-01

    We have applied a method for quantifying relative levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription to assess chemically induced gene expression in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Synthetic oligonucleotides designed for the fathead minnow vitellogenin gene transcription product were used in a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. This sensitive and rapid strategy detected vitellogenin gene transcription in livers of male fathead minnows exposed to concentrations as low as 2 ng/L of the endocrine-disrupting compound 17alpha-ethynylestradiol for 24 h. Surprisingly, vitellogenin transcription products also were detected in gill tissue and in 48-h-old posthatch fathead minnow larvae. Relative levels of vitellogenin gene induction among individuals were quantified in a single-step reaction (PCR multiplex) with 18S rRNA universal primers and Competimers concurrently with fathead minnow vitellogenin oligonucleotides. This quantitative approach will markedly enhance detection of the first cellular event of estrogenic exposure to aquatic ecosystems in both field and laboratory systems. Use of the model provides sensitivity of detection at a concentration below those that cause mortality or visible signs of stress in fish or other aquatic organisms. The model may also provide an in vivo screening method for estrogenlike endocrine-disrupting compounds.

  20. Effects of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) density on the survival and growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): Implications for North American river fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.

    1996-01-01

    I used replicated 37.8 1 aquaria in a factorial design (four densities of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha; two hydrologic regimes) to determine if the survival or growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) was affected by the density of zebra mussel or by the retention time of the test system. None of the fathead minnows died during the 30-d experiment. However, growth of fathead minnows was lower (P0.05). These laboratory results suggest that juvenile fish survival will not be affected by low to moderate densities of mussels (0-3000 m super(-2)) but fish growth might be adversely affected at moderate densities of mussels (e.g., 3000 m super(-2)).

  1. Development and validation of a direct homologous quantitative sandwich ELISA for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) vitellogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidem, Janne K; Kleivdal, Hans; Kroll, Kevin; Denslow, Nancy; van Aerle, Ronny; Tyler, Charles; Panter, Grace; Hutchinson, Tom; Goksøyr, Anders

    2006-06-15

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is an established and sensitive endpoint for analysis of exposure to (anti-)oestrogens and their mimics in fish [Sumpter, J.P., 1995. Feminized responses in fish to environmental estrogens. Toxicol. Lett. 82, 737-742; Arukwe, A., Goksøyr, A., 2003. Eggshell and egg yolk proteins in fish: hepatic proteins for the next generation: oogenetic, population, and evolutionary implications of endocrine disruption. Comp. Hepatol. 2, 4. ]. In some instances, links have been drawn between high level induction of Vtg and adverse health effects in fish [Herman, R.L., Kincaide, H.L., 1988. Pathological effects of orally administered estradiol to rainbow trout. Aquaculture 72, 165-172; Schwaiger, J., Spieser, O.H., Bauer, C., Ferling, H., Mallow, U., Kalbfus, W., Negele, R.D., 2000. Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinyloestraiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquat. Toxicol. 51, 69-78]. The widespread use of Vtg as a biomarker has led to the development of a variety of assays to quantitatively measure Vtg concentrations in tissue samples from fish, and hence a need for a standardization of the performance criteria and validation of such assays [Goksøyr, A., Eidem, J.K., Kristiansen, S.I., Nilsen, B.M., 2003. On the need for a standardized set-up for validation studies of fish vitellogenin assays as an endpoint in endocrine disruptor testing and screening-a proposal. ]. One of the most popular test fish species for assessing chemical effects is the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), which is now used widely for studies into endocrine disruption [Panter, G.H., Hutchinson, T.H., Lange, R., Lye, C.M., Sumpter, J.P., Zerulla, M., Tyler, C.R., 2002. Utility of a juvenile fathead minnow screening assay for detecting (anti)estrogenic substances. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21, 319-326; Hutchinson, T.H., Yokota, H., Hagino, S., Ozato, K., 2003. Development of fish tests for endocrine disruptors. Pure Appl

  2. Phytoestrogens in the environment, II: microbiological degradation of phytoestrogens and the response of fathead minnows to degradate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Fleischhacker, Nathan T; Rearick, Daniel C; Arnold, William A; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Novak, Paige J

    2014-03-01

    Phytoestrogens are endocrine active compounds derived from plants, including the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, and their methylated derivatives biochanin A and formononetin. These compounds have been detected at the µg/L level in the effluents of plant-processing industries and municipal treatment plants and at the ng/L level in surface waters worldwide. The present study assessed the persistence of genistein and daidzein in natural aquatic systems, specifically riverine samples. Initial concentration, temperature, sample location, and time of sample collection varied. Genistein and daidzein were found to be readily biodegradable at all tested concentrations, at both 10 °C and 20 °C, in samples collected during different seasons, and in samples from 3 different rivers. In addition, organismal responses in larval and sexually mature fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were quantified following exposure to microbiologically degraded phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, and formononetin). Products of the microbiological degradation of parent phytoestrogens did not affect larval survival, growth, or predator avoidance. Female adult fathead minnows exposed to these degradation products produced significantly fewer eggs than those exposed to a control, but no other morphological, physiological, or behavioral changes were observed with male or female minnows. The present research suggests that although phytoestrogens are not likely to persist in aquatic systems, they may pseudo-persist if discharges are continuous; in addition, caution should be exercised with respect to high-concentration effluents because of the potentially antiestrogenic effects of phytoestrogen degradates.

  3. Exposure effects of levonorgestrel on oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler; Yonkos, Lance; Frankel, Jack

    2017-07-06

    The synthetic progestin levonorgestrel is commonly utilized in human oral contraceptives. It enters the environment as a component of wastewater treatment plant effluent, and has been measured at low ng/L concentrations in surface waters. It has been shown to activate fish androgen receptors, causing the physical masculinization of females, changes in reproductive behavior, and decreases in fecundity. In the present study, the effects of levonorgestrel exposure on early-stage oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was examined. Adult females were exposed to 0, 10, or 100 ng/L levonorgestrel for 14 d using a flow-through exposure system. The ovaries from each female were then removed via dissection and weighed for gonadosomatic index (GSI) calculations, and oocytes from one lobe preserved in Serra's fixative. Total numbers of late-stage vitellogenic oocytes exhibiting a germinal vesicle were then quantified. In a second exposure, blood plasma samples were collected from adult females and analyzed for vitellogenin concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Females exposed to both concentrations of levonorgestrel developed male secondary sexual characteristics in a dose-dependent manner, and ovaries contained significantly fewer late stage oocytes. Exposure to 100 ng/L of levonorgestrel resulted in decreased GSI and blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations. The results suggest that female exposure to levonorgestrel alone may have profound effects on reproduction in progestin-contaminated environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-6. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. Influence of copper exposure on whole-body sodium levels in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2008-06-01

    Because metals such as Cu inhibit ionoregulation, the increased energy requirement to counter passive diffusive losses in soft water may translate into increased sensitivity to metal exposure. We developed a method to determine whole-body Na concentrations of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a physiological indicator of health. This method was used to characterize net rates of Na flux from fish exposed to Cu in the presence of varying levels of hardness and alkalinity. In extremely soft waters (hardness, hardness (>10 mg/L as CaCO(3)), however, decreased the apparent kinetics of Na loss caused by Cu exposure, which suggests the process was related to uncompetitive inhibition of Cu by hardness cations. Although the percentage of Na loss associated with mortality in larval fish was similar to that in juvenile and adult fish (30% loss of exchangeable Na pool), larvae reached this level within 12 h of exposure, and it was not representative of the onset of mortality. These results suggested that ionoregulatory measures by themselves are not a conclusive metric for Cu regulation using larval fish. To account for increased sensitivity in low-hardness waters in the development of biotic ligand models, the critical amount of Cu associated with the gill to cause mortality (i.e., the median lethal accumulation value) should be characterized more appropriately as a function of hardness below 20 mg/L as CaCO(3).

  5. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Ryan, Adam C; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average+/-standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16+/-8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18+/-11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6+/-4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters.

  6. Phytoestrogens in the environment, I: occurrence and exposure effects on fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearick, Daniel C; Fleischhacker, Nathan T; Kelly, Megan M; Arnold, William A; Novak, Paige J; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2014-03-01

    Naturally occurring phytoestrogens may mimic biogenic estrogens and modulate endocrine action in vertebrates. Little is known, however, about their temporal and spatial variability in the environment and the biological effects associated with exposures. The present study assessed the environmental presence of phytoestrogens in human-impacted and relatively pristine areas. The response in larval and sexually mature fathead minnows to environmentally relevant concentrations of 3 common phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, and formononetin), both singly and in mixture, was also quantified. Phytoestrogens were only present in the human-impacted surface waters. When detected, mean concentrations were low (± standard deviation) in an urban lake: 1.4 ± 0.5 ng/L, 1.6 ± 0.7 ng/L, and 1.1 ± 0.2 ng/L for genistein, daidzein, and formononetin, respectively, and in treated wastewater effluent: 1.6 ± 0.4 ng/L, 1.8 ± 1.3 ng/L, and 2.0 ng/L. Biochanin A was detected twice, whereas zearalenone and coumestrol were never detected. No clear temporal trends of aqueous phytoestrogen concentration were evident. Larval survival was significantly reduced in genistein, formononetin, and mixture treatments, whereas adult male fish only exhibited subtle changes to their anatomy, physiology, and behavior. Daidzein-exposed adult females produced greater quantities of eggs. The present study indicates that genistein, daidzein, and formononetin are likely attenuated rapidly and are unlikely to cause widespread ecological harm in the absence of other stressors.

  7. CORAL: QSAR models for acute toxicity in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, A P; Toropov, A A; Lombardo, A; Roncaglioni, A; Benfenati, E; Gini, G

    2012-05-05

    CORrelation And Logic (CORAL) is a software that generates quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) for different endpoints. This study is dedicated to the QSAR analysis of acute toxicity in Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Statistical quality for the external test set is a complex function of the split (into training and test subsets), the number of epochs of the Monte Carlo optimization, and the threshold that is a criterion for dividing the correlation weights into two classes rare (blocked) and not rare (active). Computational experiments with three random splits (data on 568 compounds) indicated that this approach can satisfactorily predict the desired endpoint (the negative decimal logarithm of the 50% lethal concentration, in mmol/L, pLC50). The average correlation coefficients (r2) are 0.675 ± 0.0053, 0.824 ± 0.0242, 0.787 ± 0.0101 for subtraining, calibration, and test set, respectively. The average standard errors of estimation (s) are 0.837 ± 0.021, 0.555 ± 0.047, 0.606 ± 0.049 for subtraining, calibration, and test set, respectively. The CORAL software together with three random splits into subtraining, calibration, and test sets can be downloaded on the Internet (http://www.insilico.eu/coral/). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An optimised experimental test procedure for measuring chemical effects on reproduction in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Karen L; Benstead, Rachel; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Tyler, Charles R

    2007-02-15

    The production of viable offspring is fundamental to the survival of any population. Tests that quantify effects on reproduction can, therefore, inform on the potential for long-term health effects of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the reproductive capacity of laboratory fish species used for chemical testing. As an example, the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, is widely used in chronic assessments of reproductive toxicology, and is readily induced to reproduce in captivity, yet there is little agreement on the reproductive capacity (egg number) of this species. For this species, the notable variation in reported estimates of egg number might relate to differences in the methods of egg collection adopted by many laboratories. To investigate this hypothesis, reproduction was assessed in a total of 200 pair-breeding fathead minnow, using egg collection methods that included the addition of trays placed beneath an inverted U-shaped PVC tile that is conventionally used alone for egg collection. The results demonstrated that the placement of a mesh-screened egg collection tray, beneath the spawning tile, increased estimates of the egg number by 25-67%. In addition, adopting the mesh-screened tray reduced variation in egg number between pairs, within an experiment, from >50% to <30% and variation between experiments was reduced from 53% to 7%. Adoption of the revised system for egg collection shows that egg number in the fathead minnow is considerably more consistent than frequently reported and is a highly robust endpoint against which chemical effects can be challenged effectively.

  9. Fishy aroma of social status: urinary chemo-signalling of territoriality in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Martinovic-Weigelt

    Full Text Available Chemical structures of several urinary reproductive pheromones in fish have been identified, and their role in the chemical communication of reproductive condition is well characterized. On the contrary, the role of chemical communication in signalling of social/territorial status in fish is poorly understood. Fathead minnows are an example of a fish species whose life history traits appear conducive to evolution of chemical communication systems that confer information about social/territorial status. Male reproduction in this species is dependent upon their ability to acquire and defend a high quality nesting territory, and to attract a female to the nest. We hypothesized that fathead minnow males use visual and urine-derived chemical cues to signal territorial status. To test this hypothesis, effects of territorial acquisition on male-specific secondary sex characteristics (SSCs and urine volumes were first assessed. Second, frequencies of male urination in varying social contexts were examined. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to identify urinary metabolites that were differentially excreted in the urine of territorial versus non-territorial males. The expression of SSCs, sperm, and urine volumes increased with territory acquisition, and either remained unchanged or decreased in non-territorial males. Frequency of male urination increased significantly in the presence of females (but not males, suggesting that females are the main target of the urinary signals. Territorial and non-territorial males had distinct urinary metabolomic profiles. An unforeseen finding was that one could discern future territorial status of males, based on their initial metabolomic profiles. Bile acids and volatile amines were identified as potential chemical signals of social status in the fathead minnow. The finding that trimethylamine (a fishy smelling volatile amine may be a social cue is particularly interesting, because it is

  10. Transcription of key genes regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in control and ketoconazole- or vinclozolin-exposed fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Brodin, Jeffrey; Greene, Katie J.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Martinovic, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in male fathead minnows exposed to ketoconazole (KTC) or vinclozolin (VZ) for 21 days. The aim was to evaluate links between molecular changes and higher level outcomes after exposure to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action. To aid our analysis and interpretation of EAC-related effects, we first examined variation in the relative abundance of steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts in the gonads of male and female fathead minnows as a function of age, gonad development, and spawning status, independent of EAC exposure. Gonadal expression of several genes varied with age and/or gonadal somatic index in either males or females. However, with the exception of aromatase, steroidogenesis-related gene expression did not vary with spawning status. Following the baseline experiments, expression of the selected genes in male fathead minnows exposed to KTC or VZ was evaluated in the context of effects observed at higher levels of organization. Exposure to KTC elicited changes in gene transcription that were consistent with an apparent compensatory response to the chemical's anticipated direct inhibition of steroidogenic enzyme activity. Exposure to VZ, an antiandrogen expected to indirectly impact steroidogenesis, increased pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit as well as testis expression of 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and luteinizing hormone receptor transcripts. Results of this study contribute to ongoing research aimed at understanding responses of the teleost hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to different types of EACs and how changes in molecular endpoints translate into apical outcomes reflective of either adverse effect or compensation.

  11. Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Waye, Andrew; Lado, Wudu E; Martel, Pierre H; Arnason, John T.; Vance L Trudeau

    2014-01-01

    Background A 5-day fathead minnow (FHM) spawning assay is used by industry to monitor pulp mill effluent quality, with some mill effluents capable of completely inhibiting spawning. The purpose of this report is to characterize the effect of an inhibitory effluent on egg and milt production in FHM. Methods Eight tanks were treated with an inhibitory effluent while eight were kept with clean water. Each tank contained two males and four females as per the 5-day FHM spawning assay used by indus...

  12. Examining waterborne and dietborne routes of exposure and their contribution to biological response patterns in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozon-Ramilo, Lisa D., E-mail: lisa.ramilo@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Toxicology Centre, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3 (Canada); Dube, Monique G., E-mail: moniqe.dube@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, School of Environment and Sustainability, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 2X8 (Canada); Squires, Allison J., E-mail: allison.squires@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Toxicology Centre, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Objective (i) was achieved by isolating each route of exposure (diet, water and the combination of the two) and comparing it to a control. The metal mining effluent studied encompassed several different effluent types including: mine water, mill facility, tailing impoundment, treatment pond, treatment facility, seepage and surface drainage effluent. Experiment 1 examined exposure pathways by isolating effluent exposure through the diet, water or the combination of the two. Experiment 2 examined whether differences in Fathead minnow responses occurred when fish were fed a live or frozen (dead) diet of chironomids. Multiple trophic levels (consumers and carnivores) were placed in each artificial stream simultaneously. Primary route of exposure to Fathead minnow when held in control water and fed effluent-exposed chironomid larvae. - Abstract: The objectives of the current study were: (i) to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of water and diet as routes of exposure causing toxicity in fathead minnow (FHM) exposed to metal mining effluents (MME) using a full factorial water/food experimental design (Experiment 1), and (ii) to assess differences in the effects of food quality on toxicity by comparing FHM fed both a live and frozen diet of Chironomus dilutus (Experiment 2). The results showed significant increases in general water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, conductivity) and various metals in the effluent treatment waters compared to control waters, with maximum increase seen in the multi-trophic streams. Metals accumulation (Rb, Al, Se, Sr, Tl, Ce, Co, Cu, Pb) effects of both waterborne and multi-trophic exposures were significant in one or more fathead minnow tissue type (muscle, gonads, liver, larvae) relative to those in the control systems. Condition factor and liver somatic index (LSI) of FHM were also significantly affected in both exposures by one or both routes of exposure (water and/or diet). In addition, cumulative

  13. Pathogenesis of spring viremia of carp virus in emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misk, E; Garver, K; Nagy, E; Isaac, S; Tubbs, L; Huber, P; Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2016-06-01

    Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is a reportable disease to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) as it is known to cause significant international economic impact. In Canada, the first and only isolation of SVC virus (SVCV) was in 2006, from common carp Cyprinus carpio L., at Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. The susceptibility of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede) to intraperitoneal injection of the Canadian isolate (HHOcarp06) was evaluated using experimental infection, virus isolation, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Emerald shiner and fathead minnow were most susceptible with 43 and 53% cumulative mortality, respectively, compared with koi at 33%. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that koi had high viral loads throughout the experiment. At 34 days post-infection, SVCV was detected from sampled emerald shiner and white sucker in very low titre and was not detected from fathead minnow. Koi, fathead minnow and emerald shiner had gross lesions typical of SVC disease. The histopathological picture was mostly dominated by necrotic changes in kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine. IHC further confirmed SVCV infection, and staining was largely correlated with histological lesions.

  14. A Method for the Determination of Genetic Sex in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas, to Support Testing of Endocrine-active Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows are used as a model fish species for the characterization of the endocrine-disrupting potential of environmental contaminants. This research describes the development of a PCR method that can determine the genetic sex in this species. This method, when incorpora...

  15. Effects of short time-course exposure to antiandrogen flutamide on steroidogenesis and gene expression in ovary of female fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the mechanisms through which antiandrogens disrupt reproduction in fish are not well-characterized, this work sought to identify genes and pathways affected by antiandrogen exposure, and to compare differentially expressed genes in the fathead minnow to those previously r...

  16. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  17. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  18. Larval exposure to environmentally relevant mixtures of alkylphenolethoxylates reduces reproductive competence in male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistodeau, T.J.; Barber, L.B.; Bartell, S.E.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Klaustermeier, J.; Woodard, J.C.; Lee, K.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of nonylphenolethoxylate/octylphenolethoxylate (NPE/OPE) compounds in aquatic environments adjacent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) warrants an assessment of the endocrine disrupting potential of these complex mixtures on aquatic vertebrates. In this study, fathead minnow larvae were exposed for 64 days to a mixture of NPE/OPE, which closely models the NPE/OPE composition of a major metropolitan WWTP effluent. Target exposure concentrations included a total NPE/OPE mixture load of 200% of the WWTP effluent concentration (148 ??g/L), 100% of the WWTP effluent concentration (74 ??g/L) and 50% of the WWTP effluent concentration (38 ??g/L). The NPE/OPE mixture contained 0.2% 4-t-octylphenol, 2.8% 4-nonylphenol, 5.1% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate, 9.3% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate, 0.9% 4-t-octylphenolmonoethoxylate, 3.1% 4-t-octylphenoldiethoxylate, 33.8% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate, and 44.8% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxycarboxylate. An additional exposure of 5 ??g/L 4-nonylphenol (nominal) was conducted. The exposure utilized a flow-through system supplied by ground water and designed to deliver consistent concentrations of applied chemicals. Following exposure, larvae were raised to maturity. Upon sexual maturation, exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males in a competitive spawning assay. Nest holding ability of control and exposed fish was carefully monitored for 7 days. All male fish were then sacrificed and analyzed for plasma vitellogenin, developmental changes in gonadal tissues, alterations in the development of secondary sexual characters, morphometric changes, and changes to reproductive behavior. When exposed to the 200% NPE/OPE treatment most larvae died within the first 4 weeks of exposure. Both the 100% and 50% NPE/OPE exposures caused a significant decrease in reproductive behavior, as indicated by an inability of many of the previously exposed males to acquire and hold a nest site required for reproduction

  19. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.M.; Painter, M.M.; Bartell, S.E.; Logue, A.; Furlong, E.T.; Werner, S.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305. ng/L and 1104. ng/L) and SER (5.2. ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28. ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish-a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Linking biomarkers to reproductive success of caged fathead minnows in streams with increasing urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, J.; Corsi, S.R.; Weber, D.; Bannerman, R.; Klaper, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive and oxidative stress biomarkers have been recommended as tools to assess the health of aquatic organisms. Though validated in the laboratory, there are few studies that tie a change in gene expression to adverse reproductive or population outcomes in the field. This paper looked at 17 streams with varying degrees of urbanization to assess the use of biomarkers associated with reproduction or stress in predicting reproductive success of fathead minnows. In addition, the relationship between biomarkers and water quality measures in streams with varying degrees of urbanization was examined. Liver vitellogenin mRNA was correlated with reproduction within a period of 11. d prior to sampling irrespective of habitat, but its correlation with egg output declined at 12. d and beyond indicating its usefulness as a short-term biomarker but its limits as a biomarker of total reproductive output. Stress biomarkers such as glutathione S-transferase may be better correlated with factors affecting reproduction over a longer term. There was a significant correlation between GST mRNA and a variety of anthropogenic pollutants. There was also an inverse correlation between glutathione S-transferase and the amount of the watershed designated as wetland. Egg production over the 21-d was negatively correlated with the amount of urbanization and positively correlated to wetland habitats. This study supports the development of multiple biomarkers linking oxidative stress and other non-reproductive endpoints to changes in aquatic habitats will be useful for predicting the health of fish populations and identifying the environmental factors that may need mitigation for sustainable population management. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Painter, Meghan M.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Logue, Amanda; Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimeplwles promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305 ng/L and 1104 ng/L) and SER (5.2 ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28 ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish—a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies.

  2. Transcriptional networks associated with 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornostay, Anna; Marr, Joshua; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Androgens play a significant role in regulating oogenesis in teleost fishes. The androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a potent non-aromatizable androgen involved in sexual differentiation in mammals; however, its actions are not well understood in teleost fish. To better characterize the physiological role of DHT in the fathead minnow (FHM) ovary on a temporal scale, in vitro assays for 17β-estradiol (E2) production were conducted in parallel with microarray analysis. Ovarian explants were incubated at different concentrations of DHT (10(-6), 10(-7), and 10(-8)M DHT) in three separate experiments conducted at 6, 9, and 12h. DHT treatment resulted in a rapid and consistent increase in E2 production from the ovary at all three time points. Therefore, DHT may act to shift the balance of metabolites in the steroidogenic pathway within the ovary. Major biological themes affected by DHT in the ovary in one or more of the time points included those related to blood (e.g. vasodilation, blood vessel contraction, clotting), lipids (e.g. lipid storage, cholesterol metabolism, lipid degradation) and reproduction (e.g. hormone and steroid metabolism). Gene networks related to immune responses and calcium signaling were also affected by DHT, suggesting that this androgen may play a role in regulating these processes in the ovary. This study detected no change in mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes (cyp19a1, star, 11βhsd, 17βhsd, srd5a isoforms), suggesting that the observed increase in E2 production is likely more dependent on the pre-existing gene or protein complement in the ovary rather than the de novo expression of transcripts. This study increases knowledge regarding the roles of DHT and androgens in general in the teleost ovary and identifies molecular signaling pathways that may be associated with increased E2 production.

  3. From single chemicals to mixtures--reproductive effects of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on the fathead minnow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnalls, Tamsin J; Beresford, Nicola; Kugathas, Subramaniam; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Scholze, Martin; Scott, Alexander P; Sumpter, John P

    2015-12-01

    The aquatic environment is polluted with thousands of chemicals. It is currently unclear which of these pose a significant threat to aquatic biota. The typical exposure scenario is now represented by a widespread blanket of contamination composed of myriads of individual pollutants-each typically present at a low concentration. The synthetic steroids, 17α-ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel, have been widely reported to be present in the aquatic environment in the low ng to sub-ng/l range. They are widely used in contraceptive formulations, both individually and in combination. Our research employed the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 21 day 'pair-breeding' assay to assess reproductive output when pairs of fish were exposed to the single chemicals at low environmentally relevant concentrations, and then to a binary mixture of them. A variety of endpoints were assessed, including egg production, which was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by both the individual chemicals and the mixture. Significant, sex specific effects were also seen with both chemicals, at differing levels of biological organisation. Plasma concentrations of EE2 and levonorgestrel were predicted and in the case of levonorgestrel measured, and compared with the human therapeutic plasma concentrations (Read-Across approach) to support the interpretation of the results. A novel quantitative method was developed for the data analysis, which ensured a suitable endpoint for the comparative mixture assessment. This approach compares the reproductive performance from individual pairs of fish during chemical exposure to its pre-treatment performance. The responses from the empirical mixture study were compared to predictions derived from the single substance data. We hypothesised combined responses which were best described by the concept of concentration addition, and found no clear indications against this additivity expectation. However, the effect profiles support the current

  4. Effects of the biopesticide Zequanox® on reproduction and early development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The biopesticide, Zequanox®, is registered for dreissenid mussel control in open water systems in the United States. Previous toxicity trials with nontarget organisms, including several young-of-the-year fish species and invertebrates, demonstrated selectivity of Zequanox for dreissenid mussels, but data are lacking on the treatment-related effects on reproduction and early life stage development of fish. The present study evaluated the effects of Zequanox on spawning and early life stages of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, after exposure to the maximum approved concentration [100 mg active ingredient (AI)/L] and exposure duration (8h) for open water application. The results showed no significant treatment-related effect of Zequanox on survival, condition, or cumulative egg production (21 d) in adult fathead minnow. Eggs (≤24 h old) exposed to Zequanox developed to the eyed-stage at a similar rate to that of untreated eggs. Additionally, Zequanox did not have a significant effect on survival and growth (90 d) of newly hatched larvae (≤24-h old). Zequanox may be an option for control of dreissenid mussels in localized open water habitats where concerns exist regarding reproduction and recruitment of cyprinids and related species.

  5. Responses to various exposure durations of levonorgestrel during early-life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, Matthew D; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are routinely detected in the environment; and several of these compounds have been extensively researched due to their potential impacts to the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. The negative reproductive consequences of synthetic progestins in teleost species have only recently been investigated. The current study examined different exposure periods that may be most sensitive for levonorgestrel (LNG) in early-life stages of fathead minnow larvae. Larvae were exposed to a single concentration of LNG (125ng/L) for different durations from fertilized egg through 28 days post hatch (dph) with growth and mRNA expression of FSH, 3β-HSD, 20β-HSD, and CYP19a1 measured. Regardless of the duration of exposure, LNG significantly decreased growth in the fathead minnow larvae at day 28. For both 20β-HSD and CYP19a1, mRNA expression was decreased following LNG exposure durations ≥7 days. 3β-HSD and FSH showed similar trends after exposure to LNG with later stages of development exhibiting decreased expression. 20β-HSD and 3β-HSD were the only transcripts to remain down regulated once larvae were moved to clean water after the 7-14dph LNG exposure. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure time to a synthetic progestin on developing fish. Future research is needed to understand what impacts these changes have on adult stages of development.

  6. Oral Exposure of PBDE-47 in Fish: Toxicokinetics and Reproductive Effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muirhead, Elisabeth K.; Skillman, Ann D.; Hook, Sharon E.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-01-15

    The toxicokinetics of 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodipohenyl ether (PBDE-47) was studied in the Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) after a single oral exposure followed by termination at specific time points. The effects of repeated oral exposure to PBDE-47 on reproductive performance was assessed using a pair breeding experimental design with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) given daily PBDE-47 exposures for 25 days, during which fecundity was measured as an indicator of reproductive performance. Medaka and fathead minnows were orally exposed to PBDE-47 by bioencapsulation in brine shrimp, Artemia sp. In the medaka studies, measurable levels of PBDE-47 were detected in the carcass within 0.25 hr with peak levels occurring at 8 hrs. The body levels of PBDE-47 slowly declined and were still 25% of peak levels at 624 hrs after dosing. Assimilation of the bioencapsulated dose was at least 80% and may well approach 100 %. The PBDE-47 concentration-time profile was fitted to a one-compartment clearance-volume toxicokinetic model and the model-predicted values for elimination half-life was determined to be 281 hrs and the first order absorption rate constant was (Ka) = 0.26 hr 1. In the fathead minnow study, egg laying in the PBDE-treated breeding pairs stopped after 10 days. The condition factor of PBDE-treated males was significantly reduced (P < 0.011) compared with control males, whereas no significant difference was observed in females. Histological examination revealed a greater than 50% reduction in mature sperm in PBDE-47 exposed minnows compared to controls. Collectively, these results suggest PBDE-47 is selectively toxic to sexually mature male fathead minnows.

  7. Influence of water quality and age on nickel toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham Chung; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    This research characterized the effects of water quality and organism age on the toxicity of nickel (Ni) to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to facilitate the accurate development of site-specific water-quality criteria. Nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4 x 6H2O) was used as the Ni source for performing acute toxicity tests (median lethal concentration after 96-h exposure [96-h LC50]) with hardness, pH, alkalinity, and natural organic matter (NOM). The toxicity of Ni was inversely related to water hardness between hardness values of 20 and 150 mg/L (as CaCO3). Below 30 mg/L alkalinity, Ni toxicity was related to alkalinity. The effect of pH was confounded by hardness and the presence of NOM. In the absence of NOM, the toxicity of Ni increased as pH increased at high hardness and alkalinity. In general, 28-d-old fish were less sensitive than hardness and alkalinity (20 and 4 mg/L, respectively) to 5-fold at high hardness and alkalinity (100 and 400 mg/L, respectively). The presence of NOM (10 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon [DOC]) reduced Ni toxicity by up to 50%, but this effect appeared to be saturated above DOC at 5 mg/L. Incubating Ni with the NOM solution from 1 to 17 days had no effect on Ni toxicity. When using multivariate analysis, the 96-h LC50 for Ni was a function of fish age, alkalinity, hardness, and NOM (96-h LC50 = -0.642 + 0.270(fish age) + 0.005(alkalinity) + 0.018(hardness) + 0.138(DOC)). When using this model, we found a strong relationship between measured and predicted 96-h LC50 values (r2 = 0.94) throughout the treatment water qualities. The biotic ligand model (BLM) did not accurately predict Ni toxicity at high or low levels of alkalinity. Results of our research suggest that the BLM could be improved by considering NiCO3 to be bioavailable.

  8. In Silico analysis of perturbed steroidogenesis and gonad growth in fathead minnows (P. promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-06-01

    The multi-factorial nature of adverse reproductive effects mediated by endocrine disrupting compounds (or EDCs) makes understanding the mechanistic basis of reproductive dysfunction a highly pertinent area of research. As a consequence, a main motivator for continued research is to integrate 'multi-leveled' complexity (i.e., from genes to phenotype) using mathematical methods capable of encapsulating properties of physiological relevance. In this study, an in silico stoichiometric model of piscine steroidogenesis was augmented with a 'biomass' reaction associating the underlying stoichiometry of steroidogenesis with a reaction representative of gonad growth. The ability of the in silico model to predict perturbed steroidogenesis and subsequent effects on gonad growth was tested by exposing reproductively active male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 88 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The in silico model was parameterized (or constrained) with experimentally quantified concentrations of selected steroid hormones (using mass spectrometry) and fold changes in gene expression (using RT-qPCR) for selected steroidogenic enzyme genes, in gonads of male and female fish. Once constrained, the optimization framework of flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to calculate an optimal flux through the biomass reaction (analogous to gonad growth) and associated steroidogenic flux distributions required to generate biomass. FBA successfully predicted effects of EE2 exposure on fathead minnow gonad growth (%gonadosomatic index or %GSI) and perturbed production of steroid hormones. Specifically, FBA accurately predicted no effects of exposure on male %GSI and a significant reduction for female %GSI. Furthermore, in silico simulations accurately identified disrupted reaction fluxes catalyzing productions of androgens (in male fish) and progestogens (in female fish), an observation which agreed with in vivo experimentation. The analyses

  9. Genomic investigation of year-long and multigenerational exposures of fathead minnow to the munitions compound RDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Kurt A; Brasfield, Sandra M; Stanley, Jacob K; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Chappell, Pornsawan; Perkins, Edward J; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Lance, Richard F

    2011-08-01

    We assessed the impacts of exposure to an environmentally representative concentration (0.83 mg/L) of the explosive cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) on fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in one-year and multigenerational bioassays. In the one-year bioassay, impacts were assessed by statistical comparisons of females from breeding groups reared in control or RDX-exposure conditions. The RDX had no significant effect on gonadosomatic index or condition factor assayed at 1 d and at one, three, six, nine, and 12 months. The liver-somatic index was significantly increased versus controls only at the 12-month timepoint. RDX had no significant effect on live-prey capture rates, egg production, or fertilization. RDX caused minimal differential-transcript expression with no consistent discernable effect on gene-functional categories for either brain or liver tissues in the one-year exposure. In the multigenerational assay, the effects of acute (96 h) exposure to RDX were compared in fish reared to the F(2) generation in either control or RDX-exposure conditions. Enrichment of gene functions including neuroexcitatory glutamate metabolism, sensory signaling, and neurological development were observed comparing control-reared and RDX-reared fish. Our results indicated that exposure to RDX at a concentration representing the highest levels observed in the environment (0.83 mg/L) had limited impacts on genomic, individual, and population-level endpoints in fathead minnows in a one-year exposure. However, multigenerational exposures altered transcript expression related to neural development and function. Environ. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Accumulation and debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) induces thyroid disruption and liver alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Pamela D; Hinton, David E; Stapleton, Heather M

    2011-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are known to affect thyroid hormone (TH) regulation. The TH-regulating deiodinases have been implicated in these impacts; however, PBDE effects on the fish thyroid system are largely unknown. Moreover, the liver as a potential target of PBDE toxicity has not been explored in young fish. This study measured decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) effects on TH regulation by measuring deiodinase activity in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Dietary accumulations and debromination of BDE-209 were also measured, and the morphology of thyroid and liver tissues was examined. Juvenile fathead minnows (28 days old) received a 28-day dietary treatment of BDE-209 at 9.8 ± 0.16 μg/g of food at 5% of their body weight per day followed by a 14-day depuration period in which they were fed clean food. Chemical analysis revealed that BDE-209 accumulated in tissues and was metabolized to reductive products ranging from penta- to octaBDEs with 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154) being the most accumulative metabolite. By day 28 of the exposure, rates of outer and inner ring deiodination (ORD and IRD, respectively) of thyroxine (T4) were each reduced by ∼74% among treatments. Effects on T4-ORD and T4-IRD remained significant even after the 14-day depuration period. Histological examination of treated fish showed significantly increased thyroid follicular epithelial cell heights and vacuolated hepatocyte nuclei. Enlarged biliary passageways may be the cause of the distinctive liver phenotype observed, although further testing is needed. Altogether, these results suggest that juvenile fish may be uniquely susceptible to thyroid disruptors like PBDEs.

  11. Identification of copper-responsive genes in an early life stage of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Solange S; Keller, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    While physiological changes associated with copper toxicity have been studied in adult fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, little is known about the effect of copper on newly hatched larvae. As a result we initiated an investigation on the mechanism of copper toxicity in 24 h post-hatch larvae using gene expression changes to identify responsive genes. Fish were exposed to copper concentrations of 0, 50, 125 and 200 mug/L in a 48 h toxicity test. Total RNA from survivors was used in a differential display assay to screen for differentially expressed gene products. Altogether, 654 copper-responsive differentially expressed bands were collected. Database searches found homology for 261 sequences. One hundred and sixty-one bands were homologous to NCBI genes of known function, of which 69 were individual genes. The most abundant categories of functional genes responding to copper were involved in protein synthesis/translational machinery and contractile proteins. Twenty-one dose-responsive genes were measured for expression changes using real-time quantitative PCR. Differential gene expression was validated for 11 of 13 genes, when a 1.2 times qPCR difference between the copper and control samples was observed. Transcripts identified as titin, cytochrome b, fast muscle specific heavy myosin chain 4, fast muscle troponin I, proteasome 26S subunit and troponin T3a were induced over twofold. Differential display bands identified as 60S ribosomal proteins L27 and L12 were repressed approximately threefold. We conclude that copper exposure affects several cellular pathways in larval fathead minnows with protein synthesis, ribosome structure, and muscle contractile proteins being the most sensitive to this stress.

  12. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21--28, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  13. Development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) gonadotropin ß subunit mRNAs to support endocrine disruptor research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Kahl, Michael D.; Korte, Joseph J.; Greene, Katie J.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Linnum, Ann; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-03-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are one of the most widely-used small fish models for regulatory ecotoxicology testing and research related to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, we isolated and sequenced cDNAs for fathead minnow follicle-stimulating hormone-like and luteinizing hormone-like β (FSHβ and LHβ) and glycoprotein α (GPα) subunits. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for measuring gonadotropin (GtH) β subunit transcripts were developed and used to examine “baseline” transcript levels over a range of age classes and reproductive states encompassed in EDC testing. In females, FSHβ and LHβ transcripts were greater in 4-5 month old than in younger fish and were significantly correlated with one another across all age classes examined. In males, FSHβ transcripts were greatest in 2-3 month old fish and were inversely correlated with various measures of testis development including, gonadal-somatic index (GSI), and histological stage. Overall, the pattern of GtHβ expression over age classes associated with gonad development was similar to that reported for other asynchronous-spawning fish. Despite significant changes in female GSI, gonad stage, and plasma vitellogenin within 24 h of spawning, GtHβ transcript levels in fish that had spawned within the preceding 24 h were not significantly different from those in fish that were 2-3 days post-spawn and expected to spawn within the next 24 h based on spawning history. Results of this study provide insights related to the role of GtHs in fathead minnow reproductive development and function. Additionally they provide useful “baseline” data needed to design and interpret effective experiments for studying direct and indirect effects of EDCs on GtH subunit mRNA expression, which will facilitate a greater understanding of integrated system-wide responses of the fathead minnow brain-pituitary-gonadal axis to stressors including EDCs.

  14. Time-specific and population-level differences in physiological responses of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, John D; Pistole, David H; Moffe, Mickey C

    2012-03-01

    The influence of exposure time on gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity and metabolic rate in populations of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) hatcheries in Ohio (OH) and Pennsylvania (PA) when exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (Cu) was examined. The pattern of change in gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity was similar in all species/populations and results support expectations based on the concept of acclimation. In all populations, Na+/K+ ATPase activity declined significantly compared to reference values within 24 h, recovered by 48 h, and then continued to increase before exceeding reference values by 192 h. With the exception of PA fathead minnows, Na+/K+ ATPase activities returned to reference levels by 384 h. Although metabolic rates of individual fish were not strongly correlated with Na+/K+ ATPase activities, the pattern of change in mean values of these physiological parameters was very similar. However, OH populations of both fathead minnows and golden shiners demonstrated much more dramatic changes in metabolic rate compared to PA fish. At 24 h, metabolic rate of PA fathead minnows had decreased by 16% compared to the reference value whereas the OH population had decreased by 31%; metabolic rate of PA golden shiners declined by 23% compared to 59% in OH shiners at 24 h. Similar differences were observed in the maximum metabolic rates achieved at 192 h. While the increased sensitivity of OH fish to Cu is not readily explainable by genetic or environmental factors, results suggest the need for considering population level differences when evaluating the physiological effects of toxicants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of

  16. Estrogen in the Water: Impacts of Sewage Wastewater on Feminization and Vitellogenin Expression in Male Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexis Butler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogenic compounds (primarily from substances likebirth control drugs are commonly found in domesticwastewater effluent. These compounds can feminize malefish (e.g., decrease male secondary sex characteristics,reducing competitive advantage during spawning.Exposure to estrogenic chemicals can also lead to theproduction of female-specific proteins such as vitellogenin(VTG. VTG is a yolk-precursor protein synthesizedby the liver of egg-laying females after the stimuli ofestrogen. We hypothesize that upon exposure to estrogencontainingwastewater, adult male fathead minnows(Pimephales promelas will express this female-specificprotein. Adult males were caged at two different sites inthe West Fork of the White River. The downstreamgroup was placed directly below the outflow from theMuncie Water Pollution Control Facility (MWPCF,while another group (upstream was placed 0.25 kmupstream from MWPCF. Following a two-week exposure,secondary sex characteristics were examined, and liverswere processed through quantitative polymerasechainreaction (qPCR to determine expression of VTG. Whileno significant differences resulted from comparison ofsecondary sex characteristics between the study groups,downstream males showed a VTG up-regulation of~ 14-fold (SD = 2.4 when compared to the control group.These results are in agreement with a previous studyin this same area that found “feminization” of nativepopulations of bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus.The “estrogenic” compounds that elicited this responseremain unknown.

  17. Short-term fish reproduction assays with methyl tertiary butyl ether with zebrafish and fathead minnow: Implications for evaluation of potential for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen; Erler, Steffen; Le Blanc, Gerald; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-09-01

    The authors report on short-term fish reproduction assays in zebrafish and fathead minnow conducted to examine the potential for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to cause effects on the endocrine system. Both studies were performed under good laboratory practice and in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and US Environmental Protection Agency test guidelines. The results of the first study demonstrated that exposure to a high test concentration (147 mg/L) of MTBE impaired reproductive output of female zebrafish, evident by a reduction in fecundity. Based on the endpoints evaluated in the present study however, there was no supporting evidence to indicate that this effect was caused by disruption of or interaction with the endocrine system. In the second study, fathead minnows exposed to a wider but lower range of test concentrations showed no effects on any reproductive parameter of male or female fish, at the maximum recommended testing concentration of 100 mg/L (62 mg/L measured). The results of these 2 guideline studies indicate that MTBE does not interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish or fathead minnow.

  18. Effects of spray-dried Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A (Zequanox®) on reproduction and early development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The biopesticide, Zequanox®, is registered for dreissenid mussel control in open water systems. Previous toxicity trials with nontarget organisms, including young-of-the year of several fish species and invertebrates, demonstrated selectivity of Zequanox for dreissenids. However, data are lacking on its safety to reproductive and early life stages of fish. The present study evaluated the effects of Zequanox on spawning and early life stages of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, at the maximum approved concentration (100 mg Zequanox active ingredient /L) and exposure duration (8 h) for open water application. The results showed no significant effect of Zequanox on survival, condition, or cumulative egg deposition (21 d) in adult fathead minnow. Eggs (Zequanox developed to the eyed-stage at a similar rate to that of unexposed eggs. Additionally, Zequanox did not have a significant effect on survival and growth (90 d) of newly hatched fry (Zequanox treatment will not affect survival, spawning, and early life development of fathead minnows when applied at the recommended treatment regime.

  19. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  20. Predator avoidance performance of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) following short-term exposure to estrogen mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, M.R.; Julius, M.L.; Vajda, A.M.; Norris, D.O.; Barber, L.B.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic organisms exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) at early life-stages may have reduced reproductive fitness via disruption of reproductive and non-reproductive behavioral and physiological pathways. Survival to reproductive age relies upon optimal non-reproductive trait expression, such as adequate predator avoidance responses, which may be impacted through EDC exposure. During a predator–prey confrontation, larval fish use an innate C-start escape behavior to rapidly move away from an approaching threat. We tested the hypotheses that (1) larval fathead minnows exposed to estrogens, a primary class of EDCs, singularly or in mixture, suffer a reduced ability to perform an innate C-start behavior when faced with a threat stimulus; (2) additive effects will cause greater reductions in C-start behavior; and (3) effects will differ among developmental stages. In this study, embryos (post-fertilization until hatching) were exposed for 5 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) singularly and in mixture. Exposed embryos were allowed to hatch and grow in control well water until 12 days old. Similarly, post-hatch fathead minnows were exposed for 12 days to these compounds. High-speed (1000 frames/s) video recordings of escape behavior were collected and transferred to National Institutes of Health Image for frame-by-frame analysis of latency period, escape velocity, and total escape response (combination of latency period and escape velocity). When tested 12 days post-hatch, only E1 adversely affected C-start performance of larvae exposed as embryos. Conversely, larvae exposed for 12 days post-hatch did not exhibit altered escape responses when exposed to E1, while adverse responses were seen in E2 and the estrogen mixture. Ethinylestradiol exposure did not elicit changes in escape behaviors at either developmental stage. The direct impact of reduced C-start performance on

  1. Influence of bicarbonate and humic acid on effects of chronic waterborne lead exposure to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2010-01-31

    Historically, the USEPA has only considered water hardness when establishing acute and chronic water quality criteria (WQC) for lead (Pb) in freshwater. Yet, recent evidence suggests that hardness may not be protective during chronic Pb exposure and that other factors (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity) influence toxicity. In fact, we have recently shown that Ca(2+) (as CaSO(4)) does not protect against Pb accumulation in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during chronic exposures whereas DOC as humic acid (HA) clearly does. To more clearly define the water chemistry parameters mediating chronic Pb toxicity we carried out 300 d exposures to study the influence of DOC and alkalinity on Pb accumulation and toxicity to fathead minnows at 2 different Pb concentrations (170 and 580 nM (35 and 120 microg/L)). Alkalinity was adjusted by addition of 500 microM NaHCO(3) and DOC by addition of 4 mg/L HA. Fish were collected at 4, 30, 150 and 300 d of exposure to measure growth and Pb accumulation. Breeding assays (21 d) were performed at the end of these exposures to assess reproductive and larval behavioral endpoints. To determine whether effects were acute or chronic, switched breeding exposures were performed in which control breeders were transferred to either high or low Pb conditions and Pb-exposed breeders transferred to tap water without Pb. Mortality and growth effects were observed primarily in the high Pb treatments and within the first 10 d of exposure. Strong protection against Pb accumulation was afforded by increased DOC at both Pb concentrations. Increased alkalinity also appeared to moderately reduce Pb accumulation although not to the level of statistical significance. Tissue distribution of Pb was analyzed at 300 d and was found to accumulate mostly in bone, gill, intestine and kidney. Unexpectedly, high Pb reduced total reproductive output and increased average egg mass in the HCO(3)(-) and DOC treatments but not in the control water

  2. Evaluation of potential mechanisms of atrazine-induced reproductive impairment in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Cathy; Papoulias, Diana M.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine has been implicated in reproductive dysfunction of exposed organisms, and previous studies documented decreased egg production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during 30-d to 38-d exposures to 0.5 µg/L, 5 µg/L, and 50 µg/L atrazine. The authors evaluated possible mechanisms underlying the reduction in egg production. Gene expression in steroidogenesis pathways and the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonad axis of male and female fish was measured. Atrazine did not significantly induce gonad aromatase (cyp19a1a) expression. An atrazine-induced shift in the number of females in an active reproductive state was observed. Expression of the egg maturation genes vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) and zona pellucida glycoprotein 3.1 (zp3.1) in medaka females was correlated and had a bimodal distribution. In both species, females with low vtg1 or zp3.1 expression also had low expression of steroidogenesis genes in the gonad, estrogen receptor in the liver, and gonadotropins in the brain. In the medaka, the number of females per tank that had high expression of zp3.1 was significantly correlated with egg production per tank. The number of medaka females with low expression of zp3.1 increased significantly with atrazine exposure. Thus, the decline in egg production observed in response to atrazine exposure may be the result of a coordinated downregulation of genes required for reproduction in a subset of females.

  3. Triclosan impairs swimming behavior and alters expression of excitation-contraction coupling proteins in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Erika B; Connon, Richard E; Werner, Inge; Davies, Rebecca E; Beggel, Sebastian; Feng, Wei; Pessah, Isaac N

    2013-02-19

    Triclosan (TCS), a high volume chemical widely used in consumer products, is a known aquatic contaminant found in fish inhabiting polluted watersheds. Mammalian studies have recently demonstrated that TCS disrupts signaling between the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two proteins essential for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in striated muscle. We investigated the swimming behavior and expression of EC coupling proteins in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to TCS for up to 7 days. Concentrations as low as 75 μg L(-1) significantly altered fish swimming activity after 1 day; which was consistent after 7 days of exposure. The mRNA transcription and protein levels of RyR and DHPR (subunit CaV1.1) isoforms changed in a dose and time dependent manner. Crude muscle homogenates from exposed larvae did not display any apparent changes in receptor affinity toward known radioligands. In nonexposed crude muscle homogenates, TCS decreased the binding of [(3)H]PN20-110 to the DHPR and decreased the binding of [(3)H]-ryanodine to the RyR, demonstrating a direct impact at the receptor level. These results support TCS's impact on muscle function in vertebrates further exemplifying the need to re-evaluate the risks this pollutant poses to aquatic environments.

  4. Predicting Fecundity of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas Exposed to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Using a MATLAB®-Based Model of Oocyte Growth Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Watanabe

    Full Text Available Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for flexible, widely-applicable, biologically-based models that can predict changes in fecundity in response to chemical exposures, based on readily measured biochemical endpoints, such as plasma vitellogenin (VTG concentrations, as input parameters. Herein we describe a MATLAB® version of an oocyte growth dynamics model for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas with a graphical user interface based upon a previously published model developed with MCSim software and evaluated with data from fathead minnows exposed to an androgenic chemical, 17β-trenbolone. We extended the evaluation of our new model to include six chemicals that inhibit enzymes involved in steroid biosynthesis: fadrozole, ketoconazole, propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol, and trilostane. In addition, for unexposed fathead minnows from group spawning design studies, and those exposed to the six chemicals, we evaluated whether the model is capable of predicting the average number of eggs per spawn and the average number of spawns per female, which was not evaluated previously. The new model is significantly improved in terms of ease of use, platform independence, and utility for providing output in a format that can be used as input into a population dynamics model. Model-predicted minimum and maximum cumulative fecundity over time encompassed the observed data for fadrozole and most propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol and trilostane treatments, but did not consistently replicate results from ketoconazole treatments. For average fecundity (eggs•female(-1•day(-1, eggs per spawn, and the number of spawns per female, the range of model-predicted values generally encompassed the experimentally observed values

  5. Identification and quantification of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in the teleost fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Sumpter, John P

    2013-09-15

    The steroid hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is one of the most physiologically important androgens in male vertebrates, with the exception of teleost fish, in which it is generally assumed that DHT does not play any major physiological role. However, this assumption is challenged by the fact that all the components involved in DHT biosynthesis and action are present and evolutionary conserved in teleost fish. In fact, testosterone (T) is converted into DHT by two isoforms of the enzyme steroid-5-alpha-reductase (5αR), and both 5αRs gene expression and enzymatic activity have been detected in several tissues of different teleost species, which also have an androgen receptor with high binding affinity to DHT. This body of evidence strongly suggest that DHT is synthesised by teleost fish. We investigated this hypothesis using the cyprinid fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as the experimental model. The study of the evolutionary and functional conservation of 5αRs in teleost fish was used to support the experimental approach, based on an ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method to identify and measure simultaneously T and DHT in fathead minnow biological fluids and tissues. The analyses were performed using plasma samples collected from both male and female adult fish and samples of testicular tissue collected from sexually mature males. Both T and DHT were identified and quantified in all the samples analysed, and in particular, the high concentrations of DHT quantified in the testes suggested that these organs are a likely site of synthesis of DHT in the teleost fathead minnow, as they are in mammals. These results may represent the basis for future studies aimed at elucidating the physiological role, if any, of DHT in teleost fish.

  6. Predicting Fecundity of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Exposed to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Using a MATLAB®-Based Model of Oocyte Growth Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Karen H; Mayo, Michael; Jensen, Kathleen M; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Perkins, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for flexible, widely-applicable, biologically-based models that can predict changes in fecundity in response to chemical exposures, based on readily measured biochemical endpoints, such as plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations, as input parameters. Herein we describe a MATLAB® version of an oocyte growth dynamics model for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) with a graphical user interface based upon a previously published model developed with MCSim software and evaluated with data from fathead minnows exposed to an androgenic chemical, 17β-trenbolone. We extended the evaluation of our new model to include six chemicals that inhibit enzymes involved in steroid biosynthesis: fadrozole, ketoconazole, propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol, and trilostane. In addition, for unexposed fathead minnows from group spawning design studies, and those exposed to the six chemicals, we evaluated whether the model is capable of predicting the average number of eggs per spawn and the average number of spawns per female, which was not evaluated previously. The new model is significantly improved in terms of ease of use, platform independence, and utility for providing output in a format that can be used as input into a population dynamics model. Model-predicted minimum and maximum cumulative fecundity over time encompassed the observed data for fadrozole and most propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol and trilostane treatments, but did not consistently replicate results from ketoconazole treatments. For average fecundity (eggs•female(-1)•day(-1)), eggs per spawn, and the number of spawns per female, the range of model-predicted values generally encompassed the experimentally observed values. Overall, we

  7. Defining the chronic impacts of atenolol on embryo-larval development and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Matthew J; Lillicrap, Adam D; Caunter, John E; Schaffner, Christian; Alder, Alfredo C; Ramil, Maria; Ternes, Thomas A; Giltrow, Emma; Sumpter, John P; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2008-02-18

    Atenolol is a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist ('beta-blocker') widely used for the treatment of angina, glaucoma, high blood pressure and other related conditions. Since atenolol is not appreciably metabolized in humans, the parent compound is the predominant excretory product, and has been detected in sewage effluent discharges and surface waters. Consequently, atenolol has been chosen as a reference pharmaceutical for a European Union-funded research consortium, known as ERAPharm (http://www.erapharm.org), which focused on the fate and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Here, we present data generated within this project from studies assessing population-relevant effects in a freshwater fish species. Using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a standard OECD test species, embryo-larval development (early life stage or ELS) and short-term (21 d) adult reproduction studies were undertaken. In the ELS study, the 4d embryo NOEC(hatching) and LOEC(hatching) values were 10 and >10mg/L, respectively, and after 28 d, NOEC(growth) and LOEC(growth) values were 3.2 and 10mg/L, respectively (arithmetic mean measured atenolol concentrations were >90% of these nominal values). In the short-term reproduction study, NOEC(reproduction) and LOEC(reproduction) values were 10 and >10mg/L, respectively (mean measured concentrations were 77-96% of nominal values), while the most sensitive endpoint was an increase in male fish condition index, giving NOEC(condition index) and LOEC(condition index) values of 1.0 and 3.2mg/L, respectively. The corresponding measured plasma concentration of atenolol in these fish was 0.0518 mg/L. These data collectively suggest that atenolol has low chronic toxicity to fish under the conditions described, particularly considering the low environmental concentrations reported. These data also allowed the assessment of two theoretical approaches proposed as predictors of the environmental impact of human pharmaceuticals: the Huggett

  8. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada); Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors.

  9. Expression profiling and gene ontology analysis in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver following exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, Shannon L.; Werner, Julieta; Ouellet, Jacob D.; Hill, Lauren G. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Ontario P7B 5E1, (Canada); Law, R. David, E-mail: dlaw@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Ontario P7B 5E1, (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Many studies link pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) exposure to adverse effects in fish populations present in the mill receiving environments. These impacts are often characteristic of endocrine disruption and may include impaired reproduction, development and survival. While these physiological endpoints are well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms causing them are not yet understood. To investigate changes in gene transcription induced by exposure to a PPME at several stages of treatment, male and female fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed for 6 days to 25% (v/v) secondary (biologically) treated kraft effluent (TK) or 100% (v/v) combined mill outfall (CMO) from a mill producing both kraft pulp and newsprint. The gene expression changes in the livers of these fish were analyzed using a 22 K oligonucleotide microarray. Exposure to TK or CMO resulted in significant changes in the expression levels of 105 and 238 targets in male FHMs and 296 and 133 targets in females, respectively. Targets were then functionally analyzed using gene ontology tools to identify the biological processes in fish hepatocytes that were affected by exposure to PPME after its secondary treatment. Proteolysis was affected in female FHMs exposed to both TK and CMO. In male FHMs, no processes were affected by TK exposure, while sterol, isoprenoid, steroid and cholesterol biosynthesis and electron transport were up-regulated by CMO exposure. The results presented in this study indicate that short-term exposure to PPMEs affects the expression of reproduction-related genes in the livers of both male and female FHMs, and that secondary treatment of PPMEs may not neutralize all of their metabolic effects in fish. Gene ontology analysis of microarray data may enable identification of biological processes altered by toxicant exposure and thus provide an additional tool for monitoring the impact of PPMEs on fish populations.

  10. Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Lotufo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Explosive compounds have been released into the environment during manufacturing, handling, and usage procedures. These compounds have been found to persist in the environment and potentially promote detrimental biological effects. The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on aquatic life has resulted in challenges in assessing ecological risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential trophic transfer of the explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX using a realistic freshwater prey/predator model and using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, a highly bioaccumulative compound, to establish relative dietary uptake potential. The oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to 14C-labeled TNT, RDX or DDT for 5 hours in water, frozen in meal-size packages and subsequently fed to individual juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas. Fish were sampled for body residue determination on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 following an 8-hour gut purging period. Extensive metabolism of the parent compound in worms occurred for TNT but not for RDX and DDT. Fish body residue remained relatively unchanged over time for TNT and RDX, but did not approach steady-state concentration for DDT during the exposure period. The bioaccumulation factor (concentration in fish relative to concentration in worms was 0.018, 0.010, and 0.422 g/g for TNT, RDX and DDT, respectively, confirming the expected relatively low bioaccumulative potential for TNT and RDX through the dietary route. The experimental design was deemed successful in determining the potential for trophic transfer of organic contaminants via a realistic predator/prey exposure scenario.

  11. Effects of acute and chronic waterborne lead exposure on the swimming performance and aerobic scope of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Fathead minnows were subjected to an incremental velocity test using swim tunnel respirometry for the analysis of aerobic scope and swimming performance, as critical aerobic swim speed (U(crit)), following chronic exposures (33-57 ) to 0.9±0.4, 157±18 or 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb and an acute exposure (24 h) to 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (mean±SEM). Assessment of Pb-induced anemia and neurological impairment were evaluated by blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and a cost of transport (COT) analysis, respectively. Fish from the acute 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.4±1.2 BL s⁻¹) and chronic 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.6±0.9 BL s⁻¹) treatments exhibited reduced U(crits) compared to control fish (27.6±0.8 BL s⁻¹). Aerobic scope was reduced by acute Pb exposure (8.6±2.6 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 22.6±3.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls) owing to a decrease in maximum oxygen consumption rate (38.8±0.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 54.0±4.2 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls). However, no effect on aerobic scope was observed with fish chronically exposed to Pb. Significant differences were not observed for Hb concentrations or COT. These findings suggest that the impaired swimming performances arising from acute and chronic Pb exposures reflect different mechanisms of toxicity.

  12. Computational model of the fathead minnow hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: Incorporating protein synthesis in improving predictability of responses to endocrine active chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There is international concern about chemicals that alter endocrine system function in humans and/or wildlife and subsequently cause adverse effects. We previously developed a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows exposed to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD), to predict dose-response and time-course behaviors for apical reproductive endpoints. Initial efforts to develop a computational model describing adaptive responses to endocrine stress providing good fits to empirical plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) data in exposed fish were only partially successful, which suggests that additional regulatory biology processes need to be considered. In this study, we addressed short-comings of the previous model by incorporating additional details concerning CYP19A (aromatase) protein synthesis. Predictions based on the revised model were evaluated using plasma E2 concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two fathead minnow time-course experiments with FAD, as well as from a third 4-day study. The extended model provides better fits to measured E2 time-course concentrations, and the model accurately predicts CYP19A mRNA fold changes and plasma E2 dose-response from the 4-d concentration-response study. This study suggests that aromatase protein synthesis is an important process in the biological system to model the effects of FAD exposure.

  13. Expression of two vitellogenin genes (vg1 and vg3) in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver in response to exposure to steroidal estrogens and androgens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miracle, Ann L.; Ankley, Gerald; Lattier, David

    2006-03-01

    In this study, we describe the sequence for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) vitellogenin 3 gene (vg3), and compare the response of vg1 and vg3 following exposure to steroidal estrogens and androgens. The fathead minnow vg3 sequence is only the second nucleotide sequence described in teleosts, following the original description of this isoform in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Following a brief exposure (24 hours) to 2, 5, and 10 ng/L 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), both vg1and vg3 are upregulated in male liver. However, levels of vg3 induction are 4 orders of magnitude lower than induction of vg1. Suppression of vg in female liver following androgenic exposure with 50 or 500 ng/L 17 beta-trenbolone occurs at similar significance levels for both vg1 and vg3 isoforms. The results of this study confirm the use of vg1 as an indicator of estrogenic exposure in male fish, and present the potential for vg1 and /or vg3 for use as indicators of androgenic exposure.

  14. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  15. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Lee, Kathy E; Schroeder, Anthony L; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P; Nelson, Krysta R; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Blackwell, Brett R; Berninger, Jason P; LaLone, Carlie A; Blanksma, Chad; Jicha, Terri; Elonen, Colleen; Johnson, Rodney; Ankley, Gerald T

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  16. Comparison of short-term chronic and chronic silver toxicity to fathead minnows in unamended and sodium chloride-amended waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Rehner, Anita B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Kramer, James R; Wood, Chris M; Paquin, Paul R; Stubblefield, William A

    2007-09-01

    The chronic (early life stage [ELS]) and short-term chronic (STC) toxicity of silver (as silver nitrate) to fathead minnows (FHM) was determined concurrently in flow-through exposures (33 volume additions/d). Paired ELS (approximately 30 d) and STC (7 d) studies were conducted with and without the addition of 60 mg/L Cl (as NaCl). The paired studies in unamended water were later repeated using standard flow conditions (9 volume additions/d). The purpose of the paired studies was to determine if short-term chronic endpoints can be used to predict effects in ELS studies. For each experiment, a "split-chamber" design (organisms were held in a common exposure chamber) allowed the direct comparison between short-term and chronic exposures. It appeared that the chronic toxicity of silver was mitigated to some extent by NaCl addition. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for growth in the ELS study was 0.53 microg dissolved Ag/L under standard flow conditions. Early life stage and STC endpoints in all three studies typically agreed within a factor of two. Whole-body sodium and silver concentrations measured in individual fathead minnows during these studies showed an increase in silver body burdens and a decrease in sodium concentration. These results indicate that the STC study could be used as a surrogate test to estimate chronic toxicity and that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity may be the same as for acute toxicity.

  17. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25--February 1, 1994. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Meter calibrations; and Reference toxicant test information.

  18. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the {beta}-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giltrow, Emma [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Eccles, Paul D. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J.; McCormack, Paul J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Rand-Weaver, Mariann [Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Natural Environmental Research Council, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Sumpter, John P., E-mail: john.sumpter@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-27

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker ({beta}-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC{sup hatchability} and LOEC{sup female} {sup GSI} values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC{sup m}ale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOEC{sup r}eproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human

  19. Fathead minnow steroidogenesis: in silico analyses reveals tradeoffs between nominal target efficacy and robustness to cross-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villeneuve Daniel L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpreting proteomic and genomic data is a major challenge in predictive ecotoxicology that can be addressed by a systems biology approach. Mathematical modeling provides an organizational platform to consolidate protein dynamics with possible genomic regulation. Here, a model of ovarian steroidogenesis in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, (FHM is developed to evaluate possible transcriptional regulation of steroid production observed in microarray studies. Results The model was developed from literature sources, integrating key signaling components (G-protein and PKA activation with their ensuing effect on steroid production. The model properly predicted trajectory behavior of estradiol and testosterone when fish were exposed to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, but failed to predict the steroid hormone behavior occurring one week post-exposure as well as the increase in steroid levels when the stressor was removed. In vivo microarray data implicated three modes of regulation which may account for over-production of steroids during a depuration phase (when the stressor is removed: P450 enzyme up-regulation, inhibin down-regulation, and luteinizing hormone receptor up-regulation. Simulation studies and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate each case as possible source of compensation to endocrine stress. Conclusions Simulation studies of the testosterone and estradiol response to regulation observed in microarray data supported the hypothesis that the FHM steroidogenesis network compensated for endocrine stress by modulating the sensitivity of the ovarian network to global cues coming from the hypothalamus and pituitary. Model predictions of luteinizing hormone receptor regulation were consistent with depuration and in vitro data. These results challenge the traditional approach to network elucidation in systems biology. Generally, the most sensitive interactions in a network are targeted for further

  20. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  1. Short and long term bystander effect induction by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) injected with environmentally relevant whole body doses of 226Ra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2013-12-01

    Bystander effect induction by fathead minnows injected with environmentally relevant doses of (226)Ra was investigated. Twenty four h and 6 months after injection with a single dose of 21, 210 or 2100 μBq, fin tissue samples emitted a pro-apoptotic signal, which reduced the clonogenic survival of an apoptosis sensitive reporter cell line. Twenty four h and 10 weeks after injection explants from non-injected bystander fish, swum with the injected fish, also emitted a pro-apoptotic signal. However 6 months after injection the bystander fish to 21 and 210 μBq injected fish emitted an anti-apoptotic signal. This demonstrates that extremely low dose irradiation can have effects outside of the irradiated fish. This has implications for population and ecosystem responses to contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22--29, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  3. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22--29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis activities. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Reference toxicant test information; and Personnel training documentation.

  4. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish.

  5. Exposure to the contraceptive progestin, gestodene, alters reproductive behavior, arrests egg deposition, and masculinizes development in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Gillis, Amanda B.; Alvarez, David A.; Orlando, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous progestogens and pharmaceutical progestins enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant effluent and agricultural field runoff. Lab studies demonstrate strong, negative exposure effects of these chemicals on aquatic vertebrate reproduction. Behavior can be a sensitive, early indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants associated with altered reproduction yet is rarely examined in ecotoxicology studies. Gestodene is a human contraceptive progestin and a potent activator of fish androgen receptors. Our objective was to test the effects of gestodene on reproductive behavior and associated egg deposition in the fathead minnow. After only 1 day, males exposed to ng/L of gestodene were more aggressive and less interested in courtship and mating, and exposed females displayed less female courtship behavior. Interestingly, 25% of the gestodene tanks contained a female that drove the male out of the breeding tile and displayed male-typical courtship behaviors toward the other female. Gestodene decreased or arrested egg deposition with no observed gonadal histopathology. Together, these results suggest that effects on egg deposition are primarily due to altered reproductive behavior. The mechanisms by which gestodene disrupts behavior are unknown. Nonetheless, the rapid and profound alterations of the reproductive biology of gestodene-exposed fish suggest that wild populations could be similarly affected.

  6. QSTR with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices. 15. Development of predictive models for toxicity of organic chemicals against fathead minnow using second-generation ETA indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K; Das, R Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Modern industrialisation has led to the production of millions of toxic chemicals having hazardous effects on the ecosystem. It is impracticable to determine the toxic potential of a large number of chemicals in animal models, making the use of quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models an alternative strategy for toxicity prediction. Recently we introduced a set of second-generation extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices for predictive modelling. Here we have developed predictive toxicity models on a large dataset of 459 diverse chemicals against fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) using the second-generation ETA indices. These descriptors can be easily calculated from two-dimensional molecular representation without the need of time-consuming conformational analysis and alignment, making the developed models easily reproducible. Considering the importance of hydrophobicity for toxicity prediction, AlogP98 was used as an additional predictor in all the models, which were validated rigorously using multiple strategies. The ETA models were comparable in predictability to those involving various non-ETA topological parameters and those previously reported using various descriptors including computationally demanding quantum-chemical ones.

  7. Estimating the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol on stochastic population growth rate of fathead minnows: a population synthesis of empirically derived vital rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R; Winkelman, Dana L

    2016-09-01

    Urban freshwater streams in arid climates are wastewater effluent dominated ecosystems particularly impacted by bioactive chemicals including steroid estrogens that disrupt vertebrate reproduction. However, more understanding of the population and ecological consequences of exposure to wastewater effluent is needed. We used empirically derived vital rate estimates from a mesocosm study to develop a stochastic stage-structured population model and evaluated the effect of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the estrogen in human contraceptive pills, on fathead minnow Pimephales promelas stochastic population growth rate. Tested EE2 concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 10.9 ng L(-1) and produced stochastic population growth rates (λ S ) below 1 at the lowest concentration, indicating potential for population decline. Declines in λ S compared to controls were evident in treatments that were lethal to adult males despite statistically insignificant effects on egg production and juvenile recruitment. In fact, results indicated that λ S was most sensitive to the survival of juveniles and female egg production. More broadly, our results document that population model results may differ even when empirically derived estimates of vital rates are similar among experimental treatments, and demonstrate how population models integrate and project the effects of stressors throughout the life cycle. Thus, stochastic population models can more effectively evaluate the ecological consequences of experimentally derived vital rates.

  8. Exposure to the Contraceptive Progestin, Gestodene, Alters Reproductive Behavior, Arrests Egg Deposition, and Masculinizes Development in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler E; Meyer, Michael T; Kolpin, Dana W; Gillis, Amanda B; Alvarez, David A; Orlando, Edward F

    2016-06-07

    Endogenous progestogens and pharmaceutical progestins enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant effluent and agricultural field runoff. Lab studies demonstrate strong, negative exposure effects of these chemicals on aquatic vertebrate reproduction. Behavior can be a sensitive, early indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants associated with altered reproduction yet is rarely examined in ecotoxicology studies. Gestodene is a human contraceptive progestin and a potent activator of fish androgen receptors. Our objective was to test the effects of gestodene on reproductive behavior and associated egg deposition in the fathead minnow. After only 1 day, males exposed to ng/L of gestodene were more aggressive and less interested in courtship and mating, and exposed females displayed less female courtship behavior. Interestingly, 25% of the gestodene tanks contained a female that drove the male out of the breeding tile and displayed male-typical courtship behaviors toward the other female. Gestodene decreased or arrested egg deposition with no observed gonadal histopathology. Together, these results suggest that effects on egg deposition are primarily due to altered reproductive behavior. The mechanisms by which gestodene disrupts behavior are unknown. Nonetheless, the rapid and profound alterations of the reproductive biology of gestodene-exposed fish suggest that wild populations could be similarly affected.

  9. Mixture toxicity of imidacloprid and cyfluthrin to two non-target species, the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Michelle; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Two species, the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the amphipod Hyalella azteca, were tested to examine acute toxicity to two insecticides, cyfluthrin and imidacloprid individually and as a mixture. Cyfluthrin was acutely toxic to P. promelas and H. azteca with EC50 values and 95 % confidence intervals of 0.31 µg L(-1) (0.26-0.35 µg L(-1)) and 0.0015 µg L(-1) (0.0011-0.0018 µg L(-1)), respectively. Imidacloprid was not acutely toxic to P. promelas at water concentrations ranging from 1 to 5000 µg L(-1), whereas it was toxic to H. azteca with a EC50 value of 33.5 µg L(-1) (23.3-47.4 µg L(-1)). For the P. promelas mixture test, imidacloprid was added at a single concentration to a geometric series of cyfluthrin concentrations bracketing the EC50 value. A synergistic ratio (SR) of 1.9 was found for P. promelas, which was calculated using the cyfluthrin-only exposure and mixture-exposure data. Because cyfluthrin and imidacloprid were toxic to H. azteca, the mixture test was designed based on an equipotent toxic unit method. Results from the mixture test indicated a model deviation ratio (MDR) of 1.7 or 2.7 depending on the model. Mixture test results from the simultaneous exposure to cyfluthrin and imidacloprid with both species indicated a greater than expected toxic response because the SR or MDR values were >1. Because these two insecticides are commonly used together in the same product formulations, nontarget species could be more affected due to their greater-than-additive toxicity observed in the current study.

  10. A computational model of the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis in female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-trenbolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazorchak James M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens, androgens and their mimics are known to affect reproduction in fish. 17α-ethynylestradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills. 17β-trenbolone is a relatively stable metabolite of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic androgen used as a growth promoter in livestock. Both 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-trenbolone have been found in the aquatic environment and affect fish reproduction. In this study, we developed a physiologically-based computational model for female fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas, a small fish species used in ecotoxicology, to simulate how estrogens (i.e., 17α-ethynylestradiol or androgens (i.e., 17β-trenbolone affect reproductive endpoints such as plasma concentrations of steroid hormones (e.g., 17β-estradiol and testosterone and vitellogenin (a precursor to egg yolk proteins. Results Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations, the model was calibrated with data from unexposed, 17α-ethynylestradiol-exposed, and 17β-trenbolone-exposed FHMs. Four Markov chains were simulated, and the chains for each calibrated model parameter (26 in total converged within 20,000 iterations. With the converged parameter values, we evaluated the model's predictive ability by simulating a variety of independent experimental data. The model predictions agreed with the experimental data well. Conclusions The physiologically-based computational model represents the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult female FHM robustly. The model is useful to estimate how estrogens (e.g., 17α-ethynylestradiol or androgens (e.g., 17β-trenbolone affect plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and vitellogenin, which are important determinants of fecundity in fish.

  11. Accumulation and DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 2 brominated flame-retardant mixtures, Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearr, Jonathan S; Stapleton, Heather M; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2010-03-01

    Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54 are two brominated formulations that are in use as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Two major components of these mixtures are 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (TBB) and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (TBPH). Both have been measured in environmental matrices; however, scant toxicological information exists. The present study aimed to determine if these brominated flame-retardant formulations are bioavailable and adversely affect DNA integrity in fish. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were orally exposed to either FM 550, FM BZ54, or the nonbrominated form of TBPH, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) for 56 d and depurated (e.g., fed clean food) for 22 d. At several time points, liver and blood cells were collected and assessed for DNA damage. Homogenized fish tissues were extracted and analyzed on day 0 and day 56 to determine the residue of TBB and TBPH and the appearance of any metabolites using gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Significant increases (p < 0.05) in DNA strand breaks from liver cells (but not blood cells) were observed during the exposure period compared with controls, although during depuration these levels returned to control. Both parent compounds, TBB and TBPH, were detected in tissues at approximately 1% of daily dosage along with brominated metabolites. The present study provides evidence for accumulation, metabolism, and genotoxicity of these new formulation flame retardants in fish and highlights the potential adverse effects of TBB- and TBPH-formulated fire retardants to aquatic species.

  12. The genomic transcriptional response of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an acute exposure to the androgen, 17β-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorts, Jennifer; Richter, Catherine A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Carter, Barbara J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the genomic transcriptional response of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an acute (4 days) exposure to 0.1 or 1.0 ??g/L of 17??-trenbolone (TB), the active metabolite of an anabolic androgenic steroid used as a growth promoter in cattle and a contaminant of concern in aquatic systems. Our objectives were to investigate the gene expression profile induced by TB, define biomarkers of exposure to TB, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms of adverse effects of TB on fish reproduction. In female gonad tissue, microarray analysis using a 22 K oligonucleotide microarray (EcoArray Inc., Gainesville, FL) showed 99 significantly upregulated genes and 741 significantly downregulated genes in response to 1 ??g TB/L. In particular, hydroxysteroid (17??) dehydrogenase 12a (hsd17b12a), zona pellucida glycoprotein 2.2 (zp2.2), and protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2 (pias2) were all downregulated in gonad. Q-PCR measurements in a larger sample set were consistent with the microarray results in the direction and magnitude of these changes in gene expression. However, several novel potential biomarkers were verified by Q-PCR in the same samples, but could not be validated in independent samples. In liver, Q-PCR measurements showed a significant decrease in vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) mRNA expression. In brain, cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1b (cyp19a1b, previously known as aromatase B) transcript levels were significantly reduced following TB exposure. Our study provides a candidate gene involved in mediating the action of TB, hsd17b12a, and two potential biomarkers sensitive to acute TB exposure, hepatic vtg1 and brain cyp19a1b.

  13. Influence of elevated alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnows during chronic, multi-trophic exposures to a metal mine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Jacob D; Dubé, Monique G; Niyogi, Som

    2013-09-01

    Metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms is known to be influenced by various water chemistry parameters. The present study examined the influence of alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during environmentally relevant chronic exposures to a metal mine effluent (MME). Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or NOM (as commercial humic acid) were added to a Canadian MME [45 percent process water effluent (PWE)] in order to evaluate whether increases in alkalinity (3-4 fold) or NOM (~1.5-3mg/L dissolved organic carbon) would reduce metal accumulation and mitigate reproductive toxicity in fathead minnows during a 21-day multi-trophic exposure. Eleven metals (barium, boron, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, and strontium) were elevated in the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water. Exposure to the unmodified 45 percent PWE resulted in a decrease of fathead minnow egg production (~300 fewer eggs/pair) relative to the unmodified reference water, over the 21-day exposure period. Water chemistry modifications produced a modest decrease in free ion activity of some metals (as shown by MINTEQ, Version 3) in the 45 percent PWE exposure water, but did not alter the metal burden in the treatment-matched larval Chironomus dilutus (the food source of fish during exposure). The tissue-specific metal accumulation increased in fish exposed to the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water, irrespective of water chemistry modifications, and the tissue metal concentrations were found to be similar between fish in the unmodified and modified 45 percent PWE (higher alkalinity or NOM) treatments. Interestingly however, increased alkalinity and NOM markedly improved fish egg production both in the reference water (~500 and ~590 additional eggs/pair, respectively) and 45 percent PWE treatments (~570 and ~260 additional eggs

  14. Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine impact specific behaviors involved in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Joel; Klaper, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found in surface waters worldwide, but little is understood of their effects on the wildlife that inhabit these waters. Fluoxetine (Prozac; Eli Lilly), a highly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a commonly found PPCP in surface water. The purpose of this project was to determine if environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine impact behavior that is important for population survival in native fish species, including reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance. Chronic 4-week exposures were conducted with doses ranging from 100 ng/L to 100 μg/L to cover a range of environmentally relevant concentrations up to higher concentrations comparable to other published studies with the same drug that have documented various physiological impacts. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), a species native to North America, was used as it conducts a range of specific mating behaviors and therefore serves as an excellent model of specific impacts on brain function. Fluoxetine concentrations as low as 1 μg/L, a concentration that has been found in many freshwater environments, were found to significantly impact mating behavior, specifically nest building and defending in male fish. Males were also found to display aggression, isolation, and repetitive behaviors at higher concentrations. Female mating behavior was largely unaffected. In addition, predator avoidance behaviors in males and females were also impacted at 1 μg/L. Feeding was impacted at 10 μg/L and in the highest exposure (100 μg/L), egg production was limited by deaths of females due to significant male aggressive behaviors in the first two weeks of exposure. Specific behavioral changes occurred at each concentration (most noticeably 1 μg/L and 100 μg/L) indicating a dose dependent effect that triggered different responses at lower exposures versus higher exposures or differential impacts of dose depending on brain

  15. A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) through a novel mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Jordan, E-mail: jcrago@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States); Klaper, Rebecca, E-mail: rklaper@uwm.edu [School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic environment. In this study male fathead minnows (FHM) (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of two anti-androgens, the herbicide linuron, and the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) individually and as part of a mixture of the two for a 28-day period. At the end of this period there was a reduction in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture, but not in FHM exposed individually to linuron or DEHP or the control FHM. There was also a significant reduction in 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) in the DEHP-only and mixture exposed groups as compared to the control. Contrary to what has been previously published for these two chemicals in mammals, the lower plasma T concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture was not a result of the inhibition of genes involved in steroidogenesis; nor due to an increase in the expression of genes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Rather, an increase in relative transcript abundance for CYP3A4 in the liver and androgen- and estrogen-specific SULT2A1 and SULT1st2 in the testes provides evidence that the decrease in plasma T and E2 may be linked to increased steroid catabolism. Feedback from the pituitary is not repressed as the relative expression of follicle stimulating hormone {beta}-subunit mRNA transcript levels in the brain was significantly higher in both DEHP and mixture exposed FHM. In addition, luteinizing hormone {beta}-subunit mRNA transcript levels increased

  16. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  17. Effects of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) on expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and link to vitellogenin induction and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena; Zucchi, Sara [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (ETH Zuerich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation, and ultimately they reach aquatic systems. The lipophilic UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) belongs to one of the most frequently used UV-filters and accumulates in aquatic animals. Despite its ubiquitous presence in water and biota, very little is known about its potential hormonal effects on aquatic organisms. In our study, we evaluated the effects of measured water concentration of 5.4, 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC on the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in the liver, testis and brain of male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We compare the transcription profile with the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, secondary sex characteristics, and gonad histology. Transcripts of the androgen receptor (ar) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of females at 37.5, 244.5 {mu}g/L and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC. Additionally, the 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) transcript was significantly decreased in the liver of males at 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC, and at 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC in females. The expressional changes were tissue-specific in most cases, being most significant in the liver. Vitellogenin plasma concentration was significantly increased at 244.5 {mu}g/L EHMC in males. EHMC induced significant histological changes in testes and ovaries at 394 {mu}g/L. Testes displayed a decrease in spermatocytes, and ovaries a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes. The induction of VTG plasma concentration and the histological changes in gonads suggest an estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity of EHMC. On the other hand, the gene expression profile shows an antiestrogenic (e.g.: down-regulation of esr1) activity of EHMC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EHMC displays low but multiple hormonal activities in fish.

  18. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  19. Mercury Concentrations of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) Vary by Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Madenjian, Charles P.; James T. Francis; Jeffrey J. Braunscheidel; Joseph R. Bohr; Matthew J. Geiger; G. Mark Knottnerus

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from...

  20. Mercury concentrations of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Francis, James T.; Braunscheidel, Jeffrey J.; Bohr, Joseph R.; Geiger, Matthew J.; Knottnerus, G. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI), USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g) was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g). Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.

  1. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid axis plays a critical role in teleost fish development. The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4), to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior swim bladder (SB), processes which we previously demonstrated to be thyroid-hormone regulated. Two experiments were conducted using iopanoic acid (IOP), a pharmaceutical used to treat hyperthyroidism, as a model deiodinase inhibitor. In the first study, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos (~1 day post-fertilization [dpf]) were exposed in a flow-through system to three concentrations of IOP (0.6, 1.9, 6.0 mg/L) or control water and sampled at 4 and 6 dpf. Whole body T4 and T3 concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. Abundance of deiodinase 1-3 (dio1-3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), and thyroperoxidase (tpo) transcripts was examined using quantitative polymerase-chain reaction. Posterior SB inflation was assessed at 6 dpf. To examine effects on anterior SB inflation, a second study was conducted in which 6 dpf larvae, whose posterior SB had already inflated, were exposed to the same IOP concentrations. Fish were sampled at 10, 14, 18, and 21 dpf for T4/T3 measurements, gene transcription analyses, and thyroid histopathology. In the embryo study, incidence and length of inflated posterior SBs were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dp

  2. Growth, life history, and species interactions of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) under heavy predation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belk, M.C. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this study was, first, to compare growth and life history characteristics of an unfished population of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) in the presence of an abundant predator population to characteristic exhibited by bluegills in typical southeastern US reservoirs where the abundance of predators is reduced, but fishing is increased. The second objective was to determine if differences observed between populations were determined genetically or environmentally.

  3. Development of a Computational Model for Female Fathead Minnows exposed to Two Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens and androgens) are known to affect reproductive functions in fish. A synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills, 17á-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is discharged from wastewater treatment plants into water bodies throughout the United ...

  4. The effects of silver nanoparticles on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Geoff; Nies, Loring F; Turco, Ronald F; Bickham, John W; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. We describe the toxicity of two commercial silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) products, NanoAmor and Sigma on Pimephales promelas embryos. Embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of either sonicated or stirred NP solutions for 96 h. LC(50) values for NanoAmor and Sigma Ag NPs were 9.4 and 10.6 mg/L for stirred and 1.25 and 1.36 mg/L for sonicated NPs, respectively. Uptake of Ag NPs into the embryos was observed after 24 h using Transmission Electron Microscopy and Ag NPs induced a concentration-dependent increase in larval abnormalities, mostly edema. Dissolved Ag released from Ag NPs was measured using Inductively Coupled-Mass Spectrometry and the effects tested were found to be three times less toxic when compared to Ag nitrate (AgNO(3)). The percentage of dissolved Ag released was inversely proportional to the concentration of Ag NPs with the lowest (0.625 mg/L) and highest (20 mg/L) concentrations tested releasing 3.7 and 0.45% dissolved Ag, respectively and percent release was similar regardless if concentrations were stirred or sonicated. Thus increased toxicity after sonication cannot be solely explained by dissolved Ag. We conclude that both dissolved and particulate forms of Ag elicited toxicity to fish embryos.

  5. Development of a Computational Model for Female Fathead Minnows exposed to Two Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens and androgens) are known to affect reproductive functions in fish. A synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills, 17á-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is discharged from wastewater treatment plants into water bodies throughout the United ...

  6. Perturbation of Gene Expression and Steroidogenesis with In vitro Exposure of Fathead Minnow Ovaries to Ketoconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various chemicals in the environment can disrupt normal endocrine function, including steroid hormone synthesis, causing deleterious effects. Because these compounds can act at different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, their effects can lead to a mixture...

  7. Effects of the azole fungicide imazalil on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) steroidogenesis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azole fungicides, used for both agriculture and human therapeutic applications may disrupt endocrine function of aquatic life. Azole fungicides are designed to inhibit the fungal enzyme lanosterol 14 á-demethylase (cytochrome P450 [CYP] 51). However, they can also interact...

  8. Differential Toxicity and Accumulation of Fipronil Enantiomers in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a chiral insecticide applied as a racemate of two enantiomers. Because of its high log Koc, fipronil will be found primarily in sediments of aquatic environments. Although a number of studies have examined toxicity in aquatic invertebrates, data on enantioselective t...

  9. Meeting in China: Differential Toxicity and Accumulation of Fipronil Enantiomers in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a chiral insecticide applied as a racemate with two enantiomers. Because of its high log KOC, fipronil will be found primarily in sediments of aquatic environments. Although a number of studies have examined toxicity in aquatic invertebrates, data on enantioselective...

  10. Enantioselective Toxicity and Biotransformation of Fipronil in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a relatively new chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide used to control both agricultural and household invertebrate pests. Fipronil is applied as a racemate, or equal mixture, of its two enantiomers. As regulations on older pesticides increase, production and applicatio...

  11. Enantioselective toxicity and bioaccumulation of fipronil in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) following water and sediment exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a widely used, broad-spectrum pesticide that is applied as an equal mixture of two enantiomers. As regulations on older pesticides become more stringent, production and application of fipronil is expected to grow, leading to increased inputs into aquatic environments ...

  12. Effects of the insecticide fipronil on reproductive endocrinology in the fathead minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA receptors play an important role in neuroendocrine regulation in fish. Disruption of the GABAergic system by environmental contaminants could interfere with normal regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis, leading to imp...

  13. Effects of gemfibrozil on lipid metabolism, steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are transcriptional cofactors that regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Gemfibrozil is a fi...

  14. A Compendium of Transcriptomic Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on the Fathead Minnow Ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding potential hazards of chemicals released into the environment is challenging not only due to the large and growing number of chemicals and materials that need to be screened, but also to the bioavailability, exposure conditions, and species differences among others. ...

  15. EVALUATION OF METHOXYCHLOR AS AN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR IN FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent concern over the possible effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on humans and wildlife has resulted in considerable interest in environmental contaminants that adversely affect aspects of ...

  16. Hormone Binding to Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Human, Alligator, Quail, Salamander, and Fathead Minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, a 96-well plate estrogen receptor binding assay was developed to facilitate the direct comparison of chemical binding to full-length recombinant estrogen receptors across vertebrate classes. Receptors were generated in a baculovirus expression system. This approach ...

  17. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). They regulate gamete maturation and can serve as precursors for other steroid hormones in vertebrates and act as reproductive pheromone...

  18. Phylogeography of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in the Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kouichi; Yonekura, Ryuji; Katano, Osamu; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi River Basin supports the richest fish fauna in eastern North America and has played a key role in the maintenance of fish biodiversity, especially as a refuge for freshwater fishes during glaciations. In this study, we investigated the phylogeography of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in eastern North America, using complete sequence of the mitochondrial ND1 gene from 369 samples collected at 15 sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major lineages (northern and southern clades) in a parsimony network. A sympatric distribution of the lineages was widely observed in the Mississippi Basin. Sequence diversity in the two lineages was significantly lower in glaciated regions around the Great Lakes than in unglaciated regions. The two lineages were estimated to have diverged in the Kansan glaciation, and refugia for both existed around the Ouachita Highlands. The southern clade dispersed during the Yasmouth Interglacial, prior to the dispersal of the northern clade during the Sangamon Interglacial. In the northern clade, low genetic diversity and population fragmentation inferred by nested clade analysis (NCA) were considered due to bottleneck events in the Wisconsin glaciation, while the southern clade showed isolation by distance in a Mantel test. A difference in demographic fluctuation suggests that sympatry of the two lineages has resulted from recent secondary admixture through the range expansion of the northern clade in the post-Pleistocene. Large-scale admixture of multiple mtDNA lineages in L. macrochirus, which has not been recorded in other fishes in the Mississippi River Basin, may result from their high vagility.

  19. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of waterborne and dietary selenium in juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Laverne; Little, Edward E.; Buckler, Denny R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to waterborne selenium as a 6:1 mixture of selenate to selenite (as Se) for 60 d and to dietary seleno-l-methionine for 90 d. Measured concentrations of total selenium in the waterborne exposure ranged from 0.16 to 2.8 mg/l, and concentrations of seleno-l-methionine in the test diet ranged from 2.3 to 25.0 mg/kg wet weight. Mortality, body weight, condition factor, swimming and feeding behavior, aggression, and selenium tissue residues were monitored during the tests. Increased mortality at measured concentrations of 0.64 mg Se/l and greater was the primary adverse effect of waterborne selenium on the juvenile bluegill. Bluegill exposed to 2.8 mg/l of waterborne Se for 30 d exhibited a significant reduction in condition factor (K), whereas dietary exposure of bluegill to 25 mg Se/kg for 30 d and 13 mg Se/kg or greater for 90 d elicited significant reductions in K. Mortality and swimming activity of bluegill were not affected in the dietary exposure. Net accumulation of Se from both water and diet was directly related to exposure concentration. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 5 to 7 for bluegill exposed to waterborne Se and from 0.5 to 1.0 for fish exposed to dietary Se. Results of these laboratory tests indicate that survival of bluegill may be impaired in natural waters with elevated Se concentrations.

  20. Final Critical Habitat for the Devils River minnow (Dionda diaboli)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Devils River minnow (Dionda diaboli) occur. This dataset originated with the...

  1. Development of methodology for community level toxicity testing using the fathead minnow seven day survival-growth impairment test

    OpenAIRE

    Lauth, John Robert

    1990-01-01

    Single species toxicity tests are widely used to assess the potential effects of a toxicant on aquatic life. Increasingly, it is necessary to understand how the results of these tests relate to toxicant effects in natural communities. This dissertation presents the methodology and validation for a community level toxicity test that bridges the gap between single species tests and natutal community responses. The research involved control of environmental parameters, improvement...

  2. Polycarbonate and polystyrene nanoparticles act as stressors to the innate immune system of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque 1820)

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris in the environment has been recognized as a matter of international concern. A minimum of 5.25 trillion plastic particles were estimated to float on the surface of the ocean which is due to a low amount of recycling (37 %) and mismanaged waste that enters into the environment. Large plastic debris can lead to suffocation and death after entanglement or ingestion. Small plastic items like microplastic (< 5 mm) and nanoplastics (< 100 nm) can harm organisms on...

  3. Effects of Cholesterol-altering Pharmaceuticals on Cholesterol Metabolism, Steroidogenesis, and Gene Expression in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals that target cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are among the most widely prescribed drugs and have been detected in the aquatic environment. Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome pr...

  4. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole Part I: Fathead minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of adverse outcome pathways linking specific chemical-induced pathway perturbations to adverse outcomes relevant to regulatory decision-making has potential to support the development of alternatives to traditional whole organism toxicity tests, such as the fish early...

  5. Impacts of WWTP Effluents on the Hepatic Metabolome of Male and Female Fathead Minnows in the South Platte River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics is rapidly becoming established as an eefective tool for studying the responses of organisms, such as fish, to various environmentally relevant stressors. While the majority of the work has been laboratory-based, successful application of the technique in recent year...

  6. Developing confidence in adverse outcome pathway-based toxicity predictions effects of the fungicide imazalil on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) description linking inhibition of aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19) to reproductive dysfunction was reviewed for scientific and technical quality and endorsed by the OECD (https://aopwiki.org/wiki/index.php/Aop:25). An intended application of t...

  7. Developing confidence in adverse outcome pathway-based toxicity predictions effects of the fungicide imazalil on fathead minnow reproduction (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) description linking inhibition of aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19) to reproductive dysfunction was reviewed for scientific and technical quality and endorsed by the OECD. An intended application of the AOP framework is to support the use of me...

  8. Effects of Fadrozole, Ketoconazole, and 17β-trenbolone on Ex Vivo Steroidogenesis in the Fathead Minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have the ability to disrupt steroidogenesis through interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We examined the effects of the competitive aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (0, 3, and 30 g/L), the cytochrome P450 enzyme...

  9. Integrated ecological hazard assessment of waste site soil extracts using FETAX and short-term fathead minnow teratogenesis assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States); Bantle, J.A. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo-larval assay designed to detect environmental developmental toxicants for use in ecological hazard assessment. FETAX offers several advantages in integrated biological hazard assessment including, time- and cost-effectiveness, technical ease, and versatility. FETAX has undergone extensive intra- and more recently interlaboratory validation with known mammalian teratogens and non-teratogens. Ecological hazard evaluations of contaminated sediments, waste site soils, and complex surface and groundwaters have also been performed. An integrated hazard assessment study using FETAX, the conventional, Pimephales promelas 7-d teratogenecity test, and an abbreviated P. promelas teratogenecity test utilizing the general FETAX protocol was conducted with specific reference toxicants and aqueous extracts of contaminated hazardous waste site soils. Results from the studies indicated that FETAX can be used as a component of a battery of bioassays designed to assess potential ecological hazard. Furthermore, the generalized FETAX protocol may be useful with other species in evaluating developmental toxicity hazard.

  10. Statistically validated QSARs, based on theoretical descriptors, for modeling aquatic toxicity of organic chemicals in Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Villa, Fulvio; Gramatica, Paola

    2005-01-01

    The use of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships in assessing the potential negative effects of chemicals plays an important role in ecotoxicology. (LC50)(96h) in Pimephales promelas (Duluth database) is widely modeled as an aquatic toxicity end-point. The object of this study was to compare different molecular descriptors in the development of new statistically validated QSAR models to predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals classified according to their MOA and in a unique general model. The applied multiple linear regression approach (ordinary least squares) is based on theoretical molecular descriptor variety (1D, 2D, and 3D, from DRAGON package, and some calculated logP). The best combination of modeling descriptors was selected by the Genetic Algorithm-Variable Subset Selection procedure. The robustness and the predictive performance of the proposed models was verified using both internal (cross-validation by LOO, bootstrap, Y-scrambling) and external statistical validations (by splitting the original data set into training and validation sets by Kohonen-artificial neural networks (K-ANN)). The model applicability domain (AD) was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability.

  11. Current lineages of the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line are contaminated with fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, J.; Batts, W.; deKinkelin, P.; LeBerre, M.; Bremont, M.; Fijan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initially established from proliferative skin lesions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line (Fijan, Sulimanovic, Bearzotti, Muzinic, Zwillenberg, Chilmonczyk, Vautherot & de Kinkelin 1983) has become one of the most widely used tools for research on fish viruses and the diagnosis of fish viral diseases.

  12. CLONING, EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists, including those recommended for use in the EPA's Tier 1 screening battery, typically use mammalian estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) such as rat or human. Although we know that the amino acid s...

  13. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and four membrane progesterone receptors in the fathead minnow(Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). Progestagens regulate gamete maturation in vertebrates, are critical regulators of placental mammal pregnancy, and act as reproductive ...

  14. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2008-03-15

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  15. Toxicity of dissolved ozone to fish eggs and larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, C.; Coler, R.

    1980-07-01

    To find levels of dissolved residual ozone lethal to fish eggs and larvae during brief exposures, continuous-flow toxicity tests were performed with eggs and larvae of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), eggs of white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), and larvae of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The 50 and 99% lethal concentrations with confidence limits were calculated. Eggs of the species tested were more tolerant than larvae, which were destroyed by very brief exposures (less than 2 minutes) to residuals less than 0.1 mg/1. Because of the sensitivity of the larvae, residual ozone concentrations in natural waters should remain well below 50 ..mu..g/1.

  16. Testing a bioenergetics-based habitat choice model: bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) responses to food availability and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Using an automated shuttlebox system, we conducted patch choice experiments with 32, 8–12 g bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test a behavioral energetics hypothesis of habitat choice. When patch temperature and food levels were held constant within patches but different between patches, we expected bluegill to choose patches that maximized growth based on the bioenergetic integration of food and temperature as predicted by a bioenergetics model. Alternative hypotheses were that bluegill may choose patches based only on food (optimal foraging) or temperature (behavioral thermoregulation). The behavioral energetics hypothesis was not a good predictor of short-term (from minutes to weeks) patch choice by bluegill; the behavioral thermoregulation hypothesis was the best predictor. In the short-term, food and temperature appeared to affect patch choice hierarchically; temperature was more important, although food can alter temperature preference during feeding periods. Over a 19-d experiment, mean temperatures occupied by fish offered low rations did decline as predicted by the behavioral energetics hypothesis, but the decline was less than 1.0 °C as opposed to a possible 5 °C decline. A short-term, bioenergetic response to food and temperature may be precluded by physiological costs of acclimation not considered explicitly in the behavioral energetics hypothesis.

  17. Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and wild source in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Abua; Egilla, Jonathan

    2008-09-15

    Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish muscles (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and natural pond in Missouri were determined using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and the direct mercury analyzer (DMA). Dietary intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Dogfish muscle (DORM-2) and lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2) reference standards were used in trace element recovery and method validations. The average elemental concentrations (mg/kg diet, dry wt.) of fish feed were: As 1.81, Cd 2.37, Co 0.10, Cr 1.42, Cu 8.0, Fe 404, Mn 35.9, Ni 0.51, Pb 9.16, Se 1.71, Sn 20.7, V 0.09, Zn 118 and Hg 0.07. The mean elemental concentrations (μg/kg wet wt.) in bluegill muscles from both aquaculture and wild (in parenthesis) sources were: As 0.36 (0.06), Cd 0.28 (0.01), Co 0.0 (0.0), Cr 0.52 (0.05), Cu 0.38 (0.18), Fe 17.5 (2.43), Mn 0.18 (0.24), Ni 0.18 (0.04), Pb 1.03 (0.04), Se 0.34 (0.30), Sn 0.66 (0.42), V 0.02 (0.01), Zn 6.97 (9.13) and Hg 0.06 (0.24). Kruskal-Wallis chi square indicated significant differences in As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Zn and Hg (Paquaculture and wild bluegills, posed no health risks for approximately 85% of all samples.

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel picornavirus from baitfish in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B D Phelps

    Full Text Available During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20 of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni. Following the appearance of a diffuse cytopathic effect, examination of cell culture supernatant by negative contrast electron microscopy revealed the presence of small, round virus particles (∼ 30-32 nm, with picornavirus-like morphology. Amplification and sequence analysis of viral RNA identified the agent as a novel member of the Picornaviridae family, tentatively named fathead minnow picornavirus (FHMPV. The full FHMPV genome consisted of 7834 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis based on 491 amino acid residues of the 3D gene showed 98.6% to 100% identity among the 20 isolates of FHMPV compared in this study while only 49.5% identity with its nearest neighbor, the bluegill picornavirus (BGPV isolated from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus. Based on complete polyprotein analysis, the FHMPV shared 58% (P1, 33% (P2 and 43% (P3 amino acid identities with BGPV and shared less than 40% amino acid identity with all other picornaviruses. Hence, we propose the creation of a new genus (Piscevirus within the Picornaviridae family. The impact of FHMPV on the health of fish populations is unknown at present.

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) occur. The geographic extent...

  20. A Computational Model of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17á-ethynylestradiol and 17â-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens, androgens and their mimics) are known to affect reproduction in fish. 17a-ethynylestradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills. 17a-trenbolone is a relatively stable metabolite of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic and...

  1. A Computational Model of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis in Male Fathead Minnows Exposed to 17 | *alpha* | -ethinylestradiol and 17 | *beta* | -estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogenic chemicals in the aquatic environment have been shown to cause a variety of reproductive anomalies in fish including full sex reversal, intersex, and altered population sex ratios. Two estrogens found in the aquatic environment, 17-ethinylestradiol and 17â-estradiol, h...

  2. A Computational Model of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17á-ethynylestradiol and 17â-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens, androgens and their mimics) are known to affect reproduction in fish. 17a-ethynylestradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills. 17a-trenbolone is a relatively stable metabolite of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic and...

  3. EFFECTS OF AMMONIUM SULFATE ON GROWTH OF LARVAL NORTHWESTERN SALAMANDERS, RED-LEGGED AND PACIFIC TREEFROG TADPOLES, AND JUVENILE FATHEAD MINNOWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium-nitrogen fertilizers are used in large quantities in agricultural areas of the United States, including the grass-seed fields of the Willamette Valley of western Oregon, and are a potential threat to larval amphibians living in the treat areas (Edwards and Daniel 1994, M...

  4. Predicting fecundity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed toeEndocrine-disrupting chemicals using a MATLAB®-based model of oocyte growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for fle...

  5. Predicting fecundity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed toeEndocrine-disrupting chemicals using a MATLAB®-based model of oocyte growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for fle...

  6. A field-based approach for assessing the impact of paper pulp mill effluent on the metbolite profile of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although evidence indicates that exposure to effluent from paper pulp mills (PME) can alter the body condition, secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive success of aquatic organisms, there is currently little understanding of the biochemical mechanisms for these effects...

  7. CLONING AND IN VITRO EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR α FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists typically use mammalian (rat, human) estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR). Although we know that the amino acid sequences of steroid receptors in nonmammalian vertebrates are not identical to the ma...

  8. Developmental Toxicity of Carbon Quantum Dots to the Embryos/Larvae of Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Zeng, Yu-Lian

    2016-01-01

    The toxic effects of CDs on rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos at different developmental stages were investigated. The results showed that rare minnow embryos had decreased spontaneous movements, body length, increased heart rate, pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, tail/spinal curvature, various morphological malformations, and decreased hatching rate. Biochemical analysis showed the CDs exposure significantly inhibited the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase and increased the MDA contents and the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPX. Further examination suggested that the CDs exposure induced serious embryonic cellular DNA damage. Moreover, the CDs exposure induced upregulation of development related genes (Wnt8a and Mstn) along with the downregulation of Vezf1. Overall, the present study revealed that the CDs exposure has significant development toxicity on rare minnow embryos/larvae. Mechanistically, this toxicity might result from the pressure of induced oxidative stress coordinate with the dysregulated development related gene expression mediated by the CDs exposure. PMID:27872851

  9. Developmental Toxicity of Carbon Quantum Dots to the Embryos/Larvae of Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of CDs on rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus embryos at different developmental stages were investigated. The results showed that rare minnow embryos had decreased spontaneous movements, body length, increased heart rate, pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, tail/spinal curvature, various morphological malformations, and decreased hatching rate. Biochemical analysis showed the CDs exposure significantly inhibited the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase and increased the MDA contents and the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPX. Further examination suggested that the CDs exposure induced serious embryonic cellular DNA damage. Moreover, the CDs exposure induced upregulation of development related genes (Wnt8a and Mstn along with the downregulation of Vezf1. Overall, the present study revealed that the CDs exposure has significant development toxicity on rare minnow embryos/larvae. Mechanistically, this toxicity might result from the pressure of induced oxidative stress coordinate with the dysregulated development related gene expression mediated by the CDs exposure.

  10. Comparative toxicity of methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide to freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, S.H.; Knuth, M.L.; Anderson-Buchou, C.D.; Brooke, L.T.; Lima, A.R.; Shubat, P.J.

    1986-10-01

    The organic solvents methanol and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) are used widely as industrial solvents. Although some toxicity data appear in the literature for methanol and DMF, there have been few studies which have been flow-through tests for a standard 48- or 96-h exposure period with measured toxicant concentrations. In this study, 96-h flow-through acute toxicity tests with methanol and DMF were conducted with three species of freshwater fish - rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Static acute toxicity tests (48 h) were conducted with DMF and two species of freshwater invertebrates - a midge (Paratanytarsus parthenogeneticus) and a daphnid (Daphnia magna). Median lethal (LC50) and median effect (EC50) concentrations for 96-h exposures were determined for fish and 48-h EC50's were determined for invertebrates.

  11. Cadmium, metal-binding proteins, and growth in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W. Gregory; Wiener, James G.; Steingraeber, Mark T.; Atchison, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    We exposed juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) to ~1000 mg∙L−1 of continuously suspended river sediment in a 28-d test with six treatments (randomized block with one sediment-free control and five sediments ranging from 1.3 to 21.4 μg Cd∙g dry weight−1). Each treatment had three replicates, each with 25 fish. Growth was reduced by exposure to suspended sediment, probably due to physical effects of sediment on feeding and to toxicity in the treatment with the greatest concentrations of metals. Mean whole-body concentrations of cadmium (0.04–0.14 μg∙g wet weight−1) were correlated with cadmium concentration in filtered water (8–72 ng∙L−1), suspended sediment (0.61–16.8 μg∙L−1), and bulk sediment. The concentration of hepatic nonthionein cytosolic cadmium (cadmium not bound by metal-binding proteins, MBP) in fish exposed to the two most contaminated sediments exceeded that in controls. The mean concentration of hepatic MBP was correlated with cadmium concentration in filtered water, suspended sediment, bulk sediment, and whole fish. Whole-body cadmium concentration was the most sensitive indicator of cadmium exposure, with lowest observed effect concentrations of 1.9 μg Cd∙L−1 for suspended sediment and 13 ng Cd∙L−1 for filtered water. Sediment-associated cadmium was less available than waterborne cadmium for uptake by fish.

  12. Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as a surrogate species in assessing contaminant risk to two endangered cyprinodontids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecken-Folse, J.; Albrecht, B. [TRAC Labs., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Mayer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Ellersieck, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Sappington, L. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were tested as a surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for the endangered Leon Springs pupfish (C. bovinus) and desert pupfish (C. macularius). Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper sulfate, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accordance with ASTM guidelines. Sheepshead minnows were always more sensitive than pupfish, but the differences were small. 96-h LC50s for sheepshead minnows and Leon Springs pupfish were, respectively: carbaryl (4.2 and 4.6 mg/L), copper sulfate (2.5 and 4.6 mg/L), 4-nonylphenol (0.46 and 0.48 mg/L), pentachlorophenol (0.05 and 0.08 mg/L), permethrin (1 7 and 21 ug/L). Only one test could be conducted with desert pupfish and carbaryl, with the sheepshead minnow being more sensitive (7.3 vs 4.2 mg/L). These data, along with other data from the US NBS, Columbia, MO (two surrogate and six endangered freshwater fishes), indicate that toxicity test data for surrogate fishes can be used reliably to predict chemical toxicity to endangered fishes by interspecies correlations. However, the correlations were generally best within a family, particularly with the Cyprinodontids.

  13. Form and performance: body shape and prey-capture success in four drift-feeding minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro A. Rincón; Markus Bastir; Gary D. Grossman

    2008-01-01

    Identifying links between morphology and performance for ecologically relevant tasks will help elucidate the relationships between organismal design and fitness. We conducted a laboratory study to quantify the relationship between variation in body shape and prey-capture success in four drift-feeding minnow species. We offered drifting prey to individual fish in a test...

  14. FIELD VALIDATION OF A SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE CDNA MACROARRAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Michael J., Iris Knoebl, Becky L. Hemmer, Patrick Larkin, Peggy S. Harris and Nancy D. Denslow. In press. Field Validation of a Sheepshead Minnow Estrogen-Responsive cDNA Macroarray (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portl...

  15. EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS USING A SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW CDNA MACROARRAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Patrick, Leroy C. Folmar, Michael J. Hemmer, Arianna J. Poston and Nancy D. Denslow. 2003. Expression Profiling of Estrogenic Compounds Using a Sheepshead Minnow cDNA Macroarray. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(6):839-846. (ERL,GB 1171). A variety of anthropogenic c...

  16. MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

  17. EFFECTS OF P-NONYLPHENOL, METHOXYCHLOR AND ENDOSULFAN ON VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION AND EXPRESSION IN THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal and dose-response relationships of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA induction and subsequent plasma VTG accumulation were established for sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with p-nonylphenol, an alkylphenol, and the organochlorine pesticides methoxychlor and endo...

  18. Metabolomics for Informing Adverse Outcome Pathways: Androgen Receptor Activation and the Pharmaceutical Spironolactone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Metabolite Input Files for Determining Biochemical Pathways Impacted by Spironolactone Exposures of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Using the Mummichog...

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), in comparison with A. kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Chang, Chia-Hao; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-04-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti, which is known as an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,617 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with most vertebrates. We compared the mitochondrial genome of A. moltrechti with that of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii, which had been considered closely related to A. moltrechti within a same genus. Nucleotide sequence divergence (K2P distance) between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 11.62%. The detailed comparison between the mitochondrial genomes of two species was done.

  20. Subchronic toxicological effects of aquatic nitrobenzene on Medaka and Chinese rare minnow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the simulative exposure experiments of nitrobenzene to two small experimental fishes, Medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), it was found that nitrobenzene could decrease in a linear way in the static aquatic system. Both fishes could accumulate dose-related levels of nitrobenzene quickly and eliminate the compound rapidly when they were transferred to clean water. The Chinese rare minnow showed more sensitivity to the acute toxicity exposure of nitrobenzene than Medaka. Typical molecular biomarkers in oxidative defense system including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) showed the chemical induced alterations. The changes of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities indicated that nitrobenzene might affect the normal neural function. Nitrobenzene exposure could also lead to obvious damaging effects on the target organs, such as gill and liver by hitopathological studies.

  1. Endocrine disrupting effects on Chinese rare minnow(Gobiocypris rarus) fed with field collected Limnodrilus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao-wu; WANG Zi-jian; LIU Jian-kang

    2004-01-01

    The potential endocrine disrupting effects and other toxicity effects on aquatic biota resulted from food uptake was simulated by feeding the laboratory cultured rare minnow(Gobiocypris rarus) with field collected Limnodrilus sp. The results indicated that the food chain processes affected significantly the growth, slightly reduced gonadosomatic indices, and elevated hepatosomatic indices. There was an obvious vitellogenin(VTG) induction, which generally only occurred in mature female, in the serum of juvenile rare minnow and mature male when fed with Limnodrilus sp. In addition, the rare minnow feeding on Limnodrilus sp. had significantly high renal indices, it meant obvious renal hyperplasia. The present work suggested that Limnodrilus sp. from field water may contain toxic pollutants and could lead to endocrine disruption effects to the predators. It was concluded that endocrine disruptors may not only be assimilated through water, but also be bioconcentrated through food web. The results also suggested the importance of food selection in conducting the study of endocrine disruption effects using sensitive species.

  2. Experimental transmission of malacosporean parasites from bryozoans to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and minnow ( Phoxinus phoxinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, D S; El-Matbouli, M

    2010-04-01

    To address whether a fish host is involved in the life cycles of malacosporeans of the genus Buddenbrockia, cohabitation experiments with different bryozoan and fish species were conducted. Samples were analysed by malacosporean-specific PCR, partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA, and light and electron microscopy. Co-habitation challenges with bryozoans resulted in malacosporean infections detected mainly in the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). Sequences of the minnow parasite and of worm-like Buddenbrockia stages in Plumatella repens were identical and showed 99.5% similarity to Buddenbrockia plumatellae and 96.3% similarity to the sequence obtained from carp. One sample, comprising 4-5 zooids of statoblast-raised bryozoans cohabitated with infected carp was PCR-positive, but no overt infection could be observed in the remaining colony. Light and electron-microscopy of kidney samples of infected minnows revealed single cells within kidney tubules, whereas in carp, sporogonic stages were found in kidney tubules. Phylogenetic analysis of the Buddenbrockia spp. known to date placed the carp-infecting species at the base of the B. plumatellae clade, but low posterior probability makes this node questionable. The present study showed that Buddenbrockia spp. were able to infect cyprinid fish, showing stages in kidney-tubules strikingly similar to those of T. bryosalmonae.

  3. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Joseph C; Carim, Kellie J; Paroz, Yvette M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur.

  4. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  5. The thyroid gland and thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during early development and metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Joseph G; Klaren, Peter H M; Mariavelle, Emeline; Das, Krishna

    2016-04-01

    The sheepshead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies that only recently have begun to focus on disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine disrupting compounds. However, reference levels of the thyroid prohormone thyroxine (T4) and biologically active hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and their developmental patterns are unknown. This study set out to describe the ontogeny and morphology of the thyroid gland in sheepshead minnow, and to correlate these with whole-body concentrations of thyroid hormones during early development and metamorphosis. Eggs were collected by natural spawning in our laboratory. T4 and T3 were extracted from embryos, larvae and juveniles and an enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to measure whole-body hormone levels. Length and body mass, hatching success, gross morphology, thyroid hormone levels and histology were measured. The onset of metamorphosis at 12-day post-hatching coincided with surges in whole-body T4 and T3 concentrations. Thyroid follicles were first observed in pre-metamorphic larvae at hatching and were detected exclusively in the subpharyngeal region, surrounding the ventral aorta. Follicle size and thyrocyte epithelial cell heights varied during development, indicating fluctuations in thyroid hormone synthesis activity. The increase in the whole-body T3/T4 ratio was indicative of an increase in outer ring deiodination activity. This study establishes a baseline for thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnows, which will be useful for the understanding of thyroid hormone functions and in future studies of thyroid toxicants in this species.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow Aphyocypris kikuchii (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919), which is an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,601 bp in size, containing 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The sequence information could play an important role in resolving the conflict on its current taxonomic position and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  7. Toxicity and bioconcentration evaluation of RDX and HMX using sheepshead minnows in water exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Guilherme R; Gibson, Alfreda B; Yoo, J Leslie

    2010-10-01

    Lethal effects of the explosives RDX and HMX were assessed using ten-day water exposures to juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). For RDX, maximum mortality occurred during the first two days of exposure with a 10-d median lethal concentration (LC50) of 9.9 mg L(-1). The RDX 10-d median lethal residue (LR50) was 9.6 mg kg(-1) (34.9 μmol kg(-1)) wet weight (ww), the first RDX critical body residue reported for fish. Previous investigations reported that RDX body residues in marine amphipods up to 96 μmol kg(-1) ww and in marine mussels up to 86 μmol kg(-1) ww failed to result in significant mortality. The highest HMX concentration tested, corresponding to its apparent solubility limit in seawater (2.0 mg L(-1)), and the associated mean body residue (3 mg kg(-1) or 14 μmol kg(-1) ww) resulted in no significant mortality for exposed minnows. The mean 10-d bioconcentration factors for RDX (0.6-0.9 L kg(-1)) and HMX (0.3-1.6 L kg(-1)) were typically lower than 1, reflecting the low bioaccumulative potential for these compounds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Gonadogenesis and annual reproductive cycles of an endangered cyprinid fish, the lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hliwa, Piotr; Król, Jarosław; Sikorska, Justyna; Wolnicki, Jacek; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Kamiński, Rafał; Stabińska, Agnieszka; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    In this study, gonadogenesis, the effect of temperature (15, 20 and 25°C) on sex differentiation, and annual changes in the gonads of mature lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814) were determined. The lake minnow was found to be a primary gonochoristic fish species, where gonads are formed directly in the ovaries or testes. The morphological differentiation of gonads was initiated 35days post hatch (DPH) when two types of gonadal anlages were visible: a pear-shaped gonad attached by a single mesentery string and a spindle-shaped gonad attached on both sides to the peritoneum. Gonadogenesis occurred faster in females than in males, with the first previtellogenic oocytes and ovarian lamellae being already observed in 45 DPH fish. In males, cytological differentiation occurred approximately 85 DPH, when the fish reached an average body weight of more than 400mg. No significant effect of rearing temperature on sex ratio in lake minnow juveniles was observed. The proportion of males and females was similar (close to 1:1) in all of the thermal-treated groups, although there were effects of temperature on the final sizes of fish. Histological examination of wild, mature lake minnow ovaries during the annual cycle (from May to February the following year) showed asynchronous oocyte maturation. The testes were characteristic of multi-batch spawning fish. Quantitative dominance of spermatids and mature spermatozoa in May was observed, while the presence of primary and secondary spermatocytes in all other periods was confirmed. These changes were also reflected in the seasonal variation in the gonado-somatic index in both sexes, with the highest mean values of 11.2% (females) and 4.0% (males) in May, which were found to be significantly different to all other periods. The data presented in this study provide an important contribution to our understanding of the biology and reproductive strategy of the endangered lake minnow.

  9. Effects of Total Hardness and Calcium:Magnesium Ratio of Water during Early Stages of Rare Minnows (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Si; Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The ionic composition of water is important for all fish. In the present study, the effects of total hardness and Ca(2+):Mg(2+) ratio on early life stages of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus), a promising laboratory fish in China, were evaluated. Paired parent fish were transferred to spawning aquaria (16 L) containing water at different total hardness and Ca:Mg ratios, and their offspring were further cultured at 25 ± 1 °C and 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod. Fertilization rates were not affected by total hardness to 480 mg L(-1) CaCO3, but egg size decreased with increasing total hardness. Ca:Mg ratios less than 1:20 or greater than 8:1 had adverse influences on hatching, feeding, development, larval growth, and survival. Embryos and larvae incubated in Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)-deficient waters exhibited high malformation rates and high mortality. Our results demonstrate that rare minnows can adapt to a wide range of total hardness and Ca:Mg ratios, although an imbalance between Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in water is toxic to this species. To increase the comparability and usefulness of test results, we recommend the use of reconstituted or drinking water of defined total hardness and Ca:Mg ratio for the culture and toxicity testing of rare minnows.

  10. Cloning of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ) histone H3 promoter and the activity analysis in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Weifeng; SUN Yonghua; WANG Yaping; WU Gang; CHEN Shangping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout histone H3(RH3)promoter was cloned via high fidelity PCR.The cloned RH3 promoter was inserted into a promoter-lacked vector pEGFP-1,resulting in an expression vector pRH3EGFP-1.The linearized pRH3EGFP-1 was microinjected into fertilized eggs of rare minnows and the sequential embryogenetic processes were monitored under a fluorescent microscope.Strong green fluorescence was ubiquitously observed at as early as the gastrula stage and then in various tissues at the fry stage.The results indi cate that RH3 promoter,as a piscine promoter,could serve in producing transgenic Cyprinoid such as rare minnow.Promoter activity of RH3,CMV and common carp β-actin(CA)were compared in rare minnow by the expression of respective recombinant EGFP vectors.The expression of pCMVEGFP occurred earlier than the following one,pRH3EGFP-1,and then pCAEGFP during the embryogenesis of the transgenics.Their expression activities demonstrated that the CMV promoter is the strongest one,followed by the CA and then the RH3.

  11. Benzo[a]pyrene induced p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis pathways in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lilai; Lv, Biping; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2017-03-01

    The p53 pathways play an important role in carcinogenesis. In mammals, p53 and p53 target genes have been extensively studied, but little is known about their functions and regulation in fish. In this study, the cDNA fragments of p53 network genes, including p53, p21, mdm2, gadd45α, gadd45β, igfbp-3, and bax, were cloned from Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). These genes displayed high amino acid sequence identities with their zebrafish orthologs. The mRNA levels of p53 network genes and pathological changes in the liver were determined after adult rare minnow were exposed to 0.4, 2, and 10 µg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for 28 days. The results showed that p53, p21, mdm2, gadd45α, and bax mRNA expressions in the livers from males and females were significantly upregulated compared with those of the controls (p p53 network genes in the livers suggest that rare minnow is suitable as an experimental fish to screen environmental carcinogens. In addition, the p53 network genes in rare minnow could feasibly be used to identify the mechanism of environmental carcinogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 979-988, 2017.

  12. Butachlor causes disruption of HPG and HPT axes in adult female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Miao; Yuan, Lilai; Wang, Zijian

    2014-09-25

    Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide widely used in Asia, and may enter the aquatic environment through agricultural application. In this study, plasma VTG and hormone levels (E2, 11-KT, T3 and T4) were determined after the female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to butachlor at environmental relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10μg/L) for 40days. The mRNA levels of the HPG axis-related genes (gnrh, erα, vtg, star, lhr, 3β-hsd, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a and cyp19b), and the HPT axis-related genes (trα, dio1, dio2, and dio3) were quantified after 20 and 40days exposure to butachlor. For the HPG axis, the plasma 11-KT was increased at exposure concentration of 10μg/L, and VTG was significantly decreased at 1μg/L. Functional genes like gnrh and cyp19b in the brains, star, lhr, cyp11a, 3β-hsd, and cyp19a in the ovaries, and erα and vtg in livers were up-regulated. For the HPT axis, the results showed that plasma T4 levels were significantly increased, the gene expression of dio1 was up-regulated, dio2 showed no significant variation, and dio3 was down-regulated in the livers. These results indicated that butachlor may promote the accumulation of T4 in fish through inactive deiodinase type 3. The transcription of HPG axis-related genes could serve as an auto-regulation of hormone levels after exposure to butachlor. Furthermore, the activation of gnrh may play an important role as a feed-back mechanism in the regulation of hormone levels and crosstalk of endocrine axes.

  13. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 {mu}g/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The expressions of Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 {mu}g/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  14. Waterborne exposure to microcystin-LR causes thyroid hormone metabolism disturbances in juvenile Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zidong; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ying; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong

    2015-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has the potential to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of MC-LR in fish. In the present study, juvenile Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0 µg/L, 50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, and 500 µg/L) for 7 d. The whole-body thyroid hormone content, the histology of thyroid follicle epithelial cells, the activities of hepatic iodothyronine deiodinases, and the transcription of selected genes associated with thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and metabolism were analyzed. Following exposure to MC-LR, whole-body concentrations of both thyroxine (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ) were significantly decreased. The levels of messenger RNA for sodium/iodide symporter, transthyretin, thyroid hormone receptor-α, iodothyronine deiodinase2, and iodothyronine deiodinase3 were significantly down-regulated after exposure to 500 µg/L MC-LR. A significant decrease in ID2 activity was also observed in the 500-µg/L MC-LR exposure group. Moreover, hypertrophy of thyroid follicle epithelial cells was observed after exposure to MC-LR. The results indicate that acute MC-LR exposure has the potential to disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormone metabolism, leading to a hypothyroidism state in the juvenile Chinese rare minnow.

  15. Histological alternation and vitellogenin induction in adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after exposure to ethynylestradiol and nonylphenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, J.; Wang, Z.; Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.

    2007-01-01

    Adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 ng/l (nominal concentrations) of 17??-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 3, 10, and 30 ??g/l (nominal concentrations) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) under flow-through conditions for a period of 28 d. Low mortality was observed at 5 and 25 ng/l EE2 and the growth of fish reduced significantly at 25 ng/l EE2 compared to controls. However, the gonadosomatic indices (GSI) of male fish were significantly higher in 1 ng/l EE2 treatments and in 10 and 30 ??g/l NP treatments (p kidney tubules and hypertrophy of the tubular epithelia. Also at these levels of exposure, feminization of male fish could be noticed and parts of males manifested the testis-ova phenomenon. Ovaries of female rare minnow in 25 ng/l EE2 treatment group were degenerated. Therefore when exposed to EE2 and NP even at environmental observed concentrations, adverse effects could occur in the reproductive system of adult fishes. The observed hepatic tissue and renal tissue impairment should be due to the induction and accumulation of VTG in organs, especially in males. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MEETING IN PORTUGAL: LINKAGE OF EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS USING GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS IN SMALL FISH MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an interdisciplinary team of scientists from U.S. Government Agencies and Universities, we are utilizing zebrafish and fathead minnow to develop techniques for extrapolation of chemical stressor impacts across species, chemicals and endpoints. The linkage of responses acros...

  17. Adaptation, Compensation, and Recovery: Unraveling the Mechanisms through Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of chemicals in the environment have the potential to inhibit aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. We examined the responses of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, using transcriptional network inferen...

  18. Developing Predictive Approaches to Characterize Adaptive Responses of the Reproductive Endocrine Axis to Aromatase Inhibition II: Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We developed a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic­ pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predic...

  19. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  20. Light climate and dissolved organic carbon concentration influence species-specific changes in fish zooplanktivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Baglini, Katherine; Jones, Stuart E.; Kelly, Patrick T.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Zwart, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in lakes reduces light penetration and limits fish production in low nutrient lakes, reportedly via reduced primary and secondary production. Alternatively, DOC and light reductions could influence fish by altering their visual feeding. Previous studies report mixed effects of DOC on feeding rates of zooplanktivorous fish, but most investigators tested effects of a single concentration of DOC against clear-water, turbid, or algal treatments. We used a controlled laboratory study to quantify the effects of a DOC gradient (3–19 mg L−1) on average light climate and the zooplankton feeding rate of 3 common, north temperate fishes. Light availability, which was inversely related to DOC concentration, had a positive and linear effect on zooplankton consumption by juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), explaining 22% and 28% of the variation in consumption, respectively. By contrast, zooplankton feeding rates by fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were best predicted by a nonlinear, negative influence of light (R2 = 0.13). In bluegill feeding trials we found a general trend for positive selection of larger zooplankton (Cladocera and Chaoboridae); however, the light climate did not influence the selection of prey type. Largemouth bass selected for larger-bodied zooplankton, with weak evidence that selectivity for large Cladocera changed from negative to neutral selection based on electivity values across the light gradient. Our results suggest that the effect of DOC on the light climate of lakes may directly influence fish zooplanktivory and that this influence may vary among fish species.

  1. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black star fat minnow (Rhynchocypris semotilus), an endemic and endangered fish of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Kim, Byung-Jik; Kim, Changmu; Yeo, Joo-Hong; Kim, Soonok

    2017-01-01

    The Black star fat minnow (Rhynchocypris semotilus) is an endemic and critically endangered freshwater fish in Korea. Its genome was 16 605 bp long and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The gene order and the composition of R. semotilus were similar to that of most other vertebrates. Four overlapping regions in ATP8/ATP6, ATP6/COX3, ND4L/ND4, and ND5/ND6, among the 13 PCGs were found. The control region was located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and was determined to be 935 bp in length with the 3' end containing a 12 TA-repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that R. semotilus is most closely related to R. oxycephalus.

  3. Molecular characterization of cytochrome P450 1A and 3A and the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on their mRNA levels in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) gills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yong; Wang Jianshe; Wei Yanhong; Zhang Hongxia; Liu Yang [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-07-07

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a potentially toxic perfluorinated compound (PFC), has been widely disseminated in the environment. In the present study, rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to PFOA exhibited histopathological gill damage, including epithelial hyperplasia of the lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, and lamellar fusion. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a central role in the metabolism and biotransformation of a wide range of endogenous substrates and foreign compounds. Thus, we studied the CYPs and the effects of waterborne PFOA on their corresponding mRNA levels in the gills of rare minnows. Two novel CYP cDNAs (CYP1A and CYP3A) were identified in rare minnow and their mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined. Upregulation of CYP3A mRNA was observed in the gills of male rare minnows exposed to 30 mg/L PFOA, while no significant changes occurred in exposed females. In contrast, down regulation of CYP1A mRNA was detected in the gills of male and female minnows exposed to PFOA. However, the effect of PFOA on gill mRNA levels of their potential regulators, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) for CYP1A, and pregnane X receptor (PXR) for CYP3A, were not consistent with the observed effects of PFOA on the corresponding CYP mRNA concentrations. This suggests a different or more complex transcriptional regulation of CYP expression following PFOA exposure.

  4. The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU, 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment, and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs.

  5. Identification of differential hepatic proteins in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanjun; Gao, Xianjun; Zha, Jinmiao; Ning, Baoan; Li, Xiaoli; Gao, Zhixian; Chao, Fuhuan

    2010-11-10

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a ubiquitous contaminant that has been shown to lead to hepatoxicity and is implicated in the incidence of liver tumors in human. A number of previous studies have described the toxic effects of PCP based on conventional toxicological indices. However, little evidence on protein levels is available at present. For further understanding of mechanisms of action and identifying the potential protein biomarkers for PCP exposure, two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry has been used to identify proteins differentially expressed in the livers of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) following PCP exposure of 0.5, 5, 50 μg/L. After comparison of the protein profiles from treated and control groups, 39 protein spots were found altered in abundance (>2-fold) from male and female PCP-treated groups. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) analysis allowed the unambiguous identification, and 18 protein spots were identified successfully, 12 proteins in females and 6 proteins in males, respectively. These proteins were involved in transport, metabolism, response to oxidative stress and other biological processes. Of these proteins, four differentially expressed mRNA encoding proteins underwent quantitative analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). The consistent and discrepant results between mRNA and protein levels suggested that complicated regulatory mechanisms of gene expression were implicated in the response to PCP exposure. In addition, marked gender differences in response to PCP have been described from the comparison of the male and female liver protein profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the 'minnow that cried pike' results in culturally transmitted neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Adam L; Mathiron, Anthony G E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2015-08-07

    Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became neophobic in response to the control cue (a novel odour, NO). Observers that were previously paired with low-risk models acquired a strong antipredator response only to the predator cue. However, observers that interacted with high-risk models, displayed a much weaker response to the predator odour and a weak neophobic response to the NO. This is the first study reporting such different outcomes of social learning under different environmental conditions, and suggests high-risk environments promote the cultural transmission of neophobia more so than social learning. If such a transfer can be considered similar to secondary traumatization in humans, culturally transmitted neophobia in minnows may provide a good model system for understanding more about the social ecology of fear disorders. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Effects of subchronic exposure to waterborne cadmium on H-P-I axis hormones and related genes in rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Li; Huang, Jing; Pu, De-Yong; Wang, De-Shou; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2017-07-22

    The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis is critical in the stress response and other activities of fish. To further investigate cadmium (Cd) toxicity on the H-P-I axis and to identify its potential regulatory genes in fish, the adult female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to subchronic (5weeks) levels of waterborne Cd in the present study. This kind of treatment caused dose-dependent decline in fish growth, with significance in the high dose group (100μg/L). Correspondingly, low dose (5-50μg/L) waterborne Cd disrupted the endocrine system of H-P-I axis just at the secretion level, while high dose Cd disrupted both the secretion and synthesis of cortisol and its downstream signals in rare minnows, revealed by the significantly upregulation and positive correlation of corticosteroidogenic genes including MC2R, StAR, CYP11A1, and CYP11B1 in the kidney (including the interrenal tissue) (PPP-I axis in fish. The expression of FKBP5 in the intestine was positively and significantly correlated with that of Hsp90AA (PP<0.05), which indicated that Hsp90AA and Hsp90AB were more likely to serve as cofactors of GR and FKBP5 in response to Cd exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NEW DESIGN FOR AIRLIFT PUMP USED IN FISH CULTURE TANKS WITH THE ENDANGERED RIO GRANDE SILVERY MINNOW (Hybognathus amarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Hutson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an airlift pump used to produce a circular flow in a fish culture tank that does not attach to the tank. The design produces an airlift pump that does not swing back and forth or float upwards while in use. It is easy to build, inexpensive, and can be quickly installed and removed so that it does not interfere with sampling or harvest. The airlift pump was evaluated during a 30-d survival trial with the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus in 2.44-m-diameter circular tanks (3,666 l. Because the fish is endangered, all new culture units must be evaluated in a survival trial. To be able to use a new 15-tank system, survival had to be evaluated in a random representation of three tanks. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which regulates all activities with this endangered species, decided that permitted take (maximum permitted mortality was 60% for the survival trial; consequently, survival >40% in each tank would be considered successful. Two airlift pumps were placed in each tank. The two airlift pumps moved a mean±SD of 33.697±5.563 l/min; this produced total tank turnovers through the airlift pumps of 110.65±16.93 min. Water velocities were measured at nine locations in the tanks. Water velocities were 0.0-0.04 m/sec. Dissolved oxygen concentration never went below 6.30 mg/l. The airlift pumps operated flawlessly and required no maintenance. They produced water velocities preferred by the fish and helped keep dissolved oxygen concentration above the permitted minimum (5 mg/l. The airlift pumps will be used in future fish culture activities in these and other tanks. Survival in the three tanks was 78%, 94% and 96%; overall survival was 89.3%. Because take (10.7% was under the permitted level (60%, the trial was successful.

  9. Assessment of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol effects and underlying mechanisms in a continuous, multigeneration exposure of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jinmiao; Sun, Liwei; Zhou, Yiqi; Spear, Philip A; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian

    2008-02-01

    17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) is a synthetic estrogen used primarily in birth control pills and in hormone replacement therapy. Owing to its occurrence in surface waters at concentrations frequently greater than 1 ng/l and its projected future use, EE(2) is expected to pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to obtain long-term exposure data necessary for the establishment of water quality criteria and to investigate mechanisms associated with toxic effects. In a multigeneration experiment, Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were constantly exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the synthetic estrogen EE(2). Mortality, deformities, reproductive parameters, plasma vitellogenin and histopathology were assessed. The results showed that, in the F(0) generation, all endpoints were significantly affected at concentrations higher than 0.2 ng/l EE(2). No F(1) phenotypic males developed to maturity at 0.2 ng/l and, when adult females of this exposure group were crossed with unexposed males, no F(2) fertile eggs were produced. Kidney histopathology and ultrastructure suggest anomalies possibly associated with increased vitellogenin accumulation. We concluded that the reproduction of the F(1) minnows was completely inhibited at the lowest concentration tested, 0.2 ng/l EE(2), a concentration frequently detected in surface waters. Growth effects may be related to increased energy requirements including the energy used in VTG synthesis. Reproductive effects are presumably associated with male feminization and the occurrence of testis-ova in males; however, ovarian degeneration observed in females may also have contributed to reproductive failure.

  10. Simulation of the Migration, Fate, and Effects of Diazinon in Two Monticello Stream Channels,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    of eggs has been shown in much lower concentrations for fathad minnows. Spinal scoliosis has been diagnosed by Allison and Hermanutz (1977) at a...at 90 pg/l Pimephales promelas Reduced hatching and increase in Allison and (fathead minnow) incidence of scoliosis at 3.2 wg/l Hermanutz 1977...upstream boundary condition of 0.31 Og/l. The lag time appears less prevalent in the test Channel 7 than in the calibration Channel 6. The steady

  11. Water Operations Technical Support Program: Techniques for Evaluating Aquatic Habitats in Rivers, Streams, and Reservoirs. Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Vicksburg, Mississippi on 8-10 August 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    between drain- age basins of different sizes and the occurrence of smaller basins with’a basins. The same effect occurs in the stream channel a- one...possible to examine the effects of short-term events on the growth rates of larval fish of specific ages . For example, it is now possible to select a...vigilax) 5 Bluntnose minnow (P. notaitus) 5 Fathead minnow (P. prornelas) 5 Catostomidae River carpsucker (Carpiodes carplo) 5 Quillback (C. cyprinus) 3

  12. Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on mRNA transcription of thyroid hormone pathway and spermatogenesis associated genes in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Lifei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants, which are ubiquitous environmental contaminant found in both abiotic and biotic environmental samples. Deca-BDE (BDE-209) is the principal component, which is currently used worldwide. In this study, the effect of BDE-209 on the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone (TH) related genes and spermatogenesis associated genes were determined from larvae and adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to concentrations 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/L for 21 days. The results showed that the type II deiodinase (dio2) and sodium iodide symporter (nis) mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae at 10 μg/L treatment. In adult, histopathological observations showed that liver of female fish were degenerated at 10 μg/L treatment, and inhibition of spermatogenesis were observed in testis of male fish. In addition, the thyroid hormone receptor α (trα), dio2, and nis mRNA levels in the liver of male and female fish were significantly up-regulated, whereas dio2 and nis mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in the brain. These results indicate that exposure to BDE-209 could result in tissue-specific alternations of TH-related genes expression in adults. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the testis-specific apoptosis genes, the spermatogenesis-associated 4 (spata4) and spermatogenesis-associated 17 (spata17), were down-regulated at 10 μg/L treatment in testis of male fish. Our results suggest that BDE-209 may pose threat to normal thyroid and reproductive function in fish.

  13. Lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-related molecules affected by tributyltin exposure in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Ma, Dongdong; Liu, Min; Huang, Shuntao

    2017-09-26

    Tributyltin (TBT) is reported to induce adipogenesis in fish, which might affect nutritional qualities and health status. Muscle tissues account for the majority of body mass, and have been described as a major site of fat deposition and an immunologically active organ. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate whether chronic exposures of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng/L, affects lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune status in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). After 60 d of exposure, TBT increased contents of total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acids in muscle tissues. Interestingly, TBT exposure disrupted fatty acid composition and increased contents of unsaturated fatty acids (such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in muscle tissues, which might be a response to preserve membrane functions from TBT exposure. Meanwhile, the concentrations of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 2 (Δ6-desaturase) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Δ9-desaturase) were increased after TBT exposure, which might contribute the increase of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, TBT increased muscle lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), and the expression of immune-related molecules (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta and nuclear factor kappa B) in muscle tissues. The disruption of TBT on the lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-toxic effects in muscle tissues of fish might reduce nutritional qualities, and affect growth and health status, which might pose a constant and serious threat to fish and result in economic loss in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely t...

  15. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  16. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrined-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  17. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  18. Toxicity of Athabasca River and oil sands sediments to larval fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, J.; Turcotte, D.; Headley, J.; Hewitt, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that evaluated oil sands tailings pond sediments and sediments from the Athabasca River for embryo-larval toxicity in fathead minnows and walleye. Following 20 days of exposure to 5 sediments from the Athabasca River at concentrations up to 25 g/L, there were no observed effects in fathead minnow eggs and larvae. However, at concentrations as low as 0.2 to 1 g wet wt/L, two of three tailings pond sediments were toxic to fathead minnows. Larvae growth was reduced in all three tailings pond sediments. Nine of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured in tailing pond sediments were found to be above the Freshwater Sediment Quality Guidelines set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), with phenanthrene being the highest. The values for total dry weight PAHs and total naphthenic acids in tailings pond sediment and river sediment were discussed. The cause for the observed toxicity in fathead minnow larvae could not be determined based on the preliminary study results. As part of the ongoing study, walleye eggs and larvae are being exposed to the sediments to compare their relative sensitivity and to determine possible causative compounds.

  19. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16).

  20. An in vitro/in vovo screening assay as a sensitive tool to assess endocrine disruptive activity in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.; Buitenweg, S.; Geuijen, I.; Waart, van de B.; Kuiper, R.; Linden, van der S.; Puijker, L.; Murk, A.J.; Burg, van der B.; Legler, J.

    2007-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnow were exposed for 14 or 28-days under flow-through conditions to undiluted filtered water samples from the rivers Meuse and Rhine in the Netherlands. The experiment included two vessels per treatment each containing 10 fish and samples of five fish were taken after 14 and 28

  1. An in vitro/in vovo screening assay as a sensitive tool to assess endocrine disruptive activity in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.; Buitenweg, S.; Geuijen, I.; Waart, van de B.; Kuiper, R.; Linden, van der S.; Puijker, L.; Murk, A.J.; Burg, van der B.; Legler, J.

    2007-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnow were exposed for 14 or 28-days under flow-through conditions to undiluted filtered water samples from the rivers Meuse and Rhine in the Netherlands. The experiment included two vessels per treatment each containing 10 fish and samples of five fish were taken after 14 and 28

  2. Developing Predictive Approaches to Characterize Adaptive Responses of the Reproductive Endocrine Axis to Aromatase Inhibition: Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We developed a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (DRTC)...

  3. 9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in cell culture, using either the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) or fathead minnow (FHM) cell... isolation through cell culture, if the Administrator determines that such assays provide equivalent... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish...

  4. A systems toxicology approach to elucidate the mechanisms involved in RDX species-specific sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Christopher M; Gust, Kurt A; Stanley, Jacob K; Habib, Tanwir; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J

    2012-07-17

    Interspecies uncertainty factors in ecological risk assessment provide conservative estimates of risk where limited or no toxicity data is available. We quantitatively examined the validity of interspecies uncertainty factors by comparing the responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to the energetic compound 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a known neurotoxicant. Relative toxicity was measured through transcriptional, morphological, and behavioral end points in zebrafish and fathead minnow fry exposed for 96 h to RDX concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 27.7 mg/L. Spinal deformities and lethality occurred at 1.8 and 3.5 mg/L RDX respectively for fathead minnow and at 13.8 and 27.7 mg/L for zebrafish, indicating that zebrafish have an 8-fold greater tolerance for RDX than fathead minnow fry. The number and magnitude of differentially expressed transcripts increased with increasing RDX concentration for both species. Differentially expressed genes were enriched in functions related to neurological disease, oxidative-stress, acute-phase response, vitamin/mineral metabolism and skeletal/muscular disorders. Decreased expression of collagen-coding transcripts were associated with spinal deformity and likely involved in sensitivity to RDX. Our work provides a mechanistic explanation for species-specific sensitivity to RDX where zebrafish responded at lower concentrations with greater numbers of functions related to RDX tolerance than fathead minnow. While the 10-fold interspecies uncertainty factor does provide a reasonable cross-species estimate of toxicity in the present study, the observation that the responses between ZF and FHM are markedly different does initiate a call for concern regarding establishment of broad ecotoxicological conclusions based on model species such as zebrafish.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  6. Characterization of four nr5a genes and gene expression profiling for testicular steroidogenesis-related genes and their regulatory factors in response to bisphenol A in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Yuan, Cong; Hu, Guojun; Li, Meng; Zheng, Yao; Gao, Jiancao; Yang, Yanping; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2013-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) widely used in the manufacture of numerous products is ubiquitous in aquatic environment. To explore the mechanisms of BPA-mediated actions, male rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus were exposed to BPA at concentrations of 5, 15, and 50 μg/L for 14 and 35 days in the present study. Four subtypes of nr5a gene encoding important transcription factors for steroidogenesis were characterized, and tissue distribution analysis demonstrated distinct expression profiling of the four genes in G. rarus. BPA at environmentally relevant concentration (5 μg/L) caused increase of gonadosomatic index (GSI) of male fish. In response to BPA, no obvious changes on the testis development were observed. Modulation of vtg mRNA expression by BPA suggests estrogenic and/or anti-estrogenic effects of BPA were dependent on exposed duration (14 or 35 days). Gene expression profiling for testicular steroidogenesis-related genes, sexual steroid receptors, gonadotropin receptors, and transcription factors indicates differential regulation was dependent on exposure duration and dose of BPA. The correlation analysis at mRNA level demonstrates that the BPA-mediated actions on testicular steroidogenesis might involve sex steroid hormone receptor signaling, gonadotropin/gonadotropin receptor pathway, and transcription factors such as nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A (Nr5a), fork head box protein L2 (Foxl2).

  7. Mesohabitats, fish assemblage composition, and mesohabitat use of the Rio Grande silvery minnow over a range of seasonal flow regimes in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte, in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce; Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010–11, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition of mapped river mesohabitats at four sites on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (hereinafter Rio Grande) in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas. The four sites used for the river habitat study were colocated with sites where the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has implemented an experimental reintroduction of the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus), a federally listed endangered species, into part of the historical range of this species. The four sites from upstream to downstream are USGS station 08374340 Rio Grande at Contrabando Canyon near Lajitas, Tex. (hereinafter the Contrabando site), USGS station 290956103363600 Rio Grande at Santa Elena Canyon, Big Bend National Park, Tex. (hereinafter the Santa Elena site), USGS station 291046102573900 Rio Grande near Ranger Station at Rio Grande Village, Tex. (hereinafter the Rio Grande Village site), and USGS station 292354102491100 Rio Grande above Stillwell Crossing near Big Bend National Park, Tex. (hereinafter the Stillwell Crossing site).

  8. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge.

  9. Genomic characterization of a novel calicivirus, FHMCV-2012, from baitfish in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Sunil Kumar; Phelps, Nicholas B D; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Primus, Alexander; Armien, Anibal G; McCann, Rebekah; Puzach, Corey; Waltzek, Thomas B; Goyal, Sagar M

    2017-08-16

    During regulatory sampling of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), a novel calicivirus was isolated from homogenates of kidney and spleen inoculated into bluegill fry (BF-2) cells. Infected cell cultures exhibiting cytopathic effects were screened by PCR-based methods for selected fish viral pathogens. Illumina HiSeq next generation sequencing of the total RNA revealed a novel calicivirus genome that showed limited protein sequence similarity to known homologs in a BLASTp search. The complete genome of this fathead minnow calicivirus (FHMCV) is 6564 nt long, encoding a polyprotein of 2114 aa in length. The complete polyprotein shared only 21% identity with Atlantic salmon calicivirus,followed by 11% to 14% identity with mammalian caliciviruses. A molecular detection assay (RT-PCR) was designed from this sequence for screening of field samples for FHMCV in the future. This virus likely represents a prototype species of a novel genus in the family Caliciviridae, tentatively named "Minovirus".

  10. Discovery of Chemical Toxicity via Biological Networks and Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Habib, Tanwir; Guan, Xin; Escalon, Barbara; Falciani, Francesco; Chipman, J.K.; Antczak, Philipp; Edwards, Stephen; Taylor, Ronald C.; Vulpe, Chris; Loguinov, Alexandre; Van Aggelen, Graham; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia

    2010-09-30

    Both soldiers and animals are exposed to many chemicals as the result of military activities. Tools are needed to understand the hazards and risks that chemicals and new materials pose to soldiers and the environment. We have investigated the potential of global gene regulatory networks in understanding the impact of chemicals on reproduction. We characterized effects of chemicals on ovaries of the model animal system, the Fathead minnow (Pimopheles promelas) connecting chemical impacts on gene expression to circulating blood levels of the hormones testosterone and estradiol in addition to the egg yolk protein vitellogenin. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional gene expression data to characterize chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis that governs reproduction in fathead minnows. The construction of global gene regulatory networks provides deep insights into how drugs and chemicals effect key organs and biological pathways.

  11. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) Study, ambient water toxicity. Final report, October 21, 1993--October 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21-28, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. A split sample test using daphnids only will be scheduled during 1994 as a substitute for this study period. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA.

  12. Morphological Development and Growth of Larvae and Juveniles of Fat Minnow Phoxinus lagowskii lagowskii Dybosky in Liaohe River%辽河水系洛氏仔、稚鱼形态发育与生长特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培民; 金广海; 刘义新; 骆小年; 李军

    2014-01-01

    The morphological development and growth were observed and measured in larvae and juveniles of fat minnow Phoxinus lagowskii lagowskii from Liaohe River at water temperature of 18.8 to 27.2℃. The newly hatching larvae had total length of (4.46± 0.43)mm, and posterior swim bladder anlage 3 days after hatching (DAH). The initial feeding was observed in the larvae at 5 DAH. The yolk sac was completely exhausted at 6 DAH, and the larvae showed appearance of the anterior swim bladder at 13 DAH. At 32 DAH, all fins were well developed in the larvae, and scales began to be differentiated at the back of the operculum at 36 DAH, when the larvae developed into juveniles with which scales were covered the entire body apart from the head at 58 DAH. In terms of mor-phological changes in yolk sac and scale, the post-embryonic development of fat minnow may be divided into 3 stages:the yolk-sac stage(0~5 DAH), postlarva stage(6~35 DAH) and juvenile stage(36~58 DAH). The relationship between yolk volume(v) and day after hatching(d) was expressed as the equation:V=0.0063d2-0.0870d+0.2863(R2=0.8167). The relationship between total length of the fish (LT) and day after hatching (d) was described as the equation:LT=0.0083d2+0.2351d+4.8759 (R2=0.9544), and the body weight(w) and day after hatching(d) was described as W=0.0006e0.1317d(R2=0.9719).%本文研究辽河水系洛氏 Phoxinus lagowskii lagowskii仔、稚鱼形态发育和早期生长。结果表明:在18.8~27.2℃下,洛氏初孵仔鱼全长为(4.46±0.43)mm,4日龄的仔鱼鳔一室,5日龄时开始摄食,6日龄卵黄囊完全吸收,13日龄时鳔二室,32日龄时各鳍发育完成;36日龄时开始出现鳞片;58日龄时除头部外全身被鳞,进入幼鱼期。根据卵黄囊、运动器官和鳞片的变化,洛氏早期发育可分为卵黄囊期(孵出0~5d)、后期仔鱼(6~35d)和稚鱼期(36~58d)。曲线拟合表明,卵黄囊体积(V)和全长(LT)与日龄(d)均呈

  13. The secretion, synthesis, and metabolism of cortisol and its downstream genes in the H-P-I axis of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) are disrupted by acute waterborne cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xie, Bi-Wen; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis plays a critical role in the fish stress response and is regulated by several factors. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the world, but its effects on the H-P-I axis of teleosts are largely unknown. Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) as an experimental animal, we found that Cd only disrupted the secretion and synthesis of cortisol. Neither hormones at the H or P level nor the expressions of their receptor genes (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) and melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R)) were affected. Steroidogenic acute regulator (StAR), CYP11A1 and CYP11B1, which encode the key enzymes in the cortisol synthesis pathway, were significantly up-regulated in the kidney (including the head kidney). The level of 11β-HSD2, which is required for the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, was increased in the kidney, intestine, brain, and hepatopancreas, whereas the expression of 11β-HSD1, which encodes the reverse conversion enzyme, was increased in the gill, kidney and almost unchanged in other tissues. The enzyme activity concentration of 11β-HSD2 was increased in the kidney as well. The level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) decreased in the intestine, gill and muscle, and the key GR regulator FK506 binding protein5 (FKBP5) was up-regulated in the GR-decreased tissues, whereas the level of nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 (NCoR1), another GR regulator remained almost unchanged. Thus, GR, FKBP5 and 11β-HSD2 may be involved in Cd-induced cortisol disruption.

  14. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    thoracic legs. Chief food items are algae, protozoa, organic detritus and bacteria (Pennak 1978). These types of food items comprised the periphytic...impact on colonization of the plate samples. Much of this impact would have been on the growth of algae, protozoa and bacteria on the plates. In...22. N. zonistius Bandtf~n sniner 23. Semotilt.s atromaculatus Creek chuib 24. PepasprelsFathead minnow Gatos tomiidae 25. Carpioc-s cyprinus Q,1 Liba

  15. Demonstration and Certification of Amphibian Ecological Risk Assessment Protocol. Cost and Performance Report (Version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    day benthic invertebrate toxicity tests conducted with the midge, Chironomus tentans, and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca . Actual unit costs for these...management decisions in wetlands often rely on site-specific benthic invertebrate toxicity testing using organisms such as the amphipod, H. azteca ...amphipod (H. azteca ), and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Although remediation has not yet occurred, the arsenic NOAEC from the amphibian

  16. The fish sexual development test: an OECD test guideline proposal with possible relevance for environmental risk assessment. Results from the validation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Kinnberg, Karin Lund;

    2010-01-01

    The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) has gone through two validations as an OECD test guideline for the detection of endocrine active chemicals with different modes of action. The validation has been finalized on four species: Zebrafish (Danio rerio), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), three...... spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and with four model compounds: the weak estrogens 4-tert Octylphenol and 4-tert pentylphenol, the aromatase inhibitor prochloraz and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. All species were tested in different laboratories...

  17. Biological (Molecular and Cellular) Markers of Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-15

    Alkaline unwinding is a sensitive analytical technique which has previously been used in cells in culture to detect and quantify DNA strand breaks induced...pollution in many fish species. However, in small fish ( guppies , fathead minnows and Japanese medaka) these enzyme analyses are very difficult to perform...methylated deGAynucleoside in eukaryotic DNA is 5m-dCyd. It has been demonstrated in cell culture that chemical carcinogens and mutagens alter the normal

  18. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of April 14-21, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 4.3, Poplar Creek Mile 5.1, and Poplar Creek Mile 6.0 on April 13, 15, and 18. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to daphnids in undiluted samples; however, toxicity to fathead minnows (significantly reduced survival) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Daphnid reproduction was significantly less than controls in 50 percent dilutions of samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0, while no toxicity to fathead minnows was shown in diluted (50 percent) samples.

  19. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRO FISCHERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (W...

  20. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRIO FISCHERI TO TOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing online toxicity monitors(OTMs) and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system. Source waters o...

  1. Selective predation by bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) on three species of Diaptomus (Copepoda) from subtropical Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, J.L.; Vodopich, D.S.; Hoover, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    The electivity of young bluegills (Lepomis marochirus) feeding on three species of Diaptomus was examined experimentally in aquaria. Young bluegills consumed more adult female D. floridanus than D. mississippiensis, with D. dorsalis being consumed in the smallest numbers. An experiment was conducted with a nonvisual siphon device in an attempt to separate the visibility and escape ability components of the feeding electivity. Although somewhat variable, escape ability was linearly related to body size of the copepods, with D. dorsalis being captured least often by the siphon, D. floridanus being caught an intermediate number of times, and D. mississippiensis being caught most often. Comparisons of the two experiments indicated that differences in numbers of D. dorsalis and D. floridanus eaten by bluegills were determined primarily by disparities in visibility attributable to pigmentation, whereas differences in numbers of D. dorsalis and D. mississippiensis eaten could be accounted for by their escape ability alone. Trends in numbers of D. mississippiensis and D. floridanus eaten were influenced by both their visibility, as determined by body size, and their escape ability. The finding of this study support the hypothesis that D. floridanus and D. mississippiensis could be excluded by fish predation from lakes in which D. dorsalis occurs. 21 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  2. The effects of acute temperature change on swimming performance in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily A; Jong, Arianne S; Ellerby, David J

    2008-05-01

    Many fish change gait within their aerobically supported range of swimming speeds. The effects of acute temperature change on this type of locomotor behavior are poorly understood. Bluegill sunfish swim in the labriform mode at low speeds and switch to undulatory swimming as their swimming speed increases. Maximum aerobic swimming speed (U(max)), labriform-undulatory gait transition speed (U(trans)) and the relationships between fin beat frequency and speed were measured at 14, 18, 22, 26 and 30 degrees C in bluegill acclimated to 22 degrees C. At temperatures below the acclimation temperature (T(a)), U(max), U(trans) and the caudal and pectoral fin beat frequencies at these speeds were reduced relative to the acclimation level. At temperatures above T(a) there was no change in these variables relative to the acclimation level. Supplementation of oxygen levels at 30 degrees C had no effect on swimming performance. The mechanical power output of the abductor superficialis, a pectoral fin abductor muscle, was measured in vitro at the same temperatures used for the swimming experiments. At and below T(a), maximal power output was produced at a cycle frequency approximately matching the in vivo pectoral fin beat frequency. At temperatures above T(a) muscle power output and cycle frequency could be increased above the in vivo levels at U(trans). Our data suggest that the factors triggering the labriform-undulatory gait transition change with temperature. Muscle mechanical performance limited labriform swimming speed at T(a) and below, but other mechanical or energetic factors limited labriform swimming speed at temperatures above T(a).

  3. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  4. Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ♂ Northern Pike Esox lucius × ♀ Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV.

  5. Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…

  6. Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta , through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through handling at landing sites and retail markets around Lake Victoria. ... Therefore, studies on fish contamination are critical for the acceptance of fish food locally and in international markets. ... Design: Purposive, cross-sectional study.

  7. 伊比利亚河共生的当年生鳟和埃布罗河鳟的夏季摄食关系%Summer feeding relationships of the co-occurring hatchling brown trout Salmo trutta and Ebro minnows Phoxinus bigrri in an Iberian river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier OSCOZ; Pedro M.LEUNDA; María C.ESCALA; Rafael MIRANDA

    2008-01-01

    The stomach content composition of 306 Ebro minnows and 185 hatchling brown trout captured in August (1996-1998) in the Larraun River (Ebro River Basin, Northern Spain) is described and compared in order to determine interspecific dietary overlap. Both species fed mainly on aquatic invertebrates. Feeding strategy plots showed that both species are generalist feeders with a heterogeneous diet. Additionally, the comparison between the stomach content and the benthic macroinvertebrate community revealed that both hatchling brown trout and Ebro minnows avoided Elmidae, Gammaridae, Caenidae, Baetidae and Leuctridae, instead showing a preference for Chironomidae, Heptageniidae and Trichoptera. Even though a two species was significant in the Larraun River, differential habitat use and diet plasticity could be minimizing the interspecific competition in river reaches where both species were co-dominant, allowing co-occurrence of these species in relatively high numbers. However, this adaptability and plasticity in Ebro minnows could be a threat to allopatric brown trout populations in rivers with limited trophic resources and limited habitat availability%1996-1998年8月在Larraun河(埃布罗河流域,西班牙北部)共捕获306尾埃布罗河(鱼岁)和185尾0龄的鳟,分析比较了胃含物组成,并测定了种间的食物重叠.食物的个数百分比组成表明两种都主要摄食水生无脊椎动物.摄食策略图显示两种都是摄食不同食物 种类的广食性种类.另外,比较胃含物和底栖大型无脊椎动物群落表明,0龄的鳟和埃布罗河(鱼岁)不摄食光螺科、钩虾科、细蜉科、 四节蜉科和卷襀科的物种,而喜食摇蚊科、五节蜉科和毛翅目物种.尽管简化的Morisitas指数表明Larraun河中这两种鱼之间的食物重叠是显著的,但由于栖息地不同和摄食的可塑性可以降低种间的竞争,使得该水域的这两种鱼能以相对较大的数量共存.然而,在食物资源和

  8. Toxicity of lithium to three freshwater organisms and the antagonistic effect of sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kszos, Lynn Adams; Beauchamp, John J; Stewart, Arthur J

    2003-10-01

    Lithium (Li) is the lightest metal and occurs primarily in stable minerals and salts. Concentrations of Li in surface water are typically toxicity of Li to common toxicity test organisms, we evaluated the toxicity of Li to Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a freshwater snail (Elimia clavaeformis). In the laboratory, the concentration of Li that inhibited P. promelas growth or C. dubia reproduction by 25% (IC25) was dependant upon the dilution water. In laboratory control water containing little sodium (approximately 2.8 mg l(-1)), the IC25s were 0.38 and 0.32 mg Li l(-1) and in ambient stream water containing approximately 17 mg Na l(-1), the IC25s were 1.99 and 3.33, respectively. A Li concentration of 0.15 mg l(-1) inhibited the feeding of E. clavaeformis in laboratory tests. Toxicity tests conducted to evaluate the effect of sodium on the toxicity of Li were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia. The presence of sodium greatly affected the toxicity of Li. Fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia, for example, tolerated concentrations of Li as great as 6 mg l(-1) when sufficient Na was present. The interaction of Li and Na on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia was investigated in depth and can be described using an exponential model. The model predicts that C. dubia reproduction would not be affected when animals are exposed to combinations of lithium and sodium with a log ratio of mmol Na to mmol Li equal to at least 1.63. The results of this study indicate that for most natural waters, the presence of sodium is sufficient to prevent Li toxicity. However, in areas of historical disposal or heavy processing or use, an evaluation of Li from a water quality perspective would be warranted.

  9. Predation on larval suckers in the Williamson River Delta revealed by molecular genetic assays—A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2016-06-13

    Predation of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) during larval egress to Upper Klamath Lake from the Williamson River is poorly understood but may be an important factor limiting recruitment into adult spawning populations. Native and non-native piscivores are abundant in nursery wetland habitat, but larval predation has not been directly studied for all species. Larvae lack hard body structures and digest rapidly in predator digestive systems. Therefore, traditional visual methods for diet analysis may fail to identify the extent of predation on larvae. The goals of this study were to (1) use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays developed for Lost River and shortnose suckers to assay predator stomach contents for sucker DNA, and (2) to assess our ability to use this technique to study predation. Predators were captured opportunistically during larval sucker egress. Concurrent feeding trials indicate that most predators—yellow perch (Perca flaverscens), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), blue chub (Gila coerulea), Klamath tui chub (Siphatales bicolor bicolor), Klamath Lake sculpin (Cottus princeps), slender sculpin (Cottus tenuis)—preyed on sucker larvae in the laboratory. However, sucker DNA was not detected in fathead minnow stomachs. Of the stomachs screened from fish captured in the Williamson River Delta, 15.6 percent of yellow perch contained sucker DNA. This study has demonstrated that the application of qPCR and SNP assays is effective for studying predation on larval suckers. We suggest that techniques associated with dissection or detection of sucker DNA from fathead minnow stomachs need improvement.

  10. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Kahl, Michael D; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Stevens, Kyle E; Severson, Megan N; Blanksma, Chad A; Flynn, Kevin M; Hartig, Philip C; Woodard, Jonne S; Berninger, Jason P; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Johnson, Rodney D; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-01

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that in humans is used to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female-pattern hair loss through antagonism of the androgen receptor. Although not routinely monitored in the environment, spironolactone has been detected downstream of a pharmaceutical manufacturer, indicating a potential for exposure of aquatic species. Furthermore, spironolactone has been reported to cause masculinization of female western mosquitofish, a response indicative of androgen receptor activation. Predictive methods to identify homologous proteins to the human and western mosquitofish androgen receptor suggest that vertebrates would be more susceptible to adverse effects mediated by chemicals like spironolactone that target the androgen receptor compared with invertebrate species that lack a relevant homolog. In addition, an adverse outcome pathway previously developed for activation of the androgen receptor suggests that androgen mimics can lead to reproductive toxicity in fish. To assess this, 21-d reproduction studies were conducted with 2 fish species, fathead minnow and Japanese medaka, and the invertebrate Daphnia magna. Spironolactone significantly reduced the fecundity of medaka and fathead minnows at 50 μg/L, whereas daphnia reproduction was not affected by concentrations as large as 500 μg/L. Phenotypic masculinization of females of both fish species was observed at 5 μg/L as evidenced by formation of tubercles in fathead minnows and papillary processes in Japanese medaka. Effects in fish occurred at concentrations below those reported in the environment. These results demonstrate how a priori knowledge of an adverse outcome pathway and the conservation of a key molecular target across vertebrates can be utilized to identify potential chemicals of concern in terms of monitoring and highlight potentially sensitive species and endpoints for testing.

  11. Inter-laboratory comparison of cell lines for susceptibility to three viruses: VHSV, IHNV and IPNV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Carstensen, Bendix; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Eleven European National Reference Laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of the susceptibility of 5 selected cell lines to 3 fish pathogenic viruses. The test included viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious...... pancreatic necrosis Virus (IPNV), and the cell lines derived from bluegill fry (BF-2), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2). The results showed that for isolation of VHSV, BF-2 and RTG-2 cells performed equally well...

  12. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, AND LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS TO COPPER AND CYANIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here was designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (WQEWS). Source waters ...

  13. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, AND LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS TO COPPER AND CYANIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here was designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (WQEWS). Source waters ...

  14. Littoral zone fish assemblages of northern Cayuga Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Fish assemblages from northern Cayuga Lake were examined for patterns in temporal structure. Fish assemblages changed significantly between seasons. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) formed the basis for most assemblages, but the spring assemblage was dominated by common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Correlations between community structure and abiotic factors were identified. Ten abiotic factors strongly influenced species assemblages, including phosphorus concentration, but could not fully explain differences between assemblages. Results indicate that the seasonal pattern of fish assemblage structure and abundance of fish that tend to feed in the water column were related to the annual cycle of productivity in the lake and behavioral adaptations of the fish.

  15. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  16. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory.

  17. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  18. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  19. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  20. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  1. Comparison of the toxicity of two chelated copper algaecides and copper sulfate to non-target fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, K R; Paul, E A

    2014-12-01

    New pesticide products are reviewed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for possible effects to non-target aquatic organisms. The required toxicity data are for the active ingredient only, and fail to include toxicity of the mixture of other ingredients found in these pesticides. These ingredients may increase the toxicity of the active ingredient to non-target organisms. Our study compares the toxicity of two formulations of chelated copper algaecides with each other, and to a copper sulfate algaecide. We were particularly interested in the effects of a surfactant that is present in one of the formulations. We found that copper becomes less toxic to fish (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.90 mg/L) when it is chelated, providing an additional margin of safety to non-target fish compared to copper sulfate. However, inclusion of a surfactant to the formulation resulted in increased toxicity (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.30 mg/L).

  2. Conserved toxic responses across divergent phylogenetic lineages: a meta-analysis of the neurotoxic effects of RDX among multiple species using toxicogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Habib, Tanwir; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Gust, Kurt A; Gong, Ping; Warner, Chris; Wilbanks, Mitchell; Perkins, Edward

    2011-05-01

    At military training sites, a variety of pollutants such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), may contaminate the area originating from used munitions. Studies investigating the mechanism of toxicity of RDX have shown that it affects the central nervous system causing seizures in humans and animals. Environmental pollutants such as RDX have the potential to affect many different species, therefore it is important to establish how phylogenetically distant species may respond to these types of emerging pollutants. In this paper, we have used a transcriptional network approach to compare and contrast the neurotoxic effects of RDX among five phylogenetically disparate species: rat (Sprague-Dawley), Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and coral (Acropora formosa). Pathway enrichment analysis indicated a conservation of RDX impacts on pathways related to neuronal function in rat, Northern bobwhite quail, fathead minnows and earthworm, but not in coral. As evolutionary distance increased common responses decreased with impacts on energy and metabolism dominating effects in coral. A neurotransmission related transcriptional network based on whole rat brain responses to RDX exposure was used to identify functionally related modules of genes, components of which were conserved across species depending upon evolutionary distance. Overall, the meta-analysis using genomic data of the effects of RDX on several species suggested a common and conserved mode of action of the chemical throughout phylogenetically remote organisms. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011

  3. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in early life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the dynamic energy budget theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Chris; Nordtug, Trond; Tamis, Jacqueline E

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for cod specific DEB-parameters. Furthermore, we explored the relevance of Fathead minnow DEB-parameters as surrogate by comparing LC50 values calculated from DEB-parameters with literature. Cod specific DEB-parameters could not be estimated based on available literature. LC50 values calculated from Fathead minnow DEB-parameters were higher than literature LC50 for early life stages of fish. Applying an extrapolation factor of 50 to the DEB-parameters resulted in LC50 values that were below literature irrespective of life stage. Therefore, we propose to use the last as an estimate for early life stages in cod and recommend relevant experiments with individual petroleum substances on cod. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term reproductive and behavioral toxicity of anthracene to fish in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A.T. [Sandoz Agro, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Oris, J.T. [Miami Univ. Oxford, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The long-term, low-level effects of anthracene in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) were examined in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Adult fish exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced egg laying capacity, with altered oocyte maturation as a potential mechanism of action. Eggs and larvae maternally exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced hatching success and severe developmental abnormalities when incubated under SUVR. The combination of reduced egg output and developmental effects resulted in an inhibition in reproductive capacity in the range of 70--100%. Maternal transfer of anthracene to eggs was efficient; the BCF was 717 for maternally exposed eggs. However, anthracene deputation from eggs after oviposition with only maternal PAH exposure was rapid; anthracene half-life from eggs equaled 1.3 days. Exposure to anthracene under SUVR altered locomotor activity patterns in fathead minnows by inducing hyperactivity or hypoactivity during the light or dark phases of the photoperiod, respectively. Altered activity patterns indicated potential effects of anthracene on the nervous system and/or pineal gland. These alterations disrupted normal activity patterns and reproductive behaviors, and thus have major implications on a fish`s ability to survive and reproduce. Anthracene, a model phototoxic PAH, has many potential sites of toxic action, and any organism exposed to such contaminants will be an considerable SUVR-enhanced risk in the environment.

  5. Developing a list of reference chemicals for testing alternatives to whole fish toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Kramer, Nynke I; Völker, Doris; Scholz, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Lee, Lucy E J; Bols, Niels C; Hermens, Joop L M

    2008-11-11

    This paper details the derivation of a list of 60 reference chemicals for the development of alternatives to animal testing in ecotoxicology with a particular focus on fish. The chemicals were selected as a prerequisite to gather mechanistic information on the performance of alternative testing systems, namely vertebrate cell lines and fish embryos, in comparison to the fish acute lethality test. To avoid the need for additional experiments with fish, the U.S. EPA fathead minnow database was consulted as reference for whole organism responses. This database was compared to the Halle Registry of Cytotoxicity and a collation of data by the German EPA (UBA) on acute toxicity data derived from zebrafish embryos. Chemicals that were present in the fathead minnow database and in at least one of the other two databases were subject to selection. Criteria included the coverage of a wide range of toxicity and physico-chemical parameters as well as the determination of outliers of the in vivo/in vitro correlations. While the reference list of chemicals now guides our research for improving cell line and fish embryo assays to make them widely applicable, the list could be of benefit to search for alternatives in ecotoxicology in general. One example would be the use of this list to validate structure-activity prediction models, which in turn would benefit from a continuous extension of this list with regard to physico-chemical and toxicological data.

  6. Developing confidence in adverse outcome pathway-based ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) description linking inhibition of aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19) to reproductive dysfunction was reviewed for scientific and technical quality and endorsed by the OECD. An intended application of the AOP framework is to support the use of mechanistic or pathway-based data to infer or predict chemical hazards and apical adverse outcomes. As part of this work, ToxCast high throughput screening data were used to identify a chemicals’ ability to inhibit aromatase activity in vitro. Twenty-four hour in vivo exposures, focused on effects on production and circulating concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), key events in the AOP, were conducted to verify in vivo activity. Based on these results, imazalil was selected as a case study chemical to test an AOP-based hazard prediction. A computational model of the fish hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis and a statistically-based model of oocyte growth dynamics were used to predict impacts of different concentrations of imazalil on multiple key events along the AOP, assuming continuous exposure for 21 d. Results of the model simulations were used to select test concentrations and design a fathead minnow reproduction study in which fish were exposed to 20, 60, or 200 µg imazalil/L for durations of 2.5, 10, or 21d. Within 60 h of exposure, female fathead minnows showed significant reductions in ex vivo production of E2, circulating E2 concentrations, and significant increases in

  7. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  8. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  9. Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Brix, Kevin V; Ryan, Adam C; Grosell, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of lead (Pb) was examined for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 96-h) and daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h) in waters modified for hardness (as CaSO₄), dissolved organic carbon (DOC; as Aldrich humic acid) and alkalinity (as NaHCO₃) for parameterization of an acute freshwater biotic ligand model (BLM). Additionally, acute (96-h) and chronic (30-d) bioassays were performed for P. promelas to more clearly define the influence of pH (5.5-8.3) on Pb toxicity as modified by addition of HCl or NaOH using an automated titration system. Results indicate that Ca(2+) is protective against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas but not C. dubia. Strong protection was afforded by DOC and NaHCO(3) against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas, whereas milder protection was observed for C. dubia with both parameters. Dissolved Pb LC50s from the P. promelas pH bioassays revealed a complex effect of pH on Pb toxicity, likely explained in part by Pb speciation and the competitive interaction of H(+) with ionic Pb(2+). Chronic pH bioassays also demonstrated that 30-d growth is not impaired in fathead minnows at relevant Pb concentrations. The findings reported herein suggest that development of separate BLMs for P. promelas and C. dubia should be considered.

  10. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  11. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.

  12. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different

  13. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4 weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1 km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and

  14. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  15. Toxicity of Trinitrotoluene to Sheepshead Minnows in Water Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-06

    more toxic than TNT to an amphipod Hyalella azteca (2 times) and the cladoceran Ceriodaphia dubia (30 times) (Griest et al., 1998). Substantial...the aquatic amphipod Hyalella Azteca . Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 70, 38–46. Smock, L.A., Stoneburner, D.L., Clark, J.R., 1976. The toxic effects of...tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in sediments to Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca : low-dose hormesis and high-dose mortality. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21

  16. Group foraging by a stream minnow: shoals or aggregations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Grossman, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of social attraction in the formation of foraging groups was examined for a stream-dwelling cyprinid, the rosyside dace, Clinostomus funduloides. Dace arrivals and departures at natural foraging sites were monitored and tested for (1) tendency of dace to travel in groups, and (2) dependency of arrival and departure rates on group size. Dace usually entered and departed foraging sites independently of each other. Group size usually affected neither arrival rate nor departure probability. Thus, attraction among dace appeared weak; foraging groups most often resulted from dace aggregating in preferred foraging sites. The strongest evidence of social attraction was during autumn, when dace departure probability often decreased with increasing group size, possibly in response to increased threat of predation by a seasonally occurring predator. Dace also rarely avoided conspecifics, except when an aggressive individual defended a foraging site. Otherwise, there was little evidence of exploitative competition among dace for drifting prey or of foraging benefits in groups, because group size usually did not affect individual feeding rates. These results suggest that the benefits of group foraging demonstrated under laboratory conditions in other studies may not always apply to field conditions.

  17. Early development and larval behaviour of a minnow, Barbus anopius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 28 January 1981 another batch of eggs was fertilized and the ... Mouth and feeding. Initially the ... The growth rates obtained in this study were determined under laboratory ... Pigmentation of the trunk continued in two longitudinal rows.

  18. Microscopic examination of skin in native and nonnative fish from Lake Tahoe exposed to ultraviolet radiation and fluoranthene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevertz, Amanda K., E-mail: agevertz@geiconsultants.com [Miami University, Department of Zoology, 212 Pearson Hall, Oxford 45056, Ohio (United States); GEI Consultants, Inc. , 4601 DTC Blvd, Suite 900, Denver 80237, Colorado (United States); Oris, James T., E-mail: orisjt@miamioh.edu [Miami University, Department of Zoology, 212 Pearson Hall, Oxford 45056, Ohio (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •PAH cause photo-induced toxicity in aquatic organisms in the natural environment. •Montane lakes like Lake Tahoe receive PAH exposure from recreational watercraft. •These lakes are susceptible to invasion and establishment of non-native species. •Non-natives were less tolerant to photo-toxicity compared to native species. •Sensitivity differences were related to levels of oxidative damage in epidermis. -- Abstract: The presence of nonnative species in Lake Tahoe (CA/NV), USA has been an ongoing concern for many decades, and the management of these species calls for an understanding of their ability to cope with the Lake's stressors and for an understanding of their potential to out-compete and reduce the populations of native species. Decreasing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to eutrophication and increasing levels of phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to recreational activities may combine to affect the relative ability of native versus nonnative fish species to survive in the lake. Following a series of toxicity tests which exposed larvae of the native Lahontan redside minnow (Richardsonius egregius) and the nonnative warm-water bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to UVR and FLU, the occurrence of skin damage and/or physiologic defense mechanisms were studied using multiple microscopic techniques. The native minnow appeared to exhibit fewer instances of skin damage and increased instances of cellular coping mechanisms. This study supports the results of previous work conducted by the authors, who determined that the native redside minnow is the more tolerant of the two species, and that setting and adhering to a water quality standard for UVR transparency may aid in preventing the spread of the less tolerant nonnative bluegill and similar warm-water species.

  19. EVIDENCE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BLUEGILL SUNFISH (LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS) LIVER MICROSOMES SIMULTANEOUSLY EXPOSURE TO SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND ANTHRACENE. (R823873)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Possible Role of Fish and Frogs as Paratenic Hosts of Dracunculus medinensis, Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Bishop, Henry; Cleveland, Christopher A.; Maerz, John C.; Bringolf, Robert; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2–3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae. Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were fed fish or tadpoles that had been exposed to infected copepods. Only the ferret fed tadpoles harbored developing Dracunculus larvae at necropsy 70–80 days postexposure. These observations confirm that D. medinensis, like other species in the genus Dracunculus, can readily survive and remain infective in potential paratenic hosts, especially tadpoles. PMID:27434418

  1. Characterization and functional analysis of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhao, Zhe; Hong, Xiaoyou; Chen, Kunci; Zhu, Xinping

    2014-07-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a highly conserved integral protein of mitochondria in different eukaryotic species. It forms a selective channel in the mitochondrial outer membrane that serves as the controlled pathway for small metabolites and ions. In this study, a VDAC gene, EcVDAC1, was isolated from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The EcVDAC1 exhibits ubiquitous expression in various tissues of orange-spotted grouper and is upregulated in liver, gill, and spleen after stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Subcellular localization analysis shows that the EcVDAC1 protein colocalized with the mitochondria. A caspase-3 assay demonstrates that overexpression of the EcVDAC1 induced apoptotic cell death in fathead minnow cells. The data presented in this study provide new information regarding the relationship between LPS and the EcVDAC1 gene, suggesting that the fish VDAC1 gene may play an important role in antibacterial immune response.

  2. Data in support of manuscript "Evaluation of Chemical Control for Invasive Crayfish at a Warmwater Fish Production Hatchery"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (less than or equal to 24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Data included are: Collection location and size of test organisms; Test chemical concentrations and recovery; Mortality and effect-based responses of test organisms; Water quality of test solutions

  3. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Turcotte, D.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  4. Laboratory and field validation of a simple method for detecting four species of non-native freshwater fish using eDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, P I; Créach, V; Liang, W-J; Andreou, D; Britton, J R; Copp, G H

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first phase in the development and validation of a simple and reliable environmental (e)DNA method using conventional PCR to detect four species of non-native freshwater fish: pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. The efficacy of the approach was demonstrated in indoor tank (44 l) trials in which all four species were detected within 24 h. Validation was through two field trials, in which L. gibbosus was detected 6-12 h after its introduction into outdoor experimental ponds and P. parva was successfully detected in disused fish rearing ponds where the species was known to exist. Thus, the filtration of small (30 ml) volumes of pond water was sufficient to capture fish eDNA and the approach emphasised the importance of taking multiple water samples of sufficient spatial coverage for detecting species of random or patchy distribution.

  5. An ecotoxicological characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Tibor; Naish, Valerie; O'Connor, Brian; Blaise, Christian; Gagné, Francois; Hall, Lauren; Trudeau, Vance; Martel, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    The pulp and paper industry in Canada is developing technology for the production and use of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). A key component of the developmental work is an assessment of potential environmental risks. Towards this goal, NCC samples as well as carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), a surrogate of the parent cellulosic material, were subjected to an ecotoxicological evaluation. This involved toxicity tests with rainbow trout hepatocytes and nine aquatic species. The hepatocytes were most sensitive (EC20s between 10 and 200 mg/l) to NCC, although neither NCC nor CMC caused genotoxicity. In tests with the nine species, NCC affected the reproduction of the fathead minnow at (IC25) 0.29 g/l, but no other effects on endpoints such as survival and growth occurred in the other species at concentrations below 1 g/l, which was comparable to CMC. Based on this ecotoxicological characterization, NCC was found to have low toxicity potential and environmental risk.

  6. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22-29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase II Sampling and Analysis activities as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  7. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.L.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22-29, 1993, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  8. Several synthetic progestins with different potencies adversely affect reproduction of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnalls, Tamsin J; Beresford, Nicola; Losty, Erin; Scott, Alexander P; Sumpter, John P

    2013-02-19

    Synthetic progestins are widely used as a component in both contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), both on their own and in combination with EE2. Their presence in the environment is now established in wastewater effluent and river water and this has led to concerns regarding their potential effects on aquatic organisms living in these waters. We carried out in vivo experiments to determine the potencies of four different synthetic progestins on the reproductive capabilities of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). We then performed a series of in vitro assays to try and determine the reason for the effects seen in the in vivo experiments. In the first experiment, fathead minnow exposed to a single concentration of 100 ng/L of either Levonorgestrel or Gestodene stopped spawning almost completely. The same nominal concentration of Desogestrel and Drospirenone did not affect reproduction (21 d NOECs of 100 ng/L). The second experiment investigated two progestins of different potency: Gestodene at 1, 10, and 100 ng/L and Desogestrel at 100 ng/L, 1 μg/L, and 10 μg/L. Gestodene concentrations as low as 1 ng/L had significant effects on reproduction over 21 d, whereas concentrations of Desogestrel at or above 1 μg/L were required to significantly reduce egg production. The synthetic progestins also masculinized the female fish in a concentration-dependent manner. Results from yeast-based in vitro assays demonstrated that the progestins are all strongly androgenic, thereby explaining the masculinization effects. The results strongly suggest that synthetic progestins merit serious consideration as environmental pollutants.

  9. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  10. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  11. A comparative analysis on the in vivo toxicity of copper nanoparticles in three species of freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lan; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Galloway, Tamara S; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) are used extensively in a wide range of products and the potential for toxicological impacts in the aquatic environment is of high concern. In this study, the fate and the acute toxicity of spherical 50nm copper nanoparticles was assessed in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) for in vivo aqueous exposures following standardized OECD 203 guideline tests. The fate of the CuNPs in the aqueous media was temperature dependent. At the higher study temperature (26±1°C), there was both an enhanced particle aggregation and higher rate of dissolution compared with that at the lower study temperature (15±1°C). 96h LC50s of the CuNPs were 0.68±0.15, 0.28±0.04 and 0.22±0.08mg Cu/L for rainbow trout, fathead minnow and zebrafish, respectively. The 96h lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) for the CuNPs were 0.17, 0.023 and copper was one of main drivers for the acute toxicity of the copper nanoparticles suspensions. Both CuNPs suspension and copper nitrate caused damage to gill filaments and gill pavement cells, with differences in sensitivity for these effects between the fish species studied. We show therefore common toxicological effects of CuNPs in different fish species but with differences in sensitivity with implications for hazard extrapolation between fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearr, Jonathan S; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Roberts, Simon C; Stapleton, Heather M

    2012-11-15

    Firemaster(®) BZ-54 is a flame retardant additive and consists of a brominated benzoate (2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate; TBB) and a brominated phthalate (bis (2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate; TBPH). Previous research has shown that fathead minnows exposed in vivo to Firemaster(®) BZ-54 accumulate TBB and TBPH. This study examined the in vitro biotransformation potential of TBB and TBPH in hepatic subcellular fractions (i.e., S9, microsomes and cytosol) in the fathead minnow, common carp, mouse and snapping turtle. Metabolism was evaluated by measuring the loss of the parent TBB or TBPH and identifying potential metabolites in the sample extracts. Metabolic loss of TBPH was measured for all species, while TBB loss was observed for all species except for the snapping turtle. Several metabolites were observed in all of the incubations except for snapping turtle. Metabolites observed appeared to be derived from TBB, given their structures and lack of appearance in the snapping turtle incubations. One of these metabolites, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromomethylbenzoate has been identified for the first time in a biological system. When metabolized, TBB and TBPH loss was found in each subcellular fraction suggesting that the enzyme(s) involved are present in both soluble and membrane-bound forms. It can be concluded that a broad range of species are capable of metabolizing TBB and TBPH to various metabolites and further research should be carried out to ascertain the specific products formed from metabolism of TBB and TBPH.

  13. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: A bioenergetics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an environment with a well-mixed water column can have significant effects on larval fish survival and growth.

  14. Laboratory Studies of the Short-term Responses of Freshwater Fish to Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Riemer, Kristina P [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies are being proposed as an environmentally preferred means of generating electricity from river and tidal currents. Among the potential issues that must be investigated in order to resolve environmental concerns are the effects on aquatic organisms of electromagnetic fields created by underwater generators and transmission cables. The behavioral responses of common freshwater fishes to static and variable electromagnetic fields (EMF) that may be emitted by hydrokinetic projects were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Various fish species were exposed to either static (DC) EMF fields created by a permanent bar magnet or variable (AC) EMF fields created by a switched electromagnet for 48 h, fish locations were recorded with a digital imaging system, and changes in activity level and distribution relative to the magnet position were quantified at 5-min intervals. Experiments with fathead minnows, redear sunfish, striped bass, lake sturgeon, and channel catfish produced mixed results. Except for fathead minnows there was no effect on activity level. Only redear sunfish and channel catfish exhibited a change in distribution relative to the position of the magnet with an apparent attraction to the EMF source. In separate experiments, rapid behavioral responses of paddlefish and lake sturgeon to onset of the AC field were recorded with high-speed video. Paddlefish did not react to a variable, 60-Hz magnetic field like that which would be emitted by an AC generator or cable, but lake sturgeon consistently responded to the variable, AC-generated magnetic field with a variety of altered swimming behaviors. These results will be useful for determining under what circumstances cables or generators need to be positioned to minimize interactions with sensitive species.

  15. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Klaper, Rebecca D; Weber, Daniel N; Bannerman, Roger T

    2011-10-15

    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and

  16. Frequency and Severity of Trauma in Fishes Subjected to Multiple-pass Depletion Electrofishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank; Densmore, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and severity of trauma associated with multiple-pass electrofishing and the effects on short-term (30-d) survival and growth of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and five representative co-inhabiting nontarget or bycatch species were examined. Fish were held in four rectangular fiberglass tanks (190 × 66 cm) equipped with electrodes, a gravel–cobble stream substrate, and continuous water flow. Fish were exposed to one, two, or three electroshocks (100-V, 60-Hz pulsed DC) spaced 1 h apart or were held as a control. The heterogeneous field produced a mean (±SD) voltage gradient of 0.23 ± 0.024 V/cm (range = 0.20–0.30 V/cm) with a duty cycle of 30% and a 5-s exposure. Radiographs of 355 fish were examined for evidence of spinal injuries, and necropsies were performed on 303 fish to assess hemorrhagic trauma in soft tissue. Using linear regression, we demonstrated significant relationships between the number of electrical shocks and the frequency and severity of hemorrhagic and spinal trauma in each of the nontarget species (Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, and Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides). Most of the injuries in these species were either minor or moderate. Rainbow Trout and Brook Trout generally sustained the highest incidence and severity of injuries, but those injuries were generally independent of the number of treatments. The 30-d postshock survival for the trout species was greater than 94%; survival for the bycatch species ranged from 80% (Fathead Minnow) to 100% (Green Sunfish and Channel Catfish). There were no significant differences in 30-d postshock condition factors despite observations of altered feeding behavior lasting several days to 1 week posttreatment in several of the study species.

  17. Screening complex effluents for estrogenic activity with the T47D-KBluc cell bioassay: assay optimization and comparison with in vivo responses in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmas, Leah C; Cavallin, Jenna E; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Kahl, Michael D; Martinovic, Dalma; Mayasich, Joe; Tuominen, Tim; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T

    2011-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can contain estrogenic chemicals, which potentially disrupt fish reproduction and development. The current study focused on the use of an estrogen-responsive in vitro cell bioassay (T47D-KBluc), to quantify total estrogenicity of WWTP effluents. We tested a novel sample preparation method for the T47D-KBluc assay, using powdered media prepared with direct effluent. Results of the T47D-KBluc assay were compared with the induction of estrogen receptor-regulated gene transcription in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to the same effluents. Effluent samples for the paired studies were collected over the course of three months. According to the T47D-KBluc assay, the effluent estrogenicity ranged from 1.13 to 2.00 ng 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents/L. Corresponding in vivo studies exposing male fathead minnows to 0, 10, 50, and 100% effluent dilutions demonstrated that exposure to 100% effluent significantly increased hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor α subunit transcripts relative to controls. The induction was also significant in males exposed to 250 ng E2/L or 100 ng E2/L. The in vitro and in vivo results support the conclusion that the effluent contains significant estrogenic activity, but there was a discrepancy between in vitro- and in vivo-based E2 equivalent estimates. Our results suggest that the direct effluent preparation method for the T47D-KBluc assay is a reasonable approach to estimate the estrogenicity of wastewater effluent.

  18. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and treatment of lithium as the primary toxicant in a groundwater treatment facility effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crow, K.R. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    {sup 6}Li is used in manufacturing nuclear weapons, shielding, and reactor control rods. Li compounds have been used at DOE facilities and Li-contaminated waste has historically been land disposed. Seep water from burial grounds near Y-12 contain small amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons, traces of PCBs, and 10-19 mg/L Li. Seep treatment consists of oil-water separation, filtration, air stripping, and carbon adsorption. Routine biomonitoring tests using fathead minnows and {ital Ceriodaphnia}{ital dubia} are conducted. Evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that toxicity was most likely due to Li. Laboratory tests showed that 1 mg Li/L reduced the survival of both species; 0.5 mg Li/L reduced {ital Ceriodaphnia} reproduction and minnow growth. However, the toxicity was greatly reduced in presence of sodium (up to 4 mg Li/L, Na can fully negate the toxic effect of Li). Because of the low Na level discharged from the treatment facility, Li removal from the ground water was desired. SuperLig{reg_sign} columns were used (Li-selective organic macrocycle bonded to silica gel). Bench-scale tests showed that the material was very effective for removing Li from the effluent, reducing the toxicity.

  20. Prioritization of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharges Using Chemical:Gene Interactions in Caged Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Edward J; Habib, Tanwir; Escalon, Barbara L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Thomas, Linnea; Weberg, Matthew; Hughes, Megan N; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene expression changes in exposed fish. Fathead minnows were deployed in cages for 2, 4, or 8 days at three locations near two different wastewater treatment plant discharge sites in the Saint Louis Bay, Duluth, MN and one upstream reference site. The biological impact of 51 chemicals detected in the surface water of 133 targeted chemicals was determined using biochemical endpoints, exposure activity ratios for biological and estrogenic responses, known chemical:gene interactions from biological pathways and knowledge bases, and analysis of the covariance of ovary gene expression with surface water chemistry. Thirty-two chemicals were significantly linked by covariance with expressed genes. No estrogenic impact on biochemical endpoints was observed in male or female minnows. However, bisphenol A (BPA) was identified by chemical:gene covariation as the most impactful estrogenic chemical across all exposure sites. This was consistent with identification of estrogenic effects on gene expression, high BPA exposure activity ratios across all test sites, and historical analysis of the study area. Gene expression analysis also indicated the presence of nontargeted chemicals including chemotherapeutics consistent with a local hospital waste stream. Overall impacts on gene expression appeared to be related to changes in treatment plant function during rain events. This approach appears useful in examining the impacts of complex mixtures on fish and offers a potential route in linking chemical exposure to adverse outcomes that may reduce population sustainability.

  1. The mini mobile environmental monitoring unit: a novel bio-assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Miller, Jeffrey T; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bio-assessment tool, the mini-mobile environmental monitoring unit (MMU). The MMU is a portable, lightweight, energy-efficient, miniaturized laboratory that provides a low-flow system for on-site exposure of aquatic animals to local receiving waters in a protected, controllable environment. Prototypes of the MMU were tested twice in week-long studies conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009, and in a 12-day study in 2010. In 2008, fathead minnows and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed downstream from the Hastings, Nebraska wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), a waterway known to contain estrogenic contaminants in biologically active concentrations. In 2009, minnows and POCIS were deployed downstream, upstream and within the Grand Island, Nebraska WWTP, a site where the estrogenic contaminants had been detected, but were found at levels below those necessary to directly impact fish. In 2010, an advanced prototype was tested at the Sauk Center, Minnesota WWTP to compare its performance with that of traditional fish exposure methods including caged fish and static-renewal laboratory testing of effluent. Results from the prototype illustrate the capabilities of the MMU and offer an inexpensive monitoring tool to integrate the effects of pollutant sources with temporally varying composition and concentration.

  2. Toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, and toxicoproteomic aspects of short-term exposure to trenbolone in female fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Irvin R; Nagler, James J; Swanson, Penny; Wunschel, Dave; Skillman, Ann D; Burnett, Vicki; Smith, Derek; Barry, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The toxicokinetics of trenbolone was characterized during 500 ng/l water exposures in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Related experiments measured various toxicodynamic effects of exposure. In both species, trenbolone was rapidly absorbed from the water and reached peak plasma levels within 8h of exposure. Afterwards, trenbolone concentrations in trout (66-95 ng/ml) were 2-6 times higher compared with minnows (15-29 ng/ml), which was attributable to greater plasma binding in trout. During water exposures, circulating levels of estradiol (E2) rapidly decreased in both species to a concentration that was 25%-40% of control values by 8-24h of exposure and then remained relatively unchanged for the subsequent 6 days of exposure. In trout, changes in circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone were also significantly greater after trenbolone exposure, relative to controls. In both species, the pharmacokinetics of injected E2-d3 was altered by trenbolone exposure with an increase in total body clearance and a corresponding decrease in elimination half-life. The unbound percentage of E2 in trout plasma was 0.25%, which was similar in pre- or postvitellogenic female trout. Subsequent incubation with trenbolone caused the unbound percentage to significantly increase to 2.4% in the previtellogenic trout plasma. iTRAQ-based toxicoproteomic studies in minnows exposed to 5, 50, and 500 ng/l trenbolone identified a total of 148 proteins with 19 downregulated including vitellogenin and 18 upregulated. Other downregulated proteins were fibrinogens, α-2-macroglobulin, and transferrin. Upregulated proteins included amine oxidase, apolipoproteins, parvalbumin, complement system proteins, and several uncharacterized proteins. The results indicate trenbolone exposure is a highly dynamic process in female fish with uptake and tissue equilibrium quickly established, leading to both rapid and delayed toxicodynamic effects.

  3. Generation, Analysis and Functional Annotation of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    22002418 3.00E-66 Oryzias latipes Embryonic beta-type globin 34 21694043 1.00E-106 Oreochromis mossambicus Muscle-type creatine kinase CKM2 32 62241082...CA) were cloned using the pGEM-T Easy Vector System (Promega, Madison, WI) and Electromax DH10B T1 Phage Resistant Cells (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA...Ampi- cillin resistant colonies were isolated by blue- white screening, cultured in 2X LB, and preserved by freezing at -80°C with glycerol. Plasmid

  4. ESTROGEN INDUCED VITELLOGENIN MRNA AND PROTEIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many environmentally persistent xenobiotic chemicals appear to disrupt normal endocrine function by acting as ligands for endogenous steroid receptors, including the estrogen receptor. Xenobiotics that bind to the estrogen receptor may elicit several effects, one of which is acti...

  5. Effects of food limitation and emigration on self-thinning in experimental minnow cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.B.; Dickerson, B. R.; Beever, E.; Duncan, R. D.; Vinyard, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    1. The theory of food-regulated self-thinning (FST) for mobile animals predicts population density (N) to be an inverse function of mean body mass (W) scaled to an exponent (b), such that N = k W−b, where k is a constant. FST also predicts energy requirements (or energy flow) to remain constant over time (termed energetic equivalence) as losses to cohorts (e.g. emigration and mortality) are balanced by increased growth of surviving individuals.

  6. What Would a Socially Just Education System Look like?: Saving the Minnows from the Pike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental…

  7. Fishing in Poisson streams: focusing on the whales, ignoring the minnows

    CERN Document Server

    Raginsky, Maxim; Willett, Rebecca; Calderbank, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a low-complexity approach for reconstructing average packet arrival rates and instantaneous packet counts at a router in a communication network, where the arrivals of packets in each flow follow a Poisson process. Assuming that the rate vector of this Poisson process is sparse or approximately sparse, the goal is to maintain a compressed summary of the process sample paths using a small number of counters, such that at any time it is possible to reconstruct both the total number of packets in each flow and the underlying rate vector. We show that these tasks can be accomplished efficiently and accurately using compressed sensing with expander graphs. In particular, the compressive counts are a linear transformation of the underlying counting process by the adjacency matrix of an unbalanced expander. Such a matrix is binary and sparse, which allows for efficient incrementing when new packets arrive. We describe, analyze, and compare two methods that can be used to estimate both the curren...

  8. Early life history of three pelagic-spawning minnows Macrhybopsis spp. in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Starks, T. A.; Miller, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history characteristics of age-0 sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, shoal chub Macrhybopsis hyostoma and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki were compared using several methods. AllMacrhybopsis species consumed mostly midge pupae, but M. meeki had the most general diet (Levins' index, B = 0·22) compared with M. hyostoma (B = 0·02) and M. gelida (B = 0·09). Morisita's diet overlap index among species pairs ranged from 0·62 to 0·97 and was highest between M. hyostoma and M. gelida. Daily ages estimated from lapilli otoliths for each species ranged from 15 to 43 days for M. gelida, 19 to 44 for M. hyostoma and from 16 to 64 days for M. meeki. Mean growth rates ranged from 0·79 mm day−1 for M. meeki to 1·39 mm day−1 for M. gelida. Mortality estimates indicated high daily survivorship rates for M. meeki (0·985), but could not be estimated for the other two species. Hatch date histograms were congruent with the belief that M. hyostoma and M. gelida spawn periodically from June to September. Macrhybopsis meeki, however, appeared to respond to a specific spawning cue as hatch dates were unimodal with a peak in July. These results fill a gap in current knowledge of these imperilled species that can be used to guide management decisions.

  9. Nutrient loading and grazing by the minnow Phoxinus erythrogaster shift periphyton abundance and stoichiometry in mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic activities in prairie streams are increasing nutrient inputs and altering stream communities. Understanding the role of large consumers, such as fish, in regulating periphyton structure and nutritional content is necessary to predict how changing diversity will interact with nutrient ...

  10. [Environmental Education Units.] Succession in a Micro-Aquarium. Minnows and Models. Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These three booklets are outlines of teaching procedures, using living material, designed for elementary school children. While emphasizing science, many opportunities are provided for exercises in mathematics, art, and writing, thus integrating the curriculum. All booklets contain exercises on data collection and organization; two have exercises…

  11. An evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay and the Fish Short-Term Reproduction Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine; Marino, Troy; Thomas, Johnson; Sosinski, Lindsay; Neal, Barbara; Hammond, Larry

    2013-04-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was evaluated in both the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) and the Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay (FSTRA). In the AMA, tadpoles were exposed to mean measured 2,4-D concentrations of 0 (water control), 0.273, 3.24, 38.0 and 113 mg acid equivalents (ae)/L for either seven or 21 days. In the FSTRA, fathead minnows were exposed to mean measured 2,4-D concentrations of 0 (water control), 0.245, 3.14, 34.0, and 96.5 mg ae/L for 21 days. The respective concentrations of 2,4-D were not overtly toxic to either Xenopus laevis tadpoles or fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). In the AMA, there were no signs of either advanced or delayed development, asynchronous development, or significant histopathological effects of the thyroid gland among 2,4-D exposed tadpoles evaluated on either day seven or day 21 of the exposure. Therefore, following the AMA decision logic, 2,4-D is considered "likely thyroid inactive" in the AMA with a No Observable Effect Concentration (NOEC) of 113 mg ae 2,4-D/L. In the FSTRA, there were no significant differences between control and 2,4-D exposed fish in regard to fertility, wet weight, length, gonado-somatic indices, tubercle scores, or blood plasma concentrations of vitellogenin. Furthermore, there were no treatment-related histopathologic changes in the testes or ovaries in any 2,4-D exposed group. The only significant effect was a decrease in fecundity among fish exposed to 96.5 mg ae 2,4-D/L. The cause of the reduced fecundity at the highest concentration of 2,4-D tested in the assay was most likely due to a generalized stress response in the fish, and not due to a specific endocrine mode of action of 2,4-D. Based on fish reproduction, the NOEC in the FSTRA was 34.0 mg ae 2,4-D/L.

  12. Fish and land use influence Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) densities in large wetlands across the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Moser, E. Barry

    2011-01-01

    Gammarus lacustrisK/i> and Ki>Hyalella azteca (hereafter G. lacustris and H. azteca, respectively) are important components of secondary production in wetlands and shallow lakes of the upper Midwest, USA. Within the past 50 years, amphipod densities have decreased while occurrences of fish and intensity of agricultural land use have increased markedly across this landscape. We investigated influences of fish, sedimentation, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on densities of G. lacustris and H. azteca in semipermanent and permanent wetlands and shallow lakes (n = 283) throughout seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 2004–2005. G. lacustris and H. azteca densities were positively correlated with densities of SAV (P P P = 0.01 and P = 0.013, respectively) and with high densities of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; P P = 0.033, respectively). H. azteca densities also were negatively correlated with densities of small fish (e.g., other minnows [Cyprinidae] and sticklebacks [Gasterosteidae]; P = 0.048) and common carp (Cyprinus spp.; P = 0.022). G. lacustris densities were negatively correlated with high levels of suspended solids (an index for sedimentation; P H. azteca densities were positively correlated with the width of upland-vegetation buffers (P = 0.004). Our results indicate that sedimentation and fish reduce amphipod densities and may contribute to the current low densities of amphipods in the upper Midwest. Thus, removing/excluding fish, and providing a thick buffer of upland vegetation around wetlands may help restore amphipod densities and wetland and water quality within this landscape.

  13. Ontogenetic variation in the body stoichiometry of two fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Gergely; Sály, Péter; Vanni, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    One of the central questions of ecological stoichiometry theory is to what extent animal species maintain constant elemental composition in their bodies. Although several recent studies demonstrate intraspecific variation in animal elemental composition, relatively little is known about ontogenetic changes in vertebrates, especially during early life stages. We studied the intraspecific and interspecific ontogenetic variation in the body stoichiometry of two fish species in two different orders; fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), reared under controlled laboratory conditions. During ontogeny, we measured the chemical composition of fish bodies, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and ribonucleic acid (RNA) contents. We found that N and RNA contents were relatively high in early life stages and declined substantially during development. In contrast, body C and C:N ratios were relatively low in embryos, post-embryos and larvae, and increased remarkably thereafter. Concentrations and ratios of some elements (e.g., Ca, P, Ca:P) did not exhibit consistent ontogenetic trends, but fluctuated dynamically between consecutive developmental stages in both species. Specific growth rates correlated significantly with RNA contents in both species. Analyses of the relative importance of different P pools at each developmental stage revealed that RNA was a considerable P pool in post-embryos, while bone-associated P was the dominant body P pool in later stages. Our results suggest that the elemental composition of fish bodies changes considerably during ontogeny. Each ontogenetic stage has its own stoichiometric signature, but the timing, magnitude and direction of ontogenetic changes can vary substantially between taxa.

  14. Classifying chemical mode of action using gene networks and machine learning: a case study with the herbicide linuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornostay, Anna; Cowie, Andrew M; Hindle, Matthew; Baker, Christopher J O; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The herbicide linuron (LIN) is an endocrine disruptor with an anti-androgenic mode of action. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve knowledge of androgen and anti-androgen signaling in the teleostean ovary and to (2) assess the ability of gene networks and machine learning to classify LIN as an anti-androgen using transcriptomic data. Ovarian explants from vitellogenic fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed to three concentrations of either 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), flutamide (FLUT), or LIN for 12h. Ovaries exposed to DHT showed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol (E2) production while FLUT and LIN had no effect on E2. To improve understanding of androgen receptor signaling in the ovary, a reciprocal gene expression network was constructed for DHT and FLUT using pathway analysis and these data suggested that steroid metabolism, translation, and DNA replication are processes regulated through AR signaling in the ovary. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that FLUT and LIN shared more regulated gene networks in common compared to DHT. Using transcriptomic datasets from different fish species, machine learning algorithms classified LIN successfully with other anti-androgens. This study advances knowledge regarding molecular signaling cascades in the ovary that are responsive to androgens and anti-androgens and provides proof of concept that gene network analysis and machine learning can classify priority chemicals using experimental transcriptomic data collected from different fish species.

  15. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Examination of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Uptake and Toxicity from Dietary Exposure: Tracking Movement and Impacts in the Gastrointestinal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Ngo, Thuy; Ponnavolu, Satvika; Liu, Keira; Lavelle, Candice M; Afrooz, A R M Nabiul; Saleh, Navid B; Ferguson, P Lee; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2015-06-12

    Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result in differential impacts on uptake and biological effects. Additionally, the potential of these materials to sorb nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) while present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may lead to nutrient depletion conditions that impact processes such as growth and reproduction. To test this phenomenon, fathead minnows were fed a commercial diet either with or without SWCNTs for 96 h. Tracking and quantification of SWCNTs using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging during feeding studies showed the presence of food does not facilitate transport of SWCNTs across the intestinal epithelia. Targeting genes shown to be responsive to nutrient depletion (peptide transporters, peptide hormones, and lipases) indicated that pept2, a peptide transporter, and cck, a peptide hormone, showed differential mRNA expression by 96 h, a response that may be indicative of nutrient limitation. The results of the current study increase our understanding of the movement of SWCNTs through the GI tract, while the changes in nutrient processing genes highlight a novel mechanism of sublethal toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  17. Examination of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Uptake and Toxicity from Dietary Exposure: Tracking Movement and Impacts in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Bisesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result in differential impacts on uptake and biological effects. Additionally, the potential of these materials to sorb nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids while present in the gastrointestinal (GI tract may lead to nutrient depletion conditions that impact processes such as growth and reproduction. To test this phenomenon, fathead minnows were fed a commercial diet either with or without SWCNTs for 96 h. Tracking and quantification of SWCNTs using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging during feeding studies showed the presence of food does not facilitate transport of SWCNTs across the intestinal epithelia. Targeting genes shown to be responsive to nutrient depletion (peptide transporters, peptide hormones, and lipases indicated that pept2, a peptide transporter, and cck, a peptide hormone, showed differential mRNA expression by 96 h, a response that may be indicative of nutrient limitation. The results of the current study increase our understanding of the movement of SWCNTs through the GI tract, while the changes in nutrient processing genes highlight a novel mechanism of sublethal toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  18. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  19. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  20. A survey of Canadian mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents: insights concerning the potential to affect fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Tibor G; Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Hewitt, L Mark; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS). Each sample was further subjected to solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic separation for the determination of resin/fatty acids and for the estimation of a gas chromatography (GC) profile index. Each mill effluent was assessed for the potential to affect fish reproduction in the laboratory using a five day adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) egg production bioassay with exposures to 100% effluent. The seven effluents were found to have substantial variation both in terms of chemical characterization and effects on fish reproduction. Temporal variations were also noted in effluent quality at mills sampled on different occasions. Similar to what has been observed for kraft mills, a general trend of greater reductions in egg production caused by effluents with greater BOD concentrations and GC profile indices was noted. Effluents with BOD > 25 mg/L and GC Profile indices >5.0 caused a complete cessation of egg production. At the same time, about half of the total effluents sampled had BOD reproductive effects caused by such effluents is presently unclear. The effluent quality parameters considered in this study may require further refinement to address their utility in predicting the adverse reproductive effects induced by effluents from mechanical pulp and paper mills.

  1. Influences of acid mine drainage and thermal enrichment on stream fish reproduction and larval survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafs, Andrew W.; Horn, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.; Hartman, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) and thermal enrichment on the reproduction of fishes were investigated through a larval-trapping survey in the Stony River watershed, Grant County, WV. Trapping was conducted at seven sites from 26 March to 2 July 2004. Overall larval catch was low (379 individuals in 220 hours of trapping). More larval White Suckers were captured than all other species. Vectors fitted to nonparametric multidimensional scaling ordinations suggested that temperature was highly correlated to fish communities captured at our sites. Survival of larval Fathead Minnows was examined in situ at six sites from 13 May to 11 June 2004 in the same system. Larval survival was lower, but not significantly different between sites directly downstream of AMD-impacted tributaries (40% survival) and non-AMD sites (52% survival). The lower survival was caused by a significant mortality event at one site that coincided with acute pH depression in an AMD tributary immediately upstream of the site. Results from a Cox proportional hazard test suggests that low pH is having a significant negative influence on larval fish survival in this system. The results from this research indicate that the combination of low pH events and elevated temperature are negatively influencing the larval fish populations of the Stony River watershed. Management actions that address these problems would have the potential to substantially increase both reproduction rates and larval survival, therefore greatly enhancing the fishery.

  2. Effect of Feeding-Fasting Cycles on Oxygen Consumption and Bioenergetics of Yellow Perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Steven R.; Travis W. Schaeffer,; Daniel E. Spengler,; Casey W. Schoenebeck,; Michael L. Brown,

    2012-01-01

    We measured growth and oxygen consumption of age-1 yellow perch Perca flavescenssubjected to ad libitum (control) or variable feeding cycles of 2 (i.e., 2 d of feed, 2 d of deprivation), 6, or 12 d for a 72-d period. Individual, female yellow perch (initial weight = 51.9 ± 0.9 g [mean ± SE]) were stocked in 110-L aquaria to provide six replicates per treatment and fed measured rations of live fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. Consumption, absolute growth rate, growth efficiency, and oxygen consumption were similar among feeding regimens. However, growth trajectories for fish on the 2-d cycle were significantly lower than other feed–fast cycles. Hyperphagia occurred in all treatments. Bioenergetics model simulations indicated that consumption was significantly underestimated (t = 5.4, df = 4, P = 0.006), while growth was overestimated (t = −5.5, df = 4, P = 0.005) for fish on the 12-d cycle. However, model errors detected between observed and predicted values were low, ranging from −10.1% to +7.8%. We found that juvenile yellow perch exhibited compensatory growth (CG), but none of the feed–fast treatments resulted in growth overcompensation. Likewise, we found no evidence that respiration rates varied with CG, implying that yellow perch bioenergetics models could be used to predict the effects of feeding history and CG response on food consumption and fish growth.

  3. Evaluation of management options for disposal of salt and trace element laden agricultural drainage water from the Fallon Indian Reservation, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Benson, S.

    1991-03-01

    This is the final report describing work performed on the Fallon Indian Reservation by the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during FY90. These investigations were initiated at the request of the United States Bureau of Reclamation in response to recent concerns regarding disposal of agriculture drainage water from the Reservation. The Reservation is transected by numerous irrigation and drainage canals, including the TJ Drain. Recent investigations by the US Fish and Wildlife Service have demonstrated that water in the TJ Drain is toxic to several aquatic indicator organisms, including bluegills, fathead minnows and daphnids. This information, coupled with recent die-offs of fish and birds, has lead to concern about continued discharge of TJ Drain water into local surface waters. In late 1990, plans for closing the TJ Drain and providing for alternative drainage were initiated. We aim to provide information for assessing options fro disposal of agricultural drainage water from the Reservation. In particular, our studies focuses on irrigation and drainage of lands currently serviced by the TJ Drain. Options for continued irrigation and drainage of the Reservation fall broadly into two categories: options that provide an alternative to drain water disposal into the SWMA; and options that include continuing the current practice of drain water disposal into the SWMA. Other options include elements of both of these alternatives. Additional discussion of specific options will follow a brief summary of the technical work supporting our assessment of drainage related issues at the Reservation. 67 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Cannibalistic-morph Tiger Salamanders in unexpected ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Barred tiger salamanders [Ambystoma mavortium (Baird, 1850)] exhibit two trophic morphologies; a typical and a cannibalistic morph. Cannibalistic morphs, distinguished by enlarged vomerine teeth, wide heads, slender bodies, and cannibalistic tendencies, are often found where conspecifics occur at high density. During 2012 and 2013, 162 North Dakota wetlands and lakes were sampled for salamanders. Fifty-one contained A. mavortium populations; four of these contained cannibalistic morph individuals. Two populations with cannibalistic morphs occurred at sites with high abundances of conspecifics. However, the other two populations occurred at sites with unexpectedly low conspecific but high fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)] abundances. Further, no typical morphs were observed in either of these later two populations, contrasting with earlier research suggesting cannibalistic morphs only occur at low frequencies in salamander populations. Another anomaly of all four populations was the occurrence of cannibalistic morphs in permanent water sites, suggesting their presence was due to factors other than faster growth allowing them to occupy ephemeral habitats. Therefore, our findings suggest environmental factors inducing the cannibalistic morphism may be more complex than previously thought.

  5. Toxicity of benzotriazole and benzotriazole derivatives to three aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, D A; Cornell, J S; Dufresne, D L; Hernandez, M T

    2001-02-01

    Benzotriazole and its derivatives comprise an important class of corrosion inhibitors, typically used as trace additives in industrial chemical mixtures such as coolants, deicers, surface coatings, cutting fluids, and hydraulic fluids. Recent studies have shown that benzotriazole derivatives are a major component of aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) responsible for toxicity to bacteria (Microtox). Our current research compared the toxicity of benzotriazole (BT), two methylbenzotriazole (MeBT) isomers, and butylbenzotriazole (BBT). Acute toxicity assays were used to model the response of three common test organisms: Microtox bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia). The response of all the three organisms varied over two orders of magnitude among all compounds. Vibrio fischeri was more sensitive than either C. dubia or P. promelas to all the test materials, while C. dubia was less sensitive than P. promelas. The response of test organisms to unmethylated benzotriazole and 4-methylbenzotriazole was similar, whereas 5-methylbenzotriazole was more toxic than either of these two compounds. BBT was the most toxic benzotriazole derivative tested, inducing acute toxicity at a concentration of < or = 3.3 mg/l to all organisms.

  6. Predicting Partitioning and Diffusion Properties of Nonpolar Chemicals in Biotic Media and Passive Sampler Phases by GC × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Deedar; Arey, J Samuel

    2017-02-14

    The chemical parameters needed to explain and predict bioavailability, biodynamics, and baseline toxicity are not readily available for most nonpolar chemicals detected in the environment. Here, we demonstrate that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) retention times can be used to predict 26 relevant properties for nonpolar chemicals, specifically: partition coefficients for diverse biotic media and passive sampler phases; aquatic baseline toxicity; and relevant diffusion coefficients. The considered biotic and passive sampler phases include membrane and storage lipids, serum and muscle proteins, carbohydrates, algae, mussels, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, polyoxymethylene, polyacrylate, polyurethane, and semipermeable membrane devices. GC × GC-based chemical property predictions are validated with a compilation of 1038 experimental property data collected from the literature. As an example application, we overlay a map of baseline toxicity to fathead minnows onto the separated analyte signal of a polychlorinated alkanes (chlorinated paraffins) technical mixture that contains 7820 congeners. In a second application, GC × GC-estimated properties are used to parametrize multiphase partitioning models for mammalian tissues and organs. In a third example, we estimate chemical depuration kinetics for mussels. Finally, we illustrate an approach to screen the GC × GC chromatogram for nonpolar chemicals of potentially high concern, defined based on their GC × GC-estimated biopartitioning properties, diffusion properties, and baseline toxicity.

  7. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways and Their ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) consists of one or more biologically based, computational models describing key event relationships linking a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome. A qAOP provides quantitative, dose–response, and time-course predictions that can support regulatory decision-making. Herein we describe several facets of qAOPs, including (a) motivation for development, (b) technical considerations, (c) evaluation of confidence, and (d) potential applications. The qAOP used as an illustrative example for these points describes the linkage between inhibition of cytochrome P450 19A aromatase (the MIE) and population-level decreases in the fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). The qAOP consists of three linked computational models for the following: (a) the hypothalamic-pitutitary-gonadal axis in female FHMs, where aromatase inhibition decreases the conversion of testosterone to 17β-estradiol (E2), thereby reducing E2-dependent vitellogenin (VTG; egg yolk protein precursor) synthesis, (b) VTG-dependent egg development and spawning (fecundity), and (c) fecundity-dependent population trajectory. While development of the example qAOP was based on experiments with FHMs exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, we also show how a toxic equivalence (TEQ) calculation allows use of the qAOP to predict effects of another, untested aromatase inhibitor, iprodione. While qAOP development can be resource-intensive, the quan

  8. Development and application of a density dependent matrix ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranging along the Atlantic coast from US Florida to the Maritime Provinces of Canada, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an important and well-studied model organism for understanding the effects of pollutants and other stressors in estuarine and marine ecosystems. Matrix population models are useful tools for ecological risk assessment because they integrate effects across the life cycle, provide a linkage between endpoints observed in the individual and ecological risk to the population as a whole, and project outcomes for many generations in the future. We developed a density dependent matrix population model for Atlantic killifish by modifying a model developed for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) that has proved to be extremely useful, e.g. to incorporate data from laboratory studies and project effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We developed a size-structured model (as opposed to one that is based upon developmental stages or age class structure) so that we could readily incorporate output from a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, currently under development. Due to a lack of sufficient data to accurately define killifish responses to density dependence, we tested a number of scenarios realistic for other fish species in order to demonstrate the outcome of including this ecologically important factor. We applied the model using published data for killifish exposed to dioxin-like compounds, and compared our results to those using

  9. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  10. The Relationship Between Organic Loading and Effects on Fish Reproduction for Pulp Mill Effluents Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Kovacs, Tibor G; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hewitt, L Mark

    2017-02-21

    This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark eighty-one effluents from twenty mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects. Organic loading, expressed as the total detected solvent-extractable components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), also correlate with decreased egg laying. Exceptions were found for specific Kraft, mechanical and sulfite mills, suggesting yet unidentified, causative agents are involved. Recycled fibre mill effluents, tested for the first time, were found to have little potential for reproductive effects despite large variations in BOD5 and the GC/MS profiles. Effluent treatment systems across all production types were generally efficient, achieving a combined 82-98 % BOD5 removal. Further reductions of final effluent organic loadings towards the target of less than 20 mg/L are recommended and can be realized through biotreatment optimization, the reduction of organic losses associated with production upsets and selecting best available technologies that reduce organic loadings to biotreatment.

  11. From "Duck Factory" to "Fish Factory": Climate induced changes in vertebrate communities of prairie pothole wetlands and small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region’s myriad wetlands and small lakes contribute to its stature as the “duck factory” of North America. The fishless nature of the region’s aquatic habitats, a result of frequent drying, freezing, and high salinity, influences its importance to waterfowl. Recent precipitation increases have resulted in higher water levels and wetland/lake freshening. In 2012–13, we sampled chemical characteristics and vertebrates (fish and salamanders) of 162 Prairie Pothole wetlands and small lakes. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, and bootstrapping techniques to reveal relationships. We found fish present in a majority of sites (84 %). Fish responses to water chemistry varied by species. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans) occurred across the broadest range of conditions. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) occurred in a smaller, chemically defined, subset. Iowa darters (Etheostoma exile) were restricted to the narrowest range of conditions. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) rarely occurred in lakes with fish. We also compared our chemical data to similar data collected in 1966–1976 to explore factors contributing to the expansion of fish into previously fishless sites. Our work contributes to a better understanding of relationships between aquatic biota and climate-induced changes in this ecologically important area.

  12. Reproductive characteristics of a population of the washboard mussel Megalonaias nervosa (Rafinesque 1820) in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, C.A.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined monthly and age-specific gametogenic development of the washboard mussel, Megalonaias nervosa, from April 1986 to March 1987 in navigation Pool 10 of the upper Mississippi River. The authors found M. nervosa to be a late tachytictic breeder. Female marsupia contained eggs or glochidia primarily from August (17 degree C) through October (9 degree C). Males were mature from July through October. Most females released their glochidia in October. Only one female was gravid in Nov (3 degree C). Most mussels were sexually mature at 8 years of age and then had an estimated average size of 68 mm (shell height). Only 8% of individuals less than or equal to 4 years of age showed any degree of reproductive development, while > 90% of age 5 and older individuals had recognizable reproductive material present. In host specificity studies, three fish species were verified as hosts for the glochidial stage. Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) produced juveniles after 26-28 days at 17 degree C. White suckers (Catastomus commersoni) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) retained glochidia from 23 up to 26 days, but no juveniles were produced. Glochidia remained attached to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) less than or equal to 3 days. Channel catfish were retested at 12 degree C and produced juveniles after 56 days.

  13. Development of a bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments to pike (Esox lucius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pike (Esox lucius) are a commercially sought fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River, which flows through the Athabasca oil sands. The fish are exposed to natural sources of bitumen from the McMurray formation. This study was conducted to design and implement a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands to this fish species and to obtain information regarding the development of pike exposed to bitumen. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild pike captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish, approximately 15 days post-hatch. For the rest of the experiment, brine shrimp were fed to the walleye embryos every day after hatching. The developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length. The research findings indicated that pike is less sensitive than walleye and fathead minnow to the toxicity of oil sands sediments.

  14. Development of a bioassay using walleye (Sander vitreus) to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of sediments from the Athabasca oil sands area on fish development and survival. Walleye (Sander vitreus) which inhabit the Athabasca River are exposed to natural sources of bitumen eroding from the McMurray formation. This study described the design and implementation of a daily-renewal bioassay to evaluate the potential effects of toxicants on walleye development. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild walleye captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish. The walleye embryos were fed brine shrimp daily after hatching and the developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length between treatments. Organics concentrations in fish tissues and water were measured when possible. Fathead minnows and northern pikes will also be exposed to the same sediments in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the three species.

  15. A rule-based expert system for chemical prioritization using effects-based chemical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, P K; Kolanczyk, R C; Hornung, M W; Tapper, M A; Denny, J S; Sheedy, B R; Aladjov, H

    2014-01-01

    A rule-based expert system (ES) was developed to predict chemical binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) patterned on the research approaches championed by Gilman Veith to whom this article and journal issue are dedicated. The ERES was built to be mechanistically transparent and meet the needs of a specific application, i.e. predict for all chemicals within two well-defined inventories (industrial chemicals used as pesticide inerts and antimicrobial pesticides). These chemicals all lack structural features associated with high affinity binders and thus any binding should be low affinity. Similar to the high-quality fathead minnow database upon which Veith QSARs were built, the ERES was derived from what has been termed gold standard data, systematically collected in assays optimized to detect even low affinity binding and maximizing confidence in the negatives determinations. The resultant logic-based decision tree ERES, determined to be a robust model, contains seven major nodes with multiple effects-based chemicals categories within each. Predicted results are presented in the context of empirical data within local chemical structural groups facilitating informed decision-making. Even using optimized detection assays, the ERES applied to two inventories of >600 chemicals resulted in only ~5% of the chemicals predicted to bind ER.

  16. Chemical-gene interaction networks and causal reasoning for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the potential human health and ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the environment is one of the main challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrate chemical monitoring and biological effects data to evaluate risks associated with chemicals present in the environment. Here, we used prior knowledge about chemical-gene interactions to develop a knowledge assembly model for detected chemicals at five locations near the North Branch and Chisago wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the St. Croix River Basin, MN and WI. The assembly model was used to generate hypotheses about the biological impacts of the chemicals at each location. The hypotheses were tested using empirical hepatic gene expression data from fathead minnows exposed for 12 d at each location. Empirical gene expression data were also mapped to the assembly models to evaluate the likelihood of a chemical contributing to the observed biological responses using richness and concordance statistics. The prior knowledge approach was able predict the observed biological pathways impacted at one site but not the other. Atrazine was identified as a potential contributor to the observed gene expression responses at a location upstream of the North Branch WTTP. Four chemicals were identified as contributors to the observed biological responses at the effluent and downstream o

  17. Permissivity of fish cell lines to three Chlamydia-related bacteria: Waddlia chondrophila, Estrella lausannensis and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebbi-Beghdadi, Carole; Batista, Claudia; Greub, Gilbert

    2011-12-01

    Epitheliocystis is an infectious disease affecting gills and skin of various freshwater and marine fishes, associated with high mortality and reduced growth of survivors. Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Clavochlamydia salmonicola have recently been identified as aetiological agents of epitheliocystis in Atlantic Salmon. In addition, several other members of the Chlamydiales order have been identified in other fish species. To clarify the pathogenicity of Chlamydia-like organisms towards fishes, we investigated the permissivity of two fish cell lines, EPC-175 (Fathead Minnow) and RTG-2 (rainbow trout) to three Chlamydia-related bacteria: Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Estrella lausannensis. Quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence demonstrated that W. chondrophila and, to a lesser extent, E. lausannensis were able to replicate in the two cell lines tested. Waddlia chondrophila multiplied rapidly in its host cell and a strong cytopathic effect was observed. During E. lausannensis infection, we observed a limited replication of the bacteria not followed by host cell lysis. Very limited replication of P. acanthamoebae was observed in both cell lines tested. Given its high infectivity and cytopathic effect towards fish cell lines, W. chondrophila represents the most interesting Chlamydia-related bacteria to be used to develop an in vivo model of epitheliocystis disease in fishes.

  18. ExsE Is a Negative Regulator for T3SS Gene Expression in Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Orfe, Lisa H.; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Call, Douglas R.; Avillan, Johannetsy J.; Zhao, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) contribute to microbial pathogenesis of Vibrio species, but the regulatory mechanisms are complex. We determined if the classic ExsACDE protein-protein regulatory model from Pseudomonas aeruginosa applies to Vibrio alginolyticus. Deletion mutants in V. alginolyticus demonstrated that, as expected, the T3SS is positively regulated by ExsA and ExsC and negatively regulated by ExsD and ExsE. Interestingly, deletion of exsE enhanced the ability of V. alginolyticus to induce host-cell death while cytotoxicity was inhibited by in trans complementation of this gene in a wild-type strain, a result that differs from a similar experiment with Vibrio parahaemolyticus ExsE. We further showed that ExsE is a secreted protein that does not contribute to adhesion to Fathead minnow epithelial cells. An in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that ExsE binds to ExsC to exert negative regulatory effect on T3SS genes. T3SS in V. alginolyticus can be activated in the absence of physical contact with host cells and a separate regulatory pathway appears to contribute to the regulation of ExsA. Consequently, like ExsE from P. aeruginosa, ExsE is a negative regulator for T3SS gene expression in V. alginolyticus. Unlike the V. parahaemolyticus orthologue, however, deletion of exsE from V. alginolyticus enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:27999769

  19. Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Allometry versus physiologically-based toxicokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Berg, M. van den [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

    1995-12-31

    Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. The authors are then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to all organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazards to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. The question arises of how interspecific extrapolations should be made. Should extrapolations be limited to animals within the same class, order, family or genus? Alteratively, should extrapolations be made along trophic levels or physiologic similarities rather than by taxonomic classification? In other words, is an avian carnivore more like a mammalian carnivore or an avian granivore in its response to a toxic substance? Can general rules be set or does the type of extrapolation depend upon the class of chemical and its mode of uptake and toxicologic effect?

  20. Oxidation of danofloxacin by free chlorine-kinetic study, structural identification of by-products by LC-MS/MS and potential toxicity of by-products using in silico test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Montaha; Rifai, Ahmad; Doumyati, Samah; Trivella, Aurélien; Mazellier, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène; Al Iskandarani, Mohamad

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the kinetics and the mechanism of reaction of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial danofloxacin (DANO) by free available chlorine (FAC) during water chlorination process. Kinetic study was thus performed at pH 7.2, 20 °C in the presence of an excess of total chlorine. Under these experimental conditions, a second-order reaction rate constant (first-order relative to DANO concentration and first-order relative to FAC concentration) was evaluated to k~1446 M(-1) s(-1). Five degradation products were identified at different reaction times. Their structures were investigated by using fragmentations obtained at different CID collision energies in MS/MS experiments. Moreover, the toxicity of the proposed structures was predicted by using T.E.S.T. The results indicated that all by-products may have a developmental toxicity. The oral rat LD50 concentration was predicted to be lower than that of DANO. Furthermore, two degradation compounds presented a concentration level for fathead minnow LC50 (96 h) lower than that of DANO and presented toxicity for the marine animals.

  1. Acute toxicity of runoff from sealcoated pavement to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoated pavement is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles to surface waters. We investigated acute toxicity of simulated runoff collected from 5 h to 111 days after application of CT sealcoat and from 4 h to 36 days after application of asphalt-based sealcoat containing about 7% CT sealcoat (AS/CT-blend). Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladocerans) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) were exposed in the laboratory to undiluted and 1:10 diluted runoff for 48 h, then transferred to control water and exposed to 4 h of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Mortality following exposure to undiluted runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement and UVR was ≤10% in all treatments. Test organisms exposed to undiluted CT runoff samples collected during the 3 days (C. dubia) or 36 days (P. promelas) following sealcoat application experienced 100% mortality prior to UVR exposure; with UVR exposure, mortality was 100% for runoff collected across the entire sampling period. Phototoxic-equivalent PAH concentrations and mortality demonstrated an exposure-response relation. The results indicate that runoff remains acutely toxic for weeks to months after CT sealcoat application.

  2. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M; Barber, Larry B; Gray, James L; Lopez, Elena M; Bolden, Ashley M; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Norris, David O

    2011-06-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent.

  3. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  4. The impact of mitochondrial and thermal stress on the bioenergetics and reserve respiratory capacity of fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam

    2012-12-01

    Various stressors affect the health of wild and cultured fish and can cause metabolic disturbances that first manifest at the cellular level. Here, we sought to further our understanding of cellular metabolism in fish by examining the metabolic responses of cell lines derived from channel catfish Ictalurus puntatus (CCO), white bass Morone chrysops (WBE), and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (EPC) to both mitochondrial and thermal stressors. Using extracellular flux (EF) technology, we simultaneously measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR; a measure of mitochondrial function) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR; a surrogate of glycolysis) in each cell type. We performed a mitochondrial function protocol whereby compounds modulating different components of mitochondrial respiration were sequentially exposed to cells. This provided us with basal and maximal OCR, OCR linked to ATP production, OCR from ion movement across the mitochondrial inner membrane, the reserve capacity, and OCR independent of the electron transport chain. After heat shock, EPC and CCO significantly decreased OCR and all three cell lines modestly increased ECAR. After heat shock, the reserve capacity, the mitochondrial energetic reserve used to cope with stress and increased bioenergetic demand, was unaffected in EPC and CCO and completely abrogated in WBE. These findings provide proof-of-concept experimental data that further highlight the utility of fish cell lines as tools for modeling bioenergetics.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of water type on the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Josh A; Gilron, Guy; Chalmers, Ben A; Elphick, James R

    2017-02-01

    A suite of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of freshwater organisms to nitrate (as sodium nitrate). Acute exposures with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca), as well as chronic exposures with H. azteca (14-d survival and growth), midges (Chironomus dilutus; 10-d survival and growth), daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d survival and reproduction), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 7-d survival and growth) were used to determine sublethal and lethal effect concentrations. Modification of nitrate toxicity was investigated across a range of ionic strengths, created through the use of very soft water, and standard preparations of synthetic soft, moderately-hard and hard dilution waters. The most sensitive species tested were C. dubia and H. azteca, in soft water, with reproduction and growth IC25 values of 13.8 and 12.2 mg/L NO3-N, respectively. All of the organisms exposed to nitrate demonstrated significantly reduced effects with increasing ionic strength associated with changes in water type. Possible mechanisms responsible for the modifying effect of increasing major ion concentrations on nitrate toxicity are discussed.

  6. Fish population failure caused by an environmental estrogen is long-lasting and regulated by direct and parental effects on survival and fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant research demonstrating effects of estrogens such as 17α - ethinylestradiol (EE2) on fish, the underlying mechanisms regulating population failure are unknown. Projected water shortages could leave waterways increasingly dominated by wastewater effluent and understanding mechanisms is necessary for conservation and management. Here we identify mechanisms of population failure in three generations of fathead minnows including direct and parental effects on survival and fecundity. EE2 concentrations, as low as 3.2 ng/L, reduced F0 male survival to 17% and juvenile production by 40%. F1 offspring continuously exposed to EE2 failed to reproduce and offspring transferred to clean water reproduced 70 - 99% less than controls. Furthermore, survival of F2s was reduced 51% - 97% compared to controls, despite the absence of direct embryonic exposure. The indirect effect on F2 survival suggests the possibility of transgenerational effects of EE2. Our results suggest that chronically exposed populations may not be able to recover in the absence of immigration.

  7. The influence of a surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, on the estrogenic response to a mixture of (xeno)estrogens in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine A; Brian, Jayne V; Pojana, Giulio; Lamoree, Marja; Booy, Petra; Marcomini, Antonio; Sumpter, John P

    2009-01-18

    The effect of the presence of a surfactant on the activity of a mixture of environmental estrogens was assessed. In their natural habitat, fish are subject not only to exposure to mixtures of estrogenic compounds, as has been addressed in previous publications, but also to other confounding factors (chemical, physical and biological), which may, in theory, affect their responses to such compounds. To assess the potential for such interference, the commonly occurring surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), was applied to the yeast estrogen screen at various concentrations, independently and together with a mixture of estrogens at constant concentrations. LAS enhanced the estrogenic activity of the mixture, an effect which became less pronounced over the course of time. This information was used to design an in vivo study to assess induction of vitellogenin in fathead minnows exposed to the same mixture of estrogens plus LAS. A similar trend was observed, that is, the response was enhanced, but the effect became less pronounced as the study progressed. However, the enhanced response in vivo occurred only at the highest concentration of LAS tested (362microg/L), and was transient because it was no longer apparent by the end of the study. Although LAS is a significant contaminant in terms of both concentration and frequency of detection in the aquatic environment, these data do not suggest that it will have a significant impact on the response of fish to environmental estrogens.

  8. Comparison of the sensitivities of common in vitro and in vivo assays of estrogenic activity: application of chemical toxicity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Laura L; Brain, Richard A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2008-12-01

    A number of contaminants in municipal effluent discharges are estrogen agonists to fish. Whereas several in vitro and in vivo techniques have been developed to assess the estrogenic activity of these compounds or ambient environmental samples, previous comparisons of the relative sensitivities of these approaches remain inconclusive. We employed a probabilistic hazard assessment approach using chemical toxicity distributions (CTDs) to perform a novel evaluation of relative sensitivities of six common in vitro and in vivo assays. We predicted that there was an 8.3% (human breast ademocarcinoma cell line, MCF-7, assay), 6.3% (yeast estrogen screen assay), or 1.9% (fish hepatocyte vitellogenin, VTG, assay) probability of detecting a compound in aquatic systems that will elicit an estrogenic response at concentrations at or below 0.1 microg/L, suggesting that the MCF-7 assay was the most sensitive in vitro assay evaluated in this study. The probabilities of eliciting the estrogenic response of VTG induction at a concentration less than 0.1 microg/L in rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and Japanese medaka were determined at 29.9, 26.2, and 18.8%, respectively. Thus, rainbow trout VTG induction was the most sensitive in vivo assay assessed. Subsequently, CTDs may provide a useful technique for hazard assessment of chemical classes for which exposure data are limited and for chemicals with common toxicological mechanisms and modes of action.

  9. The Effects of Acidic and Hypoxic Conditions on the Estuarine Organisms Cyprinodon variegatus (Sheepshead Minnow) and Americamysis bahia (Mysid Shrimp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive and combined effects of coastal acidification and hypoxia on estuarine species is an increasing concern as these stressors change concomitantly. There is a need to understand how these environmental factors interact, as well as their effect on estuarine organisms....

  10. Effects of cadmium on hypoxia-induced expression of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in larval sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangre, A.J.; Manning, S. [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Brouwer, M., E-mail: marius.brouwer@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia and toxic metals are two common stressors found in the estuarine environment. To date little information is available on the combined effects of these stressors on early larval development in fish. We investigated the effect of cadmium and hypoxia exposure alone as well in combination on larval Cyprinodon variegatus. The LC{sub 10} for cadmium was determined to be 0.3 ppm in a 96 h acute exposure. This concentration was used in all studies. Cadmium in larvae increased significantly with exposure time (1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch). The increase was proportional to body weight and not affected by hypoxia. Cadmium responsive genes were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in Cyprinodonvariegatus larvae after exposure to cadmium for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. We obtained over 700 sequences from the cadmium cDNA library. Blast search of ESTs suggested that cadmium modulates multiple physiological processes. Pertinent to this study, cadmium was found to down-regulate both embryonic {alpha} and {beta} globin, which are expressed in erythrocytes generated during the first, or primitive, wave of erythropoiesis in teleosts. Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoietin (Epo) (the hormone that promotes red blood cell production) are known hypoxia-inducible genes. To explore the possibility that cadmium might offset the hypoxia-induced expression of Hb and Epo, we investigated the expression of both genes following hypoxia, cadmium and combined exposures for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch. Since Epo had not yet been identified in C. variegatus we first successfully cloned a partial coding sequence of the C. variegatus hormone. Subsequent studies revealed that expression levels of Hb and Epo remained unchanged in the normoxic controls during the time course of the study. Hypoxia increased Epo expression relative to normoxic controls, on days 3, 5 and 7, while cadmium in hypoxia inhibited the increase. Only the changes on days 5 and 7 were statistically significant. Hypoxia also lead to a modest, but significant induction of Hb after 5 days. However, in spite of the Cd-induced down-regulation of Epo on day 5, Cd did not affect the hypoxia-induced expression of embryonic Hb at this time point. It appears therefore that Epo has only limited effect on primitive erythropoiesis in C. variegatus.

  11. The influence of density on adults and juveniles of the estuarine fish, the sheepshead minnow (cyprinodon variegatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between population density and demographic rates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth) is critical to understand population dynamics and has been widely studied in fishes. Estuarine species are regularly exposed to dramatic changes in density with daily, monthly,...

  12. Atrazine reduces reproduction in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M; Tillitt, Donald E; Talykina, Melaniya G; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Richter, Catherine A

    2014-09-01

    Atrazine is an effective broadleaf herbicide and the second most heavily used herbicide in the United States. Effects along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in a number of vertebrate taxa have been demonstrated. Seasonally elevated concentrations of atrazine in surface waters may adversely affect fishes, but only a few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical. The present study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (reproductive stage, gonad pathology) and biochemical (aromatase activity, sex hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in Japanese medaka. Adult virgin breeding groups of one male and four females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 μg/L (0, 2.3, 23.2, 231 nM) of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 38 days. Total egg production was lower (36-42%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine-treated fish were significant by exposure day 24. Reductions in total egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to a reduced number of eggs ovulated by females in atrazine-treated tanks. Additionally, males exposed to atrazine had a greater number of abnormal germ cells. There was no effect of atrazine on gonadosomatic index, aromatase protein, or whole body 17 β-estradiol or testosterone. Our results suggest that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reduced egg production observed in this study was very similar to our previously reported results for fathead minnow. This study provides further information with which to evaluate atrazine's risk to fish populations.

  13. Do pyrethroid-resistant Hyalella azteca have greater bioaccumulation potential compared to non-resistant populations? Implications for bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggelberg, Leslie L; Huff Hartz, Kara E; Nutile, Samuel A; Harwood, Amanda D; Heim, Jennifer R; Derby, Andrew P; Weston, Donald P; Lydy, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of pyrethroid-resistant Hyalella azteca populations in California, USA suggests there has been significant exposure of aquatic organisms to these terrestrially-applied insecticides. Since resistant organisms are able to survive in relatively contaminated habitats they may experience greater pyrethroid bioaccumulation, subsequently increasing the risk of those compounds transferring to predators. These issues were evaluated in the current study following toxicity tests in water with permethrin which showed the 96-h LC50 of resistant H. azteca (1670 ng L(-1)) was 53 times higher than that of non-resistant H. azteca (31.2 ng L(-1)). Bioaccumulation was compared between resistant and non-resistant H. azteca by exposing both populations to permethrin in water and then measuring the tissue concentrations attained. Our results indicate that resistant and non-resistant H. azteca have similar potential to bioaccumulate pyrethroids at the same exposure concentration. However, significantly greater bioaccumulation occurs in resistant H. azteca at exposure concentrations non-resistant organisms cannot survive. To assess the risk of pyrethroid trophic transfer, permethrin-dosed resistant H. azteca were fed to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) for four days, after which bioaccumulation of permethrin and its biotransformation products in fish tissues were measured. There were detectable concentrations of permethrin in fish tissues after they consumed dosed resistant H. azteca. These results show that bioaccumulation potential is greater in organisms with pyrethroid resistance and this increases the risk of trophic transfer when consumed by a predator. The implications of this study extend to individual fitness, populations and food webs.

  14. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  15. DIGE and iTRAQ as biomarker discovery tools in aquatic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Alvarez, Sophie; Denslow, Nancy D

    2012-02-01

    Molecular approaches in ecotoxicology have greatly enhanced mechanistic understanding of the impact of aquatic pollutants in organisms. These methods have included high throughput Omics technologies, including quantitative proteomics methods such as 2D differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). These methods are becoming more widely used in ecotoxicology studies to identify and characterize protein bioindicators of adverse effect. In teleost fish, iTRAQ has been used successfully in different fish species (e.g. fathead minnow, goldfish, largemouth bass) and tissues (e.g. hypothalamus and liver) to quantify relative protein abundance. Of interest for ecotoxicology is that many proteins commonly utilized as bioindicators of toxicity or stress are quantifiable using iTRAQ on a larger scale, providing a global baseline of biological effect from which to assess changes in the proteome. This review highlights the successes to date for high throughput quantitative proteomics using DIGE and iTRAQ in aquatic toxicology. Current challenges for the iTRAQ method for biomarker discovery in fish are the high cost and the lack of complete annotated genomes for teleosts. However, the use of protein homology from teleost fishes in protein databases and the introduction of hybrid LTQ-FT (Linear ion trap-Fourier transform) mass spectrometers with high resolution, increased sensitivity, and high mass accuracy are able to improve significantly the protein identification rates. Despite these challenges, initial studies utilizing iTRAQ for ecotoxicoproteomics have exceeded expectations and it is anticipated that the use of non-gel based quantitative proteomics will increase for protein biomarker discovery and for characterization of chemical mode of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  17. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  18. Molecular clone and characterization of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 2 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-02-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is a multifunctional mitogen-activated protein kinases involving in cell differentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammatory conditions. In this study, we reported a new JNK2 (Ec-JNK2) derived from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-JNK2 was 1920 bp in size, containing a 174 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 483 bp 3'-UTR, and a 1263 bp open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a putative protein of 420 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence of Ec-JNK2 contained a conserved Thr-Pro-Tyr (TPY) motif in the domain of serine/threonine protein kinase (S-TKc). Ec-JNK2 has been found to involve in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Ec-JNK2 was localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells, and moved to the nucleus after infecting with SGIV. Ec-JNK2 distributed in all immune-related tissues examined. After challenging with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), SGIV and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), the mRNA expression of Ec-JNK2 was significantly (P orange-spotted grouper. Over-expressing Ec-JNK2 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells increased the SGIV infection and replication, while over-expressing the dominant-negative Ec-JNK2Δ181-183 mutant decreased it. These results indicated that Ec-JNK2 could be an important molecule in the successful infection and evasion of SGIV.

  19. Water quality and aquatic toxicity data of 2002 spring thaw conditions in the upper Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, D.L.; Wirt, L.; Besser, J.M.; Wright, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic, water-quality, and biologic toxicity data collected during the annual spring thaw of 2002 in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The spring-thaw runoff is a concern because elevated concentrations of iron oxyhydroxides can contain sorbed trace metals that are potentially toxic to aquatic life. Water chemistry of streams draining the San Juan Mountains is affected by natural acid drainage and weathering of hydrothermal altered volcanic rocks and by more than a century of mining activities. The timing of the spring-thaw sampling effort was determined by reviewing historical climate and stream-flow hydrographs and current weather conditions. Twenty-one water-quality samples were collected between 11:00 AM March 27, 2002 and 6:00 PM March 30, 2002 to characterize water chemistry at the A-72 gage on the upper Animas River below Silverton. Analyses of unfiltered water at the A-72 gage showed a relation between turbidity and total-recoverable iron concentrations, and showed diurnal patterns. Copper and lead concentrations were related to iron concentrations, indicating that these elements are probably sorbed to colloidal iron material. Calcium, strontium, and sulfate concentrations showed overall decreasing trends due to dilution, but the loads of those constituents increased over the sampling period. Nine water-quality samples were collected near the confluence of Mineral Creek with the Animas River, the confluence of Cement Creek with the Animas River, and on the upper Animas River above the confluence with Cement Creek (three samples at each site). A total of six bulk water-toxicity samples were collected before, during, and after the spring thaw from the Animas River at the A-72 gage site. Toxicity tests conducted with the bulk water samples on amphipods did not show strong differences in toxicity among the three sampling periods; however, toxicity of river water to fathead minnows showed a decreasing trend

  20. Isomerization of fenbuconazole under UV-visible irradiation - chemical and toxicological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Yannick; Nicol, Edith; Genty, Christophe; Bourcier, Sophie; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2015-07-30

    Fenbuconazole is a fungicide commonly used for the protection of vineyards, vegetables and grain crops. Under UV-visible irradiation, it undergoes isomerization through various cyclization processes. Isomeric structures were elucidated by liquid chromatography/high-resolution multiple-stage mass spectrometry (LC/HR-MS(n) ) coupling. The potential toxicities of these isomers were estimated by in silico tests. Aqueous solutions of fenbuconazole and grapes treated with this fungicide were irradiated in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury vapor lamp. Analyses were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS). High-resolution m/z measurements, multiple-stage mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling experiments allowed structural elucidation of the isomers of fenbuconazole. In silico toxicity estimations were carried out using the T.E.S.T. Seven isomers of fenbuconazole were detected after irradiation of the fungicide in aqueous solution; the major ones were also detected in the flesh of treated grapes irradiated under laboratory conditions. Elucidation of their chemical structures owing to high resolution measurements and multi-stage collision induced dissociation experiments allowed confirmation of photo-transformation pathways mainly dominated by cyclization processes. Photo-induced isomers exhibited higher potential toxicities than fenbuconazole for Daphnia magna and fathead minnow species. UV-visible irradiation of fenbuconazole in aqueous solution and on grapes leads to the formation of isomers, all of which being potentially much more toxic than the parent fungicide. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Dissolved organic carbon ameliorates the effects of UV radiation on a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5B4 SK (Canada); Chivers, Douglas P.; Niyogi, Som [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Anthropogenic activities over the past several decades have depleted stratospheric ozone, resulting in a global increase in ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Much of the negative effects of UVR in aquatic systems is minimized by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which is known to attenuate UVR across the water column. The skin of many fishes contains large epidermal club cells (ECCs) that are known to play a role in innate immune responses and also release chemical alarm cues that warn other fishes of danger. This study investigated the effects of in vivo UVR exposure to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), under the influence of two sources of DOC: Sigma Aldrich humic acid, a coal based commercial source of DOC and Luther Marsh natural organic matter, a terrigenous source of DOC. Specifically, we examined ECC investment and physiological stress responses and found that fish exposed to high UVR, in the presence of either source of DOC, had higher ECC investment than fish exposed to high UVR only. Similarly, exposure to high UVR under either source of DOC, reduced cortisol levels relative to that in the high UVR only treatment. This indicates that DOC protects fish from physiological stress associated with UVR exposure and helps maintain production of ECC under conditions of UVR exposure. - Highlights: • We examined the combined effect of UV radiation and Dissolved Organic Carbon on fish. • Physiological stress response and epidermal club cell investment were measured. • Fish exposed to high UVR and DOC had higher ECC investment and reduced cortisol levels. • DOC plays a role in protecting fish from physiological stress and maintains ECC production.

  2. Trace element characterization of coal wastes. Fourth annual progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.M.; Bertino, J.P.; Jones, M.M.; Wagner, P.; Wanek, P.L.; Wangen, L.E.; Wewerka, E.M.

    1981-04-01

    In the past year assessment studies of low-sulfur coal wastes from the Appalachian Region have been continued. These included mineralogical and trace elemental analyses on these materials and studies of their weathering and leaching behavior. Although the concentrations of the acid-forming minerals (pyrite and marcasite) were very low, leachates were quite acid (pH < 3) with concomitant trace element (Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu) concentration elevation. As part of the overall assessment of the degree of environmental concern associated with acidic coal waste drainages, bioassay studies were performed. These revealed that coal wastes and their leachates are toxic to fresh water algae, fathead minnows, and one species of fresh-water flea. Laboratory experiments to identify control options for the coal wastes and their drainages have been focused on predisposal and codisposal treatments of the waste, with technical and economic evaluations being performed on the most promising options. One of the most promising control methods is pretreatment of the waste with a lime/limestone mixture; this produces a waste with no acid-forming tendencies for times up to several months, during which time it may be possible to dispose of the treated waste in a nonreactive environment. The cost of this option is comparable to that of the commonly used lime neutralization of the acid drainage. Other experiments have investigated, in considerable detail, the economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of codisposing the wastes with 37 naturally occurring soils and industrial wastes. These methods look promising only under certain conditions, but are in general an order of magnitude less effective than existing controls or the lime/limestone disposal method.

  3. Selected streambed sediment compounds and water toxicity results for Westside Creeks, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    possibly bioavailability of contaminants in disturbed streambed sediments), the toxicity of water samples to the indicator species Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) was evaluated by using standard 7-day water-toxicity testing.

  4. Mode of action of human pharmaceuticals in fish: the effects of the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride, on reproduction as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Hannah, Robert E; Sumpter, John P

    2013-03-15

    In recent years, a growing number of human pharmaceuticals have been detected in the aquatic environment, generally at low concentrations (sub-ng/L-low μg/L). In most cases, these compounds are characterised by highly specific modes of action, and the evolutionary conservation of drug targets in wildlife species suggests the possibility that pharmaceuticals present in the environment may cause toxicological effects by acting through the same targets as they do in humans. Our research addressed the question of whether or not dutasteride, a pharmaceutical used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, may cause adverse effects in a teleost fish, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), by inhibiting the activity of both isoforms of 5α-reductase (5αR), the enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Mammalian pharmacological and toxicological information were used to guide the experimental design and the selection of relevant endpoints, according to the so-called "read-across approach", suggesting that dutasteride may affect male fertility and steroid hormone dynamics. Therefore, a 21-day reproduction study was conducted to determine the effects of dutasteride (10, 32 and 100 μg/L) on fish reproduction. Exposure to dutasteride significantly reduced fecundity of fish and affected several aspects of reproductive endocrine functions in both males and females. However, none of the observed adverse effects occurred at concentrations of exposure lower than 32 μg/L; this, together with the low volume of drug prescribed every year (10.34 kg in the UK in 2011), and the extremely low predicted environmental concentration (0.03 ng/L), suggest that, at present, the potential presence of dutasteride in the environment does not represent a threat to wild fish populations.

  5. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  6. Implications of Use of Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat on Urban Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and improve the appearance of asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central and eastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35% crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—median total PAH concentrations in dust from CT-sealcoated pavement are 2,200 mg/kg compared to a median concentration of 11 mg/kg for dust from unsealed pavement. Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, often resulting in sediment concentrations above toxicity thresholds based on effects-based sediment quality guidelines. Acute 2-day laboratory toxicity testing of simulated runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) demonstrated that toxicity continues for samples collected for weeks or months following sealcoat application and that toxicity is enhanced by exposure to UV light. Using the fish-liver cell line RTL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  7. Immunotoxicology of titanium dioxide and hydroxylated fullerenes engineered nanoparticles in fish models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Boris

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles have the potential to cause adverse effects on the fish health, but the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. Major task of this dissertation was to connect gaps in current knowledge with a comprehensive sequence of molecular, cellular and organismal responses toward environmentally relevant concentrations of engineered nanoparticles (titanium dioxide -- TiO2 and hydroxylated fullerenes), outlining the interaction with the innate immune system of fish. The research was divided into following steps: 1) create cDNA libraries for the species of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas); 2) evaluate whether, and how can nanoparticles modulate neutrophil function in P. promelas; 3) determine the changes in expression of standard biomarker genes as a result of nanoparticle treatment; 4) expose the P. promelas to nanoparticles and appraise their survival rate in a bacterial challenge study; 5) assess the impact of nanoparticles on neuro-immunological interface during the early embryogenesis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). It was hypothesized that engineered nanoparticles can cause measurable changes in fish transcriptome, immune response, and disease resistance. The results of this dissertation are: 1) application of environmentally relevant concentration of nanoparticles changed function of fish neutrophils; 2) fish exposed to nano-TiO2 had significantly increased expression of interleukin 11, macrophage stimulating factor 1, and neutrophil cytosolic factor 2, while expression of interleukin 11 and myeloperoxidase was significantly increased and expression of elastase 2 was significantly decreased in fish exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes; 3) exposure to environmental estimated concentration of nano-TiO2 significantly increased fish mortality during Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Analysis of nano-TiO 2 distribution in fish organism outlined that the nano-TiO2 is concentrating in the fish kidney and spleen; 4) during the early embryogenesis of D

  8. Enhanced detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by pretreatment of cell monolayers with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To improve quantification of very low levels of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in samples of tissue, ovarian fluid, or natural water supplies, we tested the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the sensitivity and speed of the plaque assay system. We compared 4, 7, and 10% solutions of PEG of molecular weight 6,000, 8,000, or 20,000 applied at selected volumes and for various durations. When cell monolayers of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), and bluegill fry (BF2) were pretreated with 7% PEG-20,000, they produced 4-17-fold increases in plaque assay titers of IHNV. The plaque assay titers of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, chum salmon reovirus, and chinook salmon paramyxovirus were also enhanced by exposure of CHSE-214 cells to PEG, but the titers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and Oncorhynchus masou virus were not substantially changed. Plaques formed by IHNV on PEG-treated EPC cells incubated at 15°C had a larger mean diameter at 6 d than those on control cells at 8 d; this suggests the assay could be shortened by use of PEG. Pretreatment of EPC cell monolayers with PEG enabled detection of IHNV in some samples that appeared negative with untreated cells. For example, when ovarian fluid samples from chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were inoculated onto untreated monolayers of EPC cells, IHNV was detected in only 11 of 51 samples; 17 of the samples were positive when PEG-treated EPC cells were used.PDF

  9. Characterization of stormwater runoff from the Naval Air Station and Naval Wepons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas, 1994-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, T.H.; Baldys, Stanley; Lizarraga, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of stormwater runoff from the Naval Air Station (NAS) and the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP), Dallas, Texas, is necessary to determine if runoff from the facilities is contributing to off-site contamination of surface waters, A network of five fixed sites and four grab sites was established to collect stormwater-runoff samples from a substantial part of the drainage area of each facility. Fixed sites were instrumented to measure and store precipitation, stage, discharge, and runoff-volume data and to collect flow-weighted composite samples during a storm. Grab and composite samples were collected for six storms at each of the five fixed sites from October 1994 to March 1996. The grab samples were analyzed for about 100 properties and constituents including specific conductance, pH, water temperature, bacteria, trace elements, oil and grease, total phenols, and volatile organic compounds. The composite samples were analyzed for about 220 properties and constituents including specific conductance, pH, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, major ions, suspended and dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, total organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. Grab samples were collected for two storms (September 18,1995, and October 2,1995) at each of the four grab sites. The grab samples were analyzed for about 80 constituents including specific conductance, pH, water temperature, trace elements, and volatile organic compounds. Composite samples were collected for two of the six storms sampled at the fixed sites and analyzed for aquatic toxicity. Fathead minnow growth and survival toxicity tests and water flea reproduction and survival toxicity tests were done.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of sediment samples from Burns Harbor, Porter County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Karls, R.K.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Chicago District is authorized to maintain the water depths in Burns Harbor at navigable levels. In order to maintain these levels, sediments must be dredged and disposed of at approved disposal sites. To make a 404 (b) 1 open-water disposal evaluation, the dredged sediment may be evaluated through a series of toxicological tests to assess its potential for causing an adverse environmental effect. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by USACE to perform these freshwater toxicity tests. The tests were designed to simulate conditions that organisms living within an aquatic dredged material disposal site might experience during disposal operations, and included both bedded-sediment (solid-phase) and suspended-sediment (elutriate) tests. Test samples were collected by USACE personnel and composited into three test treatments representing potential dredging areas (Management Units {number_sign}1, {number_sign}2, and {number_sign}3). Four toxicological tests were conducted in support of this program. The solid-phase tests included the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and the midge, Chironomus tentans. The elutriate tests included the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Daphnia magna. Testing was conducted following standard procedures provided by USACE which are consistent with ASTM protocols and the Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Discharge in Inland and Near Coastal Waters -- Testing Manual (Draft) Inland Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1993), known as the ``Draft Inland Testing Manual.`` The suitability of sediment representing the management units for open-water disposal was evaluated following the guidelines contained in the Draft Inland Testing Manual.

  11. Maternal exposure to carbamazepine at environmental concentrations can cross intestinal and placental barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Gaurav, E-mail: kausgaur@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Huber, David P., E-mail: hubedavi@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Aho, Ken, E-mail: ahoken@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Finney, Bruce, E-mail: finney@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Bearden, Shawn, E-mail: bearshaw@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Zarbalis, Konstantinos S., E-mail: kzarbalis@ucdavis.edu [Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Thomas, Michael A., E-mail: mthomas@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Psychoactive pharmaceuticals have been found as teratogens at clinical dosage during pregnancy. These pharmaceuticals have also been detected in minute (ppb) concentrations in drinking water in the US, and are environmental contaminants that may be complicit in triggering neurological disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. Previous studies have determined that psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine and carbamazepine) at environmentally relevant concentrations enriched sets of genes regulating development and function of the nervous system in fathead minnows. Altered gene sets were also associated with potential neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subsequent in vitro studies indicated that psychoactive pharmaceuticals altered ASD-associated synaptic protein expression and gene expression in human neuronal cells. However, it is unknown if environmentally relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals are able to cross biological barriers from mother to fetus, thus potentially posing risks to nervous system development. The main objective of this study was to test whether psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and carbamazepine) administered through the drinking water at environmental concentrations to pregnant mice could reach the brain of the developing embryo by crossing intestinal and placental barriers. We addressed this question by adding {sup 2}H-isotope labeled pharmaceuticals to the drinking water of female mice for 20 days (10 pre-and 10 post–conception days), and quantifying {sup 2}H-isotope enrichment signals in the dam liver and brain of developing embryos using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Significant levels of {sup 2}H enrichment was detected in the brain of embryos and livers of carbamazepine-treated mice but not in those of control dams, or for fluoxetine or venlafaxine application. These results provide the first evidence that carbamazepine in drinking water and at

  12. Responses of aquatic insects to Cu and Zn in stream microcosms: understanding differences between single species tests and field responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, William H; Cadmus, Pete; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2013-07-02

    Field surveys of metal-contaminated streams suggest that some aquatic insects, particularly mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera), are highly sensitive to metals. However, results of single species toxicity tests indicate these organisms are quite tolerant, with LC50 values often several orders of magnitude greater than those obtained using standard test organisms (e.g., cladocerans and fathead minnows). Reconciling these differences is a critical research need, particularly since water quality criteria for metals are based primarily on results of single species toxicity tests. In this research we provide evidence based on community-level microcosm experiments to support the hypothesis that some aquatic insects are highly sensitive to metals. We present results of three experiments that quantified effects of Cu and Zn, alone and in combination, on stream insect communities. EC50 values, defined as the metal concentration that reduced abundance of aquatic insects by 50%, were several orders of magnitude lower than previously published values obtained from single species tests. We hypothesize that the short duration of laboratory toxicity tests and the failure to evaluate effects of metals on sensitive early life stages are the primary factors responsible for unrealistically high LC50 values in the literature. We also observed that Cu alone was significantly more toxic to aquatic insects than the combination of Cu and Zn, despite the fact that exposure concentrations represented theoretically similar toxicity levels. Our results suggest that water quality criteria for Zn were protective of most aquatic insects, whereas Cu was highly toxic to some species at concentrations near water quality criteria. Because of the functional significance of aquatic insects in stream ecosystems and their well-established importance as indicators of water quality, reconciling differences between field and laboratory responses and understanding the mechanisms responsible

  13. Integrated assessment of runoff from livestock farming operations: analytical chemistry, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Durhan, Elizabeth J.; Evans, Nicola; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kolodziej, Edward P.; Foreman, William T.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Makynen, Elizabeth A.; Seidl, Sara M.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Weberg, Matthew A.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from livestock farming operations can contain varying levels of natural and synthetic androgens and/or estrogens, which can contaminate surrounding waterways. In the present study, surface stream water was collected from 6 basins containing livestock farming operations. Aqueous concentrations of 12 hormones were determined via chemical analyses. Relative androgenic and estrogenic activity was measured using in vitro cell assays (MDA-kb2 and T47D-Kbluc assays, respectively). In parallel, 48-h static-renewal in vivo exposures were conducted to examine potential endocrine-disrupting effects in fathead minnows. Mature fish were exposed to surface water dilutions (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) and 10-ng/L of 17α-ethynylestradiol or 50-ng/L of 17β-trenbolone as positive controls. Hepatic expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α mRNA, gonadal ex vivo testosterone and 17β-estradiol production, and plasma vitellogenin concentrations were examined. Potentially estrogenic and androgenic steroids were detected at low nanogram per liter concentrations. In vitro estrogenic activity was detected in all samples, whereas androgenic activity was detected in only 1 sample. In vivo exposures to the surface water had no significant dose-dependent effect on any of the biological endpoints, with the exception of increased male testosterone production in 1 exposure. The present study, which combines analytical chemistry measurements, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures, highlights the integrated value and future use of a combination of techniques to obtain a comprehensive characterization of an environmental chemical mixture. 

  14. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E; Berninger, Jason P; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Basu, Niladri

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24-42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24-54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences.

  15. Developing predictive approaches to characterize adaptive responses of the reproductive endocrine axis to aromatase inhibition: II. Computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David C; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in humans and wildlife. We developed a computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (DRTC) behaviors for endocrine effects of the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD). The model describes adaptive responses to endocrine stress involving regulated secretion of a generic gonadotropin (LH/FSH) from the hypothalamic-pituitary complex. For model development, we used plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two time-course experiments, each of which included both an exposure and a depuration phase, and plasma E2 data from a third 4-day study. Model parameters were estimated using E2 concentrations for 0, 0.5, and 3 µg/l FAD exposure concentrations, and good fits to these data were obtained. The model accurately predicted CYP19A mRNA fold changes for controls and three FAD doses (0, 0.5, and 3 µg/l) and plasma E2 dose response from the 4-day study. Comparing the model-predicted DRTC with experimental data provided insight into how the feedback control mechanisms in the HPG axis mediate these changes: specifically, adaptive changes in plasma E2 levels occurring during exposure and "overshoot" occurring postexposure. This study demonstrates the value of mechanistic modeling to examine and predict dynamic behaviors in perturbed systems. As this work progresses, we will obtain a refined understanding of how adaptive responses within the vertebrate HPG axis affect DRTC behaviors for aromatase inhibitors and other types of endocrine-active chemicals and apply that knowledge in support of risk assessments.

  16. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments.

  17. Development of acute toxicity quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and their use in linear alkylbenzene sulfonate species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; Price, Brad B

    2016-07-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) is high tonnage and widely dispersed anionic surfactant used by the consumer products sector. A range of homologous structures are used in laundry applications that differ primarily on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain. This research summarizes the development of a set of acute toxicity QSARs (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and daphnids (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) using accepted test guideline approaches. A series of studies on pure chain length LAS from C10 to C14 were used to develop the QSARs and the robustness of the QSARs was tested by evaluation of two technical mixtures of differing compositions. All QSARs were high quality (R(2) were 0.965-0.997, p < 0.0001). Toxicity normalization employing QSARs is used to interpret a broader array of tests on LAS chain length materials to a diverse group of test organisms with the objective of developing Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) for various chain lengths of interest. Mixtures include environmental distributions measured from exposure monitoring surveys of wastewater effluents, various commercial mixtures, or specific chain lengths. SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentrations (HC5s) ranged from 0.129 to 0.254 mg/L for wastewater effluents containing an average of 11.26-12 alkyl carbons. The SSDs are considered highly robust given the breadth of species (n = 19), use of most sensitive endpoints from true chronic studies and the quality of the underlying statistical properties of the SSD itself. The data continue to indicate a low hazard to the environment relative to expected environmental concentrations.

  18. Atrazine reduces reproduction in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Talykina, Melaniya G.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Richter, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine is an effective broadleaf herbicide and the second most heavily used herbicide in the United States. Effects along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonad axis in a number of vertebrate taxa have been demonstrated. Seasonally elevated concentrations of atrazine in surface waters may adversely affect fishes, but only a few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical. The present study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (reproductive stage, gonad pathology) and biochemical (aromatase activity, sex hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in Japanese medaka. Adult virgin breeding groups of one male and four females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 μg/L (0, 2.3, 23.2, 231 nM) of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 38 days. Total egg production was lower (36–42%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine-treated fish were significant by exposure day 24. Reductions in total egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to a reduced number of eggs ovulated by females in atrazine-treated tanks. Additionally, males exposed to atrazine had a greater number of abnormal germ cells. There was no effect of atrazine on gonadosomatic index, aromatase protein, or whole body 17 β-estradiol or testosterone. Our results suggest that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reduced egg production observed in this study was very similar to our previously reported results for fathead minnow. This study provides further information with which to evaluate atrazine's risk to fish populations.

  19. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Galicia, Hector F; Fent, Karl

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we evaluate whether in vitro systems are good predictors for in vivo estrogenic activity in fish. We focus on UV filters being used in sunscreens and in UV stabilization of materials. First, we determined the estrogenic activity of 23 UV filters and one UV filter metabolite employing a recombinant yeast carrying the estrogen receptor of rainbow trout (rtERalpha) and made comparisons with yeast carrying the human hERalpha for receptor specificity. Benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-2 (BP2), 4,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,4-trihydroxy-benzophenone, and phenylsalicylate showed full dose-response curves with maximal responses of 81-115%, whereas 3-benzylidene camphor (3BC), octylsalicylate, benzylsalicylate, benzophenone-3, and benzophenone-4 displayed lower maximal responses of 15-74%. Whereas the activity of 17beta-estradiol was lower in the rtERalpha than the hERalpha assay, the activities of UV filters were similar or relatively higher in rtERalpha, indicating different relative binding activities of both ER. Subsequently, we analyzed whether the in vitro estrogenicity of eight UV filters is also displayed in vivo in fathead minnows by the induction potential of vitellogenin after 14 days of aqueous exposure. Of the three active compounds in vivo, 3BC induced vitellogenin at lower concentrations (435 microg/l) than BP1 (4919 microg/l) and BP2 (8783 microg/l). The study shows, for the first time, estrogenic activities of UV filters in fish both in vitro and in vivo. Thus we propose that receptor-based assays should be used for in vitro screening prior to in vivo testing, leading to environmental risk assessments based on combined, complementary, and appropriate species-related assays for hormonal activity.

  20. The history and development of FETAX (ASTM standard guide, E-1439 on conducting the frog embryo teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, J.N.; Bantle, J.A.; Linder, G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The energy crisis of the 1970's and 1980's prompted the search for alternative sources of fuel. With development of alternate sources of energy, concerns for biological resources potentially adversely impacted by these alternative technologies also heightened. For example, few biological tests were available at the time to study toxic effects of effluents on surface waters likely to serve as receiving streams for energy-production facilities; hence, we began to use Xenopus laevis embryos as test organisms to examine potential toxic effects associated with these effluents upon entering aquatic systems. As studies focused on potential adverse effects on aquatic systems continued, a test procedure was developed that led to the initial standardization of FETAX. Other .than a limited number of aquatic toxicity tests that used fathead minnows and cold-water fishes such as rainbow trout, X. laevis represented the only other aquatic vertebrate test system readily available to evaluate complex effluents. With numerous laboratories collaborating, the test with X. laevis was refined, improved, and developed as ASTM E-1439, Standard Guide for the Conducting Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Collabrative work in the 1990s yielded procedural enhancements, for example, development of standard test solutions and exposure methods to handle volatile organics and hydrophobic compounds. As part of the ASTM process, a collaborative interlaboratory study was performed to determine the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Parallel to these efforts, methods were also developed to test sediments and soils, and in situ test methods were developed to address "lab-to-field extrapolation errors" that could influence the method's use in ecological risk assessments. Additionally, a metabolic activation system composed of rat liver microsomes was developed which made FETAX more relevant to mammalian studies.

  1. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    ,181 milligrams calcium carbonate per liter (mg CaCO3/L)) that varied across species and lifestage within a species. The age at which fish were exposed to NaHCO3 significantly affected the severity of toxic responses for some organisms. The chronic toxicity of NaHCO3 was defined in experiments that lasted from 7—60 days post-hatch. For these experiments, sublethal effects such as growth and reproduction, in addition to significant reductions in survival were included in the final determination of effects. Chronic toxicity was observed at concentrations that ranged from 450 to 800mg NaHCO3/L (also defined as 430 to 657 mg HCO3-/L or total alkalinity expressed as 354 to 539 mg CaCO3/L) and the specific concentration depended on the sensitivity of the four species of invertebrates and fish exposed. Sublethal investigations during chronic studies revealed percent decrease in the activity of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K ATPase, an enzyme involved in ionoregulation) and the age of the fish at the onset of the decrease may affect the ability of fathead minnow to survive exposures to NaHCO3. A database of toxicity evaluations of NaHCO3 on aquatic life has been constructed. Using these data, sample acute and chronic criteria of 459 and 381 mg NaHCO3/L, respectively, can be calculated for the protection of aquatic life. The final derivation and implementation of such criteria is, of course, left to the discretion of the concerned management agencies. A combination of in situ experiments, static-renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory, demonstrated that untreated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) product water from the Tongue and Powder River Basins reduces survival of fathead minnow and pallid sturgeon. More precisely, the survival of early-lifestage fathead minnow, especially those less than 6-days post hatch (dph), likely is reduced significantly in the field when

  2. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    ,181 milligrams calcium carbonate per liter (mg CaCO3/L)) that varied across species and lifestage within a species. The age at which fish were exposed to NaHCO3 significantly affected the severity of toxic responses for some organisms. The chronic toxicity of NaHCO3 was defined in experiments that lasted from 7—60 days post-hatch. For these experiments, sublethal effects such as growth and reproduction, in addition to significant reductions in survival were included in the final determination of effects. Chronic toxicity was observed at concentrations that ranged from 450 to 800mg NaHCO3/L (also defined as 430 to 657 mg HCO3-/L or total alkalinity expressed as 354 to 539 mg CaCO3/L) and the specific concentration depended on the sensitivity of the four species of invertebrates and fish exposed. Sublethal investigations during chronic studies revealed percent decrease in the activity of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K ATPase, an enzyme involved in ionoregulation) and the age of the fish at the onset of the decrease may affect the ability of fathead minnow to survive exposures to NaHCO3. A database of toxicity evaluations of NaHCO3 on aquatic life has been constructed. Using these data, sample acute and chronic criteria of 459 and 381 mg NaHCO3/L, respectively, can be calculated for the protection of aquatic life. The final derivation and implementation of such criteria is, of course, left to the discretion of the concerned management agencies. A combination of in situ experiments, static-renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory, demonstrated that untreated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) product water from the Tongue and Powder River Basins reduces survival of fathead minnow and pallid sturgeon. More precisely, the survival of early-lifestage fathead minnow, especially those less than 6-days post hatch (dph), likely is reduced significantly in the field when

  3. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    ,181 milligrams calcium carbonate per liter (mg CaCO3/L)) that varied across species and lifestage within a species. The age at which fish were exposed to NaHCO3 significantly affected the severity of toxic responses for some organisms. The chronic toxicity of NaHCO3 was defined in experiments that lasted from 7—60 days post-hatch. For these experiments, sublethal effects such as growth and reproduction, in addition to significant reductions in survival were included in the final determination of effects. Chronic toxicity was observed at concentrations that ranged from 450 to 800mg NaHCO3/L (also defined as 430 to 657 mg HCO3-/L or total alkalinity expressed as 354 to 539 mg CaCO3/L) and the specific concentration depended on the sensitivity of the four species of invertebrates and fish exposed. Sublethal investigations during chronic studies revealed percent decrease in the activity of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K ATPase, an enzyme involved in ionoregulation) and the age of the fish at the onset of the decrease may affect the ability of fathead minnow to survive exposures to NaHCO3. A database of toxicity evaluations of NaHCO3 on aquatic life has been constructed. Using these data, sample acute and chronic criteria of 459 and 381 mg NaHCO3/L, respectively, can be calculated for the protection of aquatic life. The final derivation and implementation of such criteria is, of course, left to the discretion of the concerned management agencies. A combination of in situ experiments, static-renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory, demonstrated that untreated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) product water from the Tongue and Powder River Basins reduces survival of fathead minnow and pallid sturgeon. More precisely, the survival of early-lifestage fathead minnow, especially those less than 6-days post hatch (dph), likely is reduced significantly in the field when

  4. The trade-off between food and temperature in the habitat choice of bluegill sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the trade-off between food and temperature in bluegills Lepomis macrochirus, where temperature was the primary factor used in determining the patch in which to reside.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED VITELLOGENIN AND VITELLINE ENVELOPE PROTEIN MRNA IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) USING QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many environmentally persistent chemicals found in both European and U.S. waterways can act as estrogens by binding to estrogen receptors and modifying the expression of genes regulated by endogenous estrogens. Synthesis of female-specific proteins (Vitellogenin [VTG], vitelline ...

  6. Two isoforms of leptin in the White-clouds Mountain minnow (Tanichthys albonubes): Differential regulation by estrogen despite similar response to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun; Tang, Dongsheng; Yan, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Leptin has been well-established as a canonical anorexic peptide hormone in mammals, though much of its function in fish remains obscure. In this study, the cDNAs of two leptin isoforms (leptin-A and leptin-B) were cloned from the liver of a small cyprinid fish, Tanichthys albonubes. The two T. albonubes leptins, sharing low primary amino acid sequence homology with their mammalian counterparts, and between themselves, are highly conserved in three-dimensional protein structures and gene structures. Liver is a major source of leptin mRNA in T. albonubes with leptin-A being the dominant form. The expression of hepatic leptin-A but not leptin-B mRNA in female fish is significantly higher than in male fish. Transcriptional hepatic levels of leptin-A and leptin-B in both male and female fish were demonstrated to increase after long-term fasting (10-25days) but decline upon re-feeding (3days). Strikingly, estrogen (E2) administration induced only leptin-A but not leptin-B hepatic mRNA expression in both male and female fish. Our study here provides the first evidence for differential regulation of two leptins in fish, and sheds new light on the possible origin of leptin in lower vertebrates.

  7. Data used for Raimondo et al. 2016 "Effects of Louisiana Crude Oil on the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) During a Life-Cycle Exposure to Laboratory Oiled Sediment"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data are provided describing reproduction, length, weight, liver weight, and ovary weight in fish exposed to sediment spiked with weathered oil. Data are also...

  8. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  9. Using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling as an acute risk assessment refinement approach in vertebrate ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Ashauer, Roman; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Hinarejos, Silvia; Thorbek, Pernille; Weyman, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Recent guidance identified toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) modeling as a relevant approach for risk assessment refinement. Yet, its added value compared to other refinement options is not detailed, and how to conduct the modeling appropriately is not explained. This case study addresses these issues through 2 examples of individual-level risk assessment for 2 hypothetical plant protection products: 1) evaluating the risk for small granivorous birds and small omnivorous mammals of a single application, as a seed treatment in winter cereals, and 2) evaluating the risk for fish after a pulsed treatment in the edge-of-field zone. Using acute test data, we conducted the first tier risk assessment as defined in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance. When first tier risk assessment highlighted a concern, refinement options were discussed. Cases where the use of models should be preferred over other existing refinement approaches were highlighted. We then practically conducted the risk assessment refinement by using 2 different models as examples. In example 1, a TK model accounting for toxicokinetics and relevant feeding patterns in the skylark and in the wood mouse was used to predict internal doses of the hypothetical active ingredient in individuals, based on relevant feeding patterns in an in-crop situation, and identify the residue levels leading to mortality. In example 2, a TK-TD model accounting for toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and relevant exposure patterns in the fathead minnow was used to predict the time-course of fish survival for relevant FOCUS SW exposure scenarios and identify which scenarios might lead to mortality. Models were calibrated using available standard data and implemented to simulate the time-course of internal dose of active ingredient or survival for different exposure scenarios. Simulation results were discussed and used to derive the risk assessment refinement endpoints used for decision. Finally, we compared the

  10. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    remaining samples were archived. Biological characteristics were determined by using an in-vitro bioassay to determine total estrogenicity in water samples and a caged fish study to determine characteristics of fish from experiments that exposed fish to wastewater effluent in 2009. St. Cloud State University deployed and processed caged fathead minnows at 13 stream sites during September 2009 for the caged fish study. Measured fish data included length, weight, body condition factor, and vitellogenin concentrations.

  11. Estimation of environment-related properties of chemicals for design of sustainable processes: development of group-contribution+ (GC+) property models and uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkerikar, Amol Shivajirao; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent; Young, Douglas M; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-11-26

    The aim of this work is to develop group-contribution(+) (GC(+)) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) based property models to provide reliable estimations of environment-related properties of organic chemicals together with uncertainties of estimated property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is used. The methodology includes a parameter estimation step to determine parameters of property models and an uncertainty analysis step to establish statistical information about the quality of parameter estimation, such as the parameter covariance, the standard errors in predicted properties, and the confidence intervals. For parameter estimation, large data sets of experimentally measured property values of a wide range of chemicals (hydrocarbons, oxygenated chemicals, nitrogenated chemicals, poly functional chemicals, etc.) taken from the database of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and from the database of USEtox is used. For property modeling and uncertainty analysis, the Marrero and Gani GC method and atom connectivity index method have been considered. In total, 22 environment-related properties, which include the fathead minnow 96-h LC(50), Daphnia magna 48-h LC(50), oral rat LD(50), aqueous solubility, bioconcentration factor, permissible exposure limit (OSHA-TWA), photochemical oxidation potential, global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, emission to urban air (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental rural air (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental fresh water (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental seawater (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental natural soil (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), and emission to continental agricultural soil (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) have been modeled and analyzed. The application

  12. Quantitative cross-species extrapolation between humans and fish: the case of the anti-depressant fluoxetine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci

    Full Text Available Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis. To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (H(TPCs. Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the H(TPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the H(TPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool

  13. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    found in caves and surface-water sites included brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides (chlordane and nonachlor), and polychlorinated biphenyls. The placement of samplers in the caves (near the cave mouth compared to farther in the system) might have influenced the number of halogenated organics detected due to possible aerial transport of residues. Guano from cave-dwelling bats also might have been a source of some of these chlorinated organics. Seven-day survival and growth bioassays with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to samples of cave water indicated initial toxicity in water from two of the caves, but these effects were transient, with no toxicity observed in follow-up tests. ??Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  14. Current perspectives on the androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5 alpha-reductases in teleost fishes and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Bissegger, Sonja; Langlois, Valérie S

    2013-12-01

    The androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a steroidogenic metabolite that has received little attention in non-mammalian species. DHT is produced by the reduction of the double-bond of testosterone by a group of enzymes called 5 alpha-reductases of which there can be multiple isoforms (i.e., srd5a1, srd5a2, and srd5a3). Data from amphibians suggest that the expression of the srd5a genes occurs in early development, and continues until adulthood; however insufficient data exist in fish species, where DHT is thought to be relatively biologically inactive. Here, we demonstrate that fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) developing embryos and adults express srd5a enzyme isoforms. During FHM embryogenesis, both srd5a1 and srd5a3 mRNA levels were significantly correlated in expression levels while srd5a2 showed a more unique pattern of expression. In adult FHMs, males had significantly higher levels of srd5a2 in the liver and gonad compared to females. In the male and female liver, transcript levels for srd5a2 were more abundant compared to srd5a1 and srd5a3, suggesting a prominent role for srd5a2 in this tissue. Interestingly, the ovary expressed higher mRNA levels of srd5a3 than the testis. Thus, data suggest that srd5a isoforms can show sexually dimorphic expression patterns in fish. We also conducted a literature review of the biological effects observed in embryonic and adult fish and amphibians after treatments with DHT and DHT-related compounds. Treatments with DHT in teleost fishes and amphibians have resulted in unexpected biological responses that are characteristic of both androgens and anti-androgens. For example, in fish DHT can induce vitellogenin in vitro from male and female hepatocytes and can increase 17β-estradiol production from the teleost ovary. We propose, that to generate further understanding of the roles of DHT in non-mammals, studies are needed that (1) address how DHT is synthesized within tissues of fish and amphibians; (2

  15. Reprint of "Current perspectives on the androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5 alpha-reductases in teleost fishes and amphibians".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Bissegger, Sonja; Langlois, Valérie S

    2014-07-01

    The androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a steroidogenic metabolite that has received little attention in non-mammalian species. DHT is produced by the reduction of the double-bond of testosterone by a group of enzymes called 5 alpha-reductases of which there can be multiple isoforms (i.e., srd5a1, srd5a2, and srd5a3). Data from amphibians suggest that the expression of the srd5a genes occurs in early development, and continues until adulthood; however insufficient data exist in fish species, where DHT is thought to be relatively biologically inactive. Here, we demonstrate that fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) developing embryos and adults express srd5a enzyme isoforms. During FHM embryogenesis, both srd5a1 and srd5a3 mRNA levels were significantly correlated in expression levels while srd5a2 showed a more unique pattern of expression. In adult FHMs, males had significantly higher levels of srd5a2 in the liver and gonad compared to females. In the male and female liver, transcript levels for srd5a2 were more abundant compared to srd5a1 and srd5a3, suggesting a prominent role for srd5a2 in this tissue. Interestingly, the ovary expressed higher mRNA levels of srd5a3 than the testis. Thus, data suggest that srd5a isoforms can show sexually dimorphic expression patterns in fish. We also conducted a literature review of the biological effects observed in embryonic and adult fish and amphibians after treatments with DHT and DHT-related compounds. Treatments with DHT in teleost fishes and amphibians have resulted in unexpected biological responses that are characteristic of both androgens and anti-androgens. For example, in fish DHT can induce vitellogenin in vitro from male and female hepatocytes and can increase 17β-estradiol production from the teleost ovary. We propose, that to generate further understanding of the roles of DHT in non-mammals, studies are needed that (1) address how DHT is synthesized within tissues of fish and amphibians; (2

  16. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schamphelaere, K A C; Stubblefield, W; Rodriguez, P; Vleminckx, K; Janssen, C R

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO(4)(2-)). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this study can

  17. An assessment of the model of concentration addition for predicting the estrogenic activity of chemical mixtures in wastewater treatment works effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Karen L; Gross-Sorokin, Melanie; Johnson, Ian; Brighty, Geoff; Tyler, Charles R

    2006-04-01

    The effects of simple mixtures of chemicals, with similar mechanisms of action, can be predicted using the concentration addition model (CA). The ability of this model to predict the estrogenic effects of more complex mixtures such as effluent discharges, however, has yet to be established. Effluents from 43 U.K. wastewater treatment works were analyzed for the presence of the principal estrogenic chemical contaminants, estradiol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and nonylphenol. The measured concentrations were used to predict the estrogenic activity of each effluent, employing the model of CA, based on the relative potencies of the individual chemicals in an in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (rYES) and a short-term (14-day) in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin induction assay. Based on the measured concentrations of the four chemicals in the effluents and their relative potencies in each assay, the calculated in vitro and in vivo responses compared well and ranged between 3.5 and 87 ng/L of estradiol equivalents (E2 EQ) for the different effluents. In the rYES, however, the measured E2 EQ concentrations in the effluents ranged between 0.65 and 43 ng E2 EQ/L, and they varied against those predicted by the CA model. Deviations in the estimation of the estrogenic potency of the effluents by the CA model, compared with the measured responses in the rYES, are likely to have resulted from inaccuracies associated with the measurement of the chemicals in the extracts derived from the complex effluents. Such deviations could also result as a consequence of interactions between chemicals present in the extracts that disrupted the activation of the estrogen response elements in the rYES. E2 EQ concentrations derived from the vitellogenic response in fathead minnows exposed to a series of effluent dilutions were highly comparable with the E2 EQ concentrations derived from assessments of the estrogenic potency of these dilutions in the rYES. Together these data support the

  18. Multiple hormonal activities of UV filters and comparison of in vivo and in vitro estrogenic activity of ethyl-4-aminobenzoate in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Fent, Karl

    2006-10-12

    (rtERalpha) with higher activity than in the hERalpha assay. In addition, Et-PABA induced vitellogenin after 14 days of exposure in juvenile fathead minnows at 4394mug/L. Our study shows estrogenic activity of this UV filter in fish both in vitro and in vivo. In conjunction with in vitro human receptor-based systems our results give a more detailed picture about distinct hormonal activities of UV filters occurring in aquatic systems. We conclude that receptor-based assays are important for in vitro assessment of UV-filters prior to or concurrently with in vivo assays, which ultimately provide data for the environmental risk assessment of these important personal care products.

  19. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species vulnerability. Site-specific fish abundance and richness data in streams documented various species of chub, shiner, dace, darters, bass, minnow, sunfish, sucker, catfish, and central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). However, Se assessment species for streams, and hence, model species for streams, were limited to creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and central stoneroller. Both of these species of fish are generally considered to have a high tolerance for environmental stress based on traditional comparative fish community assessment, with creek chub being present at all sites. Aquatic insects (mayfly, caddisfly, stonefly, dobsonfly, chironomid) were the main invertebrates sampled in streams. Collection of suspended particulate material

  20. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    additional suitable rearing habitat for endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers from 2008 to 2010 based on sucker catches. Mean larval sample density was greater for both species in the Williamson River Delta than adjacent lake habitats in all 3 years. In addition to larval suckers, at least three age classes of juvenile suckers were captured in the delta. The shallow Goose Bay Farms and Tulana Emergent were among the most used habitats by age-0 suckers in 2009. Both of these environments became inaccessible due to low water in 2010, however, and were not sampled after July 19, 2010. In contrast, age-1 sucker catches shifted from the shallow water (about 0.5-1.5 m deep) on the eastern side of the Williamson River Delta in May, to deeper water environments (greater than 2 m) by the end of June or early July in all 3 years. Differential distribution among sucker species within the Williamson River Delta and between the delta and adjacent lakes indicated that shortnose suckers likely benefited more from the restored Williamson River Delta than Lost River or Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi). Catch rates in shallow-water habitats within the delta were higher for shortnose and Klamath largescale sucker larvae than for larval Lost River suckers in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Shortnose suckers also comprised the greatest portion of age-0 suckers captured in the Williamson River Delta in all 3 years of the study. The relative abundance of age-1 shortnose suckers was high in our catches compared to age-1 Lost River suckers in 2009 and 2010. The restored delta also created habitat for several piscivorous fishes, but only two appeared to pose a meaningful threat of predation to suckers - fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Fathead minnows that prey on larval but not juvenile suckers dominated catches in all sampling areas. Yellow perch also were abundant throughout the study area, but based on their gape size and co-occurrence with

  1. Stream and Aquifer Biology of South-Central Texas - A Literature Review, 1973-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    ice age 3 million years ago had a major influence on the biology of the Edwards aquifer. During extremely cold periods, the ground water maintains...carps and minnows)—Continued Bullhead minnow Pimephales vigilax G, SA, N Tench Tinca tinca G Catostomidae (suckers... Catostomidae Cycleptus elongatus Blue sucker T Ictaluridae Satan eurystomus Widemouth blindcat T Trogloglanis pattersoni Toothless blindcat T

  2. Description of Fundulus Heteroclitus Ventilatory Data and Water Quality Parameters: A Feasibility Study for Predicting Toxic Pfiesteria Piscicida and P. Piscicida-like Events in Estuarine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-30

    Hshieh. Ph.D.~ Biostatisticia/l (- ./ eldl B. Fnedman. Ph.D.. EpldemiOlogist Printed on S Recycled Peper Date Date Date The author hereby certifies...macrochirus. F. heteroclitus, commonly called the Mummichog, was chosen as the species of interest due to its interesting and unique salinity adaptation

  3. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Static and Variable Magnetic Fields on Freshwater Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Riemer, Kristina P [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    benthic invertebrates (Gill et al. 2005, 2009). It is known that numerous marine and freshwater organisms are sensitive to electrical and magnetic fields, often depending on them for such diverse activities as prey location and navigation (DOE 2009; Normandeau et al. 2011). Despite the wide range of aquatic organisms that are sensitive to EMF and the increasing numbers of underwater electrical transmitting cables being installed in rivers and coastal waters, little information is available to assess whether animals will be attracted, repelled, or unaffected by these new sources of EMF. This knowledge gap is especially significant for freshwater systems, where electrosensitive organisms such as paddlefish and sturgeon may interact with electrical transmission cables. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments to test the sensitivity of freshwater fish and invertebrates to the levels of EMF that are expected to be produced by HK projects in rivers. In this context, EM fields are likely to be emitted primarily by generators in the water column and by transmission cables on or buried in the substrate. The HK units will be located in areas of high-velocity waters that are used as only temporary habitats for most riverine species, so long-term exposure of fish and benthic invertebrates to EMF is unlikely. Rather, most aquatic organisms will be briefly exposed to the fields as they drift downstream or migrate upstream. Because the exposure of most aquatic organisms to EMF in a river would be relatively brief and non-lethal, we focused our investigations on detecting behavioral effects. For example, attraction to the EM fields could result in prolonged exposures to the fields or the HK rotor. On the other hand, avoidance reactions might hinder upstream migrations of fish. The experiments reported here are a continuation of studies begun in FY 2010, which focused on the potential effects of static magnetic fields on snails, clams, and fathead minnows (Cada et al. 2011

  4. Site Specific Metal Criteria Developed Using Kentucky Division of Water Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Phipps, T.L.

    1999-10-09

    Alternative limits for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were developed for treated wastewater from four outfalls at a Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Guidance from the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) was used to (1) estimate the toxicity of the effluents using water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae; (2) determine total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn ; (3) calculate ratios of dissolved metal (DM) to total recoverable metal (TRM); and (4) assess chemical characteristics of the effluents. Three effluent samples from each outfall were collected during each of six test periods; thus, a total of 18 samples from each outfall were evaluated for toxicity, DM and TRM. Subsamples were analyzed for alkalinity, hardness, pH, conductivity, and total suspended solids. Short-term (6 or 7 d), static renewal toxicity tests were conducted according to EPA methodology. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was reduced in one test of effluent from Outfall A , and effluent from Outfall B was acutely toxic to both test species during one test. However, the toxicity was not related to the metals present in the effluents. Of the 18 samples from each outfall, more than 65% of the metal concentrations were estimated quantities. With the exception of two total recoverable Cu values in Outfall C, all metal concentrations were below the permit limits and the federal water quality criteria. Ranges of TR for all outfalls were: Cd, ,0.1-0.4 {micro}g/L; Cr,1.07-3.93 {micro}g/L; Cu, 1.59-7.24 {micro}g/L; Pb, <0.1-3.20 {micro}g/L; Ni, 0.82-10.7 {micro}g/L, Zn, 4.75-67.3 {micro}g/L. DM:TRM ratios were developed for each outfall. The proportion of dissolved Cu in the effluents ranged from 67 to 82%; the proportion of dissolved Ni ranged from 84 to 91%; and the proportion of dissolved Zn ranged from 74 to 94%. The proportion of dissolved Pb in the effluents was considerably lower (37-51%). TRM and/or DM concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn differed significantly

  5. Occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements, halogenated organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in streambed sediments and results of water-toxicity testing in Westside Creeks and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    occurred in samples collected at the same two sites on San Pedro Creek where the samples containing elevated lead and pesticide concentrations were collected. All concentrations of total PCBs (computed as the sum of the 18 reported PCB congeners) in the individual streambed-sediment samples were less than the threshold effect concentration, but the concentrations were elevated in the two sites on San Pedro Creek compared to concentrations at other sites. At one site on Apache Creek, 6 of the individual PAHs measured in the sample collected during base-flow conditions exceeded the PECs and 8 of the 9 PECs were exceeded in the sample collected during poststorm conditions. The total PAH concentration in the sample collected at the site during poststorm conditions was 3.3 times greater than the PEC developed for total PAHs. Average PAH profiles computed for base-flow samples and poststorm samples most closely resemble the parking lot coal-tar sealcoat dust PAH source profile, defined as the average PAH concentrations in dust swept from parking lots in six cities in the United States that were sealed with a black, viscous liquid containing coal-tar pitch. Six of ten water samples collected during base-flow conditions caused reductions in Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) survival and were considered to be toxic.

  6. Temporal and spatial distribution of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in relation to environmental variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2009 annual data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Jared L.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2010-01-01

    in main lake areas and the eastern shore. Age-1 suckers were noticeably absent from the tributaries of Upper Klamath Lake during periods of chronically low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the lake, refuting a previously untested hypothesis that tributaries were important age-1 sucker refuge habitats. In addition, declines in overall catch rates for age-1 suckers in August and September, despite intensive sampling, indicates that the apparent declines in abundance may be due to increased mortality and not due to sampling the wrong environments or poor detection probability. The remote detection of an age-1 juvenile sucker tagged in Short Creek and subsequently recaptured in the Link River array, more than 30 kilometers away, indicates the capacity of juvenile suckers to migrate relatively long distances. This knowledge, coupled with other remotely detected suckers in the Williamson River, indicates that juvenile sucker movement in Upper Klamath Lake may be common. In order to better quantify movement and potentially survival, future research should focus on tagging more juvenile suckers and taking advantage of the significant passive integrated transponder tag infrastructure throughout Upper Klamath Lake and its tributaries. In this data summary, we also describe the distribution of age-0 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake and its tributaries. These data corroborate findings from 2007 and 2008, which describe age-0 sucker habitat as shallow relative to depths available in Upper Klamath Lake. Similar to age-1 suckers, age-0 sucker abundances also appeared to decline in late summer, despite continued sampling throughout Upper Klamath Lake and its tributaries. In addition to low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, increased opercle deformity and anchor worm (Lernaea spp.) infection rates, as well as increased abundances of fathead minnows and other piscivorous non-native fish, may provide potential insight into the causes of juvenile sucker rarity. Opercle deformity r

  7. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  8. 40 CFR 799.2475 - 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... newly-hatched brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) three times a day ad libitum, with excess food siphoned off daily. The minnow fry shall be fed live newly-hatched brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina)...

  9. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Report 5. Fish Studies--Pilot Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    from selected species for further age and growth analyses. Also, sex and state of gonadal development were deter- mined for the fish from which...Steelcolor shiner (Notropis whipplei) Bullhead minnow (Pimephales vigilax) Creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) Catostomidae - suckers River

  10. Species status assessment report for the Sharpnose Shiner (Notropis oxyrhynchus) and Smalleye Shiner (N. buccula)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sharpnose shiners (Notropis oxyrhynchus) and smalleye shiners (Notropis buccula) (shiners) are small minnows currently restricted almost entirely to the contiguous...

  11. High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF) Enhanced Laser and Range Operations. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-16

    riparian woodlands in the eastern boundary of the upper Rio Grande River drainage, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains located north of WSMR and...Action Status Scientific Name Common Name State Federal Fish Hybognathus amarus Rio Grande silvery minnow E E Birds and Mammals Coccyzus amedcanus...outside of the ROI. The federal and state endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow is primarily located in the Rio Grande River and its river reaches and

  12. Hydraulic and Environmental Effects of Channel Stabilization, Twentymile Creek, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    1981) method with the existing channel geometry and bed material gradation, an aver- age Manning roughness coefficient (n value) of 0.018 was...X Catostomidae Carp-,odes velifer, highfin carpsucker X x Ictiobus niger, black buffalo x Minvtrema mni1nnps, spotted suck-~ x Moxostoma poecilurum...notatus, bluntnose 4 3 2 52 38 36 16 11 22 minnow P. vigilax, bullhead minnow 3 2 8 2 2 27 10 Semotilus atromaculatus, creek 9 chub Catostomidae

  13. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Rearick, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning levels of biological organization and life stages when assessing contaminant interactions.

  14. Final Environmental Assessment for Temporary Use of tbe Columbus Police Department Outdoor Firing Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    pathway may be more significant for terrestrial invertebrates, aquatic benthic organisms and small mammals that may have a considerable area of...macrochirus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), longear sunfish (Lepomis mega/otis) and spotted bass (Micropterus...species of land mammals (including introduced species), 212 species of fish, 71 species of reptiles and 60 species of amphibians inhabit the state’s

  15. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species vulnerability. Site-specific fish abundance and richness data in streams documented various species of chub, shiner, dace, darters, bass, minnow, sunfish, sucker, catfish, and central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). However, Se assessment species for streams, and hence, model species for streams, were limited to creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and central stoneroller. Both of these species of fish are generally considered to have a high tolerance for environmental stress based on traditional comparative fish community assessment, with creek chub being present at all sites. Aquatic insects (mayfly, caddisfly, stonefly, dobsonfly, chironomid) were the main invertebrates sampled in streams. Collection of suspended particulate material

  16. Primary culture of hepatocytes from rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and comparison of their sensitivity to 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD%稀有鮈鲫和日本青鳉肝细胞原代培养及其对2,3,7,8-TCDD的敏感性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马陶武; 王子健; 易浪波

    2010-01-01

    利用胰酶消化和机械分散相结合的方法对稀有鮈鲫和日本青鳉的肝细胞进行分离和培养,测定了不同培养时间下两种原代培养肝细胞的活力,研究了两种原代培养肝细胞受到2,3,7,8-TCDD暴露后EROD活力变化的时间-和浓度-效应关系.结果表明,稀有鮈鲫和日本青鳉的肝细胞产率分别达到2.0×107cells·g-1和1.5×107cells·g-1,稀有鮈鲫原代肝细胞的活力可以稳定地保持5 d,日本青鳉原代肝细胞的活力至少可以稳定地保持1周;不同浓度TCDD暴露后,两种鱼的原代肝细胞EROD活力变化均显示良好的时间-浓度-效应关系,TCDD诱导稀有鮈鲫和日本青鳉原代肝细胞EROD活力的最低可观察效应浓度(LOEC)分别为4 pg·mL-1和1 pg·mL-1;TCDD诱导日本青鳉原代肝细胞EROD活力的EC50值低于稀有鮈鲫.就原代肝细胞培养操作和对毒物胁迫的敏感性而言,日本青鳉优于稀有鮈鲫.

  17. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    ) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both...... populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also...... an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments...

  18. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Static and Variable Magnetic Fields on Freshwater Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Riemer, Kristina P [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    benthic invertebrates (Gill et al. 2005, 2009). It is known that numerous marine and freshwater organisms are sensitive to electrical and magnetic fields, often depending on them for such diverse activities as prey location and navigation (DOE 2009; Normandeau et al. 2011). Despite the wide range of aquatic organisms that are sensitive to EMF and the increasing numbers of underwater electrical transmitting cables being installed in rivers and coastal waters, little information is available to assess whether animals will be attracted, repelled, or unaffected by these new sources of EMF. This knowledge gap is especially significant for freshwater systems, where electrosensitive organisms such as paddlefish and sturgeon may interact with electrical transmission cables. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments to test the sensitivity of freshwater fish and invertebrates to the levels of EMF that are expected to be produced by HK projects in rivers. In this context, EM fields are likely to be emitted primarily by generators in the water column and by transmission cables on or buried in the substrate. The HK units will be located in areas of high-velocity waters that are used as only temporary habitats for most riverine species, so long-term exposure of fish and benthic invertebrates to EMF is unlikely. Rather, most aquatic organisms will be briefly exposed to the fields as they drift downstream or migrate upstream. Because the exposure of most aquatic organisms to EMF in a river would be relatively brief and non-lethal, we focused our investigations on detecting behavioral effects. For example, attraction to the EM fields could result in prolonged exposures to the fields or the HK rotor. On the other hand, avoidance reactions might hinder upstream migrations of fish. The experiments reported here are a continuation of studies begun in FY 2010, which focused on the potential effects of static magnetic fields on snails, clams, and fathead minnows (Cada et al. 2011

  19. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

    2007-01-01

    glyphosate use and specific human health outcomes. An epidemiology study conducted in Colombia did not show any association between time to pregnancy in humans and the use of glyphosate in eradication spraying. The mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux was not toxic to honeybees. The mixture was, however, more toxic to the alga Selenastrum, the cladoceran Daphnia magna, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout than formulated glyphosate (Roundup) alone. Studies on the use of glyphosate in agriculture and forestry have shown that direct effects on nontarget organisms other than plants are unlikely. Indirect effects on terrestrial arthropods and other wildlife may be the result of habitat alteration and environmental change brought about by the removal of plants by glyphosate. Because of the lack of residual activity, recovery of glyphosate-treated areas in Colombia is expected to be rapid because of good plant growth conditions. However, return to the conditions of tropical old-growth forest that existed before clear-cutting and burning may take hundreds of years, not from the use of glyphosate but because of the clear-cutting and burning, which are the primary cause of effects in the environment. The risk assessment concluded that glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux did not present a significant risk to human health. In the entire cycle of coca and poppy production and eradication, human health risks associated with physical injury during clear-cutting and burning and the use of pesticides for protection of the illicit crops were judged to be considerably more important than those from exposure to glyphosate. For the environment, direct risks from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux to terrestrial mammals and birds were judged to be negligible. Moderate risks could occur in aquatic organisms in shallow surface waters that are oversprayed during the eradication program. However, the frequency of occurrence and extent to which this happens are unknown as data on the proximity of surface waters

  20. Susceptibility of various Japanese freshwater fish species to an isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    mortalities in bluegill Lepomis macrochirus used as positive controls, Japanese fluvial sculpin Cottus pollux, and iwana Salvelinus leucomaenis pluvius were 50, 80 and 0%, respectively. In Expt 2, cumulative mortalities of 100, 100 and 10% were observed in Japanese fluvial sculpin C. pollux, Japanese rice...... fish Oryzias latipes and yoshinobori Rhinogobius sp., respectively. No mortality was observed in honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, akaza Liobagrus reini or Japanese striped loach Cobitis biwae. VHSV was detected by RT-PCR from samples of kidney, spleen, and brain from all dead fish, and virus re...

  1. Distribution of fish, crustacea and zooplankton at different distances from mangrove prop roots within a semi-isolated lagoon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Jaxion-Harm; C Pien; J E Saunders; M R Speight

    2013-01-01

    ... of adjacent seagrass and coral-reef habitats. In this study, visual surveys, minnow traps and plankton tows, which were deployed at abutting mangrove prop roots and on macro-algal beds 5 and 15 m away from the prop roots, were used to study...

  2. Regional ecological risk assessment for the introduction of Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) into Montana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome J. Schleier; Sing Sharlene E.; Robert K. D. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative risk assessment methodologies were used to assess the risk of establishment and consequent impacts on native minnows and species of concern (SOC) associated with the intentional or unintentional introduction of the mosquito biological control agent, Gambusia affinis, to various Montana watersheds. Gambusia affinis...

  3. 75 FR 35398 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Least...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... (Iotichthys phlegethontis) is an endemic minnow (Family Cyprinidae) of the Bonneville Basin in Utah..., large scales, and the absence of an incomplete lateral line (rarely with one or two pored scales... the environment, such as water levels and temperature, while biotic factors include interactions...

  4. Plecospondylic spinal column in the eel Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1956-01-01

    Several cases of deformities in the spinal column were described in fishes, viz. lordosis in the bitterling Rhodeus amarus) by ROTH (1922), in the minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) by ROTH (1922), in the pike (Esox lucius) by ROTH (1922) and PLEHN (1924); kyphosis in the toothcarps (Cyprinodontidae) by

  5. 40 CFR 799.1053 - Trichlorobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaporation of the test substance, shall be conducted for 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzenes. Testing shall be... systems that control for evaporation of the test substance shall be conducted for 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene...,3-trichlorobenzene to saltwater fish. (ii) Test standard. The marine fish (silverside minnow,...

  6. Draft Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) Species Status Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Topeka shiner is a small minnow that lives and breeds in graveled pools of low-order prairie streams in the Great Plains. It was listed as endangered under the...

  7. A PROTEOMIC (SELDI-TOF-MS) APPROACH TO ESTROGEN AGONIST SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small fish model and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI) were used to investigate plasma protein expression as a means to screen chemicals for estrogenic activity. Adult male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were place...

  8. 40 CFR 125.3 - Technology-based treatment requirements in permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxicity (e.g., “the LC50 for fat head minnow of the effluent from outfall 001 shall be greater than 25... discussion of additional or more stringent effluent limitations and conditions.) Permits shall contain the...) For POTW's, effluent limitations based upon: (i) Secondary treatment—from date of permit issuance;...

  9. Plecospondylic spinal column in the eel Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1956-01-01

    Several cases of deformities in the spinal column were described in fishes, viz. lordosis in the bitterling Rhodeus amarus) by ROTH (1922), in the minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) by ROTH (1922), in the pike (Esox lucius) by ROTH (1922) and PLEHN (1924); kyphosis in the toothcarps (Cyprinodontidae) by ROT

  10. 50 CFR 32.29 - Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... require personal identification at check-in. 5. Within the refuge, you may only travel by foot or bicycle... and boats with electric motors are permitted. 3. The use of live minnows as bait is not permitted. 4... State hunting regulations subject to the following conditions: 1. We only allow foot and bicycle traffic...

  11. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Wang

    Full Text Available Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1, 0.23 mg L(-1, and 0.10 mg L(-1, respectively; of Cu(2+0.17 mg L(-1, 0.09 mg L(-1, and 0.12 mg L(-1 respectively; of Cd(2+6.5 mg L(-1, 18.47 mg L(-1, 5.36 mg L(-1, respectively; and of Zn(2+44.48 mg L(-1, 31.37 mg L(-1, and 12.74 mg L(-1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf and amplitude (Va increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+ and Cu(2+ (P<0.05, and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+. Zn(2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05. The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC of 0.019 mg L(-1, 0.046 mg L(-1, 2.142 mg L(-1, and 0.633 mg L(-1 for Hg(2+, Cu(2+, Cd(2+, and Zn(2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor.

  12. Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin on Chinese rare minnow(Gobicypris rarus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouQF; LiZY

    2002-01-01

    The acute(12-h) and chronic (7 or 14-4) effects of tributyltin chloride(TBT) on a new type of test fish-Chinese rare minnow(Gobiocypris rarus) were studied.High accumulations of the pollutant in the fish muscle were observed after exposure.In chronic exposed group,hepatosomatic index and gonad somatic index occurred obvious changes.The ultrastructural findings showed a series of pathological changes such as the fractured or distorted nuclear,fomation of self-devouring bubble,many vacuoles existing in the exposed gill cells or hepatocytes,which demonstrated the toxic effects of tributyltin compounds on aquatic organisms.The results clearly showed that Chinese rare minnow was a new sensitive test fish,whose exposed system was suitable for the extensive organometallic toxicity studies.

  13. An evaluation of the aquatic hazard of cumene (isopropyl benzene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, A H; Alexander, H C; Buccafusco, R J; Morris, C R; Francis, B O; Surprenant, D C; Ward, T J

    1995-08-01

    Cumene manufacturers were required under a TSCA Section 4(a) test rule to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of cumene to daphnids, rainbow trout, mysid shrimp, and sheepshead minnows. Because of cumene's high volatility (vapor pressure, 3.2 mm Hg at 20 degrees C), all tests were conducted under flowthrough conditions using a proportional diluter system. The 96-hr LC50s for rainbow trout, sheepshead minnow, and mysid shrimp, based on mean measured concentrations, were 4.8, 4.7, and 1.3 mg/liter, respectively. The 48-hr daphnid EC50 was 4.0 mg/liter. Although cumene is considered moderately toxic to aquatic organisms under rigorous laboratory conditions, its volatility and biodegradability greatly reduce its hazard to the aquatic environment.

  14. Fish assemblage composition and mapped mesohabitat features over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Daniel K.; Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2016-01-21

    This report documents differences in the mapped spatial extents and physical characteristics of in-channel fish habitat evaluated at the mesohabitat scale during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow) and summer 2012 (low streamflow) at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico starting about 3 kilometers downstream from Cochiti Dam and ending about 40 kilometers upstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir. The results of mesohabitat mapping, physical characterization, and fish assemblage surveys are summarized from the data that were collected. The report also presents general comparisons of physical mesohabitat data, such as wetted area and substrate type, and biological mesohabitat data, which included fish assemblage composition, species richness, Rio Grande silvery minnow relative abundance, and Rio Grande silvery minnow catch per unit effort.

  15. Efficiency comparisons of fish sampling gears for a lentic ecosystem health assessments in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this study was to analyze the sampling efficiency of various fish sampling gears for a lentic ecosystem health assessment. A fish survey for the lentic ecosystem health assessment model was sampled twice from 30 reservoirs during 2008–2012. During the study, fishes of 81 species comprising 53,792 individuals were sampled from 30 reservoirs. A comparison of sampling gears showed that casting nets were the best sampling gear with high species richness (69 species, whereas minnow traps were the worst gear with low richness (16 species. Fish sampling efficiency, based on the number of individual catch per unit effort, was best in fyke nets (28,028 individuals and worst in minnow traps (352 individuals. When we compared trammel nets and kick nets versus fyke nets and casting nets, the former were useful in terms of the number of fish individuals but not in terms of the number of fish species.

  16. Environmental Assessment of the Relocation of a Weather Training Facility to Keesler Air Force Base, Biloxi, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-15

    conger R Hippocampus erectus** Lined seahorse C Hippocampus zosterae Dwarf seahorse U Histrio histrio Sargassumf ish R Hybognathus hayi Cypress minnow U...Odontoceti - Toothed whales Family Physeteridae - Sperm whales Koala breviceps - Pygmy sperm whale Kogia simus - Dwarf sperm whale Family Ziphiidae...Decapterus punctatus Round scad R Diplectcum bivittatum Dwarf sand perch R Dormitator maculatus Fat sleeper C Corosoma cepedianum Gizzard shad U Dorosona

  17. Design and Analysis of Chronic Aquatic Tests of Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    minnow in regard to biology , life cycle events, duration of developmental stages, nutritional information and reproductive characteristics. The papers on...parameter values: 1. the upper bound on the upward concavity region (UCR), 2. the level of sigrificance, or alpha level ( ALEVEL ), 3. the value of a flag...This allows the user to specify a number as large as 999.9999. ALEVEL is placed in columns 11-16 with a decimal point in column 12. Note that this

  18. Ranking Secondary Channels for Restoration Using an Index Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    as suckers , minnows, and darters that are relatively intolerant to habitat changes. Backwaters provide nursery areas for both freshwater and...above. The 53 side channels ranged in length from 0.8 to 8.4 miles, the average size was 319 acres, and the maximum size was almost 1134 acres (Table...averaged about 2 miles from the levee with a maximum distance of 8 miles. Table 4. Size of secondary channels used in index development, Lower

  19. Military Housing Privatization Initiative (MHPI), Eglin AFB, Florida and Hurlburt Field, Florida. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Page B-146 Final Environmental Impact Statement Eglin AFB/Hurlburt Field, Florida wag ley ~~~~~o~~~~~~~a~e~!~1~;---- sent: saturday, January...smilis Seaside elder Iva imbricata Long-nosed killifish Fundulus similis Saltgrass Distichylis spicata Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus Wax...angustifolia Belted kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon Palmetto Serenoa repens Raccoon Procyon lotor Marsh elder Iva frutescens Salt marsh rabbit Sylvilagus

  20. Law on the Rocks: International Law and China’s Maritime Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    China’s Realpolitik Approach in the SCS); Jeff Himmelman, “A Game of Shark and Minnow,” The New York Times Magazine, October 27, 2013, http...contacts with local think- tanks , commercial circles, [and] academia…”262 The use of legal experts merge legal warfare with media and propaganda...islets in the Spratly Archipelago. One of the occupied claims is a rusted-out tank -landing ship (BRF Sierra Madre) run aground on Second Thomas Shoal

  1. Triggers of Chinese Economic Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    equipment while reducing the number of ground forces, artillery, and battle tanks . Unlike the Philippines, Japan is in a good position to counter any...finding live sharks , giant clams, and corals, and moved to arrest the fishermen on charges of poaching. Two Chinese surveillance vessels belonging to the...Himmelman, Jeff. “A Game of Shark and Minnow.” New York Times, October 27, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/newsgraphics/2013/10/27/south-china-sea

  2. Assessing the Potential Environmental Consequences of a New Energetic Material: A Phased Approach, September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    associated with range activities are being found in ground water, soils , and sediments. Risk assessment methods are used to determine if the levels of...clay, silica, and sand) • Acute and subchronic toxicity (rodent bioassays ) • Identification of combustion and breakdown products o Soil microbial...testing may be necessary.) • Ecotoxicology information o 96-hour or 7-day minnow studies o Invertebrate assays ( soil , water, sediment) o Avian

  3. Rapid proliferation of an endemic galaxiid following eradication of an alien piscivore (Perca fluviatilis) from a reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, S J; Morgan, D L

    2017-03-01

    Following the complete eradication of the alien piscivorous perch Perca fluviatilis from a potable reservoir, the abundance of the endemic western minnow Galaxias occidentalis, which was previously undetectable prior to the initial eradication event, increased dramatically. The study reveals the potential of reservoirs to act as ecological refuges and has implications for understanding the relative effects of alien fishes v. habitat alteration on native freshwater fishes.

  4. Fisheries Investigation on the Lower White River, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    energy into reproduction by different sizes, ages , and sexes of fish. Males and females usually differ greatly in length-weight relationship at this time...the two seasons (Table 1). The readings were fairly typical of large southern US rivers for the respective times of year. Fish 33. During the study, 58...Blacktail shiner (N. venustus) R N C Mimic shiner (N. Volucellus) R N C Bullhead minnow (Pimephales vigilax) N Catostomidae Blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus

  5. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Effects of Flow Alterations on Trout, Angling, and Recreation in the Chattahoochee River between Buford Dam and Peachtree Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    39180-0631 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE r’I,.,, Dst. Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS...releases can cause pass- age problems through the shoal areas for canoeists. Thus, canoeing in the major reach between Morgan Falls Dam and the...carp C A Ericymba buccata--silverjaw minnow R Nocomis leptocephalus- -bluehead chub R Notemigonus crysoleucas--golden R shiner Catostomidae --suckers

  6. Archaeological and Historical Resources Investigations for the Red River of the North Ring Levee Project, Pembina and Walsh Counties, North Dakota, (Phase 1),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Plain. About 10,000 B.C., Late Wisconsin age Des Moines lobe ice retreated northward from the Big Stone moraine located...34’...,-... ,.,- ,. Neo-Boreal Climatic Pattern (A.D. 1550 to 1850) The Neo-Boeral is oftentimes referred to as "The Little Ice Age ...Minnows, carp Catostomidae Suckers Ictaluridas North American catfishes Percopsidae Troutperch Gadidae Cods Cyprinodontidae Killifishes, topminnows

  7. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Water Quality, Macroinvertebrates, Larval Fishes, and Fishes of the Lower Mississippi River - A Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    B5 Family Cyprinidae - Minnows .. .......... ........ B5 Family Catostomidae - Suckers ..... ................ . B6 Family Ictaluridae - Catfishes...Hydropsychidae) in the Ohio River: Changes in larval age structure and substrate colonization rates. Environmental Entomology 11:1154-1158. Beckett, D. C., C. R...abundance and age *;,. t structure of the burrowing mayfly Hexagenia limbata in an Ohio pond. Ohio Journal of Science 11:7-13. .\\ Sabol, B. M., L. E

  8. Biological and Physical Conditions at a Newly Placed Gravel Bar Habitat in the Tombigbee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Jsp( ot s ch (il,,ii al d rodUCtS. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF MRii AGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OM o 7--1 I&. REPORT SERURITY...the Buttahatchie River than at the gravel bar. Water temperature was lower at the former site because of canopy cover- age , which limited heating by...lax oullhead minnow C Catostomidae Cycteptus elongatus Blue sucker U .Tctiobus cyprineltus Bigmouth buffalo U ictiobus bubalus Smalimouth buffalo C

  9. Habitat availability vs. flow rate for the Pecos River, Part 1 : Depth and velocity availability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Scott Carlton; Schaub, Edward F.; Jepsen, Richard Alan; Roberts, Jesse Daniel

    2004-02-01

    The waters of the Pecos River in New Mexico must be delivered to three primary users: (1) The Pecos River Compact: each year a percentage of water from natural river flow must be delivered to Texas; (2) Agriculture: Carlsbad Irrigation District has a storage and diversion right and Fort Sumner Irrigation District has a direct flow diversion right; and, (3) Endangered Species Act: an as yet unspecified amount of water is to support Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat within and along the Pecos River. Currently, the United States Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation, the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, and the United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service are studying the Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference. Preliminary work by Fish and Wildlife personnel in the critical habitat suggest that water depth and water velocity are key parameters defining minnow habitat preference. However, river flows that provide adequate preferred habitat to support this species have yet to be determined. Because there is a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, while honoring commitments to agriculture and to the Pecos River Compact. This study identifies the relationship between Pecos River flow rates in cubic feet per second (cfs) and water depth and water velocity.

  10. Planktivores and plankton dynamics : effects of fish biomass and planktivore type

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaro, Xavier; Drenner, R.W.; Stein, R.A.; Durward Smith, J.

    1992-01-01

    Les auteurs ont quantifié les incidences de la biomasse et du type de planctophage dans le cadre d'une étude expérimentale en mésocosmes. Cette étude était conçue en fonction d'un plan factoriel d'expérience combinant cinq niveaux de biomasse de poisson (de O, à 75 g/m3) avec deux types de planctophage, soit l'alose à gésier (#Dorosoma cepedianum$), un filtreur, et le crapet arlequin (#Lepomis macrochirus$), un chasseur visuel. Une augmentation de la biomasse de poisson était accompagnée d'un...

  11. Freshwater fishes of Bontebok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblages were sampled at six sites in the Breede River in the Bontebok National Park during 1999 and 2000. A total of 380 fish from 12 species was recorded. Indigenous fish collected included one freshwater species (Barbus andrewi, two catodromous species (Anguilla mossambica, Myxus capensis. and three estuarine species (Gilchris- tella aestuaria, Monodactylusfalciformis, Mugil cephalus. Four of the species recorded were aliens (Tinea tinea, Lepomis macrochirus, Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu and two species translocated from other South African rivers (Tilapia sparrmanii, Clarias gariepinus. A further two indigenous species (Sandelia capensis, Pseudobarbus biirchelli could potentially occur within the park, though the high abundance of alien predators means that there is little chance for recolonisation from tributaries higher in the Breede River system. There is little opportunity to meaningfully conserve most indigenous freshwater fish in Bontebok National Park.

  12. Fishery survey and related limnological conditions of Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, W.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Freeberg, M.H.; Dowling, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) rock bass (Amploplites rupestris), black crappie (Pomozis nigromaculatus), and northern pike (Esox lucius) were found in Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, during a fishery survey of the lake in late August 1982. The most abundant fish were the bluegills. These fish live in the large littoral zone of the lake; this zone underlies 55% of the surface area of the lake. The most ubiquitous benthic invertebrate in the littoral zone (amphipods) and the most abundant benthic invertebrate (chironomid larvae) were major food sources for the bluegill. Other organisms found in the stomach contents of fish collected in this survey were zooplankton, gastropods, Diptera larvae, odonates, terrestrial insects, and other fish. Daphnia were the only zooplankters of a diverse plankton community that were found in stomach contents. The abundance of fish other than bluegill was typical for a system in which northern pike is the major predator.

  13. Laboratory studies of the effects of pressure and dissolved gas supersaturation on turbine-passed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, B. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Designing advanced turbine systems requires knowledge of environmental conditions that injure or kill fish such as the stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes fish experience during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. The study investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  14. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  15. Chemical defense of the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: variation in efficiency against different consumers and in different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary H Marion

    Full Text Available Amphibian secondary metabolites are well known chemically, but their ecological functions are poorly understood--even for well-studied species. For example, the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a well known secretor of tetrodotoxin (TTX, with this compound hypothesized to facilitate this salamander's coexistence with a variety of aquatic consumers across the eastern United States. However, this assumption of chemical defense is primarily based on observational data with low replication against only a few predator types. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that N. viridescens is chemically defended against co-occurring fishes, invertebrates, and amphibian generalist predators and that this defense confers high survivorship when newts are transplanted into both fish-containing and fishless habitats. We found that adult eastern newts were unpalatable to predatory fishes (Micropterus salmoides, Lepomis macrochirus and a crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, but were readily consumed by bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus. The eggs and neonate larvae were also unpalatable to fish (L. macrochirus. Bioassay-guided fractionation confirmed that deterrence is chemical and that ecologically relevant concentrations of TTX would deter feeding. Despite predatory fishes rejecting eastern newts in laboratory assays, field experiments demonstrated that tethered newts suffered high rates of predation in fish-containing ponds. We suggest that this may be due to predation by amphibians (frogs and reptiles (turtles that co-occur with fishes rather than from fishes directly. Fishes suppress invertebrate consumers that prey on bullfrog larvae, leading to higher bullfrog densities in fish containing ponds and thus considerable consumption of newts due to bullfrog tolerance of newt chemical defenses. Amphibian chemical defenses, and consumer responses to them, may be more complex and indirect than previously appreciated.

  16. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel

    2016-10-01

    Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments.

  17. Patterns in stream fish assemblage structure and function associated with a PCB gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Sparks, Daniel W

    2013-08-01

    Stream fish assemblage structure and function were examined for significant response along a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gradient from two PCB-contaminated streams (Clear Creek and Richland Creek watershed) at three locations and a control stream (Little Indian Creek), Indiana, USA. Fish were sampled in the summer months of 1995 and from 1999 to 2002. 51 fish assemblage attributes-including structure (i.e., fish composition) and function (i.e., trophic, reproductive, condition guilds), biomass, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) metric scores-were evaluated for significance according to an increasing PCB gradient. Eight biomass attributes of fish assemblages decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species biomass, number of sunfish biomass, percent sunfish biomass, number of sucker biomass, percent sucker biomass, biomass of sensitive species, percent sensitive species biomass, and percent carnivore biomass. Three biomass attributes increased with PCB concentration: percent minnow biomass, percent pioneer species biomass, and percent tolerant species biomass. Seven species composition and relative abundance characters decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species; number of darter, madtom, and sculpin; number of darter; number of sunfish; number of sucker; number of sensitive species; and percent individuals as carnivores. Percent individuals as pioneer species increased with increasing PCB concentration. Two IBI metrics, percent individuals as headwater species and number of minnow species, increased as PCB concentrations increased, whereas number of sucker species and percent individuals as pioneer species decreased with increasing PCB concentration class. We observed a direct response between decreased relative abundance and biomass of carnivores and increased relative abundance minnows as the PCB gradient increased. Total IBI score did not detect subtle changes to the fish community that were observed along a PCB gradient

  18. Physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition at site and mesohabitat scales over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Porter, Michael D.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In winter 2011–12 and summer 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque District and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service New Mexico Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office in Albuquerque, New Mexico, evaluated the physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition of available mesohabitats over a range of streamflows at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. The fish assemblage of the Middle Rio Grande includes several minnow species adapted to hydrologically variable but seasonably predictable rivers, including theHybognathus amarus (Rio Grande silvery minnow), a federally listed endangered species. Gaining a better understanding of habitat usage by the Rio Grande silvery minnow was the impetus for studying physical characteristics and fish assemblages in the Middle Rio Grande during different streamflow conditions. Data were collected at all 15 sites during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow), and a subset was collected at the 13 most downstream sites in summer 2012 (low streamflow). Sites were grouped into four river reaches separated by diversion dams listed in downstream order (names of the diversion dams are followed by short names of the sites nearest each dam in parentheses, listed in downstream order): (1) Cochiti (Peña Blanca), (2) Angostura (Bernalillo, La Orilla, Barelas, Los Padillas), (3) Isleta (Los Lunas I, Los Lunas II, Abeytas, La Joya, Rio Salado), and (4) San Acacia (Lemitar, Arroyo del Tajo, San Pedro, Bosque del Apache I, and Bosque del Apache II). Stream habitat was mapped in the field by using a geographic information system in conjunction with a Global Positioning System. Fish assemblage composition was determined during both streamflow regimes, and fish were collected by seining in each mesohabitat where physical characteristic data (depth, velocity, dominant substrate type and size, and percent embeddedness) and water-quality properties (temperature

  19. Piezoelectric inchworm motor with energy-efficient power supply and controller for use on battery-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, EF

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available , South Africa. 2008, CSIR Report No. CSIR/NRE/WR/EXP/ 2007/0040/A. [11] DME (Department of Minerals and Energy). Digest of South African energy statistics. Department of Minerals and Energy. 2004, Pretoria, South Africa. [12] Knobeloch, L.; Gliori, G.... Biochem. and Physiol. Part C. 2002, 132, 247-259. [24] Leaner, J.J; Mason, R.P. Methylmercury uptake and distribution kinetics in sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegates, after exposure to CH3Hg-spiked food. Environ. Toxicol. and Chem. 2004, 23 (9...

  20. PARAMETERS, U.S. Army War College Quarterly. Volume 24, Number 3, Autumn 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    host of doctrinal manuals dealing with all categories of OOTW. This focus on OOTW is a direct result of the end of the Cold War--the long twilight ...Newton Minnow, quoted in McNulty, p. 32. Walter B. Wriston, in The Twilight of Soverei"ny (New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1992), argues that modern...S.~ __W lack of them) of Philippine land reform. Connolly presents his readers with a some- what rambling but not entirely predictable saga of land

  1. Cesium accumulation by aquatic organisms at different trophic levels following an experimental release into a small reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E., E-mail: jepinder@uga.ed [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hinton, T.G., E-mail: thomas.hinton@irsn.f [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Taylor, B.E., E-mail: TaylorB@dnr.sc.go [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Whicker, F.W., E-mail: ward.whicker@colostate.ed [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado, State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The rates of accumulation and subsequent loss of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) by organisms at different trophic levels within plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains were measured following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1} dry mass) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each organism using time-series measurements of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in water and biota, and these parameters were used to estimate maximum concentrations, times to maximum concentrations, and concentration ratios (C{sub r}). The maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for plankton, periphyton, the insect larva Chaoborus punctipennis, which feeds on plankton, and the snail Helisoma trivolvis, which feeds on periphyton, occurred within the first 14 days following the addition, whereas the maximum concentrations for the fish species Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides occurred after 170 days. The C{sub r} based on dry mass for plankton and C. punctipennis were 1220 L kg{sup -1} and 5570 L kg{sup -1}, respectively, and were less than the C{sub r} of 8630 L kg{sup -1} for periphyton and 47,700 L kg{sup -1} for H. trivolvis. Although the C{sub r} differed between plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains, they displayed similar levels of biomagnification. Biomagnification was also indicated for fish where the C{sub r} for the mostly nonpiscivorous L. macrochirus of 22,600 L kg{sup -1} was three times less than that for mostly piscivorous M. salmoides of 71,500 L kg{sup -1}. Although the C{sub r} for M. salmoides was greater than those for periphyton and H. trivolvis, the maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for periphyton and H. trivolvis were greater than that for M. salmoides. - Research highlights: {yields} A simple uptake and loss model described the Cs dynamics in all the various biota. {yields} Concentrations of Cs were greater in periphyton than in plankton

  2. Increased noise levels have different impacts on the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene K Voellmy

    Full Text Available Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic factors can influence predator-prey relationships. Anthropogenic noise has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional noise (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour, compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship noise, affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus, which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-noise playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-noise playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated noise levels have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world noise sources, and to determine survival and population consequences.

  3. Rodlet cells and other inflammatory cells of Phoxinus phoxinus infected with Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Simoni, E; Rossi, R; Manera, M

    2000-10-25

    Rodlet cells (RCs), and other inflammatory cells, namely eosinophile granule cells (EGCs), eosinophilic granulocytes and epithelioid cells in the liver, pancreas and peritoneal serosa of uninfected and naturally parasitized minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758), were studied by light and electron microscopy. Forty-eight minnows were examined and in 18 fishes encysted larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) were encountered, mainly in the pancreas. The number of larvae in the latter organ ranged from 2 to 46. Nematode larvae were encapsulated by epithelioid granulomata, and these cells displayed typical epithelial characteristics such as desmosomes and tonofilaments. EGCs and RCs characteristically surrounded the reactive foci and were suggestive of an integrated inflammatory network involving both cell types. In many instances RCs were noticed at the periphery of the pancreas, beneath the peritoneal serosa, partially or entirely surrounded by mesothelial cells. In the latter situation partially damaged RCs were present in the splancnic cavity entirely surrounded but not truly phagocytized (no phagolysosome occurred) by mesothelial cells, which shared the same ultrastructural features of epithelioid cells. This phenomenon has never been described and may represent a peculiar turnover of RCs in the pancreas likely related to the high sensitivity to damage. A significant difference (p < 0.01) in the number of RCs between uninfected and parasitized fish was noticed in the liver and pancreas. The data suggest that RCs represent an inflammatory cell type closely linked to other piscine inflammatory cells, such as EGCs, epithelioid cells and mesothelial cells.

  4. Effect of smoke generation sources and smoke curing duration on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in different suites of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Adjei, J K

    2013-08-01

    The research studied the impact of smoke generation sources on PAH contamination in four different smoke-cured fish (mackerel, sardine, tuna and Cigar minnows). The smoke sources used included acacia, sugarcane bagasse and mangrove. PAHs in the smoke-cured fish were analysed using Varian GC/MS (3800-GC) system. The mean total PAH concentrations in the smoked fish (n=108) ranged from 250.59-1376.09 μg/kg in tuna, cigar minnows, sardine and mackerel smoke-cured with sugarcane bagasse, mangrove and acacia for between 2 and 8h. The mean BaP levels for most fish cured with smoke from acacia and mangrove for between 2 and 8h were all above the European Commission set limit of 5.0 μg/kg. Positive correlations (at P=0.01, 2-tailed) were observed between PAH levels in smoked fish and lignin contents of wood type used for the smoke generation, the fat content and the smoke-curing duration. Risk assessment conducted using benzo[a]pyrene carcinogenic and mutagenic toxicity equivalency factors (TEF and MEF respectively) showed high risk associated with consuming fish smoke-cured with hard woods (acacia and mangroves). Sugarcane bagasse was found to be relatively the best and safest smoke-generating source for smoke-curing of fish among the three wood types when using the traditional kiln. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  6. Aquatic systems in and adjacent to Agulhas National Park with particular reference to the fish fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in and adjacent to Agulhas National Park. Fourteen fish species were collected during surveys carried out in the Heuningnes and Ratel river systems and a variety of endorheic pans from 2003 to 2005. Seven of the species are marine fishes tolerant of low salinity (Mugil cephalus, Liza richardsonii, Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Rhabdosargus holubi, Solea bleekeri, Gilchristella aestuaria with the remaining seven species being primary freshwater fishes. Three are indigenous, including Pseudobarbus burchelli, Sandelia capensis, and Galaxias zebratus of which two morphological forms were recorded within Agulhas National Park. The remaining four species are invasive aliens (Cyprinus carpio, Lepomis macrochirus, Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus. Classification using physico-chemical variables indicated four major wetland groups, with fishes occurring predominantly in the group comprising palustrine, lacustrine and riverine wetlands, and in one instance in a brackish endorheic pan. Management actions which should facilitate conservation of indigenous fishes in the Agulhas region are suggested.

  7. Uranium bioaccumulation in a freshwater ecosystem: Impact of feeding ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Lisa D., E-mail: lisakraemer@trentu.ca [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Douglas [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    Uranium bioaccumulation in a lake that had been historically affected by a U mine and (2) to use a combined approach of gut content examination and stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis to determine if U bioaccumulation in fish was linked to foodweb ecology. We collected three species of fish: smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), in addition to several invertebrate species including freshwater bivalves (family: Sphaeriidae), dragonfly nymphs (order: Odonata), snails (class: Gastropoda) and zooplankton (family: Daphniidae). Results showed significant U bioaccumulation in the lake impacted by historical mining activities. Uranium accumulation was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher in invertebrates than in the fish species. Within fish, U was measured in operculum (bone), liver and muscle tissue and accumulation followed the order: operculum > liver > muscle. There was a negative relationship between stable nitrogen ratios ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) and U bioaccumulation, suggesting U biodilution in the foodweb. Uranium bioaccumulation in all three tissues (bone, liver, muscle) varied among fish species in a consistent manner and followed the order: bluegill > yellow perch > smallmouth bass. Collectively, gut content and stable isotope analysis suggests that invertebrate-consuming fish species (i.e. bluegill) have the highest U levels, while fish species that were mainly piscivores (i.e. smallmouth bass) have the lowest U levels. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the feeding ecology of fish when trying to predict U accumulation.

  8. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus and crappie (Pomoxis anularis at varied time intervals and storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami George

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus; crappie—Pomoxis annularis, at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at −20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis.

  9. Fluctuating Asymmetry in Two Common Freshwater Fishes as a Biological Indicator of Urbanization and Environmental Stress within the Middle Chattahoochee Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Lutterschmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deviations in bilateral symmetry or fluctuating asymmetry of an organism may result under environmental stressors that reduce developmental homeostasis and stability. Anthropogenic stressors such as increased urbanization can negatively impact environmental quality of aquatic ecosystems. Researchers have stressed the value in finding easy, accurate and inexpensive methods for assessing potential stress within ecosystems. Here we use fluctuating asymmetry (FA as a useful quantitative tool in assessing the environmental quality and potential urban-based stressors within eight creeks of the Bull and Upatoi Creeks Watershed within the larger watershed of the Middle Chattahoochee. Using Geographic Information System (GIS, we characterize land-use patterns and a decreasing urbanization gradient as related to each creek’s eastward position from Columbus, Georgia. We collected two common fishes (redbreast sunfish; Lepomis auritus and bluegill; Lepomis macrochirus, measured both metric and meristic traits and investigated if the degree of FA in these two common fishes correlated with the urbanization gradient across creeks. We found significant differences in FA among creeks with one of the highest FA measures for the most urban creek. Principal component analysis (PCA scores of urbanization and water chemistry were regressed against FA scores. We found no significant relationship between urbanization and FA nor environmental water chemistry and FA among creeks. We comment on the use of FA as a potential response variable and biological indicator of environmental stress within this watershed.

  10. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  11. Steroid hormones in bluegill, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics including female mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D

    2007-12-22

    The proximate mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of within-sex variation in mating behaviour are still poorly understood. Species characterized by alternative reproductive tactics provide ideal opportunities to investigate such mechanisms. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are noteworthy in this regard because they exhibit two distinct cuckolder (parasitic) morphs (called sneaker and satellite) in addition to the parental males that court females. Here we confirm previous findings that spawning cuckolder and parental males have significantly different levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. We also report, for the first time, that oestradiol and cortisol levels are higher in cuckolders than in parental males. The two cuckolder morphs did not differ in average levels of any of the four hormones. However, among satellite males which mimic females in appearance and behaviour, there was a strong negative relationship between oestradiol levels and body length, a surrogate for age. This finding suggests that for satellite males, oestradiol dependency of mating behaviour decreases with increasing mating experience. Although such decreased hormone dependence of mating behaviour has been reported in other taxa, our data represent the first suggestion of the relationship in fishes.

  12. Thermoregulation of fish and other aquatic vertebrates in thermally stressed habitats: roles of behavior, competition, predation and nutrients. Progress report, 1 January 1984-31 December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.; Standora, E.A.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanisms by which fish and turtles thermoregulate in thermally stressed habitats were quantitatively determined. Experiments on the roles of behavior, competition and predation on the thermoregulation of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in extreme environments are described. The presence of the bass changes the upper avoidance temperature of a bluegill. Bass from Par Pond and Pond C on the Savannah River Plant have the same selected temperature but the responses of small bass to tests of selected temperature and upper avoidance temperature are altered by the pr