WorldWideScience

Sample records for macrobrachium rosenbergii farming

  1. Farming of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Bagerhat, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Akter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to know the present status of Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh from March 2012 to January 2013. Education levels of farmers were found as illiterate (12.3%, primary (36.19%, secondary (20%, SSC (13.33%, HSC (12.38% and graduate (5.71%. M. rosenbergii culture was the primary and secondary occupation of 80% and 20% farmers respectively. Average stocking density and production in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture were 9609, 11502 and 22847 per ha and 193, 284 and 488 kg/ha/year respectively; rearing period ranges from 6-10 months and survival rate varied from 55 to 60%. In improved extensive and semi-intensive culture 82.86% and 71.43% farmers applied farm-made feed instead of company feeds respectively and 11.43% and 37.14% farmers used both feeds. 91.43%, 80% and 68.57% respondents responded on normal to high mortality in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture respectively. Lack of finance and appropriate technology, scarcity of quality PL, diseases and inadequate extension work were major problems of prawn culture.

  2. Rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farms in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen

    1993-01-01

    Aquaculture in riceland has been practiced in Mekong Delta, Vietnam for a long time and integrated rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming has become more and more popular. The integrated farming systems developed and practiced by farmers in the area to produce more food and more cash crops are presented and discussed.

  3. Preliminary Observations on Freshwater Prawn Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. John Samuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is more consumer preference because of its delicious nature and export potential. Monoculture and ployculture trials of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were attempted. Production under monoculture was 561 kg ha-1 and in polyculture it ranged from 361 to 381 kg ha-1. The present study inferred that low stocking density; proper feed management and use of aerators are essential for better survival and production.

  4. Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Camacho-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los principales tóxicos encontrados en los ecosistemas están el plomo, niquel y cadmio, los cuales afectan la actividad de la acetilcolinesterasa en organismos ya que interfieren con grupos tiólicos, carboxilos y fosfatos. El Macrobrachium rosenbergii es un crustáceo que se ha empleado para realizar algunos estudios por su importancia económica y por ser una especie sensible a contaminantes orgánicos e inorgánicos. El presente trabajo se realizó para explorar la posibilidad de emplear al langostino como bioindicador de contaminación a través de los efectos ocasionados sobre la actividad de acetilcolinesterasa, síntesis de proteínas y la bioconcentración. Se emplearon postlarvas del estadío 15 (PL15 del langostino y se expusieron durante 48 hr a 0, 16,56, 24,20 y 0,008 mg/L de Plomo, Niquel y Cadmio respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados muestran cierta sensibilidad de los parámetros bioquímicos valorados y alta capacidad biocencentradora de la especie empleada con lo que se concluye que puede ser empleado como indicador de contaminación.

  5. The potential of mixed culture of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The production performance of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems were studied in farmers' ponds at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Fifteen ponds (200-300 m2 area and 1.0-1.5 m in depth) were used to c

  6. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms and hatcheries of north and south 24 Parganas districts in West Bengal were surveyed for the details of antibiotics and disinfectants used for controlling the prawn diseases and pathogens. During the survey, 4antibiotics and four 4disinfectants were found to be used commonly by the farmers during a 12-month period of study. The chemicals used in the culture systems as antibiotics or disinfectants for the culture water, tanks, other utensils, and others have serious health hazards for both the cultured prawns and human beings. The study also indicates no herbal medicines, and probiotics are being used in prawn farms.

  7. Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M.K.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The experime

  8. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  9. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  10. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD

  11. Antimicrobial peptides from the hemolymph of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to find the antimicrobial activity of hemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and to evaluate the antimicrobial compounds. The highest inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia (12 mm and antifungal activity was observed only against Fusarium moniliforme (11 mm. Antimicrobial peptide was characterized in molecular size ranging from 22 to 91KDa with antimicrobial activity against various infectious pathogens. Hemolymph plays a vital role in the disease prevention in crustaceans and there is no report on antimicrobial activities of the prawn M. rosenbergii.

  12. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein.

  13. Ciliados epibiontes en Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) cultivados en Limón, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Lucía; Chinchilla, Misael

    2016-01-01

    Se identificaron los siguientes ciliados epibiontes en Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Epistylis, Opercularia, Vorticella, Zoothamnium, Ephelota, Acineta, Acinetides y Tolophrya. Acinetides se informa por primera vez como epibionte para camarones marinos y dulceacuícolas. The following epizoic ciliates were obtained from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Epistylis, Opercularia, Vorticella, Zoothamnium, Ephelota, Acineta, Acinetides and Tokophrya. Acinetides is reported for the first time as an epizoic...

  14. Estimation of the growth curve parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Nagulu, Banoth; Satyanarayana , Y.; Srinivasa, Rao P.; Gopal , Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Growth is one of the most important characteristics of cultured species. The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of linear, log linear, polynomial, exponential and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Macrobrachium rosenbergii obtained by using weekly records of live weight, total length, head length, claw length, and last segment length from 20 to 192 days of age. The models were evaluated according to the coefficient of determination (R2), and error sum off square (ES...

  15. Culture of Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii) Using Geothermal Waste Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C.

    1978-01-01

    The farming of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in geothermal-heated water has been demonstrated to be feasible in a non-tropical climate. The husbandry of prawns is being done in two outdoor raceway ponds, 9.1 m by 2.5 m and 29 m by 3.5 m that are 1.2 m deep. The ponds are not shielded from the ambient climate which during the winter months has recorded air temperatures as low as -20oC. A selected brood stock is held in a small spawning building where larvae are hatched in artificial saltwater and reared to the post-larvae stage which makes the facility self-supporting. This project is providing a model for potential investors to utilize the low-temperature geothermal resources in the western United States for warm water aquaculture. Zooplankton, macroscopic crusteans, from a local euthrophic lake are being fed to the post-larvae and adult prawns in addition to prepared commercial dry pelleted foods to keep operational costs at a minimum. Initial measurements of growth and weight gains indicate the production of two crops of prawns per year at seven to the pond is possible. No work on intensive culture has been done. Plans to enlarge the facility and do work on developing intensive culture are being considered.

  16. Experimental studies on the cannibalistic habit of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Branislav, M.; Rosenthal, H.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nost, J.

    Cannibalistic habit of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in intensive cultures was studied in a semi-recycled in a semi-recycled fresh water system under varying environmental conditions. Observations were made on the moulting rate, mortality rate, tube...

  17. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Pan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV, was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs separated by an intergenic region (IGR and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs. Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-02-02

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii.

  19. Breeding Experiment on Different Sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae%不同来源罗氏沼虾幼体的培育对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江林源; 韦信贤; 卢小花; 黄光华; 杨学明; 莫肇誉

    2011-01-01

    2010年2月,对采自江苏吴江、广西三塘和广西南宁国家级良种场共3种不同来源的罗氏沼虾(Macrobra-chium rosenbergii)进行从幼体阶段至变态苗阶段的培育试验;干量容积法推算产苗量,计算育苗成活率。试验结果表明,3种不同来源幼体的育苗成活率分别为73.6%、65.2%和90.4%,成活率差异明显;其中,国家级广西南宁罗氏沼虾良种场的育苗成活率最高。在育苗生产中,必须注重罗氏沼虾亲本的种质复壮与培育,才能保证幼虾的质量,有利于提高其养殖成活率。%In February 2010, three different sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae from private breeding farm of Jiangsu Province, Guangxi autonomous region and state level seed breeding farm of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Nanning, were connected and used for juvenile culture. Dry larval volume method was adopted to calculate the juvenile amounts and larvae survival rate. Experiment results indicated that the survival rate of 3 different sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval were 73.6% ,65.2% and 90.4%, respectively, having distinct difference among them. And the survival rate of larval from state-level seed breeding farm of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Nanning was the highest. Macrobrachium rosenbergii seedling must focus on quality of the larvae.

  20. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  1. ESTIMASI HERITABILITAS UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii BERBASIS PADA KERAGAMAN FENOTIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Emmawati Hadie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dirancang untuk menghitung heritabilitas pada sifat bobot udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii pada umur lima bulan. Lima full-sib dan 15 half-sib dipelihara pada dua tingkat salinitas yaitu 0‰ dan 10‰, dengan rata-rata bobot sebesar 5,6 g; dan  = 0,40 g. Komponen keragaman diestimasi dengan mixed model leastsquares dan maximum likelihood. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa respons genetik yang tinggi dapat diperoleh melalui seleksi bobot, karena nilai heritabilitas pada sifat tersebut relatif tinggi. Hasil penelitian ini juga memperlihatkan bahwa kisaran nilai h2 pada air tawar (0,509-0,866 dan air payau (0,235-0,499. Jadi nilai h2 pada air tawar lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lingkungan air payau pada salinitas 10,0‰. Kisaran nilai h2 yang dicapai pada out-crossing antara koleksi Barito dengan Musi adalah 0,663±0,037-0,866±0,047. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk menghasilkan perbaikan mutu genetik pada udang galah dapat ditempuh melalui program seleksi yang dikombinasikan dengan metode pemijahan secara out-crossing.

  2. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  3. Evidence of rapid transfer and bioaccumulation of Microcystin-LR poses potential risk to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liping; Su, Xiaoming; Chen, Taoying;

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins accumulate in aquatic organisms and can be transferred to higher trophic levels, eventually affecting vector animals and consumers. We examined three levels of an aquatic food chain (Microcystis aeruginosa, Daphnia magna and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to identify the transfer efficie...

  4. Reviving the Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) fishery in Vembanad Lake, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kurup, B.M.; Harikrishnan, M.

    2000-01-01

    In Vembanad Lake and its confluent rivers (Kerala, India), the catches of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) were reported to have dwindled to a mere 39 t in the 1980s from average landings of 300 t during the 1960s. This decline is due to the impact of a number of human interventions affecting the ecosystem and, hence, the stocks of M. rosenbergii. Monitoring of landings in 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 indicates an improvement in catches. This paper discusses the reasons for the decline and reviv...

  5. Effects of addition of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and substrates for periphyton developments on pond ecology and production in C/N-controlled freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Benerjee, S.; Akter, T.; Hasan, M.M.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of addition of tilapia and substrates for periphyton development on pond ecology, production and economic performances in C/N controlled freshwater prawn farming system. The absence and presence (0 and 0.5 individual m- 2) of tilapia were investigated in

  6. Clearance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) and immunological changes in experimentally injected Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, M; Nazeer Basha, A; Taju, G; Ram Kumar, R; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2010-03-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii was experimentally challenged with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) to study the clearance of these viruses and consequent changes in various immunological parameters. The healthy animals were injected MrNV and XSV intramuscularly and various organ samples such as gill tissue, head soft tissue, pleopods and intestine were collected at different time intervals of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100d post-infection (p.i.) to study the viral clearance. Tissue tropism and clearing of MrNV and XSV were confirmed by RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR and bioassay. These 2 viruses failed to cause mortality or clinical signs of disease in injected adult prawns during the experimental period of 100 days. The result of RT-PCR analysis revealed that all the organs showed positive for both viruses by single step RT-PCR on 3, 5 and 10 d p.i., positive by nested RT-PCR on 15 and 20 d p.i. and all the organs became negative at 25 d p.i. onwards. The viral inoculum prepared from the tissue of MrNV and XSV-injected M. rosenbergii at 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 d p.i. caused 100% mortality in post-larvae of M. rosenbergii at 9, 8, 7, 10 and 10 d p.i., respectively whereas the inoculum prepared at 25, 50 and 100 d p.i. failed to cause significant mortality in post-larvae of prawn. Immunological parameters such as proPO, superoxide anion, SOD, THC, clotting time and oxyhemocyanin were determined in MrNV and XSV-injected prawns and significant differences in some of the immunological parameters were found in the early days p.i. and became insignificant in the later days p.i.

  7. Host, pathogen and the environment: the case of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvayipati, Suma; Bhassu, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is well-known as the giant freshwater prawn, and is a commercially significant source of seafood. Its production can be affected by various bacterial contaminations. Among which, the genus Vibrio shows a higher prevalence in aquatic organisms, especially M. rosenbergii, causing food-borne illnesses. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a species of Vibrio is reported as the main causative of the early mortality syndrome. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in M. rosenbergii was studied previously in relation to the prawn's differentially expressed immune genes. In the current review, we will discuss the growth conditions for both V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii and highlight the role of magnesium in common, which need to be fully understood. Till date, there has not been much research on this aspect of magnesium. We postulate a model that screens a magnesium-dependent pathway which probably might take effect in connection with N-acetylglucosamine binding protein and chitin from V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii, respectively. Further studies on magnesium as an environment for V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii interaction studies will provide seafood industry with completely new strategies to employ and to avoid seafood related contaminations.

  8. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; N. Manickam; V. Srinevasan; S. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  9. Behavioral repertoire of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879 in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bezerra dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An ethogram was prepared to characterize and describe the behavior of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the laboratory so that its behavior would foreground in-depth analysis of the species´s culture. Sixty prawns were observed during 30 days through the ad libitum method, featuring one-hour continuous reports, at 07:00-08:00; 08:30-09:30; 10:00-11:00; 11:30-12:30; 13:00-14:00; 14:30-15:30; 16:00-17:00; 17:30-18:30. M. rosenbergii developed several behavioral activities with 28 categories and grouped in activity classes, such as, maintenance, locomotion, feeding and agonism. Characterization, description and understanding of the behavioral repertoire of M. rosenbergii through methodologies and observation tools typical of behavioral studies are an important step towards the improvement of technical management and welfare of the animal in captivity.

  10. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200 nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P0.05) prawns fed with up to 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (Prosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of turmeric, Curcuma longa (Magnoliophyta, Zingiberaceae on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Palaemonidae against Vibrio alginolyticus (Proteobacteria, Vibrionaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Alambra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii is being favored for farming due to its large size. However, like other crustaceans, it is also prone to bacterial and viral infections. Turmeric, a derivative of the plant Curcuma longa, is a spice commonly used in Middle East and Asia as an herbal remedy. Immuno-modulatory effects of turmeric powder on hemocyte population and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs of M. rosenbergii challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus was investigated. Eighty (80 juveniles of M. rosenbergii were divided into three groups labeled as D0, D1 and D7 (Day 0, 1 and 7 respectively. D0 were fed with commercial feeds while D1 and D7 were fed with turmeric-incorporated (enhanced feeds for one and seven days respectively. The total hemocyte count (THC of D0 remained constant and a significant increase was observed from D1 to D7 treatment. Prawns were challenged with V. alginolyticus and total RNA was isolated and synthesized into cDNAs from hepatopancreas. RT-PCR was performed with crustin and lysozyme as target genes and EF-1α as the reference gene. PCR products were run through 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed an increasing expression of crustin and lysozyme PCR relative to duration of feeding, indicating a remarkable increase in the expression of AMPs (antimicrobial peptides. Challenged prawns fed with enhanced feeds also had an induced expression of AMPs. It is noteworthy to mention that this is the first report on AMPs expression in M. rosenbergii.

  12. DETECTION OF Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV AND EXTRA SMALL VIRUS (XSV DISEASES ON GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii AT SAMAS, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass mortality of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man in grow-out farmers occurred in early February 2012 at Instalation Coastal of Aquaculture Samas, Bantul, D.I. Yogyakarta. The clinical sign of shrimp was whitish coloration on abdominal and tail muscle. The sympton was the same as in other cases of mortality caused by prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV and Extra Small Virus (XSV. Prawn samples were diagnosed by standard protocols Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR using specific primers and histopathology analysis. The result showed that all samples indicated positive 13/15 the MrNV and 5/15 positive XSV, and there were 4/15 positive samples both (MrNV and XSV. Analysis of histopathology showed that damaged muscle was indicated by the presentation of necrotic tissues with nuclear pyknosis or degeneration of muscle in infected tissues. Based on diagnosis by RT-PCR and histopathological, mass mortality of the giant freshwater prawn in Indonesia is determined to be caused by “white muscle disease (WMD/white tail disease (WTD”.

  13. Metschnikowia bicuspidata dominates in Taiwanese cold-weather yeast infections of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chu; Chen, Yu-Chin; Kwang, Jimmy; Manopo, Ivanus; Wang, Pei-Chi; Chaung, Hso-Chi; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chiu, Shih-Hau

    2007-05-09

    At water temperatures below 17 degrees C, yeast infections often occurred in 6 to 11 mo old giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (8 to 12 cm) in Taiwan from May 2001 to December 2003, with a cumulative mortality of 20 to 95%. Gross signs of disease included milky hemolymph, a yellow exoskeleton, opaque muscles, and a swollen hepatopancreas (HP). Histopathology included marked edema and extensive necrotic lesions associated with large numbers of yeast aggregates and inflammation within the muscles, HP, and other internal organs such as the heart, ovary, and intestine. Yeast cell numbers isolated from various tissues ranged from 4.5 x 10(8) to 9.0 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mg. From diseased prawns from 12 affected farms, the presence of Metschnikowia bicuspidata (98.4% prevalence), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.8% prevalence), and Candida albicans (0.8% prevalence) was confirmed by biochemical tests and sequencing of PCR products from the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA. Experimental infection with these isolates caused gross signs and histopathological changes similar to those observed in naturally infected prawns, and lethal doses (LD50) were 3.8 x 10(3), 2.0 x 10(3), and 4.3 x 10(3) CFU prawn-1, respectively. Although the results of this study revealed that M. bicuspidata may be the major cause of yeast infections in the giant freshwater prawns in Taiwan, this is the first time that S. cerevisiae and C. albicans are also reported as pathogens.

  14. Cloning and expression analysis of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of effector molecules that are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). They are found in limulids and crustaceans and show a broad range of antimicrobial activity. In the current study, an ALF gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrALF) was identified. Its full length was 690 bp and it encoded a 124 amino acid protein. A signal peptide and a conserved LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues that comprise a cluster of positive charged residues within a disulfide loop were predicted in MrALF. The M. rosenbergii ALF clusters with the Macrobrachium olfersii ALF and further clusters with most crustacean ALFs, suggesting that they should originate from one common ancestor. Positive selections should have sharpen the evolution of M. rosenbergii and M. olfersii ALF genes. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that MrALF was expressed in all detected tissues. In the epidermis, MrALF was obviously upregulated 24 h after the LPS challenge. In the stomach and gills, MrALF was upregulated upon LPS challenge. The results show that MrALF might have important roles in the immune defense against invading bacteria. The positive selections that occur in the ALFs of crustaceans might have resulted from a Red Queen's race with its pathogens. We found evidence of positive selection acting to drive functional divergence during the evolution crustacean ALF genes, especially in the M. rosenbergii ALF gene. The evolutionary changes might correspond to the challenges induced by pathogens that infect crustaceans.

  15. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  16. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-07-25

    The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity.

  18. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  19. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  20. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture.

  1. Immunological role of thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a full length of peroxiredoxin (designated MrPrdx) gene, identified from the transcriptome of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrPrdx is 940 base pairs in length, and encodes 186 amino acids. MrPrdx contains a long thioredoxin domain in the amino acid sequence between 34 and 186. The gene expressions of MrPrdx in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. MrPrdx is highly expressed in all the other tissues of M. rosenbergii considered for analysis and the highest in gills. The expression is strongly up-regulated in gills after IHHNV infection. To understand MrPrdx functional properties, the recombinant MrPrdx protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. A peroxidise activity assay was conducted using recombinant MrPrdx protein at different concentrations. This peroxidises activity showed that the recombinant MrPrdx is a thiol-dependant protein. Additionally, this result showed that recombinant MrPrdx protein, as a secretory protein can remove H₂O₂ and protect DNA damage. This finding leads a possible way to propose the recombinant MrPrdx protein as an effective medicine for reactive oxygen species (ROS) related diseases.

  2. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus using recombinant capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangman, Pradit; Senapin, Saengchan; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-03-20

    The gene encoding the capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector and then transformed into the Escherichia coli strain BL21. After induction, capsid protein-glutathione-S-transferase (GST-MrNV; 64 kDa) was produced. The recombinant protein was separated using SDS-PAGE, excised from the gel, electro-eluted and then used for immunization for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Four MAbs specific to the capsid protein were selected and could be used to detect natural MrNV infections in M. rosenbergii by dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry without cross-reaction with uninfected shrimp tissues or other common shrimp viruses. The detection sensitivity of the MAbs was 10 fmol µl-1 of the GST-MrNV, as determined using dot blotting. However, the sensitivity of the MAb on dot blotting with homogenate from naturally infected M. rosenbergii was approximately 200-fold lower than that of 1-step RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis using these MAbs with infected shrimp tissues demonstrated staining in the muscles, nerve cord, gill, heart, loose connective tissue and inter-tubular tissue of the hepatopancreas. Although the positive reactions occurred in small focal areas, the immunoreactivity was clearly demonstrated. The MAbs targeted different epitopes of the capsid protein and will be used to develop a simple immunoassay strip test for rapid detection of MrNV.

  3. Molecular functions of chaperonin gene, containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-10-25

    Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches.

  4. Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  5. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  6. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Peranandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of tributyltin (TBT on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary. Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  7. A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

    2014-08-10

    Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-θ) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (Prosenbergii GST-θ in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection.

  8. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares Larval performance of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) submitted to different feeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Almada Thomaz; Lídia Miyako Yoshii Oshiro; Andrea Cecchetto Bambozzi; José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2004-01-01

    O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos), nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com q...

  9. Effect of ration size on the growth and food conversion of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklas, P.; Kwik, J.K.

    1987-05-13

    Growth-ration relationship were defined for 2, 5 and 15 g size classes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fed commercial prawn pellets and fish flesh. Maintenance rations were 0.7, 0.5 and 0.25% of body weight/day for 2, 5 and 15 g prawns respectively. Optimum rations were 3.5, 2.5 and 0.9% of body weight/day. It was determined that feeding at or near maximum ration levels would result in the most cost effective production of prawns in intensive culture systems where heating costs predominate. A ration and growth rate versus size curve was constructed for determining feeding level requirements for prawns.

  10. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota.

  11. Distribution patterns of Macrobrachium rosenbergii relative to the presence of cover strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.

    1987-05-27

    The responses of adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii to the presence, absence and location of artificial cover strips in four different configurations were studied in aquaria. The animals displayed a strong preference for the cover strips. When strips dangling from the surface were presented, the animals could be induced to occupy the upper half of the water column at densities nearly 4.5 times higher than in a bare tank. Strips extending from the surface to bottom also resulted in a significant redistribution of animals. The animals associated with cover strips tended to favor horizontal surfaces such as those found at the tips of strips and at the bottom. The success of cover in redistributing the prawns appeared to be negatively influenced by the presence of dominant males who maintained a number of smaller animals herded in the corners of the aquaria.

  12. First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2014-09-01

    Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress.

  13. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  14. Macrobrachium rosenbergii cathepsin L: molecular characterization and gene expression in response to viral and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Milton, James; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2013-11-07

    Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (Prosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system.

  15. Morphological and histological studies on the embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen M. Habashy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to describe the embryonic changes during development of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on some morphological and histological features. In addition the biochemical composition of eggs was investigated during the embryonic development of the studied species. Results revealed that eggs of M. rosenbergii completed their development in 20 days at 28.5 ± 0.45 °C. The present investigation showed that primordial germ cells (PGCs were detected early in the examined embryos. In 6.5 days old embryo, a cluster of PGCs occupied the dorso-medial region behind the yolky portion. In addition, the biochemical data indicated that the protein content was significantly increased, while lipid and carbohydrate contents decreased during the embryonic development. The lowest water content was found in the bright orange eggs and reached its highest level in the deep brown eggs. It was noted that the increase in the water content was correlated with the increase in the egg diameters. It was also concluded that, variations in the biochemical compositions of eggs reflected changes in their morphogenesis during the embryonic development.

  16. Involvement of Relish gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the expression of anti-microbial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ru; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Feng, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an IκB-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group. MrRelish was expressed in all detected tissues, with the highest expression level in hemocytes and intestines. MrRelish was also upregulated in hepatopancreas at 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The over-expression of MrRelish could induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as Drosophila Metchnikowin (Mtk), Attacin (Atta), Drosomycin (Drs), and Cecropin (CecA) and shrimp Penaeidin (Pen4). The RNAi of MrRelish in gills showed that the expression of crustin (cru) 2, Cru5, Cru8, lysozyme (Lyso) 1, and Lyso2 was inhibited. However, the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) 1 and ALF3 did not change when MrRelish was knocked down. These results indicate that MrRelish may play an important role in innate immune defense against V. anguillarum in M. rosenbergii.

  17. Behavioral profile of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in mixed and monosex culture submitted to shelters of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bezerra Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research analyzed the behavioral activities of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its preference for colored shelters in male monosex, female monosex and mixed culture. Ten shrimps m-2 were maintained in eight 250-L aquaria. Three artificial shelters, colored red, black and orange, were placed in each aquarium. Four aquaria were maintained in light/dark photoperiod respectively between 6h00 am and 6h00 pm and between 6h00 pm and 6h00 am, whereas the other four aquaria were submitted to an inverted photoperiod. The animals were observed for 30 days by Focal Animal Method for 15 minutes, with instantaneous recording every 60 seconds, at six different instances within the light and dark phases. Preference for black shelters occurred in male monosex and mixed cultures, whereas red and orange shelters were the preference of female monosex. M. rosenbergii kept in the shelter mostly during the light phase in male monosex and mixed populations. Results suggest that black, red and orange shelters may improve the animals' well-being in the culture since aggressive encounters would decrease, especially during the light phase.

  18. First report on interferon related developmental regulator-1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: bioinformatic analysis and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    This study reports the first full length gene of interferon related developmental regulator-1 (designated as MrIRDR-1), identified from the transcriptome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrIRDR-1 is 2459 base pair long with an open reading frame of 1308 base pairs and encoding a predicted protein of 436 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa. The MrIRDR-1 protein contains a long interferon related developmental regulator super family domain between 30 and 330. The mRNA expressions of MrIRDR-1 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infected M. rosenbergii were examined using qRT-PCR. The MrIRDR-1 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas along with all other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, haemocyte, pleopods, brain, stomach, intestine and eye stalk). After IHHNV infection, the expression is highly upregulated in hepatopancreas. This result indicates an important role of MrIRDR-1 in prawn defense system.

  19. Development of chitosan conjugated DNA vaccine against nodavirus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, V L; Sharma, R; Gireesh-Babu, P; Patchala, S R; Rather, A; Nandanpawar, P C; Eswaran, S

    2014-09-01

    The protective efficacy of a DNA construct containing extra small virus antisense (XSVAS) gene of nodavirus encapsulated with chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). The delivery was carried out using oral and immersion methods. A plasmid concentration of 100 ng μL(-1) when conjugated with chitosan NPs was found to be more effective in increasing the survivability of the infected prawn. The particle mean size, zeta potential and loading efficiency percentage were 297 nm, 27 mV and 85%, respectively. The ability of the chitosan to form a complex with the plasmid was studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. The NPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Persistence study showed the presence of the DNA construct up to 30th day post-treatment. The oral treatment was found to be better than the immersion treatment for delivery of the chitosan-conjugated DNA construct. This is probably the first report on the delivery of nanoconjugated DNA construct in M. rosenbergii, against nodavirus.

  20. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates.

  1. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. The effects of thermal treatments on protein profiles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant river prawn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Komathi; Misnan, Rosmilah; Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Prawn allergy is certainly the most frequent cause of allergic reactions in countries where this crustacean is a popular dish of seafood. The aim of this study was to determine the protein profiles of giant river prawn which scientifically known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Raw and cooked extracts (boiled, steamed and fried) of prawn samples were prepared and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). 27 protein bands between 6 to 207 kDa were detected in the SDS-PAGE gel of raw extracts while boiled, steamed and fried extracts revealed fewer protein bands. Steamed and boiled prawns presented higher numbers of protein bands compared to fried prawn. A prominent heat-resistant band between 32 to 38 kDa was seen in all extracts, might hypothesized to be tropomyosin. Other prominent bands between 17 to 20 kDa were also seen in all treated prawn extracts while bands of 24 to 27 kDa were seen in steamed and boiled prawn extracts. These positions are consistent with the known shellfish allergens myosin light chain, sacroplasmic calcium binding protein and troponin C respectively. Several other heat-sensitive protein bands at various molecular weights were also not detected in boiled, steamed and fried extracts of this prawn. This study showed that M. rosenbergii contains numerous heat-sensitive and heat-resistant proteins, which may play an important role in prawn allergy.

  3. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV.

  4. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

    2015-06-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 μg·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone.

  5. Effect of salinity on survival and growth of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Chand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two independent experiments were performed to determine the effects of salinity on survival and growth of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii, first one was to determine the median lethal salinity (MLS-5096 h and second one was to assess the survival and growth at different sub-lethal salinities under field condition. In MLS-5096 h study 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ppt salinities were used to initially find out the salinity tolerance range. Accordingly, a definitive salinity tolerance test was done in next phase to find out exact median lethal salinity by directly transferring the test species to 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 ppt salinity for 96 h. The median lethal salinity of M. rosenbergii was estimated at 24.6 ppt. In the second experiment, survival and growth performances of the prawn were recorded at different sub-lethal salinities viz., 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppt along with 0 ppt as control during 60 days culture period. The prawn exhibited lowest final average weight at 20 ppt salinity and significantly highest at 10 ppt salinity. Highest SGR and weight gain were obtained at 10 ppt followed by 5 ppt, 15 ppt and 0 ppt salinity but differences among treatment were not significant (P > 0.05. Survival rate of prawn varied between 91% (at 0 ppt and 78% (at 20 ppt. The prawn grew and survived satisfactorily at 0–15 ppt salinities, implying that the species can be cultured commercially at wide salinity range. M. rosenbergii can be considered as an ideal species to promote, in view of current and future climate variables as more and more coastal areas of India are going to be vulnerable to saline water inundation.

  6. Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: function and putative signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Omri; Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2013-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are highly conserved members of the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily found in metazoans and plants. In arthropods, EGFRs are vital for the proper development of embryos and of adult limbs, gonads, and eyes as well as affecting body size. In searching for genes involved in the growth and development of our model organism, the decapod crustacean (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a comprehensive transcript library was established using next-generation sequencing. Using this library, the expression of several genes assigned to the signal transduction pathways mediated by EGFRs was observed, including a transcript encoding M. rosenbergii EGFR (Mr-EGFR), several potential ligands upstream to the receptor, and most of the putative downstream signal transducer genes. The deduced protein encoded by Mr-EGFR, representing the first such receptor reported thus far in crustaceans, shows sequence similarity to other arthropod EGFRs. The M. rosenbergii gene is expressed in most tested tissues. The role of Mr-EGFR was revealed by temporarily silencing the transcript through weekly injections of double-stranded Mr-EGFR RNA. Such treatment resulted in a significant reduction in growth and a delay in the appearance of a male secondary sexual characteristic, namely the appendix masculina. An additional function of Mr-EGFR was revealed with respect to eye development. Although the optic ganglion appeared to have retained its normal morphology, Mr-EGFR-silenced individuals developed abnormal eyes that presented irregular organization of the ommatidia, reflected by unorganized receptor cells occupying large areas of the dioptric portion and by a shortened crystalline tract layer.

  8. Muscle tissue kinetics of oxytetracycline following intramuscular and oral administration at two dosages to giant freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S; Jermnak, U; Imsilp, K; Wannapat, N; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Kumagai, S

    2008-12-01

    The giant river shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a native species of Thailand, is either exported for commercial purposes or supplied to meet the local requirements in Thailand. Limited pharmacokinetic information of the major antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), is available for this freshwater shrimp. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the muscle tissue kinetics of OTC in M. rosenbergii following either intramuscular (i.m.) or oral (p.o.) administration at two dosages of 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The concentration of OTC in shrimp tissues was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. Muscle tissue concentrations were below the detection limit (LOD, 0.1 microg/g) after 96 and 120 h, following i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Peak muscle concentrations (C(max)) were 3.47 and 1.73 microg/g after i.m. and p.o. administration at a single dose of 11 mg/kg b.w. whereas they were 6.03 and 2.51 microg/g at a single dose of 22 mg/kg b.w., respectively. A noncompartment model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of OTC in the giant freshwater shrimp. The terminal half-lives of OTC were 28.68 and 28.09 h after i.m. and p.o. administration at a single dose of 11 mg/kg b.w., but 29.95 and 27.03 h at a single dose of 22 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The relative bioavailability was 82.32 and 64.67% following i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, i.m. and p.o. administration with OTC at a dose of 11 mg/kg b.w. would be appropriate for use in giant freshwater shrimp farming. To avoid the OTC residue in shrimp muscle, it should take at least seven half-lives (8 days) to wash out the drug from the muscle of M. rosenbergii.

  9. Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

    2012-12-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein.

  10. Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2012-09-12

    As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID₅₀ ml⁻¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID₅₀ ml⁻¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID₅₀ ml⁻¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD₅₀ ml⁻¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD₅₀ ml⁻¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD₅₀ ml⁻¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence.

  11. Transcriptomics of a giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: de novo assembly, annotation and marker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungtaek Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP, is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e(-5 contig (80% and singleton (84% matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs.

  12. Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Ventura

    Full Text Available Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt. Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this

  13. Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of

  14. Three different anti-lipopolysaccharide factors identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Xin-Chang; Jie-Du; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a type of basic protein and an important antimicrobial peptide that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In this study, three forms of ALF designated as MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 genes encode 133, 121, and 120 amino acids of the corresponding proteins, respectively. All these ALF proteins contain LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues. The genomic sequences of MrALF5 and MrALF7 were amplified. The genomic structures of MrALF5 and MrALF7 comprise three exons interrupted by two introns. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were clustered into clade II. Evolutionary analysis showed that ALF genes from M. rosenbergii may suffer a rapid evolution. MrALF5 was expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas, gills, and heart. MrALF6 was mainly distributed in the intestine and hepatopancreas. The highest expression level of MrALF7 was detected in the hepatopancreas. MrALF6, as well as MrALF7, was downregulated by Escherichia coli challenge, and all three ALF genes were upregulated by Vibrio or white spot syndrome virus challenge. MrALF6 was also upregulated by Staphylococcus aureus challenge. In summary, the three isoforms of ALF genes may participate in the innate immune response against bacteria and virus infecting the giant fresh water prawn.

  15. Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2014-06-01

    Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii.

  16. Alterações na qualidade do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium rosenbergii durante estocagem em gelo Changes in the quality of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii during storage in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sendo escassos os estudos sobre a conservação pós-captura do Macrobrachium rosenbergii e insuficientes os conhecimentos existentes, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar alterações na sua qualidade quando armazenado inteiro, em gelo, durante 10 dias. Foram comparadas duas condições de armazenamento: com e sem contato direto com o gelo. Em ambos os tratamentos foram observados aumentos (PDue the scarcity of studies about post-harvest conservation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and few knowledge in this topic, the aim of this work was to evaluate it shelf-life when stored as a whole in ice during 10 days. Two conditions were compared: with direct ice contact and without ice contact. In both treatments were observed an increase (P<0,05 in Non-Protein Nitrogen, Total Volatile Base Nitrogen, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and pH values. No faecal coliforms were observed in the prawn muscles during the storage. The score of total coliforms and psychrotrophic counting that was present in the storage period didn´t exceed the law limits allowed for consumption. There was degradation in flavour and odour attributes for both treatments during the storage. Analysis of tactile and oral texture showed a fast and significant degradation in both treatments in the first days of storage, and the same occurred with the instrumental compression force tests. We concluded the Macrobrachium rosenbergii could be consumed until the 4th storage day, either if kept in direct ice contact or packed in polyethylene bags.

  17. Nutrient budgets and effluent characteristics in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2014-05-01

    It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97% total nitrogen (N), 98.7% total phosphorus (P) and 90% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37% N, 10% P and 15% OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer".

  18. PENYAKIT EKOR PUTIH (WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE PADA UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu keunggulan sistem budidaya udang galah yang selama ini diyakini para pembudidaya adalah belum munculnya permasalahan penyakit serius sebagaimana pada sistem budidaya udang windu dan vaname, yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus. Akan tetapi, pada lima tahun terakhir infeksi virus mulai dilaporkan mewabah pada sistem budidaya udang galah di dunia, dan menjadi masalah yang serius. Penyakit ekor putih (white tail disease, WTD merupakan salah satu penyakit serius pada kegiatan pembenihan udang galah, karena dapat menyebabkan kematian hingga 100% pada fase pembenihan, dan akhir-akhir ini juga telah terjadi di beberapa hatcheri di Indonesia. Pada tahun 2011, WTD telah terjadi di hatcheri Balai Pengembangan Teknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Samas, Jogjakarta, dan disusul pada tahun 2012 di hatcheri Balai Penelitian Pemuliaan Ikan (BPPI Sukamandi. Makalah ini merupakan gambaran mengenai virus MrNV (Macrobrachium rosenbergii Noda Virus, dampak yang ditimbulkan, serta upaya-upaya penanganan.

  19. Encapsulation and delivery of plasmid DNA by virus-like nanoparticles engineered from Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Somrit, Monsicha; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Xing, Li; Cheng, Holland R; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2014-01-22

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are potential candidates in developing biological containers for packaging therapeutic or biologically active agents. Here, we expressed Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) capsid protein (encoding amino acids M1-N371 with 6 histidine residuals) in an Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). These easily purified capsid protein self-assembled into VLPs, and disassembly/reassembly could be controlled in a calcium-dependent manner. Physically, MrNv VLPs resisted to digestive enzymes, a property that should be advantageous for protection of active compounds against harsh conditions. We also proved that MrNv VLPs were capable of encapsulating plasmid DNA in the range of 0.035-0.042 mol ratio (DNA/protein) or 2-3 plasmids/VLP (assuming that MrNV VLPs is T=1, i made up of 60 capsid monomers). These VLPs interacted with cultured insect cells and delivered loaded plasmid DNA into the cells as shown by green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. With many advantageous properties including self-encapsulation, MrNv VLPs are good candidates for delivery of therapeutic agents.

  20. Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2013-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical.

  1. Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  2. Aqueous Morinda citrifolia Leaves Extract Enhancing Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and α2-Macroglobulin Gene Expression on Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Marisa Halim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia, known commercially as noni is often used for enhancing immunity, these plant-rich phenolic compound with antioxidant properties. In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed diets containing aqueous M. citrifolia leaves extract (AMLE at 0.6, 4 and 6 g kg-1. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx and α2-macroglubulin (α2-M  activity were conducted to measure an immune parameter, which was evaluated before and after 7, 21, 35, 49 and 63 days of feeding trial. The results showed that after 63 days of feeding treatment, significantly increased in GPx activity. Moreover, the gene expressions of α2-macroglubulin was significantly upregulated. These results recommend that administration of AMLE can be used as an immunostimulant and regulated immune response and immune gene expression in M. rosenbergii.

  3. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  4. Effects of stocking density on production and economics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Rahman, S.M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of stocking density on pond (75 m2, depth 1.2 m) production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stocked at a fixed 3:1 tilapia:prawn ratio. Three stocking densities were tried in triplicate: 20 000 ha¿1

  5. An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Roy, Arpita; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% α-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria

  6. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  7. Tracking the virus-like particles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in insect cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanapi, Ummi Fairuz; Yong, Chean Yeah; Goh, Zee Hong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2017-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc) produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells. Through fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation, the MrNvc was shown to enter Sf9 cells, and eventually arrived at the nucleus. The presence of MrNvc within the cytoplasm and nucleus of Sf9 cells was further confirmed by the Z-stack imaging. The presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chlorpromazine (CPZ) inhibited the entry of MrNvc into Sf9 cells, but cytochalasin D did not inhibit this process. This suggests that the internalisation of MrNvc VLPs is facilitated by caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The whole internalisation process of MrNvc VLPs into a Sf9 cell was recorded with live cell imaging. We have also identified a potential nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of MrNvc through deletion mutagenesis and verified by classical-NLS mapping. Overall, this study provides an insight into the journey of MrNvc VLPs in insect cells. PMID:28194311

  8. Tracking the virus-like particles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in insect cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Fairuz Hanapi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells. Through fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation, the MrNvc was shown to enter Sf9 cells, and eventually arrived at the nucleus. The presence of MrNvc within the cytoplasm and nucleus of Sf9 cells was further confirmed by the Z-stack imaging. The presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chlorpromazine (CPZ inhibited the entry of MrNvc into Sf9 cells, but cytochalasin D did not inhibit this process. This suggests that the internalisation of MrNvc VLPs is facilitated by caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The whole internalisation process of MrNvc VLPs into a Sf9 cell was recorded with live cell imaging. We have also identified a potential nuclear localisation signal (NLS of MrNvc through deletion mutagenesis and verified by classical-NLS mapping. Overall, this study provides an insight into the journey of MrNvc VLPs in insect cells.

  9. Genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Dinh

    Full Text Available Giant freshwater prawn (GFP Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females. In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (-0.96, whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76. Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic component for male

  10. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.-H.; Kao, W.-Y.; Su, Y.-J

    2003-06-19

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) production, by means of in vitro exposure experiments. After hemocytes were treated separately with eight PAEs at concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml, the results showed that two PAEs (dipropyl phthalate, DPrP and diethyl phthalate, DEP) increased cells with pseudopodia formation, but decreased adhesive cells; reduction in the percentages of both pseudopodia formation and adhesive cells were detected in the dihexyl phthalate (DHP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPP) experiment groups; and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased pseudopodia formation, but did not affect the adhesion. In addition, both PO activity and O{sub 2}{sup -} production were decreased after hemocytes were treated with five PAEs (benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), DEP, DHP and DPrP), respectively. At the same time, microscopy showed that both DPrP and DHP altered morphology of the cell nucleus and led to the presence of vacuoles in cytosol of hemocytes. Using the annexin assay, and after analysis of DNA fragmentation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that hemocytes exposed to DHP and DPrP for more than 10 min would primarily die via apoptosis, the fatality correlates with increasing treatment time; and hemocytes treated with either BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP), DEP or DPP would primarily die via necrosis. According to these results, we suggest that all eight PAEs examined could damage hemocytes and further influence the defense mechanism of prawns. This study reveals an important precaution for prawn cultivation.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2014-02-01

    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae.

  12. Genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Hung; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (-0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving

  13. Gene silencing of VP9 gene impairs WSSV infectivity on Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenton, Rod Russel R; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Maningas, Mary Beth B

    2016-03-02

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) remains the most widespread and devastating infectious agent that hit the shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. To date, there are no known effective strategies yet to combat WSSV infection. Hence, functional studies on genes critical for viral infection is essential in elucidating shrimp-virus interaction. Here we report the function of a gene from WSSV coding for a non-structural protein, VP9, utilizing RNA interference. Silencing of VP9 gene also effectively suppressed other gene region in the WSSV genome (wsv168 gene) as early as day 1 post infection (dpi). Three set-ups using Macrobrachium rosenbergii shrimp were prepared for treatment using VP9-dsRNA, GFP-dsRNA, and PBS. Each shrimp was challenge with WSSV, and survival rate was recorded. VP9- and GFP-dsRNA injected shrimps showed a significant survival rate of 80% and 70%, respectively, in contrast to 0% of the PBS injected shrimps at 25dpi. Re-infection of shrimp survivors using a higher viral titer concentration, concurrent with the infection of new shrimp samples for the PBS control group, resulted in a significant 67% survival rate for VP9-dsRNA compared to 0% with that of GFP-dsRNA and PBS group. Challenge test on two more species, Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus, also significantly increased survival after VP9-dsRNA treatment. Our results provided evidence that VP9 gene plays an essential role in WSSV replication and it can be a potent target gene in the development of RNAi therapeutics for shrimps.

  14. Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge.

  15. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir; Rosmilah Misnan; Noormalin Abdullah; Faizal Bakhtiar; Masita Arip; Shahnaz Murad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods: Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results: SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15-250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients’ sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies.

  16. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  17. Molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of an antioxidant enzyme catalase (MrCat) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we reported a full length of catalase gene (designated as MrCat), identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrCat is 2504 base pairs in length, and encodes 516 amino acids. The MrCat protein contains three domains such as catalase 1 (catalase proximal heme-ligand signature) at 350-358, catalase 2 (catalase proximal active site signature) at 60-76 and catalase 3 (catalase family profile) at 20-499. The mRNA expressions of MrCat in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MrCat is highly expressed in digestive tract and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, hemocyte, hepatopancreas, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated in digestive tract after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCat gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCat existed in high thermal stability and broad spectrum of pH, which showed over 95% enzyme activity between pH 5 and 10.5, and was stable from 40 °C to 70 °C, and exhibited 85-100% enzyme activity from 30 °C to 40 °C.

  18. Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn.

  19. Flow cytometry studies on the Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes sub-populations and immune responses to novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Ren, Qian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Flow cytometry provides rapid and reproducible methods for analyzing crustacean cellular immune responses to pathogens. We used this method to investigate the hemocytes sub-populations of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their immune responses to a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008. M. rosenbergii inoculated with 100 μl spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for total hemocytes count (THC) and changes in differential involvement of hemocytes sub-populations during 1-28 d after inoculation. The results showed that THC was dramatically lowered 1 d after inoculation, and it obviously increased at the 5 d after inoculation; thereafter, a high level of THC was maintained to 15 d. Three morphologically distinct hemocytes sub-populations including granular cells (GC), semigranular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) could be identified by flow cytometry, and the proportions of the 3 kinds of cell categories varied obviously during the infection of spiroplasma suggesting differential involvement according to the pathogen. The flow cytometry used in this study confirmed that the semigranular cells were the main hemocytes involved in the cellular defense against spiroplasma in the M. rosenbergii.

  20. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Hanna, Peter J; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture.

  1. Bioinformatic characterization and gene expression pattern of apoptosis inhibitor from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2011-12-01

    Apoptosis is genetically programmed cellular killing processes that execute unnecessary or infected cells. It plays an important role in embryogenesis, homeostasis, insect metamorphosis and immunity. Apoptosis inhibitor (MrIAP) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrIAP consisted of 1753 base pair nucleotides encoded 535 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. MrIAP amino acid sequence contains IAP superfamily domain between 5 and 490. The deduced amino acid sequences of the MrIAP were aligned with the other IAP family members. The highest sequence similarity was observed in IAP-5 from ant Camponotus floridanus (67%) followed by IAP from body louse Pediculus humanus corporis (66%) and the lowest (62%) in IAP-5 isoform-5 from common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and IAP-5 from Aedes aegypti. The IAP phylogenetic tree showed that MrIAP closely related to other arthropod blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis, formed a sister group with IAP from a hemichordate acorn worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii and finally clustered together with IAPs from fish groups. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that significantly (P rosenbergii challenged to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was highly induced in hepatopancreas. The collective results of this study indicate that the MrIAP is an essential immune gene and influences the immune response against IHHNV infection in M. rosenbergii.

  2. EFFECT OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH, BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ENERGY UTILIZATION IN THE PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Seenivasan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was incorporated in basal diet prepared with fish meal, soybean meal, groundnut oil cake, corn flour, tapioca flour, egg albumin, cod liver oil and vitamin Bcomplex, at four different concentrations (10g, 20g, 30g and 40g kg-1 and fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL for 90 days. The effect of this probiotic incorporation on the growth and survival performances, concentration of protein, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid, and energy utilization was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher at 40g kg-1 followed by 30g, 20g and 10g kg-1. 40g kg-1 S. cerevisiae incorporation was found to be established the highest rate of colony formation, 234x10-4 cfu (colony formation units. Actually, presence of Bacillus spp., Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae were deducted in water medium and the PL gut of control group. There is a general belief that Pseudomonas spp. and K. pneumonia are pathogenic to prawns. The establishment of S. cerevisiae colony in the gut of experimental PL has eradicated these pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that establishment of S. cerevisiae colony has led to better growth, survival and biochemical constituents in M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, S. cerevisiae could be taken as a useful probiotic in M. rosenbergii culture.

  3. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowaros Suwansa-Ard

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture.

  4. Interaction study of a novel Macrobrachium rosenbergii effector caspase with B2 and capsid proteins of M. rosenbergii nodavirus reveals their roles in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngcharoen, Supak; Senapin, Saengchan; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Flegel, Timothy W; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis is an essential immune response to protect invertebrates from virus infected cells. In shrimp, virus infection has been reported to induce apoptosis. Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr) was considered to be a disease-resistant host when compared to penaeid shrimps. Caspase-3 was classified as an executioner caspase which played a key role in virus-induced apoptosis. In this study, an effector caspase gene of M. rosenbergii (Mrcasp) was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of Mrcasp was 957 nucleotide encoding 318 amino acid with a deduced molecular mass of 35.87 kDa. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of Mrcasp in all examined tissues. The phylogenetic tree indicated that Mrcasp was closely related with caspase 3 of shrimp. The functions of the Mrcasp, B2 and capsid proteins of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) were assayed in Sf-9 cells. The results showed that Mrcasp induce apoptotic morphology cells; however, capsid protein of MrNV could inhibit apoptotic cells whereas B2 could neither induce nor inhibit apoptotic cells by DAPI staining. The protein interaction between Mrcasp and viral MrNV structure revealed that Mrcasp did not bind to B2 or capsid protein whereas B2 and capsid proteins could bind directly to each other. This study reported a novel sequence of a full-length Mrcasp and its functional studies indicated that Mrcasp could induce apoptotic cells. Our data is the first report demonstrating the direct protein-protein interaction between capsid protein and B2 protein of MrNV.

  5. Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii.

  6. Impact of maintenance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae broodstock on the water used in culture ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JFV. Biudes

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production generates social and economic benefits, but can also cause environmental impacts. The objectives of this study were: a to characterise the impacts caused by the maintenance of broodstock of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on the physical and chemical characteristics of the water used in culture ponds, and b to evaluate the relationship between the biomass of the prawns and the impact of culture on the water used in the ponds. Between January and December 2004, we determined, monthly, the biomass of M. rosenbergii by means of biometrics, and the physical and chemical variables of the supply and effluent water from a pond used to maintain breeding stock. The results showed that the effluent water had higher contents of chlorophyll-a, suspended particulate matter (SPM, pH, dissolved oxygen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen (DKN, inorganic nitrogen (IN, total (TP and dissolved phosphorus (DP, and P-orthophosphate than the supply water. The highest biomass of M. rosenbergii occurred in April (127.0 g.m-2 and the lowest in August (71.5 g.m-2, and there were positive linear correlations between the biomass of the prawns and the intensity of the increases in TKN, DKN, IN, TP, and DP of the water used in the pond. The maintenance of broodstock of M. rosenbergii increased the chlorophyll-a, SPM, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of the water in the pond. Additionally, the increase in the biomass of the prawns intensifies the export of nitrogen and phosphorus from the pond in the effluent.

  7. Efeito da densidade populacional sobre as curvas de crescimento de Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man em cultivo semi-intensivo (Crustacea, Palaemonidae The effect of stocking density on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man growth curves in earthen ponds (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cotroni Valenti

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the length growth curves of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879 held in different population densities were analysed. Postlarvae prawns were stocked into five 0,02 ha earthen ponds at densities of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ind./m² during six months. Forthnightly, the mean total length of animals from each pond were obtained by means of random samples. For each population the length growth curves and the instantaneous growth rate expressions were determined. The growth rate and the asymptotic maximum length decreased with the stocking density raised. This effect is greater when the density ranges in low levels. The growth decrease can be due to intraspecific competition for life resources and to negative interactions between individuals, as aggressive or social behavior, that increase with the increase prawns density.

  8. Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

    2013-04-15

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), α2-macroglubulin (α2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these

  9. Growth inhibition of shrimp pathogens by isolated gastrointestinal microflora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seehanat, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, cultivated in earthen pond at Maha Sarakham province, Thailand, consisted of 14 isolates of Bacillus (B1 – B14 and 18 isolates of Lactic acid bacteria (LA1 – LA18. The abilities of all isolated bacteria on growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by paperdisc plate method. The results showed that the Bacillus B2 and B5 were unable to inhibit the growth of all of the tested pathogens. Bacillus B1, B10 and B12 were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 of 4 tested pathogen strains. Although all of the isolated lactic acid bacteria (LA1 –LA18 could not inhibit the E. coli growth, all of them could inhibit the growth of B. cereus. The isolated lactic acid bacteria which were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 tested pathogen strains (excluded E. coli were LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18. In order to select the high potential strain of bacteria for using as probiotics, Bacillus B1 , B3 , B4 , B10 and B12 and lactic acid bacteria LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18 were tested for their growth abilities in various growth conditions. The tested growth conditions included various concentrations of the bile salt and salt (NaCl and various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that Bacillus B1 and B10 and lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 exhibited high potential for using as probiotics. The results of biochemical test for identification of these high potential strains showed that Bacillus B1 and B10 were possibly B. licheniformis and B. thuringiensis respectively. The lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 were possibly the same strain and belonged to the genus Pediococcus.

  10. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budget in scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Adhikari, Subhendu; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2013-12-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85%) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44%) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34%) of added OC, respectively.

  11. Roles of dopamine receptors in mediating acute modulation of immunological responses in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Ke, Zhi-Han; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) was found to influence the immunological responses and resistance to pathogen infection in invertebrates. To clarify the possible modulation of DA through dopamine receptors (DAR) against acute environmental stress, the levels of DA, glucose and lactate in the haemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under hypo- and hyperthermal stresses were measured. The changes in immune parameters such as total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and phagocytic activity (PA) were evaluated in prawns which received DAR antagonists (SCH23390, SCH, D1 antagonist; domperidone, DOM, D2 antagonist; chlorpromazine, CH, D1+2 antagonist) followed by hypo- (15 °C) and hyperthermal (34 °C) stresses. In addition, pharmacological analysis of the effect DA modulation was studied in haemocytes incubated with DA and DAR antagonists. The results revealed a significant increase in haemolymph DA accompanied with upregulated levels of glucose and lactate in prawns exposed to both hypo- and hyperthermal stresses in 2 h. In addition, a significant decrease in RBs per haemocyte was noted in prawns which received DAR antagonists when they exposed to hyperthermal stress for 30 min. In in vitro test, antagonism on RBs, SOD and GPx activity of haemocytes were further evidenced through D1, D1, D1+D2 DARs, respectively, in the meantime, no significant difference in PO activity and PA was observed among the treatment groups. These results suggest that the upregulation of DA, glucose and lactate in haemolymph might be the response to acute thermal stress for the demand of energy, and the DAR occupied by its antagonistic action impart no effect on immunological responses except RBs in vivo even though the modulation mediated through D1 DAR was further evidenced in RBs, SOD and GPx activities in vitro. It is therefore concluded that thermal

  12. Expression and Assembly Mechanism of the Capsid Proteins of a Satellite Virus (XSV) Associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-min WANG; Hua-jun ZHANG; Zheng-li SHI

    2008-01-01

    The extra small virus (XSV) is a satellite virus associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its genome consists of two overlapping ORFs, CP17 and CP16. Here we demonstrate that CP16 is expressed from the second AUG of the CP17 gene and is not a proteinase cleavage result of CP17. We further expressed CP17 and several truncated CP17s (in which the N- or C-terminus or both was deleted), respectively, in Escherichia coli. Except for the recombinant plasmid CP17ΔC10, all recombinant plasmids expressed soluble protein which assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), suggesting that the C-terminus is important for VLP formation.

  13. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods.

  14. ALTERATIONS IN THE MICROBIAL LOAD AT CERTAIN NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE SITES OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII SUPPLEMENTED WITH CENTELLA ASIATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINE ANAND

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been the focus of research in India in the past few years. As a negative impact tothe success of aquaculture due to intensification lead to higher disease outbreaks. The bacterial diseases are themost common due to intensification. In the present study the Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with diet containingmedicinal plant, Centella asiatica to test the antimicrobial activity. The prawns were fed with diet containingC.asiatica (0.2%. After 4 months both control and the experimental prawns were examined for microbial flora.Isolation and identification were also done. The investigation showed a significant reduction in the pathogenicbacteria and also found an improvement in the probiotic bacteria in prawns fed with experimental diet containingC.asiatica than the control diet. The % survival is 75% in medicated diet, but it is only 40% in control diet. Themedicated diet also showed improved growth parameters. The total microbial load at non-specific immune sites,such as gill, gut and exoskeleton of both control and medicated feed were examined after the experiment. Thetotal microbial load at gill, gut,exoskeleton were 41.00 x 105,50.00 x 106,30.00 x 106 respectively in control feed,but total microbial load at gill, gut, exoskeleton were 34.00 x 105, 28.00 x 106, 22.00 x 106 respectively inmedicated feed. Major pathogenic bacteria found in culture were Vibrio type I, Staphylococcus type III, Micrococcustype I, Strepto coccus I, Acinetobacter type I, Acinetobacter typeIII, Arthrobacter type I, Enterobacteriacea,Flavobacterium Vibrio type II, Strepto coccus II, Pseudomonas. After treating with medicated diet, diversity andintensity of microbial flora get reduced and culture of medicated diet also showed presence of probiotic bacteriasuch as Bacillus

  15. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance and Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Hatchery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S W Lee; M Najiah; W Wendy; A Zahrol; M Nadirah

    2009-01-01

    In this article,antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria isolated from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia are described.Although giant freshwater prawn was introduced into Malaysia since the 1980s,there was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from giant freshwater prawn (M.rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia.Therefore,this study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profile to control bacterial diseases in M.rosenbergii hatchery.The results can provide valuable information for local M.rosenbergii post-larval producer.Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out by disk-diffusion method against 15 types of antibiotics as follows:oxolinic acid (2 μg),ampicillin (10 μg),erythromycin (15 μg),furazolidone (15 μg),lincomycin (15 μg),amoxicillin (25 μg),col istin sulphate (25 μg),doxycycline (30 μg),florfenicol (30 μg),flumequine (30 μg),nalidixic acid (30 μg),tetracycline (30 μg),oleandomyein (15 μg),fosfomycin (50 μg),and spiramycin (100 μg),whereas heavy metal resistance profile of the present bacterial isolates was determined by 2-fold agar dilution technique.In this study,5 types of bacteria were successfully isolated;they were Aeromonas spp.(n= 77),Escherichia coil (n = 73),Edwardsiella spp.(n = 62),Salmonella spp.(n= 75),and Vibrio spp.(n = 43).The result showed that furazolidone was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study,approximately 89.7% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic.Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index indicated that the hatchery water source and M.rosenbergii post-larval and sediment tanks were at high-risk exposure to the tested antibiotic.Furthermore,all the tested heavy metals (Cd2+,Cr6+ Hg2+,and Cu2+) failed to inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates.Therefore,it indicated that the water source of the hatchery is

  16. オニテナガエビMacrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man)幼生期の変態過程について

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Diaz, Gabriel; Kasahara, Shogoro

    1987-01-01

    Larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) were reared individually at 28°C and 13.6 ppt of temperature and salinity conditions, to observe the development. Morphological observations were made on the shed carapaces after molting of each stage. (1) The larvae metamorphose into postlarva after developing through 17 zoeal instars. (2) Six new zoeal instars are introduced, in addition to the eleven instars reported elsewhere, and the main characteristics for identifi...

  17. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaz,Luciana Almada; Oshiro,Lídia Miyako Yoshii; Bambozzi,Andrea Cecchetto; Seixas Filho,José Teixeira de

    2004-01-01

    O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos), nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com q...

  18. Growth performance and survival rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1979) larvae using different doses of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahasan; Das, Nani Gopal; Hossain, M Belal

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of probiotics (Ecomarine) in rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae was evaluated in a commercial prawn hatchery for five weeks. Stage-1 (zero age) larvae (of length: 2 mm; weight: 0.12 mg) were stocked at the rate of 100 L(-1). The experiment determined the growth rate, survival rate of the larvae for the both treatment and control groups. Final average weight were found 8.39 ± 3.28E-04 and 8.18 ± 2.86E-04 mg and length were found 9.08 ± 0.649 and 9.02 ± 0.081 mm for treatment and control group respectively. Comparatively higher growth performance was observed in treatment than control. Post Larvae (PL) was first observed 20th days of culture in treatment tanks whereas PL in control tanks was found 24th days of culture. Survival rate was found 58 and 46% in treatment and control group respectively. There was significant (p rosenbergii while significant changes were not noticed in the physic-chemical parameters i.e., water temperature, salinity, DO, pH, nitrate-NO2, hardness and alkalinity observed in both the treatments.

  19. Genetic analysis of RNA1 and RNA2 of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) isolated from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaveenKumar, Singaiah; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2013-05-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is responsible for the newly emerging catastrophic disease known as white tail disease (WTD) in M. rosenbergii. The complete sequence of RNA2 (1175 bp) and 3126 bp region of RNA1 of an Indian strain of MrNV was generated. Sequence analysis of RNA2 revealed the presence of a single ORF encoding a capsid protein of 371 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 41.5 kDa and 8.97 respectively. RNA1 contained two ORFs, one encoding a partial RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of length 1034 amino acids and another a B2-like protein with a length 133 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the capsid protein, to related nodavirus sequences suggests the establishment of new genotypes within the Nodaviridae family and we suggest the name should be genus Gammanodavirus. A new reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay has been developed and optimized for the detection of shrimp nodavirus with a sensitivity to detect up to 24 copy numbers of plasmid construct.

  20. Enhanced immune response and resistance to white tail disease in chitin-diet fed freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Naveen Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is one of the natural biopolymer found abundantly in the shells of crustaceans, insects and in cell walls of fungi. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary administration of 0.5, 0.75 and 1% chitin on the immune response and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, challenged against Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV and extra small virus (XSV. We observed a significantly enhanced immune response, indicated as higher prophenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst of hemocytes, in 0.75% chitin-diet fed prawns compared to the chitin-free-diet fed prawns. Importantly, the relative percent survival (RPS following challenge with white muscle disease (WTD viruses was found relatively high in M. rosenbergii fed with diet containing 0.75% chitin (63.16%, suggesting an increased resistance to disease susceptibility. These results indicate that the incorporation of chitin in prawn diet would be beneficial in stimulating the immune response and thereby developing resistance against diseases.

  1. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-11-01

    Haemolymph norepinephrine (NE); total haemocyte count (THC); respiratory bursts (RBs); superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity; and prophenoloxidase (proPO)-system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein: LGBP, proPO, peroxinectin: PE, and α2-macroglobulin: α2-M) in haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated after transferring them from 28 °C to 22 °C, 28 °C, and 34 °C respectively. The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells (HCs), and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to 120 min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min of exposure as well as granular cells (GCs), semigranular cells (SGCs), and SOD activity decreased from 60 to 120 min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress. The proPO-system-related gene expression markedly increased with 60-120 min of exposure for the prawns transferred from 28 °C to 22 °C and 34 °C, except α2M at 120 min. These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. rosenbergii.

  2. Immunomodulatory effect of Withania somnifera supplementation diet in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Jawahar, Sundaram; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection.

  3. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior.

  4. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests.

  5. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii.

  6. Single CRD containing lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrLec) participates in innate immunity against pathogen infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Li, Wen; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Feng, Jin-Ling; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    As a type of pattern-recognition proteins, lectins perform important functions in the innate immunity of crustaceans, including prawns. Although several reports showed that C-type lectin domain family (CLEC) importantly functions in host-pathogen interactions, limited research has focused on CLEC in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In the present study, a new single CRD containing CLEC (designated as MrLec) was reported in freshwater prawns, M. rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrLec consisted of 1027 bp with an open reading frame of 801 bp, which encoded a peptide of 266 amino acid residues. Genomic sequence for MrLec was also obtained from the M. rosenbergii, which contain 4 exons and 3 introns. MrLec was found to contain a single carbohydrate-recognition domain with an EPN motif. MrLec was ubiquitously distributed in various tissues of a normal prawn, particularly in the hepatopancreas and gills. MrLec expression in the gills was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and downregulated at 24 h after MrLec RNA interference (MrLec-RNAi). The expression levels of some AMPs, including antilipopolysaccharide factor 1 (Alf1) and lysozyme 2 (Lyso2), also markedly decreased after MrLec-RNAi. Recombinant MrLec can agglutinate (Ca(2+)-dependent) and bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Results suggested that MrLec participates in the recognition of invading pathogens and functions in the immune response of prawn against pathogen infections.

  7. Norepinephrine depresses the immunity and disease-resistance ability via α1- and β1-adrenergic receptors of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Hung, Ming-Di; Cheng, Winton

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of norepinephrine (NE) on immunity and the pathway of its function in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae, were measured when the freshwater giant prawn, M. rosenbergii (16.2±2.1 g) was individually injected with saline or NE at 0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). Results showed that semi-granular cells, respiratory bursts and phagocytic activity at 2 h, PO activity and clearance efficiency from 2 to 4 h, THC at 8 h, and SOD activity from 4 to 8 h significantly decreased, but hyaline cells at 2 h, and respiratory bursts at 8 h had significantly increased after injection of NE at 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). In prawns that had received 5.0 pmol NE prawn(-1), the PO activity had decreased at 2 h, SOD activity at 8 h, and the clearance efficiency at 2 h. PO activity had decreased at 2 h after prawns had received 0.5 pmol NE prawn(-1). All of the immune parameters had returned to control values by 16 h after receiving NE. However, no significant differences were observed in the granular cells during the experimental period. An injection of NE also significantly increased the mortality of prawns challenged with L. garvieae, which appeared to be dose dependent. In another experiment, NE co-injected with prazosin, metoprolol, or propranolol significantly decreased the mortality of challenged prawns, especially when co-injected with prazosin and metoprolol. These results suggest that stress-inducing NE suppresses the immune system, which in turn promotes the susceptibility of M. rosenbergii to L. garvieae via both α1- and β1-adrenergic receptors.

  8. 罗氏沼虾脑的形态和结构%The Morphology and Structure of the Brain of the Prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii ( Crustacea : Decapoda)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖家遗

    2001-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)的脑位于两个眼柄基部中的一团海绵状组织内.它由神经根、前脑、中脑、后脑、神经连接和细胞体群组成.它的神经根从脑发出的位置及外伸的方向和已描述过的虾、蟹的脑神经根有一定的区别,未发现有副叶髓质和中脑连接.因此它可能是虾蟹另一种脑的类型.%The brain of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is located in a mass of spongy tissue within the base of eyestalks. It consists of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, tritocerebrum, nerve roots, commissures, and clusters of cell bodies. It is different from the described brains of the other prawn and crabs in the site where the nerve roots project from the brain and in the extension directions of the nerve roots. In the brain the accessory lobe, a neuropil, and the deutocerebral commissure could not be identified. The above differences suggest that the brain of Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be a new brain type of the prawns and crabs.

  9. [Rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus isolated in China by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Liu, Li; Hao, Gui-Jie; Cao, Zheng; Sheng, Peng-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Lei; Shen, Jin-Yu

    2014-09-01

    White coloration of the muscle of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a serious problem in China. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV) has been confirmed to be the pathogen that causes this disorder. To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific technology for the detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus isolated from China (MrNV-China), a reverse-transcription loop- mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) assay method is described. A set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the MrNV RNA2 gene. Results showed the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay was ten-times higher than the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was conducted with one-step amplification at 61°C in a single tube within 45 min. No product was generated from shrimps infected with other viruses, including DNA viruses (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV); white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)) and RNA viruses (Taura syndrome virus (TSV); infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV); yellow head virus (YHV)). Results were visualized by the LFD method. Therefore, the described rapid and sensitive assay is potentially useful for MrNV detection.

  10. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, A.; Broos, K.V. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadiq Bukhari, A., E-mail: abjmc@yahoo.in [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Syed Mohamed, H.E. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Singhal, R.K. [Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India); Venu-Babu, P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analyzing the impact of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation (low doses) in M. rosenbergii. •LD{sub 50} identified in 30 Gy; Irradiated exhibits morphological changes than control. •Significantly decreased HSI and histological changes in irradiated groups. •Aberration severities increased as increased of dose level. •Biomonitoring tool in determining low dose radiation pollution in aquatic ecosystem. -- Abstract: This study was framed to investigate the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD{sub 50} value of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of

  11. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-05-07

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  12. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungtaek Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  13. A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

    2014-04-01

    A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-β induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs.

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Seenivasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the optimization of probiotic, Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL. Experimental diets were the same in all, except for the variation in probiotic levels. The probiotic L. sporogenes was used at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% inclusion in the experimental diets. These diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. The food index parameters, such as SR, WG, SGR, FCE and PER were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL, whereas the FCR was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. This indicates the fact that this feed produced higher growth rate than that of other experimental diets. Similarly the proximate composition of the total protein, total free amino acid, total carbohydrate, and total lipid content was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. However, insignificant differences were recorded in ash and moisture contents between control and experimental groups. Energy utilization parameters, such as feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate and excretory rate were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. Statistically insignificant differences were recorded in metabolic rate between control and experimental groups. This indicates that there were no differences in energy loss between control and experimental groups. However, L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL produced better growth performance.

  15. Effect of Shilajit enriched diet on immunity, antioxidants, and disease resistance in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Hyder Ali, Abdul Rahuman; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; War, Mehrajuddin; Naveed, Mohamed Saquib; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Rani, Kuppusamy Umaa; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Shilajit, a multi-component natural mineral substance on the antioxidant activity, immune response, and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The total hemocyte count (THC) and phagocytic activity significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on first week and with other enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The respiratory burst (RB) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on weeks 1 and 2 whereas 2 and 4 g kg(-1) diets on week 4. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity increased significantly with 2 g kg(-1) diet only on second week and with other enriched diets only on fourth week. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with any enriched diet during the experimental period except with 6 g kg(-1) diets on first week. However, the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was enhanced significantly only with 2 g kg(-1) enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The cumulative mortality of the prawn fed with 2 and 4 g kg(-1) enriched diets was 10% and 15% whereas with 6 g kg(-1) diet the mortality was 20%. The results suggest that diet enriched with Shilajit at 2 g kg(-1) or 4 g kg(-1) positively enhances the antioxidant activity, immunity, and disease resistance in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila.

  16. 长三角地区罗氏沼虾成虾主要疾病的病原研究%Studies on the main pathogens of adult prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in the Yangtze River Delta region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洋; 沈锦玉; 姚嘉赟; 潘晓艺; 郝贵杰; 尹文林; 杨国梁; 王军毅

    2012-01-01

    An investigation on the diseases of adult prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) had been conducted from August 2009 to August 2010 in farms in the Yangtze River Delta region. The symptoms found in various localities, which were mainly divided into three categories; Shanghai and Zhejiang disease sample has pale body color, especially the tail with white spots; Jiangsu disease sample mainly has blue body-color and blue muscle; Zhejiang disease sample has red body-color, and reddish hepatopancreas. 11 strains of dominant bacteria were isolated from the disease samples of M. Rosenbergii, and 3 main pathogenic bacteria were selected by infecting healthy M. Rosenbergii artificially, namely SHB1, GYB8, HZL2. After morphological, physiological and biochemical properties and 16SrRNA identification, the 3 bacteria were determined as Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris. Conventional drug susceptibility tests showed that the 3 main pathogenic bacteria and other isolated bacteria had high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin.%2009年8月-2010年8月在长三角地区开展了罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)成虾主要疾病的流行病学调查.结果显示:所采集病样按其症状分为肌肉白浊病(以上海和浙江病样为主)、蓝体病(以江苏病样为主)、红体病(以浙江病样为主)三类.从采集的罗氏沼虾病样中分离到优势细菌11株,人工感染健康罗氏沼虾,筛选出3株主要致病菌,分别命名为SHB1,GYB8,HZL2.经形态学、生理生化特性及16 S rRNA鉴定,确定3株主要致病菌依次为嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila),费氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)、普通变形杆菌(Proteus vulgaris).常规药物敏感性试验表明,3种主要致病菌以及其它分离株细菌对环丙沙星和恩诺沙星高度敏感.

  17. Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-08-01

    White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirak Kumar Barman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

  19. The key molecular events during Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) infection and replication in Sf9 insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somrit, Monsicha; Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2016-09-02

    In this study we demonstrated that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to internalize and replicate in Sf9 insect cells, with levels of infection altered by substances affecting the caveolin-(CAV) mediated endocytosis pathway. The use of Sf9 cells for efficient MrNV replication and propagation was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and PCR amplification, through which early viral binding and internalization were initially detectable at 30min post-infection; whereas at 72h, the distinguishable sign of late-MrNV infection was observable as the gradual accumulation of a cytopathic effect (CPE) in the cells, ultimately resulting in cellular disruption. Moreover, during the early period of infection, the MrNV signals were highly co-localized with CAV1 signals of the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway. The use of genistein as an inhibitor of the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway significantly reduced MrNV and CAV1 co-localization, and also reduced the levels of MrNV infection in Sf9 cells as shown by PCR and ELISA. Moreover, the addition of the pathway agonist okadaic acid not only recovered but also augmented both the levels of MrNV co-localization with CAV1 and of Sf9 infection in the presence of genistein inhibition; therefore demonstrating that MrNV infection in Sf9 cells was associated with the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway machinery.

  20. Function of a novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2015-03-01

    C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin gene, designated as MrCTL, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCTL contains 2 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), namely MrCRD1 and MrCRD2. The MrCRD1 contains a QEP motif and MrCRD2 contains a motif of EPD. MrCTL was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The expression level of MrCTL in hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 have an ability to agglutinate both Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) in a calcium dependent manner. The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 bind directly to all tested microorganisms. All these results suggested that MrCTL may have important roles in immune defense against invading pathogens in prawns.

  1. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and metals from contaminated sediment by freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and clams, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.

    1986-02-01

    Freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and clams, Corbicula Fluminea, were exposed for 48 or 50 days to three concentrations of a river sediment that contained environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. The PCB sediment bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for prawns ranged from 0.11 to 0.90 for 1242 and 0.20 to 2.40 for 1254, and were highest for animals exposed to 10% sediment. Exposed clams also accumulated PCBs (1242 + 1254) from the sediment. Sediment BAFs for clams were 0.54 to 12.52 and were highest for animals exposed to 10% sediment. Analyses of clams for metals showed lead (Pb) in exposed animals at higher concentrations compared with controls. Bioaccumulation of Pb differed from PCB in that the Pb concentrations did not increase over time and concentrations were higher among animals exposed to 10% sediment compared to animals exposed to 100% sediment. Sediment 11-80 contained 99 mg/kg of Pb while exposed animals, at 48 days, contained approximately 2.2 mg/kg Pb. Analysis of clams for cadmium (Cd) showed exposed animals contained less Cd than controls.

  2. 罗氏沼虾苗的选购和运输%Selection and transport of larval Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢家燊; 况开河; 吕建平; 刘家红; 唐德文

    1999-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)自1976年由日本引进我国后,经过多年推广养殖,现已发展成为经济虾类的主要养殖对象.该虾的生态习性不同于一般虾类,其幼体阶段需要在海水中度过,种苗生产必须由具有专门生产设施和技术的生产单位才能进行.选购优质罗氏沼虾虾苗(下称虾苗),提高虾亩运输成活率已成为罗氏沼虾生产中的重要一环.1990~1997年,我们共运输淡化虾苗3740万尾,其中购进2285万尾,外运1455万尾,成活率75~95%,往来购销地点遍及全国各主要养虾地区.

  3. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total suspended solids (TSS, 73.2 ± 15.4 %) and total nitrogen (TN, 39.6 ± 44.2 %) between wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input.

  4. Immune responses and gene expression in hepatopancreas from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged by a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Ren, Qian; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii inoculated with 100 μl novel pathogen spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, as well as expressions of 7 immune related genes in hepatopancreas after 1-28 d. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed obvious pathological features in hepatopancreas connective and epithelial tissue. Enzyme activity analyze showed that hepatopancreas AKP and ACP activity increased markedly (P < 0.05) when inoculated with spiroplasma MR-1008 after 5 d and 10 d, respectively. SOD enzyme activity changed less obviously and slightly increased at 1 day post-inoculation, but CAT activity decreased significantly after 5 d inoculation. The expression levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), α2-macroglobulin (α2M), AKP, ACP, CAT, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) genes in the hepatopancreas were examined by Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results demonstrated that these immune related genes were induced by challenge with spiroplasma MR-1008. The results suggested that the prawn immune responses could be activated or inhibited by spiroplasma MR-1008, and that the hepatopancreas also plays key roles in innate immunity for defense against the pathogen.

  5. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress.

  6. Fairy Shrimp (Streptocephalus sirindhornae as Live Feed Improve Growth and Carotenoid Contents of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanoamuang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of adult fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus sirindhornae, as live food for growth and enhancing the carotenoid contents in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Completely randomized cultures of 6-months-old prawns were treated individually with 5 different food ratios (adult fairy shrimp to dry shrimp diet; 0: 100, 25: 75, 50: 50, 75: 25 and 100: 0 for 60 days in circular black plastic containers containing 20 L of water. The diet was fed at a rate of 3% of the prawn body weight per day. Each food concentration was experimented with 12 replicates and the whole experiment (5 treatments using a total of 60 individuals. The results showed that the initial lengths (11.9-13.0 cm and weights (23.20-31.65 g of the experimental prawns with the 5 food ratios were not significantly different. However, length (0.87 cm and weight (15.14 g gains of the prawns fed pure fairy shrimp treatment (100: 0 were significantly different from those of the other dietary treatments (p-1 of fresh weight with large amounts of astaxanthin and -carotene, which was 2.8 times of those fed with pure dry diet treatment (p<0.05. Present results indicate improved growth performances and elevated carotenoid contents of prawns suggesting fairy shrimp as promising feeds in freshwater aquaculture.

  7. Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

    2013-06-01

    Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation of fish and vegetable oils on the growth performance and muscle compositions of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Muralisankar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of three vegetable oils (sunflower oil, coconut oil and castor oil as an alternative dietary lipid source for cod liver oil to culture Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PLs. The experimental feeds contained 40% protein with separately incorporated three vegetable oils and cod liver oil. The feeding trial was conducted on M. rosenbergii PL for 60 days. In the final day of the experimental period, the survival rate, weight gain, length gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of prawns showed no significance (P > 0.05 between sunflower oil and cod liver oil incorporated feed fed groups. The coconut oil and castor oil showed lower performance when compared with cod liver oil. The present result showed biochemical accumulation of total protein, amino acids, carbohydrate and lipid in experimental groups. Also there is no significant difference in ash and mineral (Na+ and K+ contents. Among the tested diets, the recorded growth rate and biochemical constituents of sunflower oil and cod liver oil incorporated feed fed groups were similar. The present results revealed that the sunflower oil was on par with cod liver oil. Hence, the sunflower oil can be incorporated in feed formulation for M. rosenbergii PL culture. It can be concluded that the coconut oil and castor oil are not ideal vegetable lipid source with these concentrations which produced lower performance in survival, growth and biochemical compositions of M. rosenbergii PL.

  9. Impact of fishmeal replacement with Arthrospira platensis on growth performance, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the suitable level of replacement of fishmeal with a blue green microalga, Arthrospira platensis in feed for the post larvae (PL of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii by evaluating the growth performance, prawn proximate composition, feed utilization parameters and the activity of digestive enzymes. The prawns were fed 5 different diets: a control diet and 4 different diets containing A. platensis at various levels such as 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. These diets were fed to the PL for 90 days in triplicates. The growth performance in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio were found significantly (P  25 > 75 > 100% replacement of fishmeal with A. platensis. These results concluded that a partial replacement of the fishmeal with A. platensis at the level of 50% is beneficial for the growth of prawn M. rosenbergii.

  10. Main diseases of the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a review%罗氏沼虾主要病害研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洋; 沈锦玉; 姚嘉赟; 潘晓艺; 郝贵杰; 尹文林

    2012-01-01

    罗氏沼虾是一种重要的经济水产动物,目前在世界各地均有大规模的养殖,尤其集中于东南亚地区,随着养殖规模的扩大其病害发生也越来越多,给罗氏沼虾养殖行业带来了巨大的损失.总结了近年来国内外关于罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)主要疾病及防治方面的研究成果,按照病原的不同分为寄生虫疾病、细菌性疾病、病毒性疾病,主要围绕上述几类疾病的研究及防治的工作展开论述,为今后罗氏沼虾的病害防治提供依据.%The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean, being fanned on a large scale in many different countries. Its culture is mostly developed in Southern and South-Eastern Asian countries and to a lesser extent in the Caribbean (Northern South America and West Indies). To date, lots of diseases were reported and they cause severe economic losses in aqua-culture and giant freshwater prawn breeding. The present paper reviewed main diseases of the giant fresh water prawn. The current information cm the research results was summarized about the major disease and its prevention and treatment of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

  11. 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)smu-1基因的筛选、表达及功能研究%SCREENING, EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF smu-1 GENES FROM MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱美睿; 郑春静; 刘军; 王庆强

    2013-01-01

    从热诱导下罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)中枢神经的消减文库中,筛选到一种高温应激下表达水平显著上调的smu-1基因.该基因编码的氨基酸序列与其它物种的smu-1呈现较高的同源性,该蛋白的羧基端具有WD-40 repeat结构域,该区域含有6个重复的WD基元,因此属于WD40-repeat蛋白家族.采用荧光定量PCR方法,对不同环境因子诱导下smu-1基因的表达特征进行分析,结果表明,与正常组相比,冷热休克和重金属诱导下smu-1基因的相对表达水平显著上升(P<0.01和P<0.05),而在盐胁迫smu-1表达水平却有下调的趋势(P<0.05).进一步采用smu-1双链RNA干扰技术,深入探究了该基因的功能与高温诱导之间的相互关系.本研究在一定程度上为养殖虾类耐热性优良品种的改良和筛选提供了重要理论依据,从而为降低高温对养殖虾类造成的重大经济损失提供广泛应用前景.

  12. Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M. rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M. japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24 h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48 h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24 h and then was upregulated at 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24 h after infection and then went down at 48 h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection.

  13. Immune response of four dual-CRD C-type lectins to microbial challenges in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Li, Meng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

    2012-08-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates and serve as pattern recognition receptors, opsonins, or effector molecules. In this study, the full-lengths cDNA of 4 CTL genes from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were cloned and designated as MrLec1, MrLec2, MrLec3, and MrLec4. All of these 4 lectin cDNAs encode proteins with 2 carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). While MrLec1, MrLec3, and MrLec4 had signal peptides, no signal peptide was detected in MrLec2. Two carbohydrate recognition motifs within two CRDs of each lectin were predicted (QPE, EPG in MrLec1; EPT, EPA in MrLec2; QPT, NPR in MrLec3; KPN, EPD in MrLec4). Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec4 belongs to group A whereas MrLec1, MrLec2, and MrLec3 belong to group B. Positive selection in dual-CRD lectins suggested their probable roles in innate immunity, and positively selected induced amino acid diversity of lectins may confer their ability to recognize a broad range of microbes. The qRT-PCR analysis in adult prawns showed that MrLec1 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas, gills, and stomach, MrLec2 and MrLec4 are mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas, and MrLec3 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach. Time-course analysis using qRT-PCR showed that MrLec1 to MrLec4 are all upregulated by the Vibrio anguillarum challenge. MrLec1 is upregulated after 2, 12, and 24 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression of MrLec2 increases after 12 and 24 h of WSSV challenge, and the transcript of MrLec3 and MrLec4 are downregulated after 2 h of WSSV challenge. The results suggest the potential roles of dual-CRD lectins in the innate immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  14. Non-permissive C6/36 cell culture for the Australian isolate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakijkosol, O; Owens, L

    2013-04-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) that causes white tail disease (WTD) is an emerging disease that contributes to serious production losses in Macrobrachium hatcheries worldwide. Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) have been reported to support the growth of MrNV and used to observe the cytopathic effects (CPE) in infected cells. This study determined the susceptibility of C6/36 mosquito cells to the Australian isolate of MrNV in order to use fewer animals in further investigations. Different staining methods were used to observe MrNV viral activity in C6/36 cells. Typical cytopathic effects such as vacuolation and viral inclusion bodies were observed in infected C6/36 cells with H&E and Giemsa staining. With acridine orange, it was easier to detect presumptive MrNV messenger ribonucleic acid in the infected cells. Using neutral red staining to measure mitochondrial activity showed light absorption of infected cells maximized at day 4 (O.D. = 0.6) but was significantly lower (chi-square = 41.265, df = 1, P < 0.05) than control groups (O.D. = 2) which maximized at day 12. Using trypan blue staining to count the number of cells with disrupted cell membranes, the maximum number of presumptively dead cells at day 8 (4 × 10(5)  cells) in infected treatments was higher than the control treatment at day 10 (1.8 × 10(5)  cells). However, TaqMan real-time PCR did not confirm the replication of MrNV in the cells over 14 days. The mean viral copies and mean cycle times of positive samples were stable at 2.07 × 10(4) and 24.12, respectively. Limited evidence of viral replication was observed during four serial passages. This study determined the mortality of the C6/36 cell line to the Australian isolate of MrNV but suggests limited patent replication was occurring. Trying different cell lines or adapting the virus to the C6/36 cells may be necessary to successfully replicate Australian MrNV in cell lines.

  15. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares Larval performance of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submitted to different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos, nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os regimes alimentares substituindo progressivamente náuplio de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots foram os seguintes tratamentos: 100% Brachionus plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia (3 nas/mL + 40% Brachionus plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia (2 nas/mL + 60% Brachionus plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4, sendo adicionada a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da mudança dos subestádios larvais demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. No tratamento T1 (100% Brachionus plicatilis houve mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O efeito da ocorrência das primeiras metamorfoses para pós-larvas, ocorreu ao 27º dia nos tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. Conseqüentemente, o ciclo de larvicultura até a metamorfose de 90% para pós-larva (PL1 foi o mesmo nos tratamentos (35 dias. Portanto, a utilização do rotífero enriquecido e congelado no regime alimentar das larvas permitiu desempenho satisfatório em termos de desenvolvimento larval de M. rosenbergii até a passagem para o estádio de pós-larva.The feeding is one of the most important factors to larval development and the sucess of the commercial cultivation of decapod crustacean larvae depends on the efficient and economic utilization of the available food. The performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larva submitted to four different feeding systems was

  16. Comparison of Two Detection Methods on Nodavirus of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii%两种检测罗氏沼虾诺达病毒方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简贺君; 谢俊刚

    2014-01-01

    分别用三抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附测定、逆转录聚合酶链式反应两种方法,检测20尾采集自广东省肇庆市的典型白肉病症状罗氏沼虾肌肉中的诺达病毒。检测结果是两种方法阳性检出率均为95%。结果表明,两种方法均能有效的应用在实验室检测罗氏沼虾诺达病毒。%Three antibodies sandwich ELISA,reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used re-spectively to detect the Nodavirus from the muscle of 20 Macrobrachium Rosenbergii collected from Zhaoq-ing City,Guangdong Province,which have typical symptoms of white meat disease. The positive rate tested from these two methods was the same: 95%. The results of the comparison showed that both methods are effective on laboratory detection of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Nodavirus.

  17. Effect of cryoprotectants and cooling rates on fertility potential of sperm in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina Claudet, P; Narasimman, Selvakumar; Natesan, Munuswamy

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates freezing protocol with suitable cryoprotectants and their effects on the fertility potential of sperm in the cryopreserved spermatophores of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Spermatophores, collected using electroejaculation, were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), methanol, glycerol and ethylene glycol (EG) at different concentrations (10, 15 & 20% v/v), prepared in sterile-filtered pond water. Based on the cryoprotectant toxicity assay, DMSO and PG were used individually as well as in combination with three freezing protocols (i.e. -1.5, -3 and -5°C/min and to final temperature of -39°C) and plunged into liquid nitrogen at -196°C. After 90 days of storage (-196°C) thawing was done at 35°C in a water bath for 1min. Results showed that fresh and cryopreserved spermatophores held for 90 days registered sperm viability of 91.4±2.9% and 50.4±1.9% respectively. Further, fertility potential of sperm was assessed based on acrosome reactivity using calcium ionophore (A23187). Observations indicated that cryopreserved sperm registered 28.3±2.2% of acrosome reactivity compared to freshly collected spermatophores (85.3±2.5%). Thus, one-step slow cooling rate of -1.5°C/min between 27°C and -39°C stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C with DMSO (10%)+PG (10%) seems to be amenable for cryopreservation of spermatophores, compared to other cooling rates.

  18. Cloning and identification of four Mu-type glutathione S-transferases from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kai-Min; Hao, Fang-Yuan; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2013-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are essential components of the cellular detoxification system because of their capability to protect organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Four different GSTs (MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4) showing similarities with Mu-type GSTs were cloned from the hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These four GSTs have 219, 216, 218 and 219 amino acids in length, respectively. MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4 proteins all have a G-site in the N-terminus and an H-site in the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that four Mu-type GSTs are classified into two different clades (MrMuGST2 one clade; MrMuGST1, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 other clades). Nonetheless, no site under positive selection was detected but rapid evolution was found in the few of MuGST genes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 transcripts were expressed in all detected tissues, however, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were just mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and intestines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 were down-regulated upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, whereas MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were quickly up-regulated 2 h after the Vibrio challenge. Our results imply that different Mu-type GSTs may respond to Vibrio challenge with different manners.

  19. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns.

  20. Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2013-07-01

    The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single α-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (≈25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme.

  1. Toxicity effect of tributyltin(TBT)on Macrobrachium rosenbergii%三丁基锡(TBT)对罗氏沼虾的毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春华; 薛海波; 李广丽

    2011-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles and adults were exposed to different concentration tributyltin (TBT) to study the acute and chronic effects of TBT on the growth of M. rosenbergii and on the histological structure of the shrimp ’ s gill and hepatopancrese. For the juvenile and adult of M. rosenbergii, the 96 h median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) was 51 and 376 μg · L-1, and the safe concentration ( SC) was 5. 1 and 37. 6 μg · L-1, respectively. Compared with the control group, the body weight and length of juvenile M. rosenbergii after exposed to 1. 25 , 2. 5 , and 5 μg · L-1 of TBT for 30 d decreased significantly ( P<0. 05 ) , while the growth of adult M. rosenbergii after exposed to 2. 8, and 32 μg · L-1 of TBT for 30 d was less affected, but the histological structure of gill and hepatopancrese appeared abnormal. When the TBT concentration reached 8 μg · L-1 , the gill epithelial cells of treated M. rosenbergii swelled, nucleus in support cells contracted, and blood cells in blood cavity aggregated. Correspondingly, liver cells swelled and vacuolated. When the TBT concentration reached 32 μg · L-1 , liver cells vacuolated more seriously, nucleus disappeared, and parts of the cells disaggregated and appeared necrosis, showed that definite concentration TBT had strong toxicity to the gill and hepatopancrese of M. rosenbergii.%将罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)幼虾和成虾暴露在不同浓度的三丁基锡(tributyhin,TBT)溶液中,进行急性和慢性毒性实验,通过组织病理学观察研究TBT对罗氏沼虾的毒性效应.结果表明:TBT对罗氏沼虾幼虾和成虾的96 h半致死浓度(96 h LC50)分别为51和376 μg·L-1,安全浓度(SC)分别为5.1和37.6 μg·L-1;罗氏沼虾幼虾暴露在浓度分别为1.25、2.5和5μg·L-1的TBT溶液中30 d后,其体重和体长均极显著低于对照组(P<0.05);罗氏沼虾成虾暴露在浓度分别为2、8和32μg·L-1的TBT溶液中30 d后,生长速度虽未见明显差

  2. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae.

  3. Gene expression and functional studies of small heat shock protein 37 (MrHSP37) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we have reported a full length of small heat shock protein 37 (designated MrHSP37) gene, identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrHSP37 is 2,425 base pairs in length, and encodes 338 amino acids. MrHSP37 contains a long heat shock protein family profile in the amino acid sequence between 205 and 288. The mRNA expressions of MrHSP37 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MrHSP37 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, stomach, haemocyte, intestine, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrHSP37 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity which increased with the concentration of the protein. And also the purified recombinant MrHSP37 protein was used for thermal aggregation assay (chaperone activity). It showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein is an active chaperone in this assay. Taken together, these results suggest that MrHSP37 is potentially involved in the immune responses against IHHNV challenge in M. rosenbergii.

  4. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation in maturation diet on female reproductive performance and larval quality of giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Siranonthana, Nisa; Senanan, Wansuk

    2016-01-01

    The giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one of the most farmed freshwater crustaceans in the world. Its global production has been stalling in the past decade due to the inconsistent quality of broodstock and hatchery-produced seeds. A better understanding of the role of nutrition in maturation diets will help overcome some of the production challenges. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, ARA) is a fatty acid precursor of signaling molecules important for crustacean reproduction, prostaglandins E and F of the series II (PGE2 and PGF2α), and is often lacking in maturation diets of shrimp and prawns. We examined the effects of ARA in a combination of different fish oil (FO) and soybean oil (SO) blends on females’ reproductive performance and larval quality. Adult females (15.22 ± 0.13 g and 11.12 ± 0.09 cm) were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing one of two different base compositions (A or B), supplemented with one of three levels of Mortierella alpine-derived ARA (containing 40% active ARA): 0, 1 or 2% by ingredient weight. The two base diets differed in the percentages of (FO and SO with diet A containing 2% SO and 2% FO and diet B containing 2.5% SO and 1.5% FO, resulting in differences in proportional contents of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LOA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA)). After the eight-week experiment, prawns fed diet B with 1 and 2% ARA supplement (B1 and B2) exhibited the highest gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), egg clutch weight, fecundity, hatching rate, number of larvae, and reproductive effort compared to those fed other diets (p ≤ 0.05). Larvae from these two dietary treatments also had higher tolerance to low salinity (2 ppt). The maturation period was not significantly different among most treatments (p ≥ 0.05). ARA supplementation, regardless of the base diet, significantly improved GSI, HSI, egg clutch weight and fecundity. However, the diets with an enhanced ARA and LOA

  5. De novo transcriptome sequencing analysis and comparison of differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nguyen Thanh

    Full Text Available Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2. De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog-ID (KO-ID and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After

  6. Impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production of giant fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Kumar Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to observe the impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production performance of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii from August 2011 to March 2012. There were four experimental groups viz (a control or without probiotics treated prawn (T1, (b feed probiotics- Zymetin (T2 treated prawn, (c soil probiotics- Super PS (T3 treated prawn and (d Both Zymetin and Super PS (T4 treated prawn. Twelve ponds (each 120 m2 were used where stocking density was 2/m2 for all treatments and control and each was triplicated. After pond preparation, prawn PL was reared in the nursery pond for 45 days to become juvenile. At the time of stocking in growout ponds, average body weight of juvenile prawn was 1.04 g. After eight months (240 days of culture, the mean final weight became 39.5 ± 12.03, 43.4 ± 14.91, 48.0 ± 16.73 and 51.6 ± 15.58 g in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Significance difference was found among all treatments and T4 showed highest growth. The SGR was found to be 1.50 ± 0.13, 1.53 ± 0.13, 1.58 ± 0.13 and 1.61 ± 0.11 (%BW/day in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively and the difference was significant. The survival rate did not differ significantly but highest survival rate was found in T4 (90%. The average FCR was significantly lowest in T4 (1.39 and highest in T1 (1.9. The net average production was found to be significantly higher in T4 (914 kg/ha which was 35% and 21 % higher than the control group (T1 and feed probiotics (T2 respectively. Water and soil quality parameters were measured and were within the culturable range. The production of probiotics treated ponds was always higher than without probiotics treated ponds but highest growth and production were found in T4 where Zymetin and Super PS were used combinedly. The results of this study can be applied in the farmer’s pond to increase the total production of prawn in the country.

  7. 罗氏沼虾亲虾的能量代谢%Energy Metabolism of Adult Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小涛; 颉晓勇; 钟金香; 杨晓新

    2000-01-01

    在实验室中测定不同体质量(12.24~39.73g)和不同温度(20~32℃)条件下罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)亲虾的基础代谢,以探讨体质量和温度变化影响代谢的规律.结果表明,耗氧率(Ro)和氨氮排泄率(RN)随体质量(m)的增大而减少,其关系为Ro=1.6393m-0.4638和RN=0.79l5m-1.2780.体质量约20g的亲虾,其耗氧率和氨氮排泄率都随温度(θ)的升高而增大,其关系为Ro=0.169Oexp(0.1138θ)和RN=0.7×10-4exp(0.1981θ).不同体质量亲虾的能源物质(代谢底物)的供能比有显著性的差异,体质量最小的一组亲虾,主要以蛋白质为能源,但随着体质量的增大,蛋白质所占的比例有减少的趋势,而脂肪的比例增加.体质量最大的一组亲虾,脂肪取代蛋白质成为最主要的供能特质,另一方面,低温(20℃)条件下,亲虾主要以脂肪为能源,但随着温度的升高,脂肪所占的比例有减少的趋势,而蛋白质的比例增加.高温(32℃)条件下,蛋白质取代脂肪成为最主要的供能物质.

  8. De novo transcriptome sequencing analysis and comparison of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thanh, Hai; Zhao, Liangjie; Liu, Qigen

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog-ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we

  9. 罗氏沼虾产业在中国持续增长的经济与社会原因分析%Social and Economical Factors of Sustained Growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Industry in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国梁; 陈雪峰; 王军毅; 高强; 潘茜; 张宇飞

    2011-01-01

    It has been more than 30 years since the Macrobrachium rosenbergii,an exotic species,was first introduced into mainland China in 1976.Till 2009,China has had the biggest farming industry of this species in the world for ten years,with annual productions of over 25 billion postlarvae,135 thousand metric tons of grow-outs,the gross monetary value of the aquaculture is estimated to have reached over 3 billion RMB,and an allocation of 30 thousand hectares of farming area.The development of M.rosenbergii industry in China is sustained by:(1) the excellent biological characteristics of this species;(2)technological advances in prawn hatchery and grow-out farming;(3)fluctuation of marine shrimp farming;(4)economic development of China;(5) government policies.In conclusion,M.rosenbergii has some advantages: fast growth,short farming time,steady market,high profit,and now is one of the major cultivated shrimp species in China,the authors believe that M.rosenbergii farming is an effective way to overcome poverty and achieve prosperity for farmer in developing countries.%罗氏沼虾作为外来物种自1976年引入中国大陆已有30多年历史。到2009年,全国罗氏沼虾年育苗量达250×108尾以上,养殖面积约3×104 hm2,养殖产量超过13.5×104 t,养殖产值超3.0×109元,已连续10年成为世界第一的罗氏沼虾养殖大国。其持续增长的原因有:1、罗氏沼虾优良生物学特性是其产业发展的前提;2、苗种繁育和商品虾养殖技术的进步支撑了产业的发展;3、对虾养殖产业的波动为罗氏沼虾养殖产业的增长提供了机会;4、中国经济发展带动了国内罗氏沼虾的消费市场;5、政府支持和水产技术推广是罗氏沼虾产业发展的保障和技术支撑。罗氏沼虾生长迅速、养殖时间短、市场稳定、经济效益显著,已成为我国主要淡水养殖虾类。因此,推广罗氏沼虾的健康养殖应是农民脱贫致富的一条有效途径。

  10. STUDY ON EIGHT ENZYMES IN MUSCLES OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DEMAN)%罗氏沼虾肌肉8种同工酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琪; 何中央; 徐晓林; 李明云

    2004-01-01

    利用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术,对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)肌肉中的ADH,LDH,G6PDH,SOD,GDH,EST,AKP,ACP等8种同工酶进行分析,以期为其种质资源保护和开发以及遗传育种等方面的研究提供基础资料.结果表明,8种同工酶由17个基因位点所编码,其中G6pdh-1,Gdh-1和Est-3等3个基因位点具有多态现象.多态位点比例为17.6%.

  11. Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyi, S; Widart, J; Douny, C; Dang, P K; Baiwir, D; Wang, N; Tu, H T; Tung, V T; Phuong, N-T; Kestemont, P; Scippo, M-L

    2011-04-01

    Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 34, 142-152. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin (EF) and ciprofloxacin (CF) residues were investigated in the edible tissues of two important Asian aquacultured species such as Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Fish and prawn were treated with medicated feed with multiple doses of EF, in field conditions. A validation study of the analytical method was realized in terms of linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), recovery and decision limit (CCα). The time needed before the antibiotic disappears from animal tissues or reach the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100μg/kg) was assessed. The concentration values of EF detected in Tra catfish tissue were between the MRL and 2×MRL concentrations, according to the fish density, 7days following the end of the enrofloxacin treatment (20mg/kg body weight per day, for seven consecutive days). The concentration value of ER in prawn tissue was lower than the MRL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 14μg/kg) 5 and 7days after the stop of the EF treatment (50mg/kg body weight per day, for five consecutive days), respectively. The mean detected levels of CF was much lower in comparison with that of EF, indicating that only a small part of EF is metabolized into CF (Tra catfish and prawn. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. 耕水机在罗氏沼虾池塘养殖中的使用效果%The applicating effect of biofan to cultivate Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣福; 杨显祥; 孙龙生; 刘海平; 吴志强

    2012-01-01

    通过耕水机和叶轮式增氧机在罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)池塘养殖中使用效果的对比试验,分析了使用耕水机对罗氏沼虾养殖水体环境和养殖产出的影响.试验结果表明,耕水机使整个虾塘水体处于循环微流水状态,全面改善了养殖水体中溶氧分布,增加了虾塘中、下水层溶氧,保持了水体pH的稳定性,降低了水体中氨氮( NH4+ -N)、硫化氢(H2S)等有毒有害物质含量,改善了底层水体和底质淤泥状况,为罗氏沼虾创造了良好的生长环境,增加了养殖产量,提高了经济效益,并且节能降耗效果明显.%The contrast test about the application of biofan and paddle aerator in pond cultivation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was presented to study the influence of improving aquaculture environment and aquaculture benefit. The results showed that the application of biofan could make the pond water circulating to increase dissolved oxygen in the middle and bottom of the pond water effectively. It also could maintain the stability of the pH value, reduce harmful substances of NH4 + -N and H2S to improve water and sediment state in the bottom of pond water which provided suitable growth environment to improve the feeding rate and digestibility, so aquaculture production and economic benefits were raised. Meanwhile, the effect of energy saving and consumption reducing was obvious.

  13. Ablação ocular no camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae): efeitos sobre a reprodução, pigmentação epidérmica e atividade alimentar

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel José Martins dos Santos; Marcelo Antônio Amaro Pinheiro

    2000-01-01

    This study analyze the consequences of unilateral and bilateral ablation based on ovigerous percentage, consecutive spawns, and secondary effects of the surgical process in the females of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). Two experiments were carried out with four and seven months old females in intermolt stage. Each experiment was comprised of control, unilateral and bilateral ablation. Eyestalk ablation was done with a bistoury with a topic hot cauterization followed by application ...

  14. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, in Brazil: new insights from molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Iketani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

  15. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketani, Gabriel; Pimentel, Luciana; Silva-Oliveira, Glaúcia; Maciel, Cristiana; Valenti, Wagner; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2011-01-01

    The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

  16. Effect of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infection on caspase 3c expression and activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-01-01

    Caspase 3c (MrCasp3c) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrCasp3c consisted of 2080 bp nucleotide encoded 521 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 59 kDa. MrCasp3c sequence contains caspase family p20 domain profile and caspase family p10 domain profile at 236-367 and 378-468 respectively. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrCasp3c with the highest expression in haemocyte and the lowest in stomach. The expression of MrCasp3c after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in haemocyte. In addition, MrCasp3c was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The enzyme activity of MrCasp3c was also found to be up-regulated by IHHNV in haemocyte and hepatopancreas tissues. This study suggested that MrCasp3c may be an effector caspase associated with the induction of apoptosis which is potentially involved in the immune defence of M. rosenbergii.

  17. Effects of Temperature and Water Soluble Fraction of Palm Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel on Hatchability and Survival of First Stage Larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puncharas Gorcharoenwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of temperature and water soluble fraction (WSF of biodiesel and diesel on hatchability and survival of early stage Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated at the temperature of 25, 28, 31 and 34oC. The purpose of this study was to determine toxic effects of biodiesel and diesel on incubation period, hatchability, and survival of the first larval stage. The results showed a significant difference of incubation period among temperatures. The highest temperature (34°C resulted in the shortest incubation period (15 days while the lowest temperature (25°C gave the longest incubation period (19 days. One hundred percent of hatchability was found at temperature 28 and 31°C in the control group. The lowest hatchability occurred at 100% of WSF of palm biodiesel. The hatchability and survival of eggs through the first stage larvae in control and WSF of biodiesel decreased in higher temperature. However, in 50% WSF of diesel, the highest temperature (34°C increased the hatchability and survival whereas 100% WSF of diesel, no larval survival could be found. In comparison between WSF of biodiesel and diesel on newly hatched larvae, the diesel was more toxic to the larvae than that of the biodiesel. Regarding temperature and WSF of biodiesel and diesel effects on the first larval stage of M. rosenbergii, clearly diesel was more harmful to the larvae than biodiesel.

  18. Variation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ovaries and its effects on ovarian maturation and oocyte proliferation in the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sugiyama, Eiji; Soonklang, Nantawan; Meeratana, Prasert; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important bioactive mediators for many physiological functions. In some decapod crustaceans, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been detected in reproductive organs, and may play a role in the control of ovarian maturation. However, in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the presences of PGE2 and key enzymes for PGE2 biosynthesis, as well as its effects on ovarian maturation have not yet been investigated. In this study we reported the presence of PGE2, cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the ovarian tissues of M. rosenbergii, using immunohistochemistry. Intense immunoreactivities of PGE2 (PGE2-ir), COX1 (Cox1-ir) and PGES (PGES-ir) were detected in previtellogenic oocytes (Oc1 and Oc2), while the immunoreactivities were absent in the late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc4). This finding supports the hypothesis that the PGE2 biosynthesis occurs in the ovary of this prawn. To ascertain this finding we used LC-MS/MS to quantitate PGE2 concentrations during ovarian developmental cycle. The levels of PGE2 were significantly higher in the early ovarian stages (St I and II) than in the late stages (St III and IV). Moreover, we found that administration of PGE2 stimulated the ovarian maturation in this species by shortening the length of the ovarian cycle, increasing ovarian-somatic index, oocyte proliferation, and vitellogenin (Vg) level in the hemolymph.

  19. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  20. Effects of Two Dietary Lipid Sources at Two Levels on the Survival, Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chul kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 10 week feeding trial was conducted to investigate dietary crude palm oil (CPO or squid liver oil (SLO, at 3.5% (low or 9.5% (high as a 2 × 2 factorial design on survival, growth and whole body fatty acid composition of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  Growth performance was lowest and highest for prawns fed the CPO-low and SLO-high diets, respectively.  While prawns fed the CPO-high diet had lower growth than those fed the SLO-low diet, no significant differences were detected.  Significant interactions were found for oleic acid, arachidonic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and n-3/n-6 PUFA, while long chain PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid of the prawns were significantly lower when fed the CPO-based diets.  Lower growth of M. rosenbergii fed the CPO-based diets may be related to less favorable fatty acid ratios and/ or lowered digestibility but higher dietary CPO can help mitigate this. 

  1. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  2. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (Pgrowth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (Pgrowth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (Pmuscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. THE EFFECT OF INBREEDING ON THE EARLY PERFORMANCE OF FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression has often been considered to be responsible for the deterioration of performance in aquaculture species. Despite a crucial impact that may result from inbreeding depression, comprehensive information reviewing this subject is limited. This study was aimed to gain information on the effect of inbreeding on the early performance of freshwater prawn. The study was performed by comparing performance of inbred and outbred populations. Inbred population was established by brother-sister mating (inbreeding rate of 25% while the outbred population was formed by mating unrelated individuals. Several fitness and productivity related traits including survival, the rate of larval development, stage dispersion and growth of larvae were evaluated. Results suggest that inbred families performed poorer than that of the outbred in survival. However, inbreeding depression did not seem to occur in other traits including the rate of larval development, larval stage dispersion and growth. This study implies that to maintain genetic quality of farmed prawn stocks, inbreeding rate in farmed population must be controlled not to exceed that level. Implications that these findings may have on aquaculture practices and possible alternatives for the solutions are discussed.

  4. Studies on reproductive parameters in the hybrid offspring of protospecies of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%原种罗氏沼虾杂交后代的繁殖参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范忠刚; 屈长青; 邓潜; 赵永贞; 张彬

    2014-01-01

    为改良中国的罗氏沼虾种质资源,了解原种罗氏沼虾的杂交后代是否具有一定的杂交优势,以孟加拉引进种群Macrobrachium rosenbergii dacqueti ( Sunier,1925年)和越南引进种群 Macrobrachium rosenbergii rosenbergii ( De Man,1879年)为父母本做正、反杂交,并对杂交组合的繁殖参数进行统计分析;了解了正反杂交母本的怀卵量,受精率,体重相对繁殖力,体长相对繁殖力及受精卵规格。结果表明,正反交各杂交组的各项繁殖参数的平均值组间差异不显著( P>0.05),受精卵粒规格达到941.9~976.2粒/g。更大的卵粒会发育成更大的幼体,有助于提高种群的生存能力。%To improve the germplasm resources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China , the hybrid offspring of protospecies was studied to understand their heterosis.The species introduced from Bangladesh(M.rosenbergii dacqueti)and Vietnam(M.rosenbergii rosenber-gii) were selected as the parents to conduct positive , reverse hybridization , and the reproductive parameters of hybridized combination were analyzed by statistic .Parameters such as the fecundity , fertilization rate , relative weight fecundity , relative body length fecundity and the fertilized egg size of female parent in the positive , reverse hybridization were studied .The reproductive parameters mean in each positive , reverse cross combinations was not significant in this study ( P>0.05 ) , and the fertilized egg size of the hybrid combina-tions reached to 941.9 -976.2 seeds per gram .The greater eggs could develop into greater larvae which could help to enhance the vi -ability of the population .

  5. Evaluation of paraprobiotic applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum in improving the immune response and disease protection in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Gyanaranjan; Raman, Ram Prakash; Pani Prasad, K; Makesh, M; Pradeep, M A; Sen, Swatipriyanka

    2015-03-01

    Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight ± SE: 0.54 ± 0.03 g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387 kcal 100 g(-1)) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (10(7) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB2 (10(8) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB3 (10(9) cfu g(-1) diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P 0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P 0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L. plantarum at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1) diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune parameters and disease resistance of M. rosenbergii in the laboratory condition.

  6. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii.

  7. Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806μM, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606μM) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696μM of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176μM and 0.168μM, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133μM in hemocytes and 0.272μM in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion.

  8. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles for Better Survival and Growth of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veeran; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Rajkumar, Gopalan; Satgurunathan, Thangavelu; Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-10-05

    This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0.04 g) for a period of 90 days. In the carcasses of experimental prawns, the content of Mg was found to be elevated significantly with respect to the individual diet (102.14, 183.29, 205.46, 221.03, 237.10 and 254.36 μg Mg g(-1) respectively) when compared with that of the control. The contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na and K levels were also found to be elevated in the carcasses of experimental prawns. Significant (P MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL. There were no significant elevations recorded in activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metabolic enzymes [glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)] recorded in any of the MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed increases in the staining intensity of polypeptide bands resolved in 500 mg kg(-1) MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Based on the gradual improvement in attaining survival, growth, FCR, biochemical constituents and haemocyte population, this study recommends MgO NP supplementation of 500 mg kg(-1) for sustainable maintenance of M. rosenbergii PL. As the studied highest concentration of MgO NPs showed the best performance, it is necessary to study with beyond 500 mg kg(-1) of MgO NPs to optimize the actual concentration.

  10. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  11. Virus-like particle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells is distinctive from that produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Chare Li; Yong, Chean Yeah; Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Soon Guan; Tan, Wen Siang

    2016-11-14

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is a virus native to giant freshwater prawn. Recombinant MrNV capsid protein has been produced in Escherichia coli, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, this recombinant protein is unstable, degrading and forming heterogenous VLPs. In this study, MrNV capsid protein was produced in insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells through a baculovirus system. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the recombinant protein produced by the insect cells self-assembled into highly stable, homogenous VLPs each of approximately 40 nm in diameter. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were highly antigenic and comparable to those produced in E. coli. In addition, the Sf9 produced VLPs were highly stable across a wide pH range (2-12). Interestingly, the Sf9 produced VLPs contained DNA of approximately 48 kilo base pairs and RNA molecules. This study is the first report on the production and characterization of MrNV VLPs produced in a eukaryotic system. The MrNV VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were about 10 nm bigger and had a uniform morphology compared with the VLPs produced in E. coli. The insect cell production system provides a good source of MrNV VLPs for structural and immunological studies as well as for host-pathogen interaction studies. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2016.

  12. C-terminal domain on the outer surface of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid is required for Sf9 cell binding and internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somrit, Monsicha; Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Ounjai, Puey; Suntimanawong, Wanida; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2017-01-02

    We have shown that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to infect Sf9 cells and that MrNV virus-like particles (MrNV-VLPs) were capable nanocontainers for delivering nucleic acid-based materials. Here, we demonstrated that chymotryptic removal of a C-terminal peptide and its truncated variant (F344-MrNV-VLPs) exhibited a drastically reduced ability to interact and internalize into Sf9 cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed that the loss of C-terminal domain either from enzyme hydrolysis or genetic truncation did not affect the generated MrNV-VLPs' icosahedral conformation, but did drastically affect the VLPs' internalization ability into Sf9 cells. Homology-based modelling of the MrNV capsid with other icosahedral capsid models revealed that this chymotrypsin-sensitive C-terminal domain was not only exposed on the capsid surface, but also constituted the core of the viral capsid protrusion. These results therefore suggest the importance of the C-terminal domain as a structure for targeted cell interaction which is presumably localized at the protruding domain. This work thus provided the functional insights into the role of the MrNV C-terminal domain in viral entry into Sf9 cells and lead to the development of strategies in combatting MrNV infection in susceptible cells.

  13. The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-11-01

    Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (Prosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research.

  14. Characterization of a novel nm23 gene and its potential roles in gametogenesis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ya-Nan; Lu, Cui-Yun; Chen, Jie; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-11-15

    Nm23 is a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, which functions in a wide variety of biological processes, including growth, development, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a novel nm23 gene, designated as Mrnm23, was identified from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA was 776bp in length, encoding for a protein of 176 amino acids with one typical NDP kinase domain that harbored all the crucial residues for nucleotide binding and enzymatic activity. Like human novel nm23-H1B, the putative protein contained a unique 21-amino-acid NH2-terminal extension as compared to human nm23 (nm23-H1) homologs. Further, 3 extra amino acid residues prolonged the COOH-terminus. The Mrnm23 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, including androgenic gland, gill, heart, liver, muscle, ovary, and testis. In situ hybridization to gonad sections indicated that the Mrnm23 mRNA was localized in the cytoplasm of cup-base of differentiating spermatids, in the spike of the umbrella-shaped spermatozoa and in the cytoplasm of the early previtellogenic oocytes, suggesting that the Mrnm23 has potential roles in spermiogenesis and early differentiation of oocyte.

  15. Use of artificial substrate in pond culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a new approach regarding growth performance and economic return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Milky Tuly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted for six months to evaluate the effects of artificial substrates on the survival, growth and production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles. The treatment T1 contained locally available bamboo-made substrate both vertical and horizontal and treatment T2 received no substrate. Juvenile prawns (0.40±0.13 g were stocked at the rate of 19,760 prawns ha-1. The water quality parameters range such as temperature, pH and DO were 22.06-33.45°C, 7.70-8.40 and 4.75-6.15 mgl-1 respectively which was no significant difference (P0.05 than T2 (56.87%. The specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were 1.19 % and 1.14 %, 3.15 and 4.39, 0.98 and 0.71 in T1 and T2 respectively which were not significantly different (P0.05 than T2. Thus growth and survival of prawn juveniles improved in presence of artificial substrate which could be economically viable technique for the freshwater prawn culture.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL E COMPOSIÇÃO PROXIMAL DE CAMARÕES DE ÁGUA DOCE Macrobrachium rosenbergii DEFUMADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of smoking and the presence of aromatic herbs on the quality of freshwater prawns muscle (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, through the analysis of sensory characteristics and proximate composition. Fifty-five freshwater thermally stunned prawns, with average weight of 33.9 ± 13.49g, were used. After cephalothoraxes and carapaces removal, the freshwater prawns were washed, weighed, identified, immersed in brine solution (20% and then smoked at a temperature of 50 to 90°C. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (T1 = smoked freshwater prawns with herbs; T2 = smoked freshwater prawns without herbs, with 25 experimental units per treatment. After smoking, samples were frozen (-18 C for proximate composition analysis and portions were sensorially evaluated by 40 tasters based on a simple stimulus method. The smoked freshwater prawns showed medium values of crude protein (44.72%, total lipids (1.39% and ashes (3.04% comparatively higher than the values of the in natura freshwater prawns (16.80%, 0.30% and 0.89%, respectively. The aromatic herbs did not affect significantly the proximate composition of smoked freshwater prawns and their use did not interfere on the sensory characteristics evaluated. The smoked freshwater prawns had a good acceptance by the taster.

  17. 罗氏沼虾繁殖前的技术处理%Some factors and methods about macrobrachium rosenbergii in reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗永

    2000-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium Rosenbergii)又称马来西亚长臂大虾、淡水大虾等,是淡水虾中个体最大、养殖最广的虾类这一.近几年来,罗氏沼虾的虾苗生产在我国一些省市发展较快,对我国罗氏沼虾的养殖起了很好的促进作用.但在虾苗生产过程中许多育苗场产量时高时低,质量时好时坏.造成这种现象的原因除了幼体培育的因素外,一个重要的原因就是亲虾培育工作没做好,造成抱卵亲虾质量差、数量不足.笔者通过生产实践和观察,认为影响抱卵亲虾数量和质量的因素主要有以下几个方面:

  18. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species.

  19. Structure of the olfactory receptor organs, their GABAergic neural pathways, and modulation of mating behavior, in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Anuracpreeda, Panat; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-06-01

    In the giant male prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the olfactory system is thought to be the main pathway for modulating sexual behavior through pheromone perception. In this report, we first used gross anatomical, histological, and SEM methods to describe the structures of the olfactory receptors (sensilla setae), their neural pathways, and possible role in modulating mating behavior. On the surfaces of antennule and antenna filaments there are four types of sensory receptors, viz single spike-like setae, single flagellum-like setae, multiple flagella-like setae, and aesthetascs (ASs). The ASs, which had previously been proposed to be odor receptor setae, are found only on the short filament of lateral antennule (slAn). Each AS on the slAn connects with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), whose axons form an outer central antennule nerve (ocAnNv), which then connects with the olfactory neutrophil (ON) of the brain. Thus, the slAn is the major olfactory organ that conveys sensory inputs from each AS to the ON within the deutocerebrum. GABA immunoreactivity was present in ASs, neurons of ORNs, inner central antennular, lateral tegumentary nerve, ocAnNv and the ON, inferring that GABA is the likely neurotransmitter in modulating olfaction. Disruption of the slAn by ablation or covering with Vaseline, resulted in significant reduction of mating behavior, indicating that this organ is crucial for sex pheromone perception. Identification of the active pheromones and further bioassays are now being performed.

  20. L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

    1991-01-01

    Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

  1. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alinejad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV. During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns.

  2. Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-12-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ).

  3. 罗氏沼虾白尾病研究进展%Review on white tail disease of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈之航; 董浚键; 叶星

    2015-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是重要的淡水养殖虾类,其养殖主要集中在亚洲国家,仅中国罗氏沼虾的养殖年产量就占全球总产量的50%以上.虽然罗氏沼虾具有相对较强的抗病能力,但近年由于养殖密度过大、水环境恶化等原因,导致罗氏沼虾养殖过程病害问题时有发生,其中白尾病对罗氏沼虾幼苗期造成的危害较大.综述了罗氏沼虾白尾病的病原及传播、检测技术和免疫预防等方面的研究进展.

  4. The cloning of the cdk2 transcript and the localization of its expression during gametogenesis in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Ping; Li, Zhen; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis.

  5. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns.

  6. 罗氏沼虾仔虾耗氧率与窒息点的初步测定%Determination of the Oxygen Consumption Rate and Suffocation Point of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琴; 黄景; 王邕

    2002-01-01

    在室内条件下测定了体重、温度对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)仔虾耗氧率与窒息点的影响.结果表明,仔虾的耗氧率与窒息点随体重的增加而降低,耗氧率与体重呈负相关的幂指数关系;耗氧率、窒息点随温度的升高而增加.

  7. 罗氏沼虾脑神经元细胞体群的研究%Studies on the Cell Body Clusters of the Brain Neurons of the Prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦照萍; 廖家遗

    2000-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)脑的神经元的细胞体在脑的表面聚集成细胞体群.根据细胞体群所在位置及细胞体的突起的走向的不同可将细胞体群分成9群:前、中、后脑各3群.各细胞体群的大小及形成细胞体群的细胞体的大小在各群之间也有一定的差别.

  8. The acute modulation of norepinephrine on immune responses and genes expressions via adrenergic receptors in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), immunocompetent parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Lactococcus garvieae), and prophenoloxidase (proPO) system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein, LGBP; prophenoloxidase, proPO; peroxinectin, PE; α2-macroglobulin, α2-M) expressions were investigated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii received NE through injection at 50 pmol/prawn after 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. Furthermore, the PO activity, RB, SOD activity, phagocytic activity and proPO system-related genes expressions were determined in haemocytes incubated with cacodylate buffer (CAC), NE, and NE co-treated with various adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists in vitro. Results showed that NE, THC, granular cells, PO activity, SOD activity, proPO system-related genes expressions, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae increased; PO activity per granulocyte and RB per haemocyte decreased from 30 to 120 min; semigranular cells and RB increased in the initial 30 min, and then decreased at 120 min when the prawns received NE by injection. In vitro studies, all the determined immune parameters and genes expressions were significantly decreased in haemocytes incubated with NE after 30 min. The negative effects of NE were prevented on the PO activity and phagocytic activity by the β-AR antagonist of metoprolol (Met), on the SOD activity by the β-AR antagonist of propranolol (Pro), on the RB by the β-AR antagonist of Met and prazosin (Pra), and on the proPO system-related genes expressions by α-AR antagonist of Pra. These results show that NE modulates prawn haemocytes proPO system-related genes expressions via α1-AR, PO activity and phagocytosis via β1-AR, respiratory burst via α1-and β1-ARs, and SOD activity via β2-AR. It is concluded that NE stimulates the regulation of immunocompetence parameters

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its transcription in relation to foreign material injection and the molt stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2009-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) complementary (c)DNA was cloned from the hepatopancreas of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1389 bp encoding a protein of 378 amino acids (aa) including a 15-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (363 aa) was 41.2 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.73. The M. rosenbergii LGBP sequence contains (1) three putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) a putative N-glycosylation site, (4) four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, (5) four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, and (6) a putative recognition motif. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of LGBP of M. rosenbergii had overall similarities of 60-71% to those of known crustacean LGBPs and beta-1,3-glucan-binding proteins (BGBPs). The LGBP of M. rosenbergii was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The LGBP transcript of M. rosenbergii was downregulated in haemocytes, but was upregulated in the hepatopancreas when injected with LPS and poly:IC after 12 h. The LGBP messenger (m)RNA expression of prawns in the postmolt stage was significantly upregulated in haemocytes, but downregulated in the hepatopancreas, which revealed a complementary relationship between haemocytes and the hepatopancreas in the molt cycle.

  10. Duplex RT-PCR detection and sequences comparison of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii dicistrovirus%罗氏沼虾野田村病毒和双顺反子病毒双重RT-PCR检测方法与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓艺; 袁雪梅; 刘杜鹃; 沈锦玉; 张宇飞; 蔺凌云; 王军毅; 郝贵杰; 姚嘉赟; 徐洋

    2012-01-01

    罗氏沼虾野田村病毒(Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus,MrNV)和双顺反子病毒(M.rosenbergii dicistrovirus,MrDV)是已报道对罗氏沼虾易感的主要致病性病毒,该研究通过建立双重RT-PCR方法对MrDV和MrNV两种病毒同时进行检测。根据MrDV和MrNV基因组序列的保守区分别设计特异性引物,并对双重PCR的退火温度和引物浓度进行优化,在获得优化反应体系和反应条件后,对罗氏沼虾样品进行检测。结果表明,双重PCR最佳退火温度为60℃,反应体系最佳引物终浓度MrNV384为0.1μmol/L,MrDV472为0.05μmol/L,对病样总RNA的最低检测限为360fg。引物的特异性检测表明,该检测方法对TSV、WSSV、IHHNV和嗜水气单胞菌TPS-30基因组无交叉反应。对阳性样品的病毒扩增序列分析表明,MrDV RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶编码区序列无变异,MrNV-RNA2序列存在较多变异,进化树结果表明2011年长三角的MrNV病毒主要来自于中国基因型和东南亚基因型。该方法的建立为罗氏沼虾病毒性疾病的预防和种苗的繁育奠定了基础。%Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus(MrNV) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii dicistrovirus(MrDV) are the main viral pathogens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.In order to detect the two viruses,two pairs of primers targeted sequences located within the MrNV capsid protein gene and MrDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase(RDRP) gene amplified amplicons of 384 bp and 472 bp,respectively.The reaction conditions of the duplex RT-PCR were optimized and PCR products were sequenced.Meanwhile,the specificity and sensitivity of duplex RT-PCR were studied.Results reveal that optimum annealing temperature of duplex RT-PCR is 60 ℃ and the minimum concentrations of primers are 0.1 μmol/L of MrNV384 and 0.05 μmol/L of MrDV472.The detection limit of duplex RT-PCR was determined to be 360 fg of tissue total RNA for both the viruses.The two pairs of primers were found to be specific to MrNV and Mr

  11. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad 5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  12. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad  5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  13. Molecular characterization and immunological response analysis of a novel transferrin-like, pacifastin heavy chain protein in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, Aung; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2012-10-01

    The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with β-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals.

  14. Eficiência da eletroejaculação de morfotipos machos do camarão-de-água-doce Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Rubens Sterental

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade da técnica de eletroejaculação para manejos de inseminação artificial, bem como o potencial ejaculatório de cada um dos tipos morfológicos de machos adultos do Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Estímulos elétricos foram aplicados em 48 exemplares de camarão-de-água-doce, recém capturados em viveiros de engorda, para melhor compreensão do comportamento reprodutivo de cada um: os de quela azul (BC, sexualmente ativos e dominantes; os de quela laranja (OC, sexualmente inativos; e os pequenos (SM, com comportamento oportunista, os quais somente realizam a cópula, caso a corte da fêmea tenha sido previamente realizada por um macho BC. Não houve diferença entre as freqüências de ejaculação observadas para machos OC e BC, que foram 85 e 100%, respectivamente, demonstrando que os primeiros possuem potencial fisiológico para a cópula. A freqüência de 46,2%, nos testes de eletroejaculação bem sucedidos para os indivíduos SM, foi mais baixa em relação aos outros dois morfotipos. A freqüência de 79,2% de ejaculações, obtida entre o total de animais usados, demonstrou o potencial dessa técnica para a obtenção de espermatóforos em quantidade suficiente para a manutenção de fêmeas ovadas em épocas de baixas temperaturas.

  15. Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasindh Hangsapreurke

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs, the brooders in each salinity were separately transferred to the hatching tank with 15 ppt saline water for the second part of the study. After hatching, the healthy larvae from the brooders which were previously incubated in 3 levels of salinity were collected for the larviculture experiment. The closed recirculating water system with trickling filter unit packed with fiberglass and bioballs was used as incubation and larviculture units. The metamorphosis period and survival rate were examined. The rearing water from each larviculture aquarium was collected for determination of sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. The result showed that the percentage of ripe berried females (with heart beating stage embryos were not significantly different (p>0.05 between 5 and 15 ppt salinity but their values were significantly higher (p0.05 in the survival rate of post larvae and metamorphosis period among the treatments. The first post larvae stage occurred on the 26th day. During 30 days of larviculture, the survival rate of all treatments was 100% until the 19th day, after which it suddenly decreased. When the concentrations of the ions in the rearing water were determined in all treatments, it was found that the concentration of magnesium ions rapidly declined (p0.05. The low survival rate during the final stage of larviculture might be due to the depletion of the previously mentioned ions especially that of magnesium.

  16. 罗氏沼虾活虾无水运输研究%Studies on the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii live transportation without using water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宁

    2009-01-01

    基于日本对虾等甲壳类以无水方式活体运输有增加运销渠道及提供优质产品等优点,进行了3次罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)活虾无水运输模拟试验.运输容器为聚苯乙烯盒,填充物为浸水海绵及木屑.结果表明:以海绵作填充物的1 kg容量聚苯乙烯盒(分上下层,共20尾虾)试验结果显示,试验虾的存活率初眷远高于仲夏,初春高达91.7%,仲夏只有74%;在仲夏时,以6 kg容量的大盒(排列4层共80尾虾)试验结果显示,木屑组存活率(75.4%)高于海绵组(63.5%),但若在只有单层排列的小盒中(每盒各20尾),则海绵组存活率(74%)高于木屑组(68.7%),此结果与木屑及海绵的特性有关.本研究证实罗氏沼虾活虾无水运输确实可行.

  17. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections.

  18. Efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento y alimentación de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus y langostino (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron tres experimentos para analizar el efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento de juveniles de tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticusy de langostino de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii . Los experimentos se realizaron en condiciones de laboratorio, minimizando de esta manera los efectos indirectos del probiótico sobre la calidad del agua y manteniendo únicamente los posibles efectos bactericidas y de apoyo a la digestión.También se diseñó un modelo de estrés en tilapia para comparar el efecto con individuos en situación normal.La dosis del probiotico en el alimento tratado en todos los casos fue de 0.1%(5x10 8 CFU/g y 99.9%maltrinaen la dieta seca.Cada 14 días se pesaron en grupo y se contaron los animales de cada acuario (tilapias ±0.1 g, langostinos ±0.001 gobteniéndose el peso promedio individual.En el primer experimento (tilapiasel crecimiento y la utilización del alimento fueron un poco peores en relación con el factor probiótico,pero las diferencias no fueron significativas.En el segundo experimento (tilapias tanto la tasa específica de crecimiento como el factor de conversión empeoraron con la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta;la diferencia fue significativa al 94%,apenas por debajo del 95%que se utiliza por convención estadística.El factor estrés,por el contrario,provocó un notable empeoramiento tanto del crecimiento como del factor de conversión.En el experimento con langostinos la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta provocó un ligero deterioro del crecimiento y de la utilización del alimento,con una probabilidad de error menor del 10%en el caso del crecimiento.Durante el experimento debieron prevalecer los efectos directos sobre el sistema digestivo de los animales experimentales,ya sea por aporte de macro-y micronutrientes o de enzimas que contribuyen a la digestión.El efecto negativo por la inclusión del probiótico fue pequeño (alrededor de un 10%en la tasa espec

  19. Effect of different levels of Chlorella meal on growth and survival of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suniza Anis Mohamad Sukri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment in triplicate group of prawn (30 prawn per group with an initial weight of 2.5-2.6 g, were fed until apparent satiation with 32% crude protein diet containing various Chlorella levels ranging from 0 to 10% (Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and Diet IV for 56 days. At the end of the feeding trial, prawn given Diet IV gave the optimum growth and percentage survival which also contributed to the best feed efficiency. There was no significant difference in FCR in all treatments (p<0.05. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in growth rate among treatments and prawns fed Diet IV had the highest weight gain (WG and specific growth rate (SGR (3.58 g and 1.54 %/day, respectively. The percentage survival of M. rosenbergii ranged from 63-86% and similar by, prawn fed Diet IV had the highest survival with a value of 86%

  20. Ablação ocular no camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: efeitos sobre a reprodução, pigmentação epidérmica e atividade alimentar Eyestalk ablation in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: effects on reproduction, epidermic pigmentation and feeding activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel José Martins dos Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the consequences of unilateral and bilateral ablation based on ovigerous percentage, consecutive spawns, and secondary effects of the surgical process in the females of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879. Two experiments were carried out with four and seven months old females in intermolt stage. Each experiment was comprised of control, unilateral and bilateral ablation. Eyestalk ablation was done with a bistoury with a topic hot cauterization followed by application of antibiotic pomades. The animals were maintained at constant temperature (28 ± 1,05ºC and photoperiod of 12L: 12D within fibercement boxes with sandy bottom and biological filter. Females were observed once a day during fourteen weeks, registering gonadal condition, ecdysis and presence of spermatophore (mating and spawning. Unilateral ablation technique is more efficient due to the anticipation of the first spawn, repeatability between spawns, expressive rate of ovigerous females and survival, that favored its applicability. Bilateral eyestalk ablation produced the mortality of ali the females with change in coloration and food activity patterns. These results corroborate other observations on penaeid shrimps. though bilateral ablation on some lobsters was a success. These results showing an interespecific variation and can be used in aquaculture projects.

  1. Changes of phosphatidylcholine and fatty acids in germ cells during testicular maturation in three developmental male morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity.

  2. Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Changes of phosphatidylcholine and fatty acids in germ cells during testicular maturation in three developmental male morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapan Siangcham

    Full Text Available Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, especially arachidonic acid (ARA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells, B (STs with mostly spermatids, and C (STs with spermatozoa], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM, orange claw male (OC, and blue claw male (BC]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1, PC (18:0/18:2, PC (18:2/20:5, and PC (16:0/22:6 in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5 in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity.

  4. The EM Observation on the Myelinated Nerve Fiber of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Radiated by He-Ne Laser%He-Ne激光照射罗氏沼虾腹髓鞘神经纤维的电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚泊; 黄丽宜; 曹爱娣; 梁美玉

    2005-01-01

    用He-Ne激光照射罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)的腹髓鞘神经纤维,结果表明,神经胶质细胞为不规则形,核的一端较大,另一端分叉,半包裹着轴突,呈蝴蝶形,核的横轴直径为3.07μm, 轴突直径为1.53 μm;在髓鞘中普遍出现增厚的膜层结构,且膜层结构厚薄不一,具有高嗜锇性、电子密度大,正常的膜层厚度为33.33 nm,增厚的膜层厚度可达100 nm.在两膜层之间存在着许多颗粒状物质.

  5. Muscle tissues ultrapathological changes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii suffering "white-body" disease%罗氏沼虾"白体病"肌肉组织的超微病理变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛宁; 袁莉民

    2005-01-01

    在江苏扬州的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)养殖区,选取具"白体病"典型症状的活体仔虾和幼虾,对其腹部肌肉的病变部位进行显微和超微结构观察,未见病原生物;光镜下未见明显病理变化;其超微病理变化主要在病程中后期可见,病变部位肌丝断解、形成肌溶灶;线粒体变性、并呈空泡化;特别是肌原纤维间脂滴明显增多,呈串珠状排列.分析该病可能是一种线粒体肌病,属脂质沉积性肌病.

  6. 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒(IHHNV)的流行病学调查%EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS HYPODERMAL AND HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS IN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范东东; 魏永伟; 苗亮; 陈炯

    2015-01-01

    传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒(infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus,IHHNV)是对虾养殖的重要病原之一,可感染多种虾种.罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是中国养殖的重要沼虾品种之一.根据国际兽疫局(Office International des Epizooties,OIE)推荐的IHHNV 检测方法,在中国大陆地区首次开展IHHNV在罗氏沼虾中的感染和流行情况调查.结果显示,在研究区的罗氏沼虾养殖区,IHHNV广泛流行,阳性率高达90%;但所有成年罗氏沼虾均未表现出明显的病症,仅表现为病毒的携带.通过基因序列分析显示,检测到的华南地区毒株属于Ⅰ型感染株,与菲律宾株进化关系较为接近;华东地区毒株属于Ⅱ型感染株,与东南亚株进化关系较近.本研究为IHHNV在罗氏沼虾内的感染、流行和防控提供了详细参考.

  7. 罗氏沼虾仔虾病原菌的分离鉴定及耐药性试验%Drug Resistance and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星; 赵笑笑; 李阳阳; 徐梦; 梁利国; 张晓君

    2011-01-01

    从病(死)罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)仔虾的匀浆液中分离到了一株大量生长的优势菌,感染试验表明分离菌对罗氏沼虾仔虾有较强的致病作用.对分离菌进行了形态、培养、生化和理化等表现生物学特性检验,同时对该菌进行了分子生物学鉴定,扩增了该菌的gyrB基因和16S rRNA基因并进行测序和序列同源性分析.综合分离菌的表型特征、理化特性及分子生物学鉴定结果,判定病原菌为气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)的嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila).采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)测试了分离株对44种抗菌类药物的敏感性,结果表明,供试菌均对所测定的44种抗菌类药物中的氨曲南等24种药物敏感.对青霉素G等8种药物耐药.%The dominant bacteria were obtained from diseased juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii and strong pathogenicity to M. rosenbergii were determined by immersion. The phenotypie characteristics of the isolate strain were examined, including morphological characteristics, and physical and chemical characteristics; the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes were amplified by PCR and compared with sequences deposited in database. The isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila based on comprehensive analysis of their phenotepie and molecular characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that the isolates exhibited susceptible to 24 kinds of agents (eg. astreonam), resistant to 8 agents (eg. penicillin G) by disc diffusion method (K-B).

  8. Efeito da composição iônica da água do mar artificial no desenvolvimento de larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4484 Effect of artificial seawater ionic composition on the development of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879 [Crustacea, Decapoda] at the larval stage II - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4484

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Mallasen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a importância da presença na água dos íons Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, Br-, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO42-, S2O32-, Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+ e Cu2+ para o desenvolvimento do Macrobrachium rosenbergii no estágio larval II. Aplicou-se um teste de inanição, que consistiu na estocagem das larvas em béqueres contendo 15ml de água salobra (12‰, de diferentes composições iônicas. A cada 8 horas contou-se o número de larvas vivas e calculou-se o tempo médio de vida em todos os tratamentos. Os elementos Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO42- e S2O32- não influenciaram o tempo de vida das larvas. O K+ e o Ca2+ foram os íons mais importantes para o desenvolvimento das larvas, seguidos pelo Br- e pelo HCO3-, respectivamente, a presença desses íons no meio é indispensável e as larvas devem apresentar mecanismos eficientes de absorção desses elementos.The importance of the ions Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, Br-, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO42-, S2O32-, Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ in water on the development of Macrobrachium rosenbergii at the larval stage II was evaluated. A starvation test was applied. It consisted in keeping larvae of M. rosenbergii in beakers containing 15ml of brackish water (12‰ with different ionic compositions. In order to estimate average life time, larvae which survived the treatment were counted every eight hours. Elements Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+,Cu2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO4M2- and S2O32 were not effective on the larvae life time, whereas K and Ca2+ were the most important ions for larvae development, followed by Br- and HCO3-, respectively. These ions are indispensable in water and larvae must have an efficient mechanism to absorb them.

  9. Enterobacteria and Vibrio from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoel de Arajo Neto Paiva; Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro; Andr Jalles Monteiro; Jos Jlio Costa Sidrim; Marcos Fbio Gadelha Rocha; Jamille Alencar Sales; Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes; Yago Brito de Ponte; Clia Maria de Souza Sampaio; Jos Luciano Bezerra Moreira; Lucas Pereira de Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the isolation of enterobacteria associated with Macrobrachium amazonicum (M. amazonicum) farming and evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio strains. Methods: Strains were isolated from female M. amazonicum prawns and environmental and hatchery water. Biochemical assays were used to identify bacterial genera and those belonging to the genus Vibrio were submitted to further analyses for species identification, through Vitek 2 automated system and serotyping. Susceptibility test was performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The following genera of enterobacteria were recovered: Enterobacter (n=11), Citrobacter (n=10), Proteus (n=2), Serratia (n=2), Kluyvera (n=2), Providencia (n=2), Cedecea (n=1), Escherichia (n=1), Edwardsiella (n=1) and Buttiauxella (n=1). As for Vibrio, three species were identified: Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (n=4), Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) (n=1) and Vibrio mimicus (n=1). Vibrio spp. showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values within the susceptibility range established by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for almost all antibiotics, except for V. vulnificus, which presented intermediate profile to ampicillin. Conclusions:Enterobacteria do not seem to be the most important pathogens associated with M. amazonicum farming, whereas the recovery of Vibrio spp. from larviculture, with emphasis on Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus, deserves special attention due to their role as potentially zoonotic aquaculture-associated pathogens. Furthermore, the intermediate susceptibility of V. vulnificus to ampicillin reflects the importance of monitoring drug use in prawn farming.

  10. 饲料蛋白水平对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)生长和消化酶活性的影响%EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON GROWTH AND ACTIVITY OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES OF GIANT FRESH WATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云伟; 牛翠娟; 杜丽

    2001-01-01

    The Effects of dietary protein levels (w(protein)=20.2%, 29.6%,40.8% and 51.2%) on the growth and activity of digestive enzymes of giant fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are investigated. No significant differences between YSGR (P>0.05) and activity of amlyase (P=0.108) are found among experimental groups with different dietary protein levels. However, dietary protein levels have significant effects on the activity of tryptase (P=0.017) and pepsin (P=0.002). At higher dietary protein levels, the activity of pepsin and tryptase increase significantly, while the ratio of the activity of amylase to tryptase decrease. No correlation between growth and activity of digestive enzymes is found in present work.%探讨了饲料中不同蛋白水平(w(蛋白)分别为20.2%,29.6%,40.8%和51.2%)对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachiumrosenbergii)生长和消化酶活性的影响.结果表明,在本实验范围内,饲料中不同蛋白水平对罗氏沼虾的特殊生长率(YSGR)影响不显著(P>0.05),对淀粉酶的比活性也无显著影响(P=0.108),但显著影响类胰蛋白酶(P=0.017)和胃蛋白酶的比活性(P=0.002).在同一蛋白水平下,淀粉酶比活性最高,其次为类胰蛋白酶和胃蛋白酶.3种消化酶的比活性在w(蛋白)=51.2%组最高.随着饲料中蛋白水平的上升,3种消化酶的比活性也呈逐渐上升的趋势,而淀粉酶与类胰蛋白酶比活性的比值逐渐下降,表明罗氏沼虾消化酶活性对饲料中蛋白含量有适应性反应.

  11. Study on the Application of Cyclotella sp. in the Artificial Breeding of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%小环藻在罗氏沼虾人工育苗中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光华; 江林源; 卢小花; 邓潜

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to study the application situation of Cyclotella sp. in the artificial breeding of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. [ Method] The two batches artificial breeding experiments of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were respectively carried out on May 8,2009 and June 25,2010. By inoculating Cyclotella sp. into the culture seedling water body,the culture seedling water quality was regulated. The test was divided into the experimental group (inoculating the algae) and the control group (without inoculating the algae). [ Result] In the experimental group,the survival ratio of single pond was during 54.30% -71.11% ,and the average survival ratio was 63.44%. In the control group,the survival ratio of single pond was during 33.43% -59.86% ,and the average survival ratio was 43.98%. The survival ratio of experimental group was 19.46 percentage points higher than that of control group. The analysis result of water quality showed that the ammonia and nitrite contents in the experimental group were respectively 30.77% and 25.38% lower than that in the control group, and the water quality was obviously better than that in the control group. It illustrated that Cyclotella sp. had the obvious regulation effect on the quality of culture seedling water body. [ Conclusion]This ecological breeding method that used the algae provided a new thought for solving the current water quality worsening and disease problems in the seedling production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. It was worth to be popularized in the scale seedling production.%[目的]研究小环藻在罗氏沼虾人工育苗中的应用情况.[方法]2009年5月8日和2010年6月25日分别开展了2批罗氏沼虾人工育苗试验,通过在育苗水体中接种小环藻调节育苗水质,试验分为试验组(接种藻类)和对照组(不接种藻类).[结果]试验组单池育苗成活率为54.30%-71.11%,平均育苗成活率达到63.44%;对照组单池育苗成活率为33.43%-59.86%,

  12. Analysis on Sequences of Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾缅甸野生原种rDNA-ITS区序列特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪峰; 杨国梁; 王军毅; 高强; 宫金华; 叶少群; 张海鹏

    2011-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacers in ribosomal DNA were often used as molecular sequence in phylogenetic study. The complete sequence of internal transcribed spacers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was isolated by PCR. The length of ITS1 was 1 070 - 1 150 bp with a GC content of 5l. 4% -52.7% , and the length of 5.8S was 163 bp with a GC content of 55.2%. Compared to ITS1, the length of ITS2 (484 -545 bp) was shorter while GC content (53.4% - 54. 6% ) was higher. By comparison of sequence from different individuals, 61 SNP loci were found in ITS1, including 28 C/T transitions (45.9%) , 23 A/G transitions (37.7%), 1 A/T transversions ( 1.6% ), 3 T/G transversions (4.9%), 4 C/G transversions ( 6. 6% ) , and 2 A/C transversions (3.3%); 15 SNP loci were found in ITS2, including 6 C/T transitions (40%), 5 A/G transitions ( 33.3% ), i A/T transversions ( 6. 7% ) , 2 T/G transversions ( 13.3% ), and 1 C/G transversions (6. 7% ). SSR loci were searched by the SSRHunter software, and the results showed that the SSR loci in ITS1 and ITS2 were 14 and 6 respectively, the type of (AG)n was rich in ITS1 and the type of (GA) n was rich in ITS2. There were three repeat units with a length of 59 bp in ITS1, and the loci were 181,390 and 781, respectively. The results of ITS intravariances analysis demonstrated that clones from the same individual were different in length because of SSR. Furthermore, homology comparison of ITS sequence indicated that the similarity of each ITS1 was 45.39% - 50.64% , and the highest occurred between M.rosenbergii and M. hainanense, while the lowest occurred between M. rosenbergii and Exopalaemon carinicauda.5.8S showed very high similarity with other crustaceans, and the homology was 100% between M. rosenbergii and M. nipponense. The similarity of each ITS2 was 42.53% -53.46% , and the highest occurred between M.rosenbergii and M. nipponense, while the lowest occurred between M. rosenbergii and Procambarus clark

  13. Effcets of 4-nonylphenol on growth and sex differentiation in Macrobrachium rosenbergii%壬基酚(NP)对罗氏沼虾幼虾生长和性别分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春华; 薛海波; 李郁娇; 黄国钟; 刘易洋; 李广丽

    2011-01-01

    Time of sex differentiation, as well as effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP)on growth and sex differentiation in juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied by morphologic observation and histological sections. Ten zoea were collected randomly every 3 days, fixed in Bouin's solution, then embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Transverse sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to identify its sex differentiation time. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were divided into 5 groups( n =200 per group) :control,5,15,45, and 135 μg/L NP,respectively. All these juvenile M. rosenbergii were immersed in different doses of NP solutions for 30 days, and 50% NP solutions were renewed every 2 days to keep NP's steady concentration. Ten juvenile M. rosenbergii were collected randomly from each group on 15,20,25, and 30 d,and both the body mass and length were measured respectively for the assessment of NP on growth. Thirty juvenile M. rosenbergii were collected randomly from each group on 30 d to identify their sex by outward features( gonopore, appendix masculine, etc)under anatomical lens, and 10 were fixed, embedded and sectioned to observe its gonad histology. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple rang test. Results showed that primordial germ cells (PGCs)appeared in 15 d larva;however, genital duct,a wrinkled and pimply plastron, and a sunken basal part on the 4th -5th walking legs appeared in 24 d larva in some M. rosenbergii. In addition, a rudiment of the appendix masculine on the internal of the 2nd pleopod was found in 45 d larva in some M. rosenbergii, and gonads could be identified easily as testis and ovary, respectively. M. rosenbergii larvae were not affected in their body weight and length if treated by NP less than 15 d, however, they were inhibited significantly in a dose-dependent manner if treated more than 20 d( P <0.05). Spermatogonium and oogonium were observed respectively in the testis and ovary in the control

  14. 罗氏沼虾诺达病毒单克隆抗体的制备及应用%Production and application of monoclonal antibodies to Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘问; 钱冬; 吴建翔; 邵健忠

    2005-01-01

    罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病(whitish muscle disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是一种发生在罗氏沼虾苗种阶段的流行病,发病虾苗出现肌肉白浊、白斑或白尾症状,死亡率高达60%以上.作者所在实验室在确定其病原是罗氏沼虾诺达病毒(Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus, MrNV)的基础上,用MrNV免疫BALB/c小鼠,取小鼠脾细胞与SP2/0鼠骨髓瘤细胞融合,用间接ELISA筛选阳性孔,经有限稀释法克隆,得到12株能特异分泌抗MrNV的单克隆抗体(Mab)的杂交瘤细胞.注射小鼠,制备腹水单克隆抗体,ELISA效价为1∶105~106.亚型鉴定结果表明,有6株单抗为IgG1型,4株单抗为IgG2a型,2株单抗为IgG2b型.12株单抗与对虾白斑综合征病毒(WSSV)和桃拉综合征病毒(TSV)均无交叉反应.挑选效价高的腹水单抗2B5,建立了检测罗氏沼虾诺达病毒的三抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附测定(TAS-ELISA)法, 该方法检测灵敏度达0.98 ng左右.Wesrtern blot分析表明,2B5能与MrNV 43kD的外膜蛋白特异性结合.

  15. Cu2+和Zn2+对罗氏沼虾体外培养肌细胞的影响%Effect of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on cultured muscle cells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军霞; 刘金; 王维娜; 杨波; 翟宗昭

    2005-01-01

    研究了L-15和M199两种培养基对体外培养罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)肌细胞生长的差异.结果表明,L-15较M199更有利于罗氏沼虾肌细胞的生长.分别测定了不同浓度的Zn2+(0~160 μg/L)和Cu2+(0~10μg/L)对罗氏沼虾离体培养肌细胞的影响,通过MTT法测定肌细胞的增殖,NBT法测定肌细胞活性氧的产生,结果表明,Zn2+浓度为80~120μg/L时细胞的增殖效果较好,细胞内活性氧的产生最少;Cu2+浓度为8μg/L时细胞的增殖达到最大,活性氧产生最少.

  16. 产卵前后罗氏沼虾输卵管的显微和超微结构%Observation on microstructure and ultrastructure of the oviduct of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓云; 卢建平

    2006-01-01

    利用光镜和电镜技术对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)在产卵前后的输卵管结构进行了观察.输卵管由管壁上皮和基膜组成.管壁上皮为一单层柱状上皮细胞,附着在基膜上.电镜下上皮细胞有明暗之分,细胞面向管腔伸出长而密集的微绒毛.细胞核呈椭圆形,核仁一个或者若干,细胞质内含有丰富的线粒体和粗面内质网.产卵前细胞结构完整,核仁明显,管腔内有大量分泌物;产卵后,游离面细胞膜破碎,微绒毛断裂,细胞内含物排向管腔,管腔内残留少量分泌物.

  17. A study on the relationship between culture density and output of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾养殖密度与产量关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锐全; 肖学铮; 黄樟翰; 卢迈新; 谢骏

    2000-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)个体大,生长快,食性广,肉质好,营养价值高,是一种优良的淡水养殖品种.90年代以来,罗氏沼虾的养殖在全国范围内迅速发展,养殖面积不断扩大,养殖技术和单位面积产量也不断提高.不同地区罗氏沼虾的养殖模式大同小异,基本上都是采取一次放足苗,分批起捕,捕大留小的模式.但不同地区罗氏沼虾的养殖密度和单位面积产量则差异很大.为了探讨罗氏沼虾在池塘中的适宜放养密度及放养密度与产量及经济效益的关系,我们进行了如下试验.

  18. Ultrastructural observation on muscle tissues of Macrobrachium rosenbergii with white-body disease%患"白体病"罗氏沼虾腹部肌肉病变的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜开和; 王文; 荣黎雯; 王沼锦

    2002-01-01

    取患"白体病"罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)腹部的病变组织及其鳃、心肌、肝胰腺、生殖腺等器官和组织,经光镜和电镜制样观察,未发现病原体,表明该病为非病原体引起的疾病.光镜下的病变组织结构与正常组织相比无明显异常.但在电镜下,病变主要表现为肌肉细胞的线粒体和肌质网的变性、坏死.线粒体肿胀、空泡化,肌质网增多且形成许多内陷小泡,表明细胞处于缺氧和钙代谢紊乱状态,这可能与虾生存的环境和养殖条件有关.根据超微病理与组织学观察结果,认为"罗氏沼虾白体病"更确切的命名应为"罗氏沼虾肌肉细胞线粒体坏死症".

  19. Nutritive requirement of sprawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii:a review%罗氏沼虾营养需求的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军霞; 翟宗昭; 王维娜; 刘金; 张辉

    2004-01-01

    总结了近年来国内外关于罗氏沼虾Macrobrachium rosenbergii营养学方面的研究成果,从蛋白质、脂类、碳水化合物、维生素和矿质元素等方面论述了对罗氏沼虾营养学的研究现状,为罗氏沼虾的科学养殖提供依据.

  20. Macrobrachium rosenbergii mannose binding lectin: synthesis of MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides and their antimicrobial characterization, bioinformatics and relative gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2015-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an antimicrobial protein, is an important component of innate immune system which recognizes repetitive sugar groups on the surface of bacteria and viruses leading to activation of the complement system. In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization of cDNA encoded for MBL from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). Two short peptides (MrMBL-N20: (20)AWNTYDYMKREHSLVKPYQG(39) and MrMBL-C16: (307)GGLFYVKHKEQQRKRF(322)) were synthesized from the MrMBL polypeptide. The purity of the MrMBL-N20 (89%) and MrMBL-C16 (93%) peptides were confirmed by MS analysis (MALDI-ToF). The purified peptides were used for further antimicrobial characterization including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, kinetics of bactericidal efficiency and analysis of hemolytic capacity. The peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity towards all the Gram-negative bacteria taken for analysis, whereas they showed the activity towards only a few selected Gram-positive bacteria. MrMBL-C16 peptides produced the highest inhibition towards both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the MrMBL-N20. Both peptides do not produce any inhibition against Bacillus sps. The kinetics of bactericidal efficiency showed that the peptides drastically reduced the number of surviving bacterial colonies after 24 h incubation. The results of hemolytic activity showed that both peptides produced strong activity at higher concentration. However, MrMBL-C16 peptide produced the highest activity compared to the MrMBL-N20 peptide. Overall, the results indicated that the peptides can be used as bactericidal agents. The MrMBL protein sequence was characterized using various bioinformatics tools including phylogenetic analysis and structure prediction. We also reported the MrMBL gene expression pattern upon viral and bacterial infection in M. rosenbergii gills. It could be concluded that the prawn MBL may be one of the important molecule which

  1. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii.

  2. 罗氏沼虾育苗系统中生物滤池对水质的净化作用%Water purification effect of biofilter in Macrobrachium rosenbergii seeds nursery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛建美; 李倩; 周志明; 胡廷尖; 王军毅; 刘士力; 王雨辰

    2014-01-01

    Water purification effect of biological membranes in circulating water nursery system of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. The results showed that water pollutant clearance rates of biological membranes were higher in the early seedling stage and the highest clearance rates for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) and CODMn were up to 46.13%, 58.33%, 22.68%, 32.22% and 7.73% respectively. In the middle stage, clearance rates for each contaminant had different degrees of decline. Changing the water of the seedling pool during middle seedling stage effectively controlled the concentration of pollutants in water.%研究了生物膜对罗氏沼虾( Macrobrachium rosenbergii)循环水育苗系统水体的净化效果.结果表明,在罗氏沼虾育苗早期,生物膜对水体中污染物的清除率均较高,对水体中总氮( TN)最高清除率可达46.13%,对总磷(TP)最高清除率可达58.33%,对氨氮(NH3-N)最高清除率可达22.68%,对亚硝酸盐氮(NO2-N)最高清除率可达32.22%,对化学需氧量CODMn最高清除率可达7.73%.育苗中期,生物膜对各污染物清除率均有不同程度的减弱.于育苗中期对育苗池进行一次换水可以有效控制水体中污染物的浓度.

  3. Comportamento alimentar do camarão de agua doce, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Palaemonidae durante a fase larval: análise qualitativa Feeding behavior of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenberch (De Man (Crustácea, Palaemonidae, during the larval phase: qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice P Barros

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of the larvae's prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879, in each stage of development was studied face alArtemia Linnaeus, 1758 nauplii, dry and wet diets. Groups of ten larvae in each stage were placed in 500 ml beakers at 29ºC in filtered brackish water. After the fasting period of acclimatization, the three types of food were offered separately to the larvae and the feeding behavior was observed during 30 min. Feeding perception, capture, grasp and ingestion of food were used to determine feeding pattern. Stage I lawac do not eat. The feeding behavior of larvae was similar on the stages II - XI. The perception in distance does not occur in most individuais; the feeding process generally started with the physrcal contact of food with the animal. Food is captured by thoracic appendages (maxillipeds until stage III, and maxillipeds + pereopods in stages IV - XI and particles are grasped and handled by maxillipeds. Inopposition at the capture, the ingestion is a seletive process. Selective responses decrease in later stages and larvae become omnivorous in greater degree.

  4. 马氏沼虾蚤状幼体发育特征及其与罗氏沼虾幼体的形态差异%MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENCE ON ZOEA LARVAE OF MACROBRACHIUM MALCOLMS ONII AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵朝阳; 周鑫; 王桂芹; 邴旭文

    2011-01-01

    From hatching to metamorphosis for larvae of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, the larvae had experienced the molting process twelve times accompany with changes of Morphology and appendage characteristics. Through microscopic observation and photography on 30 samples from Z, to Z12 larvae, the results showed that there were big differences in compound eye between Zi and Z2. The main characters were located on the telson between Z3 and Z2, Z4 and Z5. There was proleg germination occurred on abdomen of Z6. The morphological variations between Z7 and Z8 lain in changes of antennule inner and outer flagellum appendage. The main periodical standards to discriminate Z9 and Z12 were morphology of periopods, proleg and rostrum. Therefore, it could provide biological basis in different zoea stages of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii by means of observation on morphological variations such as the inner and outer flagellum of the first antennule, flagellum and antennal scale of the second antenna, rostrum, dorsal spur, compound eye, the first and second legs on the carapace, pleopod, telson, tail fan from Z1 to Z12 larvae, as well as determination of mor-phometric character of the larvae such as the number of segments, quantity of seta during the period from Z1 to Z12 stages. In addition, morphological variations of zoea larvae of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii have been compared with Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which could provide reference to identify these two kinds of zoea larvaes by measuring the number of antennal flagellum segmentation.%马氏沼虾(Macrobrachium malcolmsonii)的幼体从孵化到变态为幼虾要经过多次蜕皮,每次蜕皮均伴随形态及附肢特征的改变.采用显微观测摄像法对马氏沼虾Z1-Z12各期幼体样本30尾进行了观察,测量结果表明Z2与Z1在复眼上存在较大差异,Z3与Z2、Z4与Z5的主要分期特征均位于尾节上,Z6的腹部出现腹足萌芽,Z7与Z8的形态差异在于第一触角内鞭和

  5. 左旋咪唑对罗氏沼虾免疫功能及抗病力的影响%Effects of Levamisole on the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 李义; 郝向举

    2008-01-01

    以0(对照)、50、100和150 mg/kg饲料的剂量将左旋咪唑(LMS)添加于基础饲料中制成颗粒饲料投喂罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)14 d,采样测定了罗氏沼虾血细胞吞噬活性、血清酚氧化酶(PO)、溶菌酶(I.SZ)及超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活性,并以6×102cells/mL浓度的致病性嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)对罗氏沼虾进行肌肉注射(20?L/尾),记录接种7 d后罗氏沼虾的累积死亡率.结果表明,3个LMS处理组的罗氏沼虾血细胞吞噬百分比和吞噬指数、血清PO、KSZ及SOD活性均显著地高于对照组(P<0.05);LMS处理组的罗氏沼虾对嗜水气单胞菌的抵抗力明显增强.因此,饲喂适量的LMS能促进罗氏沼虾的免疫力和抗病力;在本试验条件下,100 mg/kg饲料的剂量为最适添加剂量.

  6. Studied on Yellow and Black Gills of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Caused by Pseudoonas%假单胞菌引起罗氏沼虾黄鳃、黑鳃病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶保华; 石和荣; 黄俊文; 王刚

    2000-01-01

    对高密度养殖条件下患细菌病的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)作了初步研究,病虾症状为:食欲下降,黄鳃或黑鳃、断须、断腿,有的甲壳上有黄色或黑色的斑块,取上述典型症状的病虾鳃部和肝胰腺组织进行细菌分离、纯化和保种,经鉴定,该病原菌为恶臭假单胞菌和铜绿假单胞菌.将分离菌进行回接感染,发现有很强的致病作用,且产生与自然发病相似的症状,从再感染的病虾体内分离的细菌经鉴定也为恶臭假单胞菌(P.putida)和铜绿假单胞菌(P.aeruginosa),由此可认为它们是此次发病的病原菌.药敏实验发现,铜绿假单胞菌对环丙沙星、氟哌酸氯和庆大霉素的敏感性较强:恶臭假单胞菌对庆大霉素,环丙沙星、卡那霉素、强力霉素和新生霉素较为敏感.

  7. 复方中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾生长和非特异性免疫功能的影响%Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicines on Growth and Nonspecific Immunity of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀武; 陈万光; 李文辉; 郭黛健

    2008-01-01

    在基础饲料中添加0.5%、1.0%和2.0%的复方中草药制剂,连续投喂56 d后,通过测定供试岁氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)的生长性能、血细胞的吞噬活性、血清酶活性、酚氧化酶活性,比较了复合中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾促生长及非特异性免疫功能的影响.结果显示:饲料中添加0.5%的复方中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾的生长影响显著(P<0.05),添加1%和2%的中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾的血细胞的吞噬活性、溶菌酶活力、酚氧化酶活力影响极显著(P<0.01).用嗜水气单胞菌攻毒7 d显示试验组免疫保护率高达44.7%~59.8%.因此,从促生长、提高免疫力和经济角度3方面考虑,建议添加剂量为1.0%为宜.

  8. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.

  9. 罗氏沼虾三群体间肌肉营养品质的比较%Comparison of Muscle Nutritional Composition of Three Different Populations of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧; 陈立侨; 陈杰; 李二超; 杨国梁; 姚茜

    2006-01-01

    对饲养在相似环境下的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)三群体肌肉营养成分进行了分析和比较,3个群体分别为浙江湖州的人工养殖群体(A)、缅甸引进种子二代群体(B)和"南太湖1号"杂交群体(B-+).结果表明,3个群体粗蛋白含量的高低顺序依次为:B-+群体(17.57%)、B群体(16.65%)、A群体(15.88%),但三群体之间没有显著性差异(P>0.05);而A群体的粗脂肪含量为2.04%,显著高于B群体的1.24%(P<0.05).3个群体中,B-+群体的总氨基酸含量、必需氨基酸含量、鲜味氨基酸和脂肪酸中的EPA+DHA含量均为最高,且必需氨基酸指数最高,为68.06;相比之下,A群体的上述各项指标值均较低.可见,以上三群体中杂交种群(B-+)的肌肉营养品质较优,而人工养殖群体(A)的肌肉品质相对较差.

  10. Effect of Zhiqi Fungal Substance on Performance, Immunity and Inosine Monophosphate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%芝芪菌质对罗氏沼虾生长和免疫及肌苷酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光明; 张李阳; 张永江; 阮鸣; 饶玉鹏

    2009-01-01

    以罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)为研究对象,研究芝芪菌质对其生长性能、机体免疫水平和肌苷酸含量的影响.将罗氏沼虾随机分成4组,每组3个平行,每个平行约70尾,第1组为对照组,常规投喂;另外3组为试验组,在基础日粮中分别添加0.25%、0.5%、1%的芝芪菌质,饲养35 d后测定其生长、血清和肝胰腺溶菌酶、SOD、碱性磷酸酶和酸性磷酸酶活力及肌肉中肌苷酸含量.试验表明,与对照组相比,试验组罗氏沼虾的增重率提高、死亡率降低.血清溶菌酶和SOD活性明显升高,0.5%、1%组中肝胰脏碱性磷酸酶和酸性磷酸酶活力明显增高(P0.05).饲喂适量的芝芪菌质能促进罗氏沼虾的生长和免疫力的提高.

  11. Comparison on the Culture Effects of Four Different Strains of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾不同品系的养殖对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁万文; 陈福艳; 杨学明; 江林源; 黄光华

    2006-01-01

    对罗氏沼虾(Macrobracium rosenbergii)四个选育系--新引进系、原引进系、正交系和反交系,进行了养殖对比研究.研究结果表明:新引进系的生产性能最优,试验池单位养殖产量比反交系增产3.40%,比正交系增产8.35%,比原引进系增产12.16%;试验塘单位养殖产量比反交系增产21.24%,比正交系增产27.60%,比原引进系增产11.12%;杂交系的杂种优势不明显.

  12. Development and Application of the PCR Detection Method of Pathogenic Enterobacters in the Larvae of the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)幼体病原肠杆菌 PCR 检测技术的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪峰; 杨国梁; 高强; 夏正龙; 濮剑威; 慎佩晶; 黄振远

    2015-01-01

    The current study was to develop a PCR-based method to detect Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Two pairs of primers targeted sequences located within the omp A gene of E. cloacae and gyr B gene of E. aerogenes were used to detect E. cloacae and E. aerogenes. Samples collected from infected larvae were detected with the developed PCR method. The expected DNA fragments of 385 bp and 201 bp were from E. cloacae and E. aerogenes, respectively, and no PCR products were amplified from other bacterium. The sensitivity test showed that the detection limits of PCR were 103 CFU/ml for E. cloacae and 102 CFU/ml for E. aerogenes. In addition, the detection results of larval samples were consistent with the actual case of the infectious disease. In summary, the PCR diagnostic method was specific and sensitive and is a reliable tool for identification of E. cloacae and E. aerogenes in infected samples with a little time and cost, which would play an important role in quick diagnose, epidemiology investigation and SPF populations construction of the giant freshwater prawn.%根据罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)幼体培育期主要细菌性病原阴沟肠杆菌 omp A基因序列、产气肠杆菌 gry B 基因序列设计特异性引物,通过对 PCR 扩增产物进行测序鉴定与特异性和敏感性试验,建立了两种病原菌的 PCR 快速检测方法,并对发病样品进行了检测。结果显示,设计的阴沟肠杆菌与产气肠杆菌检测引物能分别扩增出与预计大小一致的385 bp 和201 bp 的特异性片段,与其余供试菌株无交叉反应。两种检测方法的灵敏度分别为103 CFU/ml 和102 CFU/ml。罗氏沼虾幼体样品的检测结果与实际发病情况一致,建立的检测方法也可直接对样品进行 PCR 检测,而无需细菌分离培养。本研究建立的阴沟肠杆菌与产气肠杆菌 PCR 检测方法具有较高的特异性与灵敏度,可缩短检测

  13. Breeding Experiment on Different Sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae%不同来源罗氏沼虾幼体的培育对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江林源; 韦信贤; 卢小花; 黄光华; 杨学明; 莫肇誉

    2011-01-01

    2010年2月,对采自江苏吴江、广西三塘和广西南宁国家级良种场共3种不同来源的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii进行从幼体阶段至变态苗阶段的培育试验;干量容积法推算产苗量,计算育苗成活率.试验结果表明,3种不同来源幼体的育苗成活率分别为73.6%、65.2%和90.4%,成活率差异明显;其中,国家级广西南宁罗氏沼虾良种场的育苗成活率最高.在育苗生产中,必须注重罗氏沼虾亲本的种质复壮与培育,才能保证幼虾的质量,有利于提高其养殖成活率.

  14. 不同脂肪源对罗氏沼虾生长及体组织常见组分的影响%Effects of different lipid sources on growth and common nutrients of body tissues in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒; 曹维维; 孙龙生; 李荣福; 王亚君; 陈春风

    2009-01-01

    用5种不同脂肪源组合的饲料(Ⅰ.鱼油0.5%+豆油2.5%;Ⅱ.鱼油0.5%+菜籽油2.5%;Ⅲ.鱼油0.5%+花生油2.5% ;Ⅳ.鱼油0.5%+亚麻油2.5%;Ⅴ.豆油1.5%+亚麻油1.5%)投喂体重为(2.22±0.04)g的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)40 d,研究不同脂肪源对其生长及全虾和肌肉中水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量的影响.结果显示:在生长方面,第Ⅴ组的罗氏沼虾增重显著高于Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组(P<0.05),Ⅰ组和Ⅳ组增重也显著大于Ⅱ组(P<0.05).在体成分方面,Ⅰ组全虾总水分含量最低,显著低于Ⅲ组和Ⅳ组(P<0.05),其他各组间无显著差异(P>0.05);Ⅴ组全虾粗脂肪含量最高,显著高于其他各试验组(P<0.05);Ⅲ组全虾粗蛋白含量显著低于Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组及Ⅴ组(P<0.05);Ⅳ组肌肉总水分含量显著高于其他各组;肌肉粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量各试验组之间差异不显著(P>0.05).

  15. Concentrações de amônia, nitrito e nitrato em larvicultura do camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, realizada em sistema fechado com água salobra natural e artificial Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in a recirculating Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man hatchery, performed with natural and artificial brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cotroni Valenti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da água salobra natural e artificial e da sua utilização em dois cultivos consecutivos sobre as concentrações de amônia, nitrito e nitrato, em sistema fechado de larvicultura de M. rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda. A amônia oscilou entre 1,1 e 74,0 µg/l e o nitrito entre e 1,1 e 34,6 µg/l; estes não diferiram entre os tipos de água analisados. A concentração de nitrato (N aumentou ao longo do tempo (T de forma similar na água natural e artificial, seguindo um modelo linear (N = 0,241T – 0,734. Os resultados indicaram que a água salobra artificial não alterou o processo de nitrificação, tampouco o comportamento das principais variáveis ambientais. A reutilização da água também não produziu nenhum efeito negativo sobre essas variáveis. A fórmula de água do mar artificial aqui apresentada pode ser, portanto usada em sistemas de recirculação para a produção de pós-larvas de M. rosenbergii em até dois cultivos consecutivos.Variations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in a recirculating M. rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda hatchery, reusing natural and artificial brackish water, in two successive cultures, were studied. Ammonia and nitrite values oscillated between 1.1 to 74.0 µg/l and 1.1 to 34.6 µg/l, respectively, and did not differ among the tested water types. Nitrate concentrations (N increased similarly with time (T, according to a linear model (N = 0,241T – 0,734 with both natural and artificial water. Data suggested that the use and reuse of the artificial water did not affect the nitrification process. Therefore, it can be used in recirculating systems for M. rosenbergii hatchery.

  16. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Almada Thomaz; Lídia Miyako Yoshii Oshiro; Andrea Cecchetto Bambozzi; José Teixeira de Seixas Filho; Leonardo Azevedo da Silva Rosadas

    2004-01-01

    Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786) sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Art...

  17. 罗氏沼虾18S rRNA基因生物素标记探针的制备及应用%Preparation and application of the biotin-labeled probe of 18S rRNA gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高风英; 叶星; 白俊杰; 吴锐全; 劳海华; 简清; 罗建仁

    2005-01-01

    Probes are essential for study of gene expression and regulation. In this study, a method was established to prepare the biotin-labeled probe for 18S rRNA gene of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. And the labeled method was used to produce a lysozyme gene probe, then applied in analysis of lysozyme gene expression. Primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of 18S rRNA of Decalxxta in order to isolate the 18S rRNA gene sequences of M. rosenbergii. Total genomic DNA was isolated from hepatopancreas of the freshwater prawn. A specific DNA fragment with desired size was amplified by PCR using the total DNA as templates. The DNA fragment was inserted into pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. The result of BLAST and alignment analysis confirmed that the DNA fragment isolated was the 18S rRNA gene of M. rosenbergii, which was 418 nt in length.Biotin-labeled probe of the 18S rRNA was then produced by PCR using the recombinant plasmid as templates. The biotin-21-dTTP and the non-labeled dNTP were added to the PCR reaction system. Ratio of the biotin-21-dTTP and the non-labeled dTFP was 3 to 1.The yield of the labeled probe is 300 ng·μL-1. The detection limit of the probe is 60 pg. A biotin-labeled probe of lysozyme gene was prepared by the same label method, and the yield of the lysozyme gene probe is 500 ng·μL-1. These biotin-labeled probes were applied in Northern dot blotting analysis of tissue distribution of lysoyzme mRNA of M. rosenbergii. Signals were scanned and quantified by Analysis System of Biology Image. The signal intensity ratio of the lysozyme to 18S rRNA represents the relative expression level of lysozyme mRNA. The results showed that the lysozyme mRNA existed in all the tissues checked, including eye,muscle, gill, hepatopancreas, haemocytes and intestine. But lysoyzme mRNA levels varied among different tissues. The highest level was found in the intestine, and the second was in the hepatopancreas and the lowest was in the

  18. 罗氏沼虾养殖技术规范%Technical Criteria for Giant Freshwater Shrimp ( Mactobrachium rosenbergii ) Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增崇; 余晓丽; 唐章生

    2000-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergu)养殖技术的综合标准,具体分为①亲虾;②人工繁殖技术;③幼虾培育技术;④食用商品虾饲养技术;⑤虾苗运输技术.该综合标准适用于罗氏沼虾的人工繁殖和养殖生产.

  19. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786 sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots e testaram-se os seguintes tratamentos: 100% B. plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia sp. (5 nas/mL (T2, 60% Artemia sp. (3 nas/mL + 40% B. plicatilis (12 rots/mL (T3 e 40% Artemia sp. (2 nas/mL + 60% B. plicatilis (18 rots/mL (T4, adicionando-se a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da sobrevivência final em pós-larvas foram analisados pelo teste do X² e demonstraram não haver diferenças significativas do tratamento T2 (68,36% sobre os tratamentos T3 (68,76% e T4 (64,60%. O tratamento T1 (100% B. plicatilis apresentou mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O peso seco médio das pós-larvas foi analisado estatisticamente pela ANOVA, não apresentando diferenças significativas entre os valores de 3,29 mg (T2, 3,08 mg (T3 e 3,38 mg (T4. A taxa de mortalidade baseada no número de larvas encontradas mortas diariamente, em relação ao número de larvas estocadas inicialmente, foi maior para todos os tratamentos nos primeiros 15 dias do experimento. Portanto, os resultados demonstraram que a substituição total de rotíferos enriquecidos e congelados acarretou a mortalidade total das larvas, mas a substituição parcial de 40% e 60% dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo B. plicatilis foi viável, não apresentando prejuízos significativos em termos de sobrevivência e peso seco das pós-larvas.This work was carried out to identify the replacement of the nauplii Artemia

  20. Obtention and characterization of chitin and chitosan from M. rosenbergii; Obtencao e caracterizacao de quitina e quitosana a partr de M. rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, Marcos V.; Campana Filho, Sergio P. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: scampana@iqsc.sc.usp.br

    2001-07-01

    Chitin was extracted from previously ground shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii by applying acid and alkaline treatments, aiming at its demineralization and deprotenization, respectively. Its characteristics and properties were compared with those exhibited by commercial samples of chitin. Commercial chitosan and samples produced by the deacetylation of chitin obtained from M. rosenbergii shells were also compared. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosities of the chitosan were determined by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and by capillary viscosimetry, respectively. The results show that the chitin extracted from Macrobrachium rosenbergii has a lower content of inorganic materials as compared to commercial samples but the chitosan obtained from the former chitin sample is very similar to commercial chitosan. (author)

  1. 豆粕替代鱼粉对罗氏沼虾生长和消化酶活性的影响%EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN SOURCES ON GROWTH AND ACTIVITIES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云伟; 牛翠娟

    2000-01-01

    用豆粕替代鱼粉作为蛋白源配制成5种近似等比能(15.5~18.2kJ.g-1)、等蛋白含量(w(蛋白)=39%)的饲料,其中用豆粕蛋白(SP)分别替代鱼粉蛋白(FP)质量的25%,50%,75%和100%,对照饲料全部以鱼粉作为蛋白源.用上述5种饲料饲喂罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)21d.结果表明,饲料中不同蛋白源对罗氏沼虾生长和消化酶活性没有显著性影响(p>0.05).生长实验和消化酶活性实验的结果都证明,在饲料中用豆粕蛋白替代鱼粉蛋白质量的50%不但不会对罗氏沼虾的生长造成不良影响,反而可以降低饲料成本.

  2. 罗氏沼虾胸神经节中促肌肉蛋白质合成激素的初步分离%Preliminary Isolation of Hormone Stimulating Muscle Protein Synthesis in Thoracic Ganglia from the Prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖家遗; 孙继贤

    2001-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)成虾的胸神经节匀浆液,经Sephadex G-50柱层析所得的第2个峰,再经HPLC分离得到9个组分。把第2个组分的溶液注入罗氏沼虾幼虾体内,其肌肉蛋白质合成明显增加(P<0.01),这种促进蛋白质合成的能力随该溶液的蛋白质浓度的增加而增强。结果表明罗氏沼虾胸神经节能分泌促进虾肌肉生长的激素。该激素的分子量在3.4?kDa以下,可能是虾的生长激素。

  3. 罗氏沼虾白斑综合征病毒囊膜蛋白VP28基因的克隆及分析%Gene Clone and Analysis of Envelope Protein VP28 of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兰; 贡成良; 薛宇醒; 曹广力; 魏育红; 陈辉; 许雅香; 张伟明; 薛仁宇

    2007-01-01

    根据已公布的罗氏沼虾白斑综合征病毒(WSSV)囊膜蛋白VP28基因序列设计一对特异性引物,从疑似患白斑病毒病的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)中提取总DNA,并以此为模板,经PCR扩增、克隆并测序后将该片段通过GenBank比对,证实为WSSV的VP28基因;与20个已公布的WSSV VP28进行同源性比较,结果显示:从中国对虾、斑节对虾、南美白对虾、日本对虾、波纹龙虾提取的病毒株聚为一类,印度对虾WSSV VP28为另一类,罗氏沼虾WSSV VP28又单独为一类.根据测序结果推测VP28蛋白的二级结构在氨基酸的7~29区间可能为跨膜螺旋区,且该区域高度保守.

  4. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879)

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaz,Luciana Almada; Oshiro,Lídia Miyako Yoshii; Bambozzi,Andrea Cecchetto; Seixas Filho,José Teixeira de; Rosadas,Leonardo Azevedo da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786) sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Art...

  5. 实时荧光定量PCR检测凡纳滨对虾和罗氏沼虾卵黄蛋白原mRNA在卵巢和肝胰腺中的表达%Quantitative analysis of vitellogenin mRNA expression in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 蔡生力; 刘红

    2012-01-01

    Vitellin, as the major constituent of the yolk protein is to provide nutrition to the developing of embryos and early larve in crustaceans. Its source and biosynthesis regularity have been the focus of crustacean research in past decades. The accurate site for vitellogenin synthesis was investigated in two representative shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii with real-time PCR in this experiment.Based on histological observation, the ovarian development was divided into six stages in L. vannamei (oogonium proliferation, previtellogenic, primary vitellogenic, secondary vitellogenic, mature, and recovery stages) and five stages in M. rosenbergii (previtellogenic, primary vitellogenic, secondary vitellogenic, mature, and gravid stages). It was found that both L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii expressed Vg-mRNA in hepatopancreas and ovary. In L. vannamei, the relative quantity of Vg-mRNA expression of each developmental stage was 1.1, 5.9, 10.4, 26.9, 85.3, and 1.5 in ovary, and 1.3, 3.2, 7.1, 37.2, 51.6, and 1.0 in hepatopancreas respectively. In M. rosenbergii, the relative quantity of Vg-mRNA expression of hepatopancreas in each ovarian developmental stage was 3.4, 12.6, 15.2, 38.9, and 2.9 compared to 1.0, 1.3, 1.7, 4.8, and 1.5 in ovary, respectively. In all examined shrimps the Vg-mRNA expression decreased sharply to the minimum at the last development stage. The research confirmed that both penaeid shrimp(Litopenaeus vannamei) and caridea prawn(Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were able to synthesize the vitellin in ovary and hepatopancreas, and with the gonad development, the vitellin synthesis showed clear regularity.%卵黄磷蛋白作为卵黄蛋白的主要成分,可为甲壳动物胚胎和早期幼体发育提供能量,为研究其来源及合成规律,实验应用SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量PCR法检测了凡纳滨对虾和罗氏沼虾性腺不同发育时期卵巢和肝胰腺两种组织中卵黄蛋白原mRNA的表达水平.结果发

  6. Coastal to inland: Expansion of prawn farming for adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesar Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The practice of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming is widespread in coastal Bangladesh due to favorable biophysical resources. However, export-oriented prawn farming is particularly vulnerable to climate change in coastal Bangladesh. This study identified different climatic variables, including salinity, coastal flooding, cyclone, sea-level rise, water temperature, drought, and rainfall have profound effects on prawn farming in the Bagerhat area of southwest Bangladesh. Considering extreme vulnerability to the effects of climate change on prawn production, one of the adaptation strategies is to translocate prawn culture from coastal to inland (i.e., Bagerhat–Gopalganj that appear less vulnerable to climate change. Although the prospects for prawn–carp polyculture and integrated prawn–fish–rice farming are positive in Gopalganj, a number of challenges were identified for the expansion of prawn culture. We suggest that institutional support would help to adopt prawn production.

  7. 虾青素对日本沼虾血细胞密度及吞噬活力的影响%Effects of astaxanthin on density and phagotrophic ability of blood lymphocyte of prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢剑华; 管越强; 王静波

    2008-01-01

    从雨生红球藻粉中提取虾青素,以60mg/kg的浓度添加到日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponensis)的配合饵料中,在实验室条件下饲养三周,研究虾青素对日本沼虾血淋巴密度及吞噬活力(吞噬百分比和吞噬指数)的影响.结果显示添加虾青素组的日本沼虾不论是血细胞密度还是吞噬活力都显著高于对照组,表明虾青素可显著提高日本沼虾的免疫力.

  8. Moringa oleifera inhibits growth of Candida spp. and Hortaea werneckii isolated from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming with a wide margin of safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of M. oleifera extracts against fungi isolated from farmed prawns and test the toxicity of the extracts on larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum. The ethanol extracts of pods, seeds, leaves, stems and flowers and chloroform extract of flowers of M. oleifera were tested against 14 strains of Candida spp. and 10 strains of Hortaea werneckii isolated from farming water and the digestive tract of M. amazonicum. Antifungal activity was determined by microdilution, based on the M27-A3 and M38-A2 CLSI documents. Toxicity was evaluated by exposing larvae of M. amazonicum at concentrations between 10-1000mg mL-1, counting dead larvae (CL50 after 24 hours. The best results were verified with the chloroform extract of flowers, acting against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.019 to 2.5 mg mL-1. Ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and seeds acted against 22/24, 21/24 and 20/24 strains, respectively. The extract of pods was only effective against strains of Candida spp. (14/24 and extract of stem only against four strains of H. werneckii (4/24. Extracts of seeds, flowers (chloroform fraction, stems and leaves showed low or no toxicity, whereas extracts of pods and flowers (ethanol fraction showed moderate toxicity. Thus, the antifungal activity of these extracts agaisnt Candida spp. and H. werneckii was observed, a wide margin of safety for larvae of M. amazonicum, demonstrating to be promising for the sustainable management of effluents from M. amazonicum farming

  9. 罗氏沼虾池塘养殖高产的关键技术%Key points of pond farming Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志来

    2000-01-01

    @@ 杭州市从1978年引进罗氏沼虾,至今已有20多年的历史.养殖面积从最初的几亩,发展到今天的5000亩以上,成为该市名特优水产品养殖中一个重要的组成部分.单季亩产一般150-200公斤,200-250公斤的也有相当面积,最高亩产达315公斤.

  10. Fecundity and Embryonic Development in Three Macrobrachium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannatul Ferdous

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity of three Macrobrachium species (M. rosenbergii, M. malcolmsonii and M. lamarrei was estimated through random sampling followed by egg counting where highest fecundity was observed in M. rosenbergii (1408±709 and lowest in M. malcolmsonii (32±7. Fecundity per individual, per unit body length and per unit body weight was higher in summer (in M. rosenbergii. In all three species, length vs. fecundity relationship was found to be significant but weight vs. fecundity was insignificant in case of M. malcolmsonii and M. lamarrei. Relative fecundity (/cm vs. total length relationship of M.rosenbergii was insignificant in winter but significant in summer, insignificant for M. malcolmsonii and significant for M. lamarrei. Whereas, relative fecundity (/gm vs. total weight relationship was insignificant in all the species. Comparatively larger eggs were found in M. lamarei (0.55mm and smaller in M. rosenbergii (0.39mm. In the same time, a microscopic study was conducted to observe the embryonic development of selected species where successive stages of embryonic development was visualized from developing eggs of same individual indicated the asynchronous fertilization.

  11. Effects of Vitamin C Content on the Growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%饲料中维生素C添加量对罗氏沼虾生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锐全; 肖学铮; 黄樟翰; 卢迈新; 谢骏

    2000-01-01

    用分别添加了100~800ms/kg饲料维生素C的多聚磷酸酯(LAPP,维生素C含量25%)的实用性饲料饲养罗氏沼虾(Mcrobrachium rosenbergii)40d.结果显示:投喂添加维生素C饲料的罗氏沼虾的成活率为85.6%~88.9%;增重率为118.15%~140.59%,饲料系数为2.80~2.54.与不添加维生素C相比,在饲料中添加200mg/kg饲料以上的LAPP,虽然对成活率的影响不显著,但能使生长速度显著提高,饲料系数显著降低.据此认为以LAPP作罗氏沼虾饲料的维生素C源的适宜添加量为200mg/kg.

  12. Effects of Crystalline Methionine and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) Butanoic Acid on Growth Performance and Protein Metabolism of Juvenile Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii%饲料中补充晶体蛋氨酸和羟基蛋氨酸钙对罗氏沼虾幼虾生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雄培; 周歧存; 黎明; 杨晴; Zacharia Cassian Elmada

    2015-01-01

    饲料中添加30%鱼粉为对照组饲料和6组试验饲料(分别替代对照组中16.67%、33.33%和50.00%的鱼粉,同一鱼粉替代水平的2组分别添加晶体蛋氨酸和羟基蛋氨酸钙,使其蛋氨酸含量与对照组一致)喂养罗氏沼虾(初始体重为(0.29±0.04) g )10周,研究不同鱼粉替代水平下,分别添加晶体蛋氨酸和羟基蛋氨酸钙对罗氏沼虾幼虾生长性能和血清生化指标的影响.结果表明:复合蛋白源替代对照组16.67%鱼粉并补充羟基蛋氨酸钙组的增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率和饲料系数同对照组无显著差异(P>0.05);同一鱼粉替代水平下,羟基蛋氨酸钙组的增重率、特定生长率和蛋白质效率均显著高于晶体蛋氨酸组(P<0.05).血清生化组成的分析结果表明:血清总蛋白含量各处理组之间差异显著(P<0.05),对照组血清谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活力显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),其中同一替代水平下,饲料中添加羟基蛋氨酸钙组谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活力低于添加晶体蛋氨酸组.由此可见,与晶体蛋氨酸相比,羟基蛋氨酸钙能更有效提高罗氏沼虾生长性能和饲料利用效率.%This experiment is conducted to study the effects of L-Methionine (L-Met) or Methionine hydroxy analogue calcium (MHA-Ca) on growth performance, plasma biochemical indices and protein metabolism of juvenile giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A fish meal diet was included as a control. 2×3 factorial arrangement with two methionine resources (L-Met and MHA-Ca) and three fish meal replacement levels (16.67%, 33.33% and 50.00%) was used. L-Met and MHA-Ca were supplemented respectively to the experimental diets in order to match the methionine profile of the control diet. Each diet was fed to juvenile giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (average initial weight (0.29±0.04) g) for 10 weeks. The results are presented as follows

  13. EFEKTIVITAS MINERAL KALSIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN YUWANA UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Emmawati Hadie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pertumbuhan udang galah dibatasi oleh kulitnya yang bersifat tidak elastis, karena terdiri atas khitin. Agar udang galah tumbuh dengan baik, maka harus ada unsur mineral dalam pakannya. Salah satu mineral yang bersifat esensial adalah mineral kalsium. Kalsium mempunyai fungsi dalam pembentukan tulang, jaringan lunak, proses regulasi dalam tubuh, dan menjaga keseimbangan asam basa. Oleh karena peran penting dari kalsium tersebut, maka dilakukan penelitian mengenai efek mineral kalsium dalam ransum pakan udang galah terhadap pertumbuhannya. Hewan uji yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah yuwana udang galah dengan kisaran bobot 56,0 ± 3,0 mg. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah kalsium 1,0%; 3,0%; 5,0%; 7,0%; dan 0,0% sebagai kontrol. Setiap perlakuan mendapat 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kadar kalsium dalam ransum pakan sangat mempengaruhi laju pertumbuhan harian udang galah (P<0,05. Kadar kalsium yang optimal dalam ransum pakan udang galah adalah sebesar 3,46%. The growth of giant prawn is limited by a non elastic material called chitin, which is a limiting factor in its growth. Feed containing mineral is needed to improve its growth. One of the essential minerals is calcium. The function of calcium is essential in bone and soft tissue formations, acid balancing, and regulation processes in the body. Because of its benefits, the research on the calcium effect on giant prawn was conducted. The aims of this study was to know the effect of calcium on the growth rate of giant prawn juvenile. Test animals were juveniles of giant prawn with average weight of 56.0 ± 3.0 mg. Research design employed complete randomized design with five calcium mineral treatments as follows:1.0%, 3.0%, 5.0%, 7.0%, and 0.0% as control. Each treatment has three replications. The result showed that calcium affected the daily growth rate of giant prawn (P<0.05. The calcium dosage of 3.46% is the optimum level for giant prawn juvenile.

  14. RESPONS SELEKSI UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii DALAM LINGKUNGAN AIR PAYAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Hadie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi respons seleksi udang galah yang dipelihara dalam lingkungan bersalinitas hingga generasi kedua. Udang galah dipelihara dalam lingkungan air payau dengan salinitas 0‰, 10‰, dan 15‰. Penelitian dilakukan hingga generasi kedua dalam lingkungan yang sama. Metode seleksi pada generasi pertama dan kedua dilakukan dengan seleksi keluarga (family selection. Seleksi pada masing-masing generasi dilakukan pada karakter pertumbuhan dalam masing-masing lingkungan salinitas. Secara keseluruhan respons seleksi harapan untuk semua genotipe mencapai 5,58 g per generasi dan respons seleksi kenyataan untuk semua genotipe mencapai 3,07 g per generasi di atas rataan tetua. Hasil ini sangat bermakna dalam meningkatkan ukuran bobot badan udang galah sebagai keberhasilan program seleksi. Hasil ini berlaku untuk seleksi pada salinitas perlakuan hingga 15‰. This research aimed to evaluate the selection response of the giant freshwater prawn cultured in different salinity levels that were observed up to second generation. Prawns were reared in brackish water environment with salinity levels of 0%, 10%, and 15%. Research was conducted up to the second generation in the same salinity level environments. Method of selection was family selection applied to both first and second generations. Selection process of each generation was performed on the growth character of prawns in each salinity level environment. Overall, expected selection response of all genotype achieved 5.58 g per generation and real selection response for all genotype reached 3.07 g above the parent generation. The result is arguably very meaningful in the effort of increasing the body mass of tiger prawn. The findings are valid for selection using salinity level up to 15 ppm.

  15. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species.

  16. 罗氏沼虾养殖技术之二:罗氏沼虾稻田养殖技术%Technique of farming Macrobrachium rosenbergii in rice paddy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祖荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ 稻田养殖罗氏沼虾,可以收到稻、虾双丰收的效果,利用稻田的生产效能做到了一水两用、一季两收,提高了稻田的生产利用效率,是农民增收致富的好门路.

  17. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25 were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25, muscle (n=25 and intestine (n=25 samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW water for enrichment at 37℃ for 8 h. Enriched cultured was streaked into Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS agar to isolate bacteria. Bacteria were identified by cultural, Gram staining, biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The antibiogram profiles of bacteria were investigated against 5 commonly used antibiotics (Gentamicin, Cefalexin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion method. Thirteen A. hydrophila isolates were identified and the prevalence of the A. hydrophila in fresh water prawn was 17.33%. All 13 (100% isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Azithromycin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. The results of this study indicate that farm raised fresh water prawn harbor multidrug resistant A. hydrophila which might causes public health problem if enter into human food chain.

  18. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  19. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system.

  20. Value-chain analysis of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa used for on-farm feeds in the freshwater prawn farming sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A. Nahid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii sector in Bangladesh since 1970s has been supported by natural availability of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa, used for on-farm prawn feeds. The present study identified the current configuration of the value-chain benefits and constraints of freshwater apple snail in south-western Bangladesh in August 2011, based upon Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA approach. The site of snail collection was Chanda Beel in Gopalganj district, while trading, processing and final consumption was represented by Rayer Mahal Bazar in Khulna district. There were seven different nodes recognized throughout the value chain. Snail marketing was identified as a seasonal business and took place during June to November each year. Between 1995 and 2011 the price of whole snail, meat and shell has increased by 800%, 325% and 315%, respectively. The abundance of snail had been reduced and its demand has increased due to the expansion of the prawn farming industry. Prawn farmers preferred snail meat due to its’ low cost (US$ 0.21 kg-1 as a source of protein compared to commercial prawn feed (US$ 0.41 kg-1. Snail harvesting and processing were considered as additional livelihood options for the poor, where 60% of the labour involved in snail harvesting were women, and 95% the de-shelling workforce. Induced breeding in captivity and sustainable management in nature as well as development of commercial production of apple snails might reduce the pressure on ecosystems and positively contributed to the continued expansion of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh.

  1. Obtenção e caracterização de α-quitina e quitosanas de cascas de Macrobrachium rosembergii Preparation and characterization of α-chitin and chitosan from the shells of Macrobrachium rosembergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Battisti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were submitted to deproteinization (Dp and demineralization (Dm aiming the extraction of α-chitin. The different parts of the shells were processed independently by carrying out sequence 1 (Dp/Dm and sequence 2 (Dm/Dp. Both sequences allowed the extraction of chitins with low contents of calcium and magnesium, regardless of the part being processed. The sequence 1 lead to higher extraction yields while sequence 2 resulted in lower contents of inorganic compounds. Extensively deacetylated chitosans (GA<10% of medium molecular weight (0,9 x 10(5 < Mv < 2 x 10(5 g/mol resulted from the deacetylation of chitin.

  2. Mixed culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of periphyton-based aquaculture has been tested and applied in aquaculture. Positive effects of substrate addition for periphyton development included increasing the food supply and providing shelter for culture animals. The aim of this project was to develop a low-cost

  3. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  4. Genetic variation among different morphotypes of the male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differences between the blue claw male (BC, orange claw male (OC and small male (SM morphotypes of male freshwater prawns were assessed using microsatellite DNA markers. Thirty individuals from each of the three groups of male prawns were collected from a hatchery rearing system in Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Significant differences in growth were observed between the three groups. The total numbers of alleles per locus in the BC, OC and SM groups were found to be 23, 27 and 21, respectively from all loci. The average observed heterozygosities (Ho ranged from 0.48 to 0.56 across all loci in the three groups. The mean FIS of −0.018 indicated an excess of heterozygosity. The pair-wise comparisons and the FST values revealed significant genetic differentiation across the groups. The greatest genetic distance was observed between the BC and SM groups and lowest one was between the BC and the OC groups.

  5. KORELASI PADAT TEBAR DAN DEBIT AIR DALAM TEKNIK PENDEDERAN BENIH UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii SECARA INTENSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Hadie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Riset ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui korelasi antara padat tebar dan debit air dalam teknik pendederan udang galah. Riset dilakukan dengan menggunakan bak ukuran 4 m x 2 m x 0,75 m yang mempunyai sistem air mengalir. Perlakuan yang diaplikasikan adalah padat tebar dalam tiga tingkatan yaitu 250, 500, dan 750 ekor/m2 yang dikombinasikan dengan tiga tingkat debit air yaitu 0,010; 0,020; dan 0,030 liter/detik/m2. Setiap perlakuan dilakukan dengan 3 ulangan. Udang galah dalam penelitian ini adalah PL-44 dengan ukuran 0,04 g. Pendederan udang galah dilaksanakan selama 40 hari. Hasil riset menunjukkan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara variabel padat tebar dan debit air. Variabel debit air memberikan kontribusi sebesar 57% dan variabel padat tebar mempunyai kontribusi 18% dalam mendukung sintasan benih udang galah. Hasil terbaik dicapai oleh perlakuan padat tebar 500 ekor/m2 dan debit air 0,030 liter/detik/m2 dengan laju pertumbuhan harian udang mencapai rata-rata 2,84% dan sintasan sebesar 89,6% selama 40 hari masa pemeliharaan. The research aim was to evaluate the correlation between fry density and water flow rate in the nursery of giant prawn. The experiment was conducted in concrete tanks. The treatment consisted of three levels, 250, 500, and 750 fry/m2 and combination of three levels of water flow, i.e. 0.010, 0.020, and 0.030 litre/second/m2. Three replications were used in each treatments. The prawn fry were PL-14 with 0.04 g of average weight. The research was conducted for 40 days of post-larvae rearing. Result of this experiment showed that there was interaction between density and water flow. The data analysis indicated that there were 57% contribution of water flow and 18% of fry density to survival rate of giant prawn. The best result was showed by the density of 500 fry/m2 and water flow of 0.030 litre/second/m2. The specimen have specific growth rate of 2.84% and survival rate of 89.6% for 40 days of rearing.

  6. UPAYA PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS DALAM USAHA PEMBESARAN UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang galah mengalami perkembangan yang cukup pesat, khususnya pada sektor pembesaran. Namun demikian, pada kondisi di lapangan masih sering muncul berbagai kendala, disebabkan belum tersosialisasikan sistem budidaya dan kurangnya penguasaan teknologi spesifik dalam budidaya udang galah. Oleh karena itu, sosialisasi teknologi tepat guna dalam mendukung perkembangan udang galah menjadi hal yang sangat penting dalam rangka lebih dimengertinya sistem budidaya udang galah. Upaya peningkatan produktivitas dalam usaha pembesaran udang galah dapat dilakukan dengan penerapan intensivikasi pemeliharaan dan pengembangan sentra budidaya.

  7. RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD FINGERPRINTING OF SIX INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of giant fresh water prawn (GFP germ plasms. Best utilization of these resources for the purpose of either aquaculture development or conservation of genetic resources requires some information on the structure and levels of their genetic diversity. This study was aimed to characterize those GFP genetic resources by applying RAPD genetic markers. Six Indonesian populations of GFP from Asahan, Barito, Ciasem, Ogan, GImacro and Papua were collected and analyzed for their genetic variation using five RAPD primers. The results showed the diversity within the populations, as revealed by the level of polymorphism, ranged from 29% to 76% while genetic divergence between populations as shown by genetic distance ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. In terms of genetic divergence, two genetically distinct groups of GFP, namely the Papua GFP in one group and the remaining five GFP populations in the other, were identified. The results also showed the presence of specific population markers that are useful for genetic identification of GFP populations. Implication of these finding with regard to breed development is discussed.

  8. Macrobrachium rosenbergii whitish muscle disease%罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱平; 江育林; 钱冬; 陈昌福; 李安兴; 黄捷; 杨冰

    2011-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病,又称白尾病(WTD),是由罗氏沼虾野田村病毒引起的一种急性病毒性疾病,主要危害罗氏沼虾苗种,以急性死亡、病虾肌肉呈白斑或白浊状为特征.我国将其列为二类疫病,OIE将其列为必须通报疾病.

  9. Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Kenkre, V.D.; Sreepada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    collected to screen bacteria in ovary, digestive tract and ventral abdominal muscles. Before sacrificing, eggs were collected from their brood pouches using sterile forceps. Eggs collected from the same tank were mixed in a sterile test tube containing... sterile distilled water to form one sample. The remaining four berried prawns from each broodstock tank were then transferred to two different spawning tanks. Eggs were Ž. collected from the two spawning tanks 2 days after transfer day 2 . Two more samples...

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF SEVERAL INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in morphological variability have been the main basis for conventional genetic improvement program, particularly in selective breeding. Proper understanding on these patterns hence, is of crucial prerequisite before any scheme of breeding program is undertaken. This study was aimed to explore those morphological variations with emphasis on the assessment of among-population and among-trait variations and assessment of predictive traits that may serve for inter-population differentiation. A total 281 individuals representing four natural populations (Asahan, Ogan, Barito, and Ciasem and one domesticated stock (GIMacro were sampled and analyzed for variability in thirteen morphological traits. While descriptive analyses were applied to analyze both among-stock and among-trait variations, discriminant function analysis was used to search for the best traits for interpopulation differentiation. The relative variability, expressed in the coefficient of variation (CV, was used to compare the amount and patterns of morphometric variability both among traits and between stocks. Results showed that total body weight was the most variable trait while the length and meristic traits were of lower level. Discriminant analysis found that rostrum length and abdoment length to be the best morphological discriminators among intraspecific populations. However, the continuous natures of these traits make them have limited applicability for intraspecific population differentiation.

  11. Research on the river shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium (Bate, 1868 (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae with known or potential economic importance: strengths and weaknesses shown through scientometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Chong-Carrillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed that the scientific interest in the genus Macrobrachium was not restricted to a biological point of view, but included also social and economic aspects. Many species of the genus are subject of traditional fisheries and culture worldwide. Several research groups across the globe have developed projects in various subject areas on commercial or non-commercial native species of this genus. This investigation aimed to contribute to the development of the genus Macrobrachium research through a scientometric study. The study was based on publications (1980 to 2013 registered in the following databases: Biological Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, SciELO Citation Index, BioOne, Science Direct, Scopus, and Redalyc. A total of 2165 publications on Macrobrachium in the last 33 years were included in this analysis. The themes that yielded most posts were related to culture, nutrition/feeding, and genetics with almost 60% of the total. Publications concerning M. rosenbergii represented more than 60% of the total with the remaining 40% encompassing 22 other species. Analysis performed by geographical regions evidenced that Latin America produced 23% of the publications, South Asia 22%, and East Asia 16%. Brazil generated 65% of the percentage mentioned for the Latin American region. It is necessary to strengthen research on topics of basic biology, especially those of native species. This will allow rapid progress in the generation of production technologies sustained by a solid biological knowledge base.

  12. Fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. da Silva

    Full Text Available In Brazil, studies with native freshwater prawn species were discontinued due to great importance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Therefore, it is necessary to continue investigations about our species, in order to develop technology adequate to our reality and in a future allow prawn farmers to culture other species. The aim of this study was to determine the fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum captured monthly from June 1999 to June 2001 from Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará, Brazil. Prawns were collected using fishing net and transferred at Biological Science Laboratory, Ceará State University (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Among the ovigerous M. amazonicum females, 60 were randomly selected to determine fecundity. The eggs adhered to the pleopods were taken out and they were then placed in a Gilson solution, and then stored in alcohol 70%. Individual fecundity was determined from the total egg counting, using a stereoscopic microscope. To determine fertility, ovigerous M. amazonicum females were stored in individual 10 L-glass tanks maintained under strong aeration. After the hatching, the larvae were siphoned and counted. The data referring to total length and weight of all the females, storage date, coloration and number of eggs, weight and coloration of gonad and number of hatched larvae were noted. With respect to average fecundity (F by length classes, the lowest and highest number of eggs observed was 696 and 1,554, respectively. As for fecundity by weight classes, the lowest number of eggs observed was 760 and the highest, 1,690. The highest number of eggs observed individually per hatching was 2,193. Average fecundity/total length (L and average fecundity/total weight (W may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: F = -411.6 + 203.1 L (p < 0.0001 and F = 566.4 + 157.3 W (p < 0.0001, respectively. In the analysis of average fertility (N per length classes, the lowest and highest number of

  13. 罗氏沼虾诺达病毒TAS-ELISA检测法的建立及应用研究%Establishment and application of TAS-ELISA for the detection of M. rosenbergii Nodavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱冬; 刘问; 潘晓艺; 曹铮; 于涟

    2006-01-01

    罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病(Whitish muscle diseases of Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是近年来流行于罗氏沼虾苗种阶段的严重疾病,该病病原已确定为罗氏沼虾诺达病毒(Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus,MrNV).作者在病毒超离提纯的基础上,制备了罗氏沼虾诺达病毒兔抗血清,并应用抗罗氏沼虾诺达病毒单克隆抗体2B5,建立了三抗体夹心酶联免疫检测方法(TAS-ELISA).TAS-ELISA最适反应条件为:兔抗体以1μg/mL包板,小鼠单抗2B5的工作浓度为1:50000,该法检测MrNV的灵敏度达0.98ng,对WSSV、TSV及其他细菌感染死亡的罗氏沼虾苗没有非特异性反应.通过对2000-2002年病虾及疑似病虾的病毒检测,表明TAS-ELISA法比间接ELISA法和核酸电泳法有更高的阳性检出率和符合率;此外还摸索了降低孵育温度和缩短孵育时间对病毒检测的影响,表明各步孵育温度和时间分别为25℃和20 min对于白浊症状的病苗检测无明显影响,使得本法更加适合于生产实践.

  14. Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC, orange claw (OC and small male (SM at harvest in all-male culture and assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m−2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m−2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density was significant (P < 0.05 affect adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yields performance was from 20 juvenile m−2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22 was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01 and the BC (0.43 population. The survival rate of the SM population was 100% while others were 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the OC male (23.87 g than the SM (19.57 g and the BC male (6.31 g. Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.

  15. RADE-OFFS DAN COST OF PLASTICITY SIFAT PERTUMBUHAN DAN REPRODUKSI PADA PERSILANGAN UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii DALAM SALINITAS BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Hadie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh salinitas pada karakter pertumbuhan dan reproduksi dalam bentuk trade-offs dan cost of plasticity. Benih udang galah dengan bobot 0,01 ± 0,012 g dipelihara pada tiga level salinitas 0‰, 10‰, dan 15‰ dengan tiga ulangan. Sembilan persilangan diperoleh dari perkawinan antar dan dalam strain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada salinitas 10‰, udang memperlambat pertumbuhan sebesar 16,4% dan pada salinitas 15‰ memperlambat pertumbuhan 34,5%. Trade-offs terjadi dengan menurunkan fekunditas sebesar 0,47% pada salinitas 10‰, dan sebesar 18,73% pada salinitas 15‰. Sintasan udang mengalami penurunan sebesar 33,04% pada salainitas 10‰, dan 41,99% pada salinitas 15‰. Pertumbuhan udang terbaik terjadi pada salinitas 0‰ dengan rataan bobot mencapai 25,16 g, sintasan sebesar 63,17%, dan fekunditas berjumlah 23.384 butir telur. Research aimed to evaluated the effects of growth and reproduction trait in salinity expressed on the trade-offs and cost of plasticity. Giant prawn juvenile 0.01 ± 0.012 g of body weight were reared at three different salinities level i.e. 0‰, 10‰, and 15‰ with three replications. Nine crosses strain were obtained from cross breeding between and within strain. Result of research indicated that salinity of 10‰, prawn slower the growth equal to 16.4% and at salinity of 15‰ slower the growth up to 34.5%. Trade-offs happened by decreasing fecundity equal to 0.47% and 18.73% at salinity 10‰ and 15‰ respectively. Decreased of survival rate were 33.04% and 41.99% at salinity 10‰ and 15‰ respectively. The best performance is that salinity of 0‰ are 25.16 g, 63.17%, and 23,384 eggs for the body weight, survival rate, and fecundity respectively.

  16. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KALSIUM PADA MEDIA TERHADAP SIKLUS MOLTING DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIOMASSA UDANG GALAH, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Bachur Zaidy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penambahan kalsium ke dalam media dalam proses peningkatan kadar kalsium kulit dan konsumsi pakan, serta konsekuensinya bagi pertumbuhan udang. Penelitian tahap 1 dengan perlakuan dosis penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 0 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 45 mg/L, dan 60 mg/L, dengan 3 ulangan. Penelitian tahap 2 dengan perlakuan penambahan kalsium 0 mg/L, 30 mg/L, dan 60 mg/L. Parameter yang diukur meliputi kadar kalsium kulit, tingkat konsumsi pakan, laju pertumbuhan, dan efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan. Penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 15-60 mg/L meningkatkan kadar kalsium media (25,51-35,22 mg/L dibanding dengan kontrol (18,53 mg/L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan kalsium Ca(OH2 sebanyak 30 mg/L mampu mempercepat laju peningkatan kadar kalsium kulit. Laju peningkatan kadar kalsium kulit yang lebih cepat berimplikasi terhadap peningkatan konsumsi pakan dan berkonsekuensi lanjut bagi peningkatan pertumbuhan udang. Aplikasi penggunaan kalsium  Ca(OH2 sebanyak 15-30 mg/L untuk mempercepat proses ganti kulit udang berimplikasi terhadap pertumbuhan udang. Konsumsi pakan harian, mulai meningkat pada penambahan Ca(OH2 15 mg/L, dan tertinggi pada perlakuan penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 45 mg/L. Laju pertumbuhan biomassa pada media yang ditambah Ca(OH2 sebanyak 30 dan 60 mg/L memberikan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05. Efisiensi tingkat konsumsi pakan perlakuan penambahan Ca(OH2  sebanyak 30 mg/L lebih tinggi dibanding perlakuan penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 0 dan 60 mg/L. This research was aimed to study the effect of calcium addition into culture media in order to increase husk calcium and food consumption and its consequences to prawn growth. Research phase 1 consisted of treatments of Ca(OH2 addition i.e. 0 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 45 mg/L, and 60 mg/L, with 3 replications for all  treatments. Research phase 2 consisted of treatments of calcium addition of 0 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 60 mg/L. The measured parameters were the rate of husk calcium, feed consumption rate,  growth rate, and feed conversion ratio. The Ca (OH2 addition was 15-60 mg/L to increase calcium concentration in the media (25.51-35.22 mg/L compared to the control (18.53 mg/L. Result of the research indicated that the usage of calcium Ca(OH2 of 30 mg/L can accelerate the calsium deposition in prawn husk. Acceleration of calsium deposition has direct implication to the increase of FCR and thus it increases prawn growth rate. Application of calcium Ca(OH2 addition of 15-30 mg/L to accelerate molting process has positive effect on the growth rate of prawn. Daily food consumption rate started to increase with the addition of 15 mg/L of Ca(OH2, and the highest was reached at the concentration of 45 mg/L Ca(OH2. Growth rate of prawn biomass in culture media added with 30 and 60 mg/L of Ca(OH2 were significantly different (P<0.05. Better food consumption efficiency levels were achieved by the treatment of Ca(OH2 addition of 30 mg/L compared to the other treatments.

  17. PERTUMBUHAN DAN SINTASAN BENIH UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man PADA PENDEDERAN BERBASIS SISTEM HETEROTROF DENGAN PADAT TEBAR BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategi untuk meningkatkan produksi udang galah dapat ditempuh melalui penyediaan benih unggul dalam jumlah memadai dan berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan komponen teknologi pendederan udang galah yang lebih produktif. Teknologi bioflok pada sistem pendederan udang galah, dengan titik berat pada optimasi peran bakteri heterotrof untuk pengendalian senyawa toksik limbah budidaya diharapkan dapat meningkatkan produktivitas melalui peningkatan padat tebar dan sintasan benih. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga tingkat kepadatan benih dan satu kontrol, yang terdiri dari: A kepadatan 1 ekor/L, tanpa sistem heterotrof (TSH; B kepadatan 1 ekor/L dengan sistem heterotrof (SH; C 2 ekor/L dengan SH; D 3 ekor/L dengan SH, masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Sistem heterotrof dijalankan dengan menambahkan molase sebagai sumber karbon dan bakteri Bacillus sp. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan padat tebar dan sistem pengelolaan air memberikan pengaruh nyata (P<0,05 baik terhadap sintasan maupun pertumbuhan benih. Nilai sintasan akhir benih yang diperoleh yaitu 63,3±13,6%; 78,0±22,0%; 88,7±8,1%; dan 89,6±3,7%, berturut-turut untuk perlakuan A, B, C, dan D. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa melalui penerapan teknologi bioflok pendederan udang galah dapat dilakukan tanpa pergantian air dengan kepadatan hingga 3 ekor/L.

  18. 罗氏沼虾养殖技术要点%Technical key on culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑慧; 曾党胜

    2000-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾原产于热带淡水或咸淡水域.1962年人工繁殖取得成功,1976年我国从日本引进试养,并很快推广到全国各地.近年养殖面积不断增加,养殖技术也不断提高.现将罗氏沼虾的养殖技术要点进行归纳,希望对养殖户有所帮助.

  19. C/N ratio control and substrate addition for periphyton development jointly enhance freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii production in ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Huque, S.; Salam, M.A.; Azim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) control in ponds with or without substrate addition for periphyton development on production of giant freshwater prawn. C/N ratios of 10, 15 and 20 were investigated in 40 m¿ 2 ponds stocked with 2 prawn juveniles (5.0

  20. ISOLASI DAN SKRINING BAKTERI NITRIFIKASI SERTA APLIKASINYA PADA BIOFILTRASI MEDIA PEMELIHARAAN LARVA UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan isolat bakteri nitrifikasi yang memiliki potensi mengoksidasi amonia dan nitrit pada media pemeliharaan larva udang galah. Bakteri diisolasi dari bak pengolahan air bekas pemeliharaan larva udang galah di Loka Riset Pemuliaan dan Teknologi Budidaya Perikanan Air Tawar, Sukamandi. Sebanyak 52 isolat bakteri berhasil diisolasi, yang terdiri atas 25 isolat tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-1 dan 27 isolat tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-2. Di antara isolat bakteri yang tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-1 hanya tiga isolat yang mampu mengoksidasi amonia, yaitu Acinetobacter ligniersii A10, Chromobacterium violaceum C2, dan Acinetobacter anitratus C1. Uji oksidasi amonia terhadap tiga isolat yang diperoleh dan satu strain kontrol, Pseudomonas stutzeri ASLT2, menunjukkan bahwa P. stutzeri mempunyai kemampuan oksidasi amonia lebih tinggi dibanding A. ligniersii A10, C. violaceum C2, dan A. anitratus. Uji kemampuan 27 isolat bakteri yang tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-2 menunjukkan bahwa semua isolat tersebut tidak dapat mengoksidasi nitrit. Inokulasi bakteri nitrifikasi (P. stutzeri dan bakteri denitrifikasi (Alcaligenes sp. pada bak filter tidak berpengaruh terhadap perbaikan kualitas air dan pertumbuhan larva udang galah. The aim of this study was to obtain nitrifying bacteria which have high potency to oxidize ammonium and nitrite and to know the effectiveness of application of bioremediation bacteria in giant freshwater larvae rearing. The bacteria were isolated from waste water treatment tank of freshwater prawn hatchery of Research Institute for Breeding and Freshwater Aquaculture, Sukamandi. Fifty two isolates, i.e. 25 isolates grew on nitrification-1 medium and 27 isolates grew on nitrification-2 medium. The ammonium oxidation test showed that only three of 25 isolates were capable to oxidize ammonium, i.e. Acinetobacter ligniersii A10, Chromobacterium violaceum C1, and Acinetobacter anitratus C2 and one control strain, Pseudomonas stutzeri ASLT2. Further test or screening, showed that P. stutzeri oxidized ammonium more effective than either A. ligniersii A10, C. violaceum C2, or A. anitratus C1. The nitrite oxidation test showed that all isolates could not oxidized nitrite. The result on bacteria Inoculation, i.e. nitrifying bacteria (P. stutzeri and denitrifying bacteria (Alcaligenes sp., on filter tank indicated that the bacteria was not able to either reduce ammonium and nitrite concentration or stimulate prawn larvae growth.

  1. Potentialités et intérêts de l'élevage larvaire de la crevette d'eau douce indigène Macrobrachium carcinus (L. (Palaemonidae aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERMAN F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available De précédents travaux, réalisés en laboratoire, ont montré que le développement larvaire de Macrobrachium carcinus nécessitait un environnement salin. Le nombre de larves mises en élevage lors de ces essais était cependant trop faible pour envisager une production de masse de l'espèce. Lors de l'expérience ici présentée, 46.900 larves au stade I ont été mises en élevage à une température oscillant entre 28 et 30°C. Il a été montré qu'en faisant varier la salinité, la production de masse de post-larves était possible en 45 jours, avec un taux de survie finale de 14,3 % et un taux de métamorphose de 10,6 %. Ces résultats sont nettement inférieurs à ceux obtenus en routine avec l'espèce indonésienne Macrobrachium rosenbergii, mais attestent des possibilités d'élevage de M. carcinus aux Antilles françaises et ailleurs.

  2. 罗氏沼虾育苗生产上的光照条件%Light conditions on larval rearing ofMacrobrachiun rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小涛

    1998-01-01

    @@罗氏沼虾 ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii )是世界淡水养殖的优良品种之一.近年来,随着我国特别是南方各省养殖业的迅速发展,对苗种需求量猛增,人工育苗已由小规模、粗放式向高密度、工厂化发展.但育苗生产中出现的种种问题也暴露出对幼体生理生态等基础研究的不足.作者曾就罗氏沼虾幼体的摄食生态及生物能量学等作过系统的研究,其中有的研究成果具有较大的实用价值.本文介绍照度、光照时间及饲育容器的色彩和亮度影响幼体摄食的结果并探讨在育苗生产上的应用.

  3. Evaluation of production performance and profitability of hybrid red tilapia and genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strains in the carbon/nitrogen controlled periphyton-based (C/N- CP on-farm prawn culture system in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezoanul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance of hybrid red tilapia (Mutant, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus and GIFT tilapia strain (Oreochromis niloticus in C/N-CP prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming system was evaluated at the farmers' pond at Bailor union under Trishal upazilla of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. The on-farm trial had two treatments: TR and TG (named according to the tilapia strains with three replications. Six rectangular ponds of varying sizes (400–880 m2 were used for this experiment. Hybrid red and GIFT tilapia stains were stocked with prawn at the stocking densities of 1 tilapia fingerlings (either red or GIFT strain and 3 prawn juveniles m-2 in both treatments. Bamboo side shoot were posted vertically as periphyton substrate. This resulted in an additional substrate surface area of 1067 m2 for periphyton development equaling 147% of the pond surface area. Considering the body weight of freshwater prawn only, feeding rates were 10% of body weight at the beginning of the study (up to 30 days, and feeding application was gradually reduced to 3% in the last month assuming 80% survival. The abundance of total benthos and periphyton as well as total periphytic biomass were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in TR than TG treatment and they were also differed significantly (P < 0.05 among different months with a decreasing trends (exception to some extent over the experimental period. The individual harvesting weight, individual weight gain, specific growth rate, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR, survival (%, gross and net yields of prawn were similar in two treatments. In contrast, the GIFT tilapia strain showed a higher (P < 0.05 individual harvesting weight, individual weight gain, specific growth rate ((SGR, % bw d-1, survival, gross and net yields (1935 and 1825 kg ha-1, respectively combined gross and net yields (2952 and 2784 kg ha-1, respectively, and economic return (3755 US$ with BCR 0.82 than the hybrid Red tilapia.

  4. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural

  5. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower 4066, QLD (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Exposed three species of prawns of same genus to solid- and dissolved-phase metals. • Cd bioaccumulated from dissolved phase was significantly different between species. • All three species retained >95% of bioaccumulated Cd during the depuration phase. • Bioaccumulation of As, Pb and Zn from solid phase was different between species. • Results highlight variability among species, even under controlled conditions. - Abstract: Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p < 0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated

  6. Review of Palaemoninae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Vietnam, Macrobrachium excepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Van N.

    1992-01-01

    An account is presented of the species of Palaemoninae known from Vietnam, the genus Macrobrachium excluded. Of each species a description or descriptive notes are provided, and the habitat and economic importance are discussed. Illustrations of each species, two of which are new to science, are giv

  7. Foregut morphology of Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, J.F.; GARCIA, J. da S.; Tavares, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Macrobrachium carcinus is a Brazilian native prawn with recognized potential for use in aquaculture activities. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate in detail the morphology of the M. carcinus foregut. The foregut comprises the mouth, esophagus and stomach. It is lined by a simple cylindrical epithelium overlain by chitinous cuticle. The cardiac chamber is well supplied with muscles and lined with chitin thickened in places to form a complex, articulating set of ossic...

  8. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.

  9. EFFLUENTS QUALITY DURING THE GROW-OUT PHASE OF THE AMAZON SHRIMP Macrobrachium amazonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years shrimp culture farms have been one of the most growing sectors in aquaculture. Research has been carried out in order to establish a sustainable production maintaining profit and low environmental impact. Current investigation analyzed source and effluent water produced during the final grow-out phase of the Amazon shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum. Twelve natural-bottom ponds, with continuous water flow and stock density comprising 40, 60, 80 and 100 young shrimps/m2 were analyzed. The experiment design comprised totally randomized blocks with four treatments and three replications. Microbiological analyses for Escherichia coli was attempted, coupled to physical and chemical analyses for pH, temperature, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of water supply and pond effluents. Results show that whereas effluent quality complied with current legal rules, there was no significant difference between supply and effluent water for the analyzed variables and between stock densities. Under the conditions investigated and the intensification of culture in the final grow-out phase up to a density of 100 young shrimps/m2, the production of M. amazonicum reveals low potential for environmental impact for the variables analyzed.

  10. Presence of the Japanese Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium Nipponense (De Haan, 1849) (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, S.S.C.; Khoo, H.W.; Ng, P.K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Characters of adults and larvae are given to differentiate between Macrobrachium nipponense and M. sintangense. The presence of the former in Singapore is stated and explained as an introduction from Japan or China, possibly with ornamental fishes.

  11. Effect of ambient temperature on heart rate and tissue magnesium concentration between Macrobrachium rosenbergii and macrobrachium nipponese%水温对罗氏沼虾和青虾心率及组织中镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺昌; 于敏; 魏亦军

    2003-01-01

    罗氏沼虾的心率随水温的降低而变化,在17℃时只有79次/min,为30℃的1/3;其血清Mg的含量随水温的降低而升高,肌肉中Mg有降低的趋势,但差异不明显.青虾心率在水温从24℃到17℃时,无明显改变;血清Mg随水温的降低而升高,但变化幅度小于罗氏沼虾.

  12. Heavy metal contamination of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and prawn feed in Bangladesh: A market-based study to highlight probable health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiul Islam, G M; Habib, Mohammad Ruzlan; Waid, Jillian L; Rahman, M Safiur; Kabir, J; Akter, S; Jolly, Y N

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the dietary risk of heavy metal exposure to humans is important since it is the main source of exposure. This study aimed to estimate the degree of contamination and assess the probable health risk in the prawn food chain. In prawn feed, the concentrations of metals were detected in the following order: Hg > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals in prawn were the highest for Co and lowest for Cd. Trace amounts of As and Cr were detected in the analyzed sample. Target hazard quotients for heavy metals for adults were >1 for Pb, Cd, Hg, and Co, and for children, the same were high for Co and Hg, indicating significant health risks upon dietary exposure. All the prawn samples contained nine-fold and fourteen-fold higher concentrations than the maximum acceptable levels for Pb and Hg, respectively (0.5 mg kg(-1); WHO/FAO). Human health risk due to the Co exposure is quite alarming as the level of exposure was found to be very high. In the prawn samples intended for human consumption, the hazard index (HI) was highest in the samples obtained from Bagerhat (3.25 in flesh and 3.26 in skin), followed by the samples obtained from Satkhira (2.84 in flesh and 3.10 in skin) and Dhaka City Corporation (2.81 in flesh and 3.42 in Skin); this indicates a potential risk of prawn consumption obtained from Southeast Bangladesh. This is particularly problematic as this area accounts for the majority of prawn production and export of the country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Test on culturing zoaea of Macrobrachium rosenbergii with spirulina feed%螺旋藻培育罗氏沼虾溞状幼体初步试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓东

    2000-01-01

    @@ 本试验以螺旋藻为饵料基础与传统生产中的鸡蛋加卤虫作比较,研究作为开口饵料螺旋藻对罗氏沼虾溞状幼体生长的影响,为人工育苗生产提供理论依据.

  14. 罗氏沼虾常见病害的防治%Prevention and cure of common disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李信书

    2000-01-01

    @@ 近年来,罗氏沼虾养殖业发展迅速,经济效益显著,不过在生产上已发现不少病害,经常对生产造成较大损失.但许多养殖户还不太了解虾病的病症及防治方法.

  15. Effect of culture season and stocking density on the growth and production of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Ma raised in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Baysa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of culture season and different stocking density on productivity of freshwater prawn that was raised in northern Thailand. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study was divided into two experiments; each treatment was replicated three times. The first experiment investigated the effect of climatic condition on the culture and production of freshwater prawn post larvae (PL 10; mean weight of 0.02 g stocked in 400m2 ponds. Results of the first experiment revealed freshwater prawn raised during the dry season to summer obtained higher growth rate (0.19 g and 0.15 g/day and survival rate (34.27% and 24.49% than that of summer to rainy season (p<0.05. The second experiment investigated the effect of 2 different socking densities (25 and 50 individuals/m2 on the production survival of freshwater prawn. Results showed that the rate of growth, survival rate, and production, were much higher at a stocking density of 25 individuals/m2 (p<0.05 in contrast to 50 individuals/m2. Growth performances of freshwater prawns were triggered by stocking density and season.

  16. The effects of green tea extract additive feeds on the growth performance and survival rate of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpimol, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE additive feeds on the growth performance in the giant freshwater prawn. Two separate trials were determined by using two different stages of prawn for initial stocking, one was the small post larva (PL10, the other was 5.6 g prawn. A Completely Randomized Design was applied in this study. The small post larva (PL10 were raised in cement tanks(1x1.5 m2. Three treatments with three replications each were performed applied as following: treatment 1 (control was the commercial pellet feed; treatment 2 and 3 were feeds with 1% and 2% green tea extract, respectively. This assay was run for 8 weeks. The prawns were randomly selected for weight determination every week. The result showed there was no significant difference in the specific growth rate and survival (P > 0.05 but the feed conversion ratio was reduced in prawn fed with green tea extracts (P 0.05. Therefore, green tea extract has potential as growth enhancer in giant freshwater prawn culture.

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF VITAMIN C ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF THE FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of vitamin C on growth and survival rate of freshwater prawn larvae. The treatment dosages of vitamin C were 0.0, and 0.75 mg/L. Each treatment was in triplicates and arranged in a complete randomized design. Vitamin C was given to the larval rearing media every three days. Larvae were cultured in six conical fibreglass tanks of 50 L volume installed in a fibreglass tank (2 m x 0.8 m x 0.8 m filled with water for temperature stabilizer. Each conical tank was stocked with 6,500 larvae (nauplii. Artemia nauplii were given on D3 and egg custard as artificial feed on D9. Larval rearing was done for 25 days in constant temperature (29oC–31oC using automatic heater. Statistical analysis showed that metamorphosis speed of larvae was significantly affected by adding of vitamin C (P0.05. Addition of vitamin C also resulted in a better growth of freshwater prawn larvae.

  18. Effects of stocking density of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and addition of different levels of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on production in C/N controlled periphyton based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Mondal, M.N.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of stocking density of freshwater prawn and addition of different levels of tilapia on production in carbon/nitrogen (C/N) controlled periphyton based system. The experiment had a 2 × 3 factorial design, in which two levels of prawn stocking d

  19. 不同形态型雄性罗氏沼虾的交配能力%Mating capacity of male Macrobrachium rosenbergii with different morphotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春; 成永旭

    2010-01-01

    从行为生态学角度,对采自孟加拉国库尔纳专区羌纳县布苏尔河罗氏沼虾原产地池塘种群中3种不同形态型雄虾的繁殖行为及交配能力进行了初步研究.结果表明:社群中蓝螯型(BC)、橙螯型(OC)和小型(SM)雄性罗氏沼虾的交配行为模式没有明显的区别,但BC、OC和SM雄虾在交媾前守卫、交媾及精荚传递和交媾后守卫3个典型行为中投入的时间存在明显差异.BC雄虾交媾前守卫、交媾及精荚传递用时明显比OC、SM雄虾短,而交媾后守卫用时明显比OC、SM雄虾长.SM雄虾在交媾前守卫和精荚传递上投入的时间最长,而交媾后守卫用时最短.在雌虾体质量为雄虾体质量的80%,且♀∶♂为8∶1性比条件下,BC、OC和SM雄虾在120 h内平均交媾次数分别为4.6、2.2、1.3,BC雄虾具有较强的连续交媾能力.罗氏沼虾的交配能力与其体质量相关,雄、雌虾的体质量相匹配才能保证成功交媾.否则会出现"假交"现象.

  20. An Experiment on the Aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Ponds%东平湖区池塘养殖罗氏沼虾试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广军; 吴雷

    2001-01-01

    试验塘共4口,总面积0.71 hm2,共放养虾苗21.5万尾.经过一个养殖周期,共收获成虾1 591kg,平均产量2 241 kg/hm2,平均体重23.8g/尾.总收入79 550,盈利37 300元,投入产出比1:1.88.

  1. 电厂余热水养殖罗氏沼虾技术%Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture by utilization of surplus warmwater from power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴礼

    2003-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾自引进以来,就深受广大养殖者的青睐.为探索罗氏沼虾养殖的新途径,2002年我们在临沂市矿务局电厂旧凉水池中利用电厂余热水进行了罗氏沼虾养殖试验,取得了良好的效果.现将试验结果报告如下.

  2. 罗氏沼虾个体发育早期的同工酶研究%STUDIES ON ISOZYMES DURING EARLY ONTOGENY OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广丽; 朱春华

    2001-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺梯度凝胶电泳技术,对罗氏沼虾个体发育早期9个时期的八种同工酶系统(EST、ALP、AMY、GDH、MDH、LDH、SOD、ME)进行研究,结果表明:SOD、ME在早期发育过程中酶谱相对稳定,SOD表现为三条谱带,ME表现为两条谱带;而EST、ALP、AMY、GDH、MDH、LDH则随发育其酶谱表现出明显差异,酶谱渐趋复杂。

  3. The status of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii Weiner et al. 2000. Request for an Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qiliang; Li, Chongping; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and several key phenotypic features, it was ascertained that the culture cited as the type strain of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii, ATCC 43869(T), does not conform to the description of the species, [Weiner, R. M., Melick, M., O'Neill, K. & Quintero, E. (2000). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 459-469]. The type strain does not exist in any other established culture collection or with the authors who described this species. Therefore, it cannot be included in any scientific study. It is proposed that the Judicial Commission place the name Hyphomonas rosenbergii on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain is not found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion.

  4. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  5. Efeito do fornecimento de ração complementada com semente de linhaça sobre os macronutrientes e colesterol em tecidos de camarões da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosenbergii Effect of Supplying Food Complemented with Linseed on the Chemical Composition of Malaysian Shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lindenberg dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a composição centesimal dos camarões alimentados com dieta complementada com semente de linhaça. Foram utilizados 800 camarões pós-larvas, divididos em 2 tratamentos: 1 grupo teste à base de caseína complementada com linhaça; e 2 grupo caseína. Os valores médios de umidade (79,8 ± 0,82; 78,9 ± 1,68, cinzas (0,62 ± 0,07; 0,68 ± 0,2, carboidratos (2,63 ± 0,13; 1,58 ± 0,7 e proteínas (15,6 ± 1,02; 16,0 ± 0,58 dos grupos controle e teste, respectivamente, não apresentaram diferença significativa ao final do experimento. Entretanto, a concentração de lipídio total sofreu uma redução significativa (p The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of shrimp fed with a diet complemented with linseed. 800 post larvae shrimp were divided into two types of treatment: 1 a test group based on casein complemented with linseed, and 2 a casein group. At the end of the experiment, the two treatments showed no significant differences in the mean values of humidity (79.8 ± 0.82; 78.9 ± 1.68, ashes (0.62 ± 0.07; 0.68 ± 0.2, carbohydrates (2.63 ± 0.13; 1.58 ± 0.7 and proteins (15.6 ± 1.02; 16.0 ± 0.58. However, the concentration of total lipids in both groups declined significantly during this study. This decline was more marked in the control group (74%. At the end of the experiment, the lipid content was higher (p < 0.05 in the test group (1.87 ± 0.03 than in the control group (1.12 ± 0.021. However, the cholesterol content in the test group (0.115 ± 0.004 was lower than in the control group (0.1306 ± 0.001, albeit without a statistically significant difference. It was concluded that the addition of linseed to the food seems to increase the shrimps' lipids, which suggests that this increase does not imply heightened cholesterol levels. It is also possible that the increase in lipids is due to the incorporation of a large proportion polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  6. A Review of Species Suitable for Containment Site Culture (Fresh Water),

    Science.gov (United States)

    most salinity regimes which might occur in a containment area. Invertebrates which deserve consideration include crawfish (Orchonectes spp. and Procambarus spp.) and freshwater shrimp ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii ).

  7. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  8. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  9. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species.

  10. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSA715 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ial manga... 74 2e-12 DQ157765_1( DQ157765 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii m...itochon... 74 2e-12 EU077525_1( EU077525 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii mitochon... 74 2e-12 AY675508_

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1275 ref|YP_214003.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Macrobrachium rose...nbergii] gb|AAT52176.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Macrobrachium rosenbergii] YP_214003.1 0.015 24% ...

  13. Conservation and aquaculture of native freshwater prawns: the case of the cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum (Bate, 1868

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo García-Guerrero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Latin America has a high diversity of Macrobrachium prawns, some of them with commercial interest. Among them, the cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum is a large prawn of the western coast with commercial value due to its size and taste, but it has been extensively subjected to fishery exploitation, leading to population decline. Cultivation is an option for commercial production and conservation. Some research focused on domestication has been performed. Here, we revise the status of that research and discuss possibilities for sustainable freshwater prawn aquaculture in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America.

  14. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...... by blurriness of boundaries between „home spheres‟ and work situations as well as by a unique blend of commercial and private hospitality. Furthermore, the study shows that „social‟ motivations and non-monetary benefits gained through host-guest interactions are of great importance to the hosts. In particular......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  15. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  16. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  17. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...... by some of the associations in relation to knowledge and technology transfer, seeds distribution and contact to potential national and foreign buyers....

  18. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  19. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pileggi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × M. heterochirus, M. americanum × M. carcinus, M. digueti × M. olfersii, M. hancocki × M. crenulatum, M. tenellum × M. acanthurus and M. panamense × M. amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups.

  20. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  1. OCORRÊNCIA DE Macrobrachium amazonicum (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA) NA DIETA DE Lysapsus bolivianus (ANURA, HYLIDAE).

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Fabiana Melo Furtado; Carlos Eduardo Costa-Campos; Suelique de Souza Queiroz; Kelly Juliana Gaya Correa; Inacia Maria Vieira

    2013-01-01

    A dieta de Lysapsus bolivianus está baseada principalmente em pequenos artrópodes, representados geralmente por Diptera, Collembola e Hemiptera, sendo os crustáceos encontrados ocasionalmente. No presente trabalho registramos a presença de Macrobrachium amazonicum na dieta de L. bolivianus em planície de Inundação no Norte do Brasil. Palavras-chave: dieta, Crustacea, Amazônia Oriental. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p185-187

  2. Comportamiento reproductivo y fertilidad de Macrobrachium carcinus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El camarón "gigante" de agua dulce Macrobrachium carcinus se encuentra presente en Venezuela tanto en puequeflos ríos litorales como en ríos más caudalosos. En el presente trabajo, seis machos y 22 hembras capturados en el río Manzanares del Edo. Sucre, fueron mantenidos durante 14 meses en el laboratorio con el objeto de hacer observaciones sobre el proceso de muda, apareamiento, desove, período de incubación, eclosión de los huevos y número de zonas/hembra. De los 33 procesos de muda observ...

  3. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for mprovement of living conditions of those...... natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  4. Biología y cultivo de Macrobrachium tenellum: Estado del arte Biology and culture of Macrobrachium tenellum: State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Espinosa-Chaurand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como propósito reunir y clasificar la información existente sobre aspectos biológicos y de cultivo del langostino Macrobrachium tenellum, de una forma clara y secuencial, que permita integrar el conocimiento para desarrollar nuevos caminos en la investigación y aprovechamiento sustentable de este recurso. Se abordan diversos temas que incluyen la taxonomía y sistemática, distribución geográfica, ecología, reproducción, desarrollo, patologías, pesca y acuicultura de la especie, tomando en cuenta toda la información generada por diversos autores, desde hace cuatro décadas a la fecha. Se concluye que existen vacíos importantes en el conocimiento de aspectos básicos y aplicados sobre la biología de la especie y que se requiere un gran esfuerzo de investigación para la correcta comprensión de este organismo nativo, que permita su protección y adecuado aprovechamiento. Se recomienda poner especial interés en estudios que permitan conocer completamente su distribución, el efecto de la contaminación y la pérdida de sus hábitats naturales. Es necesario también revisar la normatividad de aprovechamiento y conservación, así como desarrollar y mejorar las técnicas de manejo acuicultural.This research aims to collect and classify information on the biology and culture of the prawn Macrobrachium tenellum, in a clear and sequential manner, which would integrate the knowledge to develop new ways in research and sustainable exploitation of this resource. It covers various topics including taxonomy and systematics, geographic distribution, ecology, reproduction, development, pathology, fisheries and aquaculture of this species, taking into account all the information generated by different authors, from four decades to today. We conclude that there are significant knowledge gaps of basic and applied aspects of the biology of the species and this requires a great deal of research for the correct understanding

  5. Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei

    2009-10-01

    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  6. 罗氏沼虾亲虾蜕壳僵死的原因探讨%The studies on the reason causing parent Macrobrachium rosenbergii to death at exuviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄景; 陈琴

    2003-01-01

    通过调查和试验研究,结果表明:蓝藻在亲虾池中大量生长繁殖,蓝藻死亡后产生毒素毒害亲虾,亲虾摄食差导致体质弱,没有足够的能量进行完全蜕壳而僵死在旧壳中.

  7. 罗氏沼虾在不同温度贮藏期间鲜度的变化%Changes in freshness of Macrobrachium rosenbergii during storage at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 周培根; 戚晓玉

    2002-01-01

    通过感官评定、微生物和生化指标的分析,评价了不同贮藏温度(10℃、5℃、0℃)对罗氏沼虾鲜度的影响.冰藏能明显抑制细菌的繁殖,有效地延长罗氏沼虾的贮藏期,但虾肌肉组织变得较松软.在三种贮藏温度条件下K值和TVBN均随着贮藏时间的延长而增加.K值可作为评价罗氏沼虾高质量鲜度的指标,35%为可接受的极限值.TVBN可用来显示沼虾死后后期质量变化的特点,25mg/100g为可食用的极限值.

  8. Retraction notice to “Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate” [Aquaculture Reports 3C (2016 184-188

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2017-08-01

    One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  9. [Nutrition of juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) with diets of vegetable and marine residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Sánchez, R; Vaillard-Nava, Y; Re-Araujo, A D

    1995-01-01

    Juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus were fed two different diets: restaurant by-products (diet I) and fish and vegetable market by-products (diet II). These diets were evaluated by proximal analysis, assimilation efficiency and the factor conversion rate (FCR). Diet I registered a higher efficiency, but there was no difference in the growth rate. The growth mean (G. L.) for three months was 0.254 +/- 0.13 cm (diet I) and 0.191 +/- 0.1 cm (diet II). The conversion rate was good for both, suggesting that 6 to 7 kg of food are needed to obtain 1 kg of prawn. Survival was 76% and 100% for diets I and II, respectively.

  10. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  11. Effects of different dietary of protein and lipid levels on the growth of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium carcinus) broodstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Benítez-Mandujano; Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the effects of varying dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of adult freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus 1758), in a recirculation system for 11 weeks (77 days). Materials and methods. The experimental treatments were assigned in triplicate. Six test diets were formulated with three different protein levels (35, 40 and 45%) and two lipid levels (8 and 13%). Results. The highest survival rate, growth indices and feed ut...

  12. Effects of different dietary of protein and lipid levels on the growth of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium carcinus) broodstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Benítez-Mandujano; Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the effects of varying dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of adult freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus 1758), in a recirculation system for 11 weeks (77 days). Materials and methods. The experimental treatments were assigned in triplicate. Six test diets were formulated with three different protein levels (35, 40 and 45%) and two lipid levels (8 and 13%). Results. The highest survival rate, growth indices and feed ut...

  13. Natural diet and feeding habits of a freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium carcinus: Crustacea, Decapoda) in the estuary of the Amazon River.

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, J.F.; GARCIA, J. da S.; SILVA, T. C. da

    2014-01-01

    Macrobrachium carcinus is a Brazilian native prawn with recognized potential for use in aquaculture activities. However, there is little information about the natural diet and feeding habits of this species. The aim of this study was the identification of the diet items of M. carcinus based on the analysis of the stomach contents. Specimens were collected in the Amazon River estuary between January 2009 and January 2010. The stomach analysis was carried out by using the frequency of occurrenc...

  14. Ultrastructural changes of the oocyte Ⅰ during the vitel logenesis in Macrobachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾初级卵母细胞在卵黄形成期 超微结构的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃澄; 卢建平; 袁保京

    2001-01-01

    对罗氏沼虾初级卵母细胞在卵黄形成期的超微结构变化进行了研究。卵黄形成期早期,初级卵母细胞体积和细胞核迅速增大,核内核糖 体等物质通过核孔复合体活跃地向胞质转移,同时滤泡细胞中的营养物质开始进入初级卵母 细胞。初级卵母细胞内卵黄形成的主要细胞器是线粒体、高尔基体、粗面内质网和核糖体, 其合成过程始于卵黄形成期中期,并一直延续至后期。在卵黄形成期中期,发现滤泡细胞内 的线粒体也有类似的卵黄物质合成功能。同时滤泡细胞继续有物质通过指状通道进入初级卵 母细胞,直接或间接转化为卵黄物质。卵黄形成期后期,初级卵母细胞核膜逐渐消失,随着卵黄粒在初级卵母细胞中大量沉积,滤泡细胞内的营养物质向初级卵母细胞的转移通道变细 ,转移过程也最后停止。%In this paper,the ultrastructural changes of the oocyte of the first order of Macrobrachium rosenbergii are discussed during the vitellogenesis. In its early vitellogenesis,it was observed that the substance of its nucleus was activ ely transferred to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore or membrance; that the substance of the follicle cell came into the oocyte I through sawtooth-like pr ojections. The primary cell organelles of the formation of yolk granule were th e mitochondria, the golgi complex, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the ribos ome in the oocyte Ⅰ. This process of formation began in the middle to later vi tellogenesis.In middle vitellogenesis, it was observed that mitochondria of the follicle cell has similar function of the formation of yolk. In later vitellog enesis, the nuclear membrance of oocyte Ⅰ disappeared gradually. The finger-l ike channel between the oocyte Ⅰ and the follicle cell became tiny, along with large accumulation of the yolk granule. The process for the substance of the f ollicle cell to tranform

  15. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  16. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  17. EFEKTIFITAS MEMBRAN KHITOSAN DARI KULIT UDANG GALAH (Macrobanchium rosenbergii UNTUK MENURUNKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Yunarsih

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Penanggulangan terhadap pencemaran air limbah yang mengandung senyawa fosfat terutama yang berasal dari air limbah laundry dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi membran. Pada penelitian ini, membran dibuat dari bahan polimer alam yaitu senyawa khitosan yang diperoleh dari khitin yang terdapat di dalam kulit udang galah (Macrobanchium rosenbergii melalui proses deasetilasi menggunakan NaOH 50%. Kualitas khitosan yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini ditentukan dengan FTIR dan diperoleh derajat deasetilasi (DD sebesar 66.27%.Khitosan dilarutkan dalam asam asetat 1% yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk membuat membran dengan variasi konsentrasi khitosan 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% dan 5%. Membran tersebut digunakan untuk menurunkan kadar fosfat larutan standar KH2PO4 10 ppm dengan waktu kontak 30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit.Membran khitosan 3% dan waktu kontak p60 menit merupakan membran terbaik karena mampu menurunkan kadar fosfat larutan standar KH2PO4 10 ppm secara optimal. Kondisi ini diaplikasikan untuk menurunkan kadar fosfat total yang terdapat dalam air limbah laundry. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa membrane tersebut dapat menurunkan kadar fosfat total sampai 97.40% setelah dilakukan filtrasi sebanyak empat kali dan pH larutan berubah dari 9 menjadi 8. Countermeasures against pollution waste water containing phosphate compounds derived primarily from laundry wastewater can be performed using membrane technology. Membranes can be made from natural polymers that is compound chitosan obtained from chitin is in shrimp shells. Chitin obtained from prawn shell can be converted to chitosan by deacetylation process using 50% NaOH. The quality of chitosan obtainedin this study was determined by FTIR and the degree of deacetylation ( DD was calculated to be 66.27%. Further, the chitosan was dissolved in 1% acetic acid and then used to make membranes with various concentrations of chitosan 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. Those membraneswere used to reduce the level of

  18. Biodiversity of decapod crustaceans in the estuarine floodplain around the city of Belém (Pará) in Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Viveiros Cavalcante; Bianca Bentes da Silva; Jussara Moretto Martinelli-Lemos

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the decapod fauna of the fluvial-estuarine environment of the Guajará Bay, in the Brazilian state of Pará, where specimens were collected monthly from six sites, from May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 6,793 specimens were captured, belonging to 11 species of crab and shrimp: eight palaemonids - Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879), Macro...

  19. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  20. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  1. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  2. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) = Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) larval survival

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Pereira dos Santos; Patrícia Maria Moraes da Silva; Eudes de Souza Correia; Albino Luciani Gonçalves Leal

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI) foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas) e seis repetições: 1) filé de peixe (Dp); 2) filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB); 3) dieta fo...

  3. Molecular cloning and expression pattern of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N M A; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Qiao, H; Jin, S; Bai, H K; Zhang, W Y; Liang, G X; Gong, Y S; Xiong, Y W; Wu, Y

    2016-08-29

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) produces nitric oxide (NO) by catalyzing the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline, with the concomitant oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recently, various studies have verified the importance of NOS invertebrates and invertebrates. However, the NOS gene family in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length NOS complementary DNA from M. nipponense (MnNOS) and characterized its expression pattern in different tissues and at different developmental stages. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed the MnNOS gene to be expressed in all investigated tissues, with the highest levels observed in the androgenic gland (P < 0.05). Our results revealed that the MnNOS gene may play a key role in M. nipponense male sexual differentiation. Moreover, RT-qPCR revealed that MnNOS mRNA expression was significantly increased in post-larvae 10 days after metamorphosis (P < 0.05). The expression of this gene in various tissues indicates that it may perform versatile biological functions in M. nipponense.

  4. Antibacterial activity of different extracts of prawn shell (Macrobrachium nipponense against human bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Karimzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Bioactive compounds existing in crustacean shells have the potential to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic microorganism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different extracts of prawn shells (Macrobrachium nipponense on some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Sampling (prawn was conducted in summer 2014 from Anzali wetland in southern coast of Caspian Sea. Then, the hydroalcoholic, methanolic, and acetone extracts of prawn shells were applied for this purpose. Two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus and three Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli were used as test organisms. The antibacterial activity was determined by paper disk diffusion. Results: The prawn shell extracts showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. The highest antibacterial activities were measured in B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae with the zone of inhibition being 12.12 ± 0.32 mm, 12.51 ± 0.14 mm, and 12.35 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. Among all the strains, S. aureus exhibits a significant zone of inhibition against all extracts (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that different prawn shell extracts, particularly hydroalcoholic, have bactericidal effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae species.

  5. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  6. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  7. Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-ping; ZHANG Xiao-hui; YU Xiao-yun

    2006-01-01

    The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types Ⅰ and Ⅱ) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types Ⅲ and Ⅳ) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type Ⅲ cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type Ⅲ cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type Ⅲ cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order:Ⅳ→Ⅰ→Ⅱ→Ⅲ.

  8. Study of biochemical biomarkers in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to organophosphate fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, S; García, C; Crespo, R; Pedrini, N; Heras, H

    2013-10-01

    Several agrochemicals like organophosphates are extensively used to control pests in agricultural practices but they also adversely affect non-target fauna. The effect of organophosphorous fenitrothion on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii was evaluated. The 96-h LC50 was determined. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid oxidation levels, were evaluated in the hepatopancreas from adults exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In addition, superoxide dismutase mRNA expression, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and haemocyte DNA damage were determined. The 96-h LC50 was 4.24μg/l of fenitrothion. Prawn exposed to sublethal FS concentrations showed an increase of both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, mainly after 2 and 4 days exposure and an increase of glutathione-S-transferase activity from day 2 to day 7 while lipid oxidation levels increased mainly on day 1. Superoxide dismutase transcripts were significantly higher in fenitrothion -treated prawns, indicating an induction mechanism. Hemolymph analysis showed that while acetylcholinesterase activity decreased after 2 days, haemocytes displayed most DNA damage after 7-day exposure to fenitrothion. These results indicate that prawn enzymes are highly sensitive to fenitrothion exposure, and these biological responses in M. borellii could be valuable biomarkers to monitor organophosphorous contamination in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Crustacea: Decapoda), to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Ramle, Nur-Amalina; Abas, Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT₅₀) and concentrations (LC₅₀) were calculated. At the end of the 4-day period, live prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT₅₀ and LC₅₀ increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC₅₀s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 32.3, 7.0, 525.1 and 35.0 µg/L, respectively. Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb bioconcentration in M. lanchesteri increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to M. lanchesteri, followed by Pb, Cu and Zn. Comparison of LC₅₀ values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean organisms reveals that M. lanchesteri is equally or more sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested crustaceans.

  10. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.

  11. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti,Wagner C; Jeanette de T.C. de Mello; Vera L Lobão

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW), southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L...

  12. Nutrición en juveniles del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus (Cmstacea: Decapoda) con dietas de residuos vegetales y marinos

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, Ruth; Vaillard-Nava, Yvette; Re-Araujo, Ana Denisse

    2015-01-01

    Juveniles del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus fueron alimentados con dos dietas: de desechos de restaurante (dieta 1) y de pescado y productos vegetales (dieta ll). Las dietas fueron evaluadas mediante análisis proximal, bioensayos de digestibilidad (Eficiencia de Asimilación), bioensayos de crecimiento y Factor de Conversión (FCR). A pesa:[" de que, los organismos asimilaron con mayor eficiencia la dieta 1, el crecimiento no fue diferente, siendo éste, en promedio para los tres meses del e...

  13. Utilização de diferentes dietas na larvicultura do camarão pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Pereira dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    A produção do camarão pitu Macrobrachium carcinus tem sido explorada comercialmente em diversos países. No Nordeste, a pesca do pitu é de grande importância no Baixo São Francisco. A produção em larga escala de pós-larvas do pitu continua sendo o principal empecilho para o cultivo comercial e recuperação dos estoques naturais. Desta forma, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho testar diferentes dietas na larvicultura de M. carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas, com ...

  14. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  15. El camarón de agua dulce Macrobrachium cacinus (decapada, Palaemonida) y su potencial para la acuacultura en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio es conocer aspectos básicos acerca el ciclo de vida de macrobrachium carcinus, un langostino que por su gran tamaño tiene potencial para la comercialización en la región. Universidad de Costa Rica

  16. The exploited population of the brackish river prawn (Macrobrachium macrobrachion Herklots 1851 in the Cross River estuary, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis M. Nwosu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the exploited population of Macrobrachium macrobrachion in the Cross River estuary, Nigeria, were studied based on monthly length-frequency data collected from January 1997 to June 1998 (18 months, from the landings of the artisanal Macrobrachium fishery. Sexual dimorphism was indicated in the growth and mortality parameters. For the males, the von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as L∞ = 141.35 mm, K = 1.21 year-1, C = 1.0 and WP = 0.15. For the females, they were L∞ = 117.55 mm, K = 1.60 year-1, C = 0.81 and WP = 0.51. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z was estimated as 9.53 year-1 (males and 9.14 year-1 (females. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M was estimated as 2.44 year-1 (males and 3.09 year-1 (females, while the instantaneous rate of fishing mortality (F was estimated as 7.09 year-1 (males and 6.05 year-1 (females. The exploitation rate (E obtained was 0.74 for the males and 0.66 for the females, suggesting that the prawn population was over-fished for both sexes. It is necessary to analyse the catch and effort data for the last 10 years and to apply other methods of stock assessment in order to estimate the long term trends in the fishery.

  17. Abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948 (Palaemonidae) in the Amazon estuary, north of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, D V; Bentes, B S; Martinelli-Lemos, J M

    2017-01-01

    Macrobrachium surinamicum is a small shrimp that inhabits rivers of low salinity. It is mainly caught as bycatch in Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum fisheries, which is widely exploited by artisanal fisheries for food and economic needs of the riverside population. This study aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the freshwater shrimp M. surinamicum in the Guajará Bay and on Mosqueiro Island, correlating the abundance of this species with abiotic factors (temperature and salinity). Samples were taken from May 2006 to April 2007 in six locations: Mosqueiro Island (Furo das Marinhas and Porto do Pelé); Icoaraci district; Arapiranga Island, edge of the city of Belém; and Combu Island, using traps named 'matapis'. A total of 361 shrimps were caught. The abundance was higher in December and lower in July 2006. The biggest catch occurred on Arapiranga Island and the lowest on Mosqueiro Island. The abundance differed significantly in December 2006 and no variable studied had significant influence on M. surinamicum abundance. In Guajará Bay, particularly the more sheltered places, as Arapiranga and Combu islands, favor the development of M. surinamicum, indicating that this species has preference for less disturbed areas.

  18. Osmoregulation in larvae and juveniles of two recently separated Macrobrachium species: Expression patterns of ion transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    In this comparative study, osmoregulatory mechanisms were analyzed in two closely related species of palaemonid shrimp from Brazil, Macrobrachium pantanalense and Macrobrachium amazonicum. A previous investigation showed that all postembryonic stages of M. pantanalense from inland waters of the Pantanal are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water, while this species was not able to hypo-osmoregulate at high salinities. In M. amazonicum originating from the Amazon estuary, in contrast, all stages are able to hypo-osmoregulate, but only first-stage larvae, late juveniles and adults are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these physiological differences have not been known. We therefore investigated the expression patterns of three ion transporters (NKA α-subunit, VHA B-subunit and NHE3) following differential salinity acclimation in different ontogenetic stages (stage-V larvae, juveniles) of both species. Larval NKAα expression was at both salinities significantly higher in M. pantanalense than in M. amazonicum, whereas no difference was noted in juveniles. VHA was also more expressed in larvae of M. pantanalense than in those of M. amazonicum. When NHE3 expression is compared between the larvae of the two species, further salinity-related differences were observed, with generally higher expression in the inland species. Overall, a high expression of ion pumps in M. pantanalense suggests an evolutionary key role of these transporters in freshwater invasion.

  19. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  20. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  1. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  2. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  3. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  4. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  5. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MALASIAN GIANT SHRIMPS (Macrobrachium rosembergii RAISED WITH CHICKEN MANURE QUALIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE CAMARÕES GIGANTES DA MALÁSIA (Macrobrachium rosembergii CULTIVADOS COM DEJETOS DE AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The bacteriological quality of Malaysian giant shrimps (Macrobrachium rosnnbergii raised under captivity condition and fed with aviculture residue was studied in the Station of Pisciculture of the Veterinary School, Federal University of Goiás. The following results were observed: research of Salmonella free in 25g, in all samples; Staphylococcus aureus counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 2,0 x 10¹ CFU/g; aerobic or aerobic facultative mesophiles counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0³ CFU/g; psicrotrophiles count was < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0 x 10³ CFU/g; MPN of total coliforms was 3 to 15/g; MPN of fecal coliforms was 3 to 7/g. All the values above are in agreement to the national pattern.

    KEY-WORDS: Macrobrachium rosembergii; shrimp; chicken manure.

    No presente experimento verificou-se a qualidade bacteriológica de camarões gigantes da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosembergii cultivados em cativeiro, em consórcio com dejetos de avicultura, na Estação de Piscicultura da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás, obtendo-se os seguintes resultados: pesquisa de Salmonella ausência em 25g em todas as amostras; contagem de Staphylococcus aureus - variou de < 1,0 x 10¹ a 2,0 x 10¹ UFC/g contagem de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis - < 1,0 x 10¹ a 1,0 x l0³ UFC/g ; psicrotróficos - < 1,0 x

  6. Crescimento relativo do camarão canela Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae em viveiros Relative growth of Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M.C. Moraes-Riodades

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some morphometric relationships in Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 reared in earthen ponds were studied. A total of 239 individuals were collected, sexed and sorted to juvenile or adult. Total length (Lt, post-orbital length (Lpo, carapace length (Lcp and queliped length (Lql were measured. The relationships Lt/Lpo, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp are the same for juveniles, males and females, indicating unchanged growth pattern during post-larval ontogenetic development. While Lt/Lpo showed isometric growth, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp showed negative allometry. On the other hand, for the Lql/Lcp relationship, juveniles showed isometric growth, females slight positive allometry and males a strong positive allometry. It suggests that the importance of chelipeds may be different in these groups. Quelipeds play important role on food capture and on agonistic, social and reproductive behavior. Therefore, inter and intraspecific interactions may change during prawn growth, even after morphological

  7. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Ammar, Dib [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia, Campus Universitario, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Bioquimica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: sallodi@histo.ufrj.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-06-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm{sup -2} UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of

  8. PROTOCOLO PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN METAGENÓMICO BACTERIANO DEL LANGOSTINO Macrobrachium carcinus L

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ulises González-de la Cruz; H. Delfin-González; Ma. C. de la Cruz-Leyva; R. A. Rojas-Herrera; M. Zamudio-Maya

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se adecuó un protocolo para la extracción de ADN metagenómico (ADNmg) bacteriano del sistema digestivo (intestino, estómago y hepatopáncreas) del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus L., tomando como referencia la metodología de extracción de ADN bacteriano de suelos y sedimentos (Rojas-Herrera et al., 2008). Esta metodología constaba de lisis enzimática, física, mecánica y química; después de una serie de ensayos se suprimió la lisis enzimática. Sin embargo, el éxito de la extra...

  9. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner C Valenti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  10. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  11. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01817-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dis isolat... 103 4e-21 AY466445_1( AY466445 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii..... 102 1e-20 DQ660140_1( DQ660140 |pid:none) Macrobrachium nipponense heat shoc... 102 1e-20 D89341_1( D8934

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13541-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-73 AY466445_1( AY466445 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii heat sho... 237 5e-73 AB206478_1( AB206478 ...1( AY836799 |pid:none) Saussurea medusa heat shock protei... 231 8e-73 DQ660140_1( DQ660140 |pid:none) Macrobrachium

  14. A new record of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Taiwan, with notes on its taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Jhy-Yun; Wowor, Daisy; Ng, Peter K L

    2013-11-04

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) is recorded from Taiwan for the first time and extends the distribution of the species to north of the Tropic of Cancer. The Taiwanese specimens differ slightly from material from Indonesian Papua in the density of the spination of the adult second pereipods, the relative length of the ridge of the posterior submedian plate of thoracite sternite 4, and the color of the carapace, abdomen and pleural condyles.

  15. Rainfed farming systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tow, P. G

    2011-01-01

    "While agriculturists need a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture, it is essential that they also understand the functioning of farming systems as a whole and how they can be best managed...

  16. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  17. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  18. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  19. Farming techniques for seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños, M.; Buendia, R.

    1998-01-01

    Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.

  20. Summary of Data Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Horne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.

  1. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When

  2. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  3. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  4. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  5. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide......In organic farming a dilemma is posed by the heavy reliance on nutrients from conventional livestock farming. For Danish organic plant producers the influx of conventional nutrients accounts for up to 70% of their nutrients. Facing this problem, Danish organic farmers’ organizations have decided...

  6. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  7. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Moshtaghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i, reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii, performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries

  8. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Md. Lifat; Nguyen, Viet Tuan; Mather, Peter B.; Hurwood, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp) with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO) terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million) ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries. Among the

  9. Produção de pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, sob condições controladas de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Do Vale Barreto

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on production of post-larvae of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum under controlled laboratory conditions were developed at the Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, from September 1980 to February 1982. Experiments were undertaken in aquaria and tanks where the salinity and density of the populations had been changed. The best production was obtained with salinity 14/00 with a density of 38 larvae per litre. The food provided for larvae was crushed fish and nauplii of Artemia salina. Out of 13 experiments a total of 20,000 post-larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum were obtained.

  10. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  11. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  12. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  13. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  14. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  15. Population pressure and farm fragmentation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    small but farms are further fragmented into diminutive size fields due to ... terms of household characteristics; land use and performance indicators; technology adoption .... 'best' unit of measurement of farm size, and size of enterprises within farms will ..... less common, accounting for 18 percent (3 percent) and 10 percent (7.

  16. Effects of different dietary of protein and lipid levels on the growth of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium carcinus broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Benítez-Mandujano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effects of varying dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of adult freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus 1758, in a recirculation system for 11 weeks (77 days. Materials and methods. The experimental treatments were assigned in triplicate. Six test diets were formulated with three different protein levels (35, 40 and 45% and two lipid levels (8 and 13%. Results. The highest survival rate, growth indices and feed utilization were observed for M. carcinus adults fed protein:lipid diets of 35:13, 40:13 and 45:13, and the lowest values for these parameters were recorded for prawns fed diets with the lowest lipid levels; the differences in these parameters between these types of diets were significant (p<0.05. A nonsignificant tendency for an increased percentage of protein in the body with an increased dietary protein level was observed. The percentage of lipids decreased with an increasing dietary protein level, and no definite trends in ash content were found. Conclusions. The results suggest that a diet with 35% dietary crude protein and 13% lipids enhances the growth and body composition of adult M. carcinus.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Hexokinase from the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in Response to Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic adjustment to hypoxia in Macrobrachium nipponense (oriental river prawn implies a shift to anaerobic metabolism. Hexokinase (HK is a key glycolytic enzyme in prawns. The involvement of HK in the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs pathway is unclear in prawns. In this study, the full-length cDNA for HK (MnHK was obtained from M. nipponense, and its properties were characterized. The full-length cDNA (2385 bp with an open reading frame of 1350 bp, encoded a 450-amino acid protein. MnHK contained highly conserved amino acids in the glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, ATP, and Mg+2 binding sites. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assays revealed the tissue-specific expression pattern of MnHK, with abundant expression in the muscle, and gills. Kinetic studies validated the hexokinase activity of recombinant HK. Silencing of HIF-1α or HIF-1β subunit genes blocked the induction of HK and its enzyme activities during hypoxia in muscles. The results suggested that MnHK is a key factor that increases the anaerobic rate, and is probably involved in the HIF-1 pathway related to highly active metabolism during hypoxia.

  18. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    provides the state space form of the dynamic wind farm model. The model provides an approximation of the behavior of the flow in wind farms, and obtains the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine. The control algorithms in this work are mostly on the basis of the developed wind farm model......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage......, a dynamical model has been developed for the wind flow in wind farms. The model is based on the spatial discretization of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation combined with the vortex cylinder theory. The spatial discretization of the model is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which...

  19. Estudo da qualidade dos efluentes gerados em diferentes fases do cultivo do camarão-da-amazônia Macrobrachium amazonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Mayra [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas, a carcinicultura de água doce é um dos setores que mais cresceu dentro da aqüicultura. Muitas pesquisas têm sido realizadas a fim de buscar metodologias para se ter uma produção sustentável, ou seja, lucrativa e com baixo impacto ambiental. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisou a qualidade da água de abastecimento e efluente em todas as fases do cultivo do camarão-da-amazônia, Macrobrachium amazonicum. Nas fases de larvicultura e berçário o sistema de cultivo adotado...

  20. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  1. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  2. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  3. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...... conventional farmers – declining prices, concentration of production and shift in bargaining power to the retailers. Logically, this situation will lead eventually to increasing conflicts between organic values and their subordination to free market forces, i.e. conventionalization. In the same time retailers...

  4. Amy Courtney: Freewheelin' Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Shareholders in Freewheelin’ Farm’s community supported agriculture program enjoy an unusual perk: delivery by bicycle-drawn trailer. Freewheelin’ founder Amy Courtney, a 1997 graduate of UCSC’s Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture, strives to produce fresh, healthy food while minimizing her environmental footprint. Courtney started the farm in 2002 with almost no motorized vehicles, incorporating used equipment and recycled materials wherever possible in the farm’s operations. She and h...

  5. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind the DWMm......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  6. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  7. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  8. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 = Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 larval survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pereira dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas e seis repetições: 1 filé de peixe (Dp; 2 filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB; 3 dieta formulada (Df; e 4 dieta formulada+ biomassa de artêmia adulta (DfB. As dietas foram ofertadas quatro vezes ao dia (07, 10, 13 e 16 horas durante 49 dias. No final do cultivo, as taxas de sobrevivência média das larvas foram 3,47; 7,40; 14,83 e 7,57%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos Dp, DpB, Df e DfB. No tratamento Dp obteve-se a menor sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05. A maior sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05 foi obtida com a dieta Df (14,83%, que se apresenta como a alternativa mais apropriada para a produção de pós-larvas de M. carcinus. Entretanto, o uso de biomassa deartêmia adulta pode resultar na melhoria da taxa de sobrevivência quando associada a filé de peixe.This work aimed to evaluate different diets in Macrobrachium carcinus larval culture in order to improve the performance of prawn postlarvaeproduction. Twenty-four 20 L circular recipients provided of water recirculating and aeration systems were used, where 25 larvae per liter were stocked (stages V-VI. Four treatments (related to diets and six replicates were adopted: 1 Fish flesh (Ff; 2 Fish flesh+ adult Artemia biomass (FfB; 3 Formulated diet (Fd; and 4 Formulated diet + adult Artemia biomass (FdB. The diets were offered four times a day (07:00, 10:00, 13:00 and 16:00 hrs during 49 days. At the end of culture, the average of larval survival rates were3.47, 7.40, 14.83 and 7.57%, respectively for Ff, FfB, Fd and FdB treatments. Ff treatment obtained the lowest survival (p ≤ 0

  9. Biologia reprodutiva de Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegman (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae coletados na Ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproductive biology of Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegman (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae collected at Santa Catarina's Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ammar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the reproductive features of Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegman, 1836 from Santa Catarina's lsland. The animals were collected in freshwater streams of the Ratones Hidrografic Basin (site A1 and at the Peri's Pond (site A2. In the laboratory, the procedures of sexual differentiation were carried out to classify the individuais in males, females or ovigerous females, followed by the determination of total weight (g, quelipod relative weight (g and total length (mm. The eggs were removed from the ovigerous females and counted. Sexual maturity and fecundity were analyzed based in the dimensions and number of eggs carried by ovigerous females. The water temperature on the capture sites varied from 17 to 29ºC throughout the months of study. A total of 503 individuais were captured, with 129 individuais from site A1 and 374 from site A2. The mean total size and length was 49.65 mm and 3.79 g for the males, 38.75 mm and 1.61 g for the females and 36.19 mm and 1.08 g for the ovigerous females. At the sites A1 and A2, the individual sexual maturity was reached with 27.3 and 21.2 mm of total length, respectively, while populational sexual maturity was estimated for the 45.0 to 50.0 mm class at site A1 and for the 30.0 to 35.0 mm class at site A2. The ovigerous females carried an average of 3464 eggs at site A1, and 1440 eggs at site A2. These reproductive features, presented by M. olfersii, show the species' plasticity, which can be associated with environmental variations, contributing to its reproductive success.

  10. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  11. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  12. Social Farming Rural Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers’ perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers’ perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.

  13. Understanding crop and farm management

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtham, Iman Raj

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture faces challenges in meeting rising demand for food, feed, fibre and fuel while coping with pressure from globalisation, limited natural resources and climate change. Farmers will choose management practices based on their goals and available resources and these practices will influence farm performance. The aim of this thesis was to understand farmers’ crop and farm management practices and their links to farm(er) characteristics, productivity, biodiversity, marketing channels and...

  14. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  15. Endemic shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense as a test species to assess potential contamination by pesticides in Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mayara Pereira; Jesus, Fátima; Almeida, Ana Rita; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Domingues, Inês; Hayd, Liliam

    2017-02-01

    Pantanal is a biome characterized by an extraordinary diversity and abundance of wildlife and houses several endemic species such as the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense. However, the increase in agriculture and husbandry activities in the region has contributed with residues of pesticides reaching aquatic systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the sensitivity of the endemic shrimp M. pantanalense compared with other freshwater species: the shrimp M. amazonicum, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the fish Danio rerio. The sensitivity of these organisms was assessed through acute exposure to copper and cypermethrin (through the formulation Barrage(®), widely used in Pantanal). For copper the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: D. similis (48 h-EC50 0.051 mg/L) > M. pantanalense > D. rerio > M. amazonicum (48 h-LC50 26.34 mg/L). Copper caused reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish and reduced heartbeat of zebrafish embryos. For cypermethrin the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: M. pantanalense (96 h-LC50 0.05 μg/L) > M. amazonicum > D. similis > D. rerio (144 h-LC50 1680 μg/L). Major effects of cypermethrin included reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish, as well as early hatching and increased incidence of developmental deformities in zebrafish embryos. This study highlights the importance of using endemic species for risk evaluations in sensitive biomes such as Pantanal. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of testing pesticides toxicity as commercial formulations. Furthermore, we suggest that the endemic shrimp species M. pantanalense can be successfully used as a test species in ecotoxicology.

  16. Efecto del nivel proteico de la dieta sobre el desarrollo de juveniles de Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinosa-Chaurand

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de cinco niveles de proteína cruda (PC en alimentos balanceados sobre el crecimiento, sobrevivencia y tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCA en juveniles de Macrobrachium tenellum. Materiales y métodos. Se alimentó por 60 días a juveniles de M. tenellum (0.31±0.01 g y 32.62±1.10 mm con niveles de 20, 25, 30, 35 y 40% de PC en el alimento. Los organismos fueron distribuidos al azar en 15 tinas experimentales de 64 L (15 org./tina bajo condiciones controladas (5.95±0.41 ppm de oxígeno, 29.89±0.72ºC, y pH 8.44±0.15 y alimentados con el 10% de su peso vivo. Resultados. El porcentaje de sobrevivencia fue del 98.22±3.96% sin diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (p>0.05. Los organismos alimentados con un 40% de PC tuvieron un peso significativamente mayor (p<0.05 respecto a los demás tratamientos (cambio de peso de 0.54±0.02g; incremento de peso de 173.60±12.99%; y tasa de crecimiento específico de 1.68±0.08. El FCA fue significativamente mejor (p<0.05 en los organismos alimentados con 35 y 40% de PC (2.85±0.18 y 2.40±0.05, respectivamente que los demás tratamientos. Conclusiones. Los organismos juveniles de M. tenellum alimentados con niveles altos de proteína (40%, se desarrollaron más rápido que organismos que recibieron una menor concentración de proteína bajo las condiciones experimentales establecidas en este estudio.

  17. FarmVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The only how-to, full-color book available on the game sensation FarmVille. With more than 80 million active players since the game?s release in 2009, there seems no end to the growing popularity of FarmVille. Whether accessed through the Facebook application or from the game?s Web site, this application is a worldwide phenomenon. Yet, there has been no beginner guide that offers an introduction to newcomers and updates to experienced players?until now. FarmVille For Dummies is aimed at getting novices acquainted with FarmVille rules and regulations, while more savvy players can sharpen their

  18. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...... for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......, which at least partially seems to reflect a causal effect of immigrants....

  19. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  20. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...

  1. Energy balance in IPM rice farms compared to conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazeli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.

  2. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  3. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  4. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Staritsky, I.G.; Andersen, E.; Heckelei, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all samp

  5. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator. Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels and shrimp farms in the region. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 909-923. Epub 2010 September 01.En el Área de Protección Ambiental del Delta Del Río Parnaíba, noreste de Brasil fueron detectadas cinco especies acuáticas invasoras (un molusco, tres crustáceos y un pez: la ostra de dos colores Isognomon bicolor, el camarón patiblanco Litopenaeus vannamei, el camarón gigante de río Macrobrachium rosenbergii, el cangrejo nadador del Indo-Pacifico Charybdis hellerii y el blenio hocicudo Omobranchus punctatus. El agua de lastre (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, y O. punctatus y la acuicultura (L. vannamei y M. rosenbergii en áreas adyacentes son los vectores de introducción más probables. Todas las especies exóticas encontradas son potencialmente riesgosas para el ambiente ya que son aptas para competir con las nativas por recursos como alimento y hábitat. Charybdis hellerii también podría causar impacto en el recurso pesquero local, al reducir las poblaciones de cangrejos portúnidos nativos, comercializados en el área de estudio.

  6. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available for livestock farming under changing environmental conditions. Farming with livestock can be challenging, especially when farming in arid areas. This handbook is primarily informed by the experience of farmers in the South African winter rainfall area....

  7. Strategy and risk in farming

    OpenAIRE

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Issues that are relevant in current farm management are discussed. First, three basic farm management theories are presented: (1) decision-making theory; (1) system theory; and (3) theory of management by objectives. Next, two new developments are introduced, namely, strategic management and risk management.

  8. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical...

  9. Grieving for the Family Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Simon H.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)

  10. Food and farm products surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  11. Offshore wind farms: Danish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, H.; Taylor, D.; Petersen, A. [Carl Bro Group, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Denmark has extensive plans for offshore wind farms, and by 2030 parks to generate some 5,500 MW of power will be constructed. Out of this 4,000 MW will be offshore and to date 15 sites have been identified. Carl Bro Group are currently involved in the programme carrying out basic and detailed design, including EIA for 5 sites where construction is planned to take place before 2005. The first phase consists of the installation of 150MW wind farms. In Middelgrunden, off shore from Copenhagen, a scheme is well advanced to install 20 windmills generating approximately 40MW of power. This project is the largest offshore wind farm in the world and illustrates Denmark's commitment to sustainability. The paper gives an overview of the plans for offshore wind farms in Denmark and includes a detailed description of the farm at Middelgrunden, with emphasis on environmental, aesthetic, safety, design, construction and installation aspects. (Author)

  12. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Fuglsang, Peter; Larsen, Torben J.;

    the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning......A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading...... of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop.. The objective function defining...

  13. Characteristics of New Jersey Agritourism Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Brian J.; Sullivan, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agritourism is an important alternative farm enterprise strategy in the U.S., especially for farms operating under urban influence. This paper develops a logit model to identify the characteristics of farms engaged in agritourism using 2007 Census of Agriculture respondent-level records. New Jersey, which ranks first nationally in the proportion of farm income derived from agritourism, provides the geographic context. We find that fruit/vegetable farms, rural residential/retirement farms, and...

  14. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... used for controller design and simulation respectively. A short section then discusses published literature from industry. Finally a conclusion is given discussing established results, open challenges and necessary research. An appendix present a method for optimising the energy in a one row wind...

  15. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  16. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) to physical and chemical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizkar, Babak; Seidavi, Alireza; Ponce-Palafox, Jesús Trinidad; Pourashoori, Parastoo

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50 mg/kg, AX100 with 100 mg/kg, and AX150 with 150 mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36 org/m2 per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1 g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5 mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05 mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75 mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5 mg/L). The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  17. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae to physical and chemical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Tizkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquacultureand its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX to the shock and stress of differentphysicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50mg/kg, AX100 with 100mg/kg, and AX150 with 150mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1 000L used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36org/m² per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C, ammonia (0.75mg/L, and reduced oxygen (0.5mg/L. The time to lethargyand the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  18. CDF II production farm project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan,

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  19. Macrobrachium Nipponensis Resources and Its Artifical Enhacement and Aquaculture in Saline-Alkali Wetlands%盐碱湿地青虾资源及其增养殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富亿

    2000-01-01

    The author discussed biological characteristics of Macrobrachium nipponensis and present situation of its resources utilization,as well as the ways of artifical enhacement and key techniques of one aquaculture with pond,paddy field and net cages were put forward.%青虾是松嫩平原盐碱湿地重要的渔业生物资源,具有一定的渔业经济价值。以新荒泡为例,介绍了青虾的生物学特征、资源利用现状及其增殖途径,提出了青虾的池塘、稻田与网箱养殖的模式及其主要技术措施。

  20. Three-fold embeddedness of farm development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.G.; Roep, D.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Farm development strategy is affected by, and affects, the biophysical and socio-economic context of the farm leading to agri-environmental challenges for farm development. For effective policies and support programmes it is important to understand the drivers for choices farm development. Three-fol

  1. Planning farm succession: how to be successful

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Planning farm succession is really good farm planning in its broadest aspect. Unfortunately very few farmers and their families have devoted sufficient time to working out how the farm business will be transferred. After demonstrating the importance of the farm succession issue, this article goes on to explaining a method of successfully tackling the process.

  2. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  3. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  4. Nature Quality in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape....... In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...... of the traditional biological approach to nature quality. This threefold distinction forms a framework for exploration of nature quality criteria in the farmed landscape. The traditional work on nature quality has mainly focused on biological interests based on a Naturalist View of Nature. In this paper we...

  5. Push-pull farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required.

  6. Green Care Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21, were on a waiting list (WL for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12, or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17 and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  7. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  8. Whole Farm Management to Reduce Nutrient Losses From Dairy Farms: A Simulation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating long-term impacts of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified to predict the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. On this farm,

  9. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  10. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  11. Data Farming in Support of NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Farming into Decision Support System 5-29 Figure 6-1 The Credo of a Data Farmer and the Realms of Data Farming 6-2 Figure 6-2 Data Farming is Question...Figure 6-1: The Credo of a Data Farmer and the Realms of Data Farming. All 6 realms are covered by a sub-working group of MSG-088 Data Farming. As Figure

  12. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  13. Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut lethal yellowing in Mozambique. ... African Crop Science Journal ... to investigate the impact of farming practices and related history, on the CLYD incidence in Mozambique.

  14. CleverFarm final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    Wind turbine technology has ventured in recent years from prototypes and first deployments towards large power plant scale projects. With this, also the ownership structure of wind farms changed: from single farmers to cooperatives, and to large multi-national developers specialised in building and running wind power projects. At the same time, the best sites for wind energy were already taken, leading to more remote sites and offshore sites being developed. Both these developments lead to an increased wish for remote monitoring of turbines. Ideally, the turbine would know on its own accord when it would need maintenance, and call the maintenance crew autonomously. The crew then would have all the information they need to have before they go out to the turbine and do the necessary tasks. Having knowledge of the type of fault that has happened would help the maintenance crew to deal with it efficiently. This also could mean to wait until the next scheduled maintenance is due. The potential savings for this alone are considerable, if you think of the plans for offshore wind farms tens of kilometres from the coast, where access would probably be by helicopter. The idea behind this project was to take the existing techniques developed for optimising and enhancing the performance of wind farms, integrate them into one system and implement the system at a number of wind farms. The techniques include remote measuring of the status and production of the wind farm, short-term prediction of the expected wind speeds at and power output from the wind farm, models for wake calculations, remote control of wind farm production and so on. (au)

  15. CleverFarm final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    Wind turbine technology has ventured in recent years from prototypes and first deployments towards large power plant scale projects. With this, also the ownership structure of wind farms changed: from single farmers to cooperatives, and to large multi-national developers specialised in building and running wind power projects. At the same time, the best sites for wind energy were already taken, leading to more remote sites and offshore sites being developed. Both these developments lead to an increased wish for remote monitoring of turbines. Ideally, the turbine would know on its own accord when it would need maintenance, and call the maintenance crew autonomously. The crew then would have all the information they need to have before they go out to the turbine and do the necessary tasks. Having knowledge of the type of fault that has happened would help the maintenance crew to deal with it efficiently. This also could mean to wait until the next scheduled maintenance is due. The potential savings for this alone are considerable, if you think of the plans for offshore wind farms tens of kilometres from the coast, where access would probably be by helicopter. The idea behind this project was to take the existing techniques developed for optimising and enhancing the performance of wind farms, integrate them into one system and implement the system at a number of wind farms. The techniques include remote measuring of the status and production of the wind farm, short-term prediction of the expected wind speeds at and power output from the wind farm, models for wake calculations, remote control of wind farm production and so on. (au)

  16. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.; Fuglsang, P.; Larsen, Torben J.; Buhl, T.; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2011-02-15

    A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop. The objective function defining the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning the design space. The results are over all satisfying and are giving some interesting insights on the pros and cons of the design choices. They show in particular that the inclusion of the fatigue loads costs give rise to some additional details in comparison with pure power based optimization. The Middelgrunden test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 2.1 M Euro originating from a very large increase in the energy production value of 9.3 M Euro mainly counterbalanced by increased electrical grid costs. The Stags Holt/Coldham test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 3.1 M Euro. (Author)

  17. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  18. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  19. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago [1] and [2] . The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage - the extant...... the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....

  20. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  1. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  2. Productividad Primaria y Crecimiento de Carpas Chinas en Estanques Rústicos Productividad Primaria y Crecimiento de Carpas Chinas en Estanques Rústicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Granados-Ramírez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to know the primary productivity, the transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide and its relation with growth of two species of cyprinids Ctenopharyngodon idella and Cyprinus carpio rubrofruscus in three rustic ponds, two ponds with Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The rustic ponds were fertilized with liquid cow manure. This project was carried out at the “El Jicarero” fish farm in Jojutla, Morelos. The results of the composition and abundance of phytoplankton besides chlorophyll “a” concentrations and physico-chemical parameters, showed not significant differences (P>0.05; the values of weigth length of the cyprinids showed significant differences (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la productividad primaria, la transparencia, pH, oxígeno disuelto y bióxido de carbono y su relación con el crecimiento de dos especies de ciprínidos Ctenopharyngodonidella y Cyprinus carpio rubrofruscus en tres estanques rústicos, dos de ellos con langostino Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fertilizadoscon vacaza líquida, en la unidad piscícola “El Jicarero”, Jojutla, Morelos. Los resultados obtenidos de la abundancia y composición del material fitoplanctónico así como de las concentraciones de clorofila“a” y parámetros fisicoquímicos, no mostraron diferencias significativas (P>0.05, en cuanto a los valores de peso y talla de los ciprínidos cultivados sí presentaron diferencias significativas (P<0.05. Los coeficientes de correlación del fitoplancton y el fertilizante con respecto a la transparencia, el oxígeno disuelto y el bióxido carbono fueron significativos.

  3. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter;

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validi...

  4. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...... farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...

  5. Determinants of farm diversification in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meraner, M.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Kuhlman, J.W.; Finger, R.

    2015-01-01

    Farm diversification has been prominently supported by agricultural policy makers aiming to support rural development. To increase the understanding of determinants influencing diversification and hence to increase the efficiency of policies aiming to support farm diversification this paper presents

  6. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...

  7. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  8. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Georg K S; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2012-01-01

    Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1) if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2) if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  9. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K S Andersson

    Full Text Available Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1 if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2 if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  10. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  11. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency assesses each farming operation to determine the applicant's financial condition, organizational structure, management strengths and weaknesses, appropriate levels of Agency oversight, credit counseling... assessment must evaluate, at a minimum, the: (1) Farm organization and key personnel qualifications; (2) Type...

  12. Keeping Noise Down on the Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do > Keeping Noise Down on the Farm Keeping Noise Down on the Farm SHARE Some people may ... risks permanent hearing damage. Take steps to reduce noise from machinery. Keep machinery running smoothly by replacing ...

  13. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...... of data generally takes place between the devices and farming systems, mostly installed at the premises of farmers, contractors, advisory services etc. In most cases, data exchange is based on farming data exchange standards and is bi-directional. Bi-directional data exchange allows different devices...... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  14. Problems associated with shellfish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinabut, S; Somsiri, T; Limsuwan, C; Lewis, S

    2006-08-01

    Shellfish culture is a major sector of aquaculture production worldwide, and zoonoses and drug residues associated with shellfish farm practice are of concern to public health. This paper focuses on three of the most important shellfish species: molluscs, crabs and shrimp. Although many diseases can affect shellfish, they do not appear to be transmittable to humans. Rather, the main hazards are associated with the methods used to farm the different species. The risk to human health from shellfish most commonly relates to contamination by biotoxins produced by marine algae. Another well-recognised problem associated with shellfish culture is the contamination of shellfish with domestic sewage that contains human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, which causes diseases such as typhoid fever and hepatitis. In shrimp farming, the main potential food safety hazards are zoonoses, chemical contamination and veterinary drug residues. Untreated effluent from shrimp farms is a major concern to the environmental sector as it is known to promote plankton blooms if directly discharged into natural water sources.

  15. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category i

  16. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…

  17. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category

  18. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system.

  19. Farm and Ranch Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, Clark; Feuz, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is a brief overview of the financial statements and budgeting tools that are likely a part of most farm financial record keeping systems. Links are provided for additional detail on any one financial report or topic. A brief description of a Balance Sheet, a Profit Loss Statement or Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flows and Enterprise Analysis is included.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of androgenic gland for discovery of novel genes from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, using Illumina Hiseq 2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203, KEGG (17,868, and COG analyses (13,817, identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. CONCLUSION: Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights