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Sample records for macrobrachium rosenbergii electronic

  1. Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Camacho-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los principales tóxicos encontrados en los ecosistemas están el plomo, niquel y cadmio, los cuales afectan la actividad de la acetilcolinesterasa en organismos ya que interfieren con grupos tiólicos, carboxilos y fosfatos. El Macrobrachium rosenbergii es un crustáceo que se ha empleado para realizar algunos estudios por su importancia económica y por ser una especie sensible a contaminantes orgánicos e inorgánicos. El presente trabajo se realizó para explorar la posibilidad de emplear al langostino como bioindicador de contaminación a través de los efectos ocasionados sobre la actividad de acetilcolinesterasa, síntesis de proteínas y la bioconcentración. Se emplearon postlarvas del estadío 15 (PL15 del langostino y se expusieron durante 48 hr a 0, 16,56, 24,20 y 0,008 mg/L de Plomo, Niquel y Cadmio respectivamente. Los resultados encontrados muestran cierta sensibilidad de los parámetros bioquímicos valorados y alta capacidad biocencentradora de la especie empleada con lo que se concluye que puede ser empleado como indicador de contaminación.

  2. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  3. Antimicrobial peptides from the hemolymph of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to find the antimicrobial activity of hemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and to evaluate the antimicrobial compounds. The highest inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia (12 mm and antifungal activity was observed only against Fusarium moniliforme (11 mm. Antimicrobial peptide was characterized in molecular size ranging from 22 to 91KDa with antimicrobial activity against various infectious pathogens. Hemolymph plays a vital role in the disease prevention in crustaceans and there is no report on antimicrobial activities of the prawn M. rosenbergii.

  4. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein.

  5. Ciliados epibiontes en Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) cultivados en Limón, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Lucía; Chinchilla, Misael

    2016-01-01

    Se identificaron los siguientes ciliados epibiontes en Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Epistylis, Opercularia, Vorticella, Zoothamnium, Ephelota, Acineta, Acinetides y Tolophrya. Acinetides se informa por primera vez como epibionte para camarones marinos y dulceacuícolas. The following epizoic ciliates were obtained from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Epistylis, Opercularia, Vorticella, Zoothamnium, Ephelota, Acineta, Acinetides and Tokophrya. Acinetides is reported for the first time as an epizoic...

  6. Estimation of the growth curve parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Nagulu, Banoth; Satyanarayana , Y.; Srinivasa, Rao P.; Gopal , Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Growth is one of the most important characteristics of cultured species. The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of linear, log linear, polynomial, exponential and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Macrobrachium rosenbergii obtained by using weekly records of live weight, total length, head length, claw length, and last segment length from 20 to 192 days of age. The models were evaluated according to the coefficient of determination (R2), and error sum off square (ES...

  7. Experimental studies on the cannibalistic habit of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Branislav, M.; Rosenthal, H.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nost, J.

    Cannibalistic habit of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in intensive cultures was studied in a semi-recycled in a semi-recycled fresh water system under varying environmental conditions. Observations were made on the moulting rate, mortality rate, tube...

  8. Preliminary Observations on Freshwater Prawn Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man in Tamil Nadu

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    N. John Samuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is more consumer preference because of its delicious nature and export potential. Monoculture and ployculture trials of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were attempted. Production under monoculture was 561 kg ha-1 and in polyculture it ranged from 361 to 381 kg ha-1. The present study inferred that low stocking density; proper feed management and use of aerators are essential for better survival and production.

  9. Farming of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Bagerhat, Bangladesh

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    Shirin Akter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to know the present status of Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh from March 2012 to January 2013. Education levels of farmers were found as illiterate (12.3%, primary (36.19%, secondary (20%, SSC (13.33%, HSC (12.38% and graduate (5.71%. M. rosenbergii culture was the primary and secondary occupation of 80% and 20% farmers respectively. Average stocking density and production in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture were 9609, 11502 and 22847 per ha and 193, 284 and 488 kg/ha/year respectively; rearing period ranges from 6-10 months and survival rate varied from 55 to 60%. In improved extensive and semi-intensive culture 82.86% and 71.43% farmers applied farm-made feed instead of company feeds respectively and 11.43% and 37.14% farmers used both feeds. 91.43%, 80% and 68.57% respondents responded on normal to high mortality in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture respectively. Lack of finance and appropriate technology, scarcity of quality PL, diseases and inadequate extension work were major problems of prawn culture.

  10. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD

  11. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  12. ESTIMASI HERITABILITAS UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii BERBASIS PADA KERAGAMAN FENOTIP

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    Lies Emmawati Hadie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dirancang untuk menghitung heritabilitas pada sifat bobot udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii pada umur lima bulan. Lima full-sib dan 15 half-sib dipelihara pada dua tingkat salinitas yaitu 0‰ dan 10‰, dengan rata-rata bobot sebesar 5,6 g; dan  = 0,40 g. Komponen keragaman diestimasi dengan mixed model leastsquares dan maximum likelihood. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa respons genetik yang tinggi dapat diperoleh melalui seleksi bobot, karena nilai heritabilitas pada sifat tersebut relatif tinggi. Hasil penelitian ini juga memperlihatkan bahwa kisaran nilai h2 pada air tawar (0,509-0,866 dan air payau (0,235-0,499. Jadi nilai h2 pada air tawar lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lingkungan air payau pada salinitas 10,0‰. Kisaran nilai h2 yang dicapai pada out-crossing antara koleksi Barito dengan Musi adalah 0,663±0,037-0,866±0,047. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk menghasilkan perbaikan mutu genetik pada udang galah dapat ditempuh melalui program seleksi yang dikombinasikan dengan metode pemijahan secara out-crossing.

  13. Culture of Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii) Using Geothermal Waste Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C.

    1978-01-01

    The farming of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in geothermal-heated water has been demonstrated to be feasible in a non-tropical climate. The husbandry of prawns is being done in two outdoor raceway ponds, 9.1 m by 2.5 m and 29 m by 3.5 m that are 1.2 m deep. The ponds are not shielded from the ambient climate which during the winter months has recorded air temperatures as low as -20oC. A selected brood stock is held in a small spawning building where larvae are hatched in artificial saltwater and reared to the post-larvae stage which makes the facility self-supporting. This project is providing a model for potential investors to utilize the low-temperature geothermal resources in the western United States for warm water aquaculture. Zooplankton, macroscopic crusteans, from a local euthrophic lake are being fed to the post-larvae and adult prawns in addition to prepared commercial dry pelleted foods to keep operational costs at a minimum. Initial measurements of growth and weight gains indicate the production of two crops of prawns per year at seven to the pond is possible. No work on intensive culture has been done. Plans to enlarge the facility and do work on developing intensive culture are being considered.

  14. Rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farms in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen

    1993-01-01

    Aquaculture in riceland has been practiced in Mekong Delta, Vietnam for a long time and integrated rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming has become more and more popular. The integrated farming systems developed and practiced by farmers in the area to produce more food and more cash crops are presented and discussed.

  15. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  16. Evidence of rapid transfer and bioaccumulation of Microcystin-LR poses potential risk to freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liping; Su, Xiaoming; Chen, Taoying;

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins accumulate in aquatic organisms and can be transferred to higher trophic levels, eventually affecting vector animals and consumers. We examined three levels of an aquatic food chain (Microcystis aeruginosa, Daphnia magna and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to identify the transfer efficie...

  17. Reviving the Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) fishery in Vembanad Lake, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kurup, B.M.; Harikrishnan, M.

    2000-01-01

    In Vembanad Lake and its confluent rivers (Kerala, India), the catches of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) were reported to have dwindled to a mere 39 t in the 1980s from average landings of 300 t during the 1960s. This decline is due to the impact of a number of human interventions affecting the ecosystem and, hence, the stocks of M. rosenbergii. Monitoring of landings in 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 indicates an improvement in catches. This paper discusses the reasons for the decline and reviv...

  18. Clearance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) and immunological changes in experimentally injected Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, M; Nazeer Basha, A; Taju, G; Ram Kumar, R; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2010-03-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii was experimentally challenged with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) to study the clearance of these viruses and consequent changes in various immunological parameters. The healthy animals were injected MrNV and XSV intramuscularly and various organ samples such as gill tissue, head soft tissue, pleopods and intestine were collected at different time intervals of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100d post-infection (p.i.) to study the viral clearance. Tissue tropism and clearing of MrNV and XSV were confirmed by RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR and bioassay. These 2 viruses failed to cause mortality or clinical signs of disease in injected adult prawns during the experimental period of 100 days. The result of RT-PCR analysis revealed that all the organs showed positive for both viruses by single step RT-PCR on 3, 5 and 10 d p.i., positive by nested RT-PCR on 15 and 20 d p.i. and all the organs became negative at 25 d p.i. onwards. The viral inoculum prepared from the tissue of MrNV and XSV-injected M. rosenbergii at 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 d p.i. caused 100% mortality in post-larvae of M. rosenbergii at 9, 8, 7, 10 and 10 d p.i., respectively whereas the inoculum prepared at 25, 50 and 100 d p.i. failed to cause significant mortality in post-larvae of prawn. Immunological parameters such as proPO, superoxide anion, SOD, THC, clotting time and oxyhemocyanin were determined in MrNV and XSV-injected prawns and significant differences in some of the immunological parameters were found in the early days p.i. and became insignificant in the later days p.i.

  19. Host, pathogen and the environment: the case of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvayipati, Suma; Bhassu, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is well-known as the giant freshwater prawn, and is a commercially significant source of seafood. Its production can be affected by various bacterial contaminations. Among which, the genus Vibrio shows a higher prevalence in aquatic organisms, especially M. rosenbergii, causing food-borne illnesses. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a species of Vibrio is reported as the main causative of the early mortality syndrome. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in M. rosenbergii was studied previously in relation to the prawn's differentially expressed immune genes. In the current review, we will discuss the growth conditions for both V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii and highlight the role of magnesium in common, which need to be fully understood. Till date, there has not been much research on this aspect of magnesium. We postulate a model that screens a magnesium-dependent pathway which probably might take effect in connection with N-acetylglucosamine binding protein and chitin from V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii, respectively. Further studies on magnesium as an environment for V. parahaemolyticus and M. rosenbergii interaction studies will provide seafood industry with completely new strategies to employ and to avoid seafood related contaminations.

  20. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; N. Manickam; V. Srinevasan; S. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  1. Behavioral repertoire of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879 in laboratory

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    Daniele Bezerra dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An ethogram was prepared to characterize and describe the behavior of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the laboratory so that its behavior would foreground in-depth analysis of the species´s culture. Sixty prawns were observed during 30 days through the ad libitum method, featuring one-hour continuous reports, at 07:00-08:00; 08:30-09:30; 10:00-11:00; 11:30-12:30; 13:00-14:00; 14:30-15:30; 16:00-17:00; 17:30-18:30. M. rosenbergii developed several behavioral activities with 28 categories and grouped in activity classes, such as, maintenance, locomotion, feeding and agonism. Characterization, description and understanding of the behavioral repertoire of M. rosenbergii through methodologies and observation tools typical of behavioral studies are an important step towards the improvement of technical management and welfare of the animal in captivity.

  2. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200 nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P0.05) prawns fed with up to 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (Prosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL.

  3. DETECTION OF Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV AND EXTRA SMALL VIRUS (XSV DISEASES ON GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii AT SAMAS, YOGYAKARTA

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    Isti Koesharyani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass mortality of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man in grow-out farmers occurred in early February 2012 at Instalation Coastal of Aquaculture Samas, Bantul, D.I. Yogyakarta. The clinical sign of shrimp was whitish coloration on abdominal and tail muscle. The sympton was the same as in other cases of mortality caused by prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV and Extra Small Virus (XSV. Prawn samples were diagnosed by standard protocols Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR using specific primers and histopathology analysis. The result showed that all samples indicated positive 13/15 the MrNV and 5/15 positive XSV, and there were 4/15 positive samples both (MrNV and XSV. Analysis of histopathology showed that damaged muscle was indicated by the presentation of necrotic tissues with nuclear pyknosis or degeneration of muscle in infected tissues. Based on diagnosis by RT-PCR and histopathological, mass mortality of the giant freshwater prawn in Indonesia is determined to be caused by “white muscle disease (WMD/white tail disease (WTD”.

  4. Cloning and expression analysis of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of effector molecules that are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). They are found in limulids and crustaceans and show a broad range of antimicrobial activity. In the current study, an ALF gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrALF) was identified. Its full length was 690 bp and it encoded a 124 amino acid protein. A signal peptide and a conserved LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues that comprise a cluster of positive charged residues within a disulfide loop were predicted in MrALF. The M. rosenbergii ALF clusters with the Macrobrachium olfersii ALF and further clusters with most crustacean ALFs, suggesting that they should originate from one common ancestor. Positive selections should have sharpen the evolution of M. rosenbergii and M. olfersii ALF genes. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that MrALF was expressed in all detected tissues. In the epidermis, MrALF was obviously upregulated 24 h after the LPS challenge. In the stomach and gills, MrALF was upregulated upon LPS challenge. The results show that MrALF might have important roles in the immune defense against invading bacteria. The positive selections that occur in the ALFs of crustaceans might have resulted from a Red Queen's race with its pathogens. We found evidence of positive selection acting to drive functional divergence during the evolution crustacean ALF genes, especially in the M. rosenbergii ALF gene. The evolutionary changes might correspond to the challenges induced by pathogens that infect crustaceans.

  5. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  6. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns.

  7. Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M.K.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The experime

  8. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  9. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods.

  10. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.-H.; Kao, W.-Y.; Su, Y.-J

    2003-06-19

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) production, by means of in vitro exposure experiments. After hemocytes were treated separately with eight PAEs at concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml, the results showed that two PAEs (dipropyl phthalate, DPrP and diethyl phthalate, DEP) increased cells with pseudopodia formation, but decreased adhesive cells; reduction in the percentages of both pseudopodia formation and adhesive cells were detected in the dihexyl phthalate (DHP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPP) experiment groups; and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased pseudopodia formation, but did not affect the adhesion. In addition, both PO activity and O{sub 2}{sup -} production were decreased after hemocytes were treated with five PAEs (benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), DEP, DHP and DPrP), respectively. At the same time, microscopy showed that both DPrP and DHP altered morphology of the cell nucleus and led to the presence of vacuoles in cytosol of hemocytes. Using the annexin assay, and after analysis of DNA fragmentation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that hemocytes exposed to DHP and DPrP for more than 10 min would primarily die via apoptosis, the fatality correlates with increasing treatment time; and hemocytes treated with either BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP), DEP or DPP would primarily die via necrosis. According to these results, we suggest that all eight PAEs examined could damage hemocytes and further influence the defense mechanism of prawns. This study reveals an important precaution for prawn cultivation.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-07-25

    The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity.

  12. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

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    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  13. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

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    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  14. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture.

  15. Immunological role of thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a full length of peroxiredoxin (designated MrPrdx) gene, identified from the transcriptome of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrPrdx is 940 base pairs in length, and encodes 186 amino acids. MrPrdx contains a long thioredoxin domain in the amino acid sequence between 34 and 186. The gene expressions of MrPrdx in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. MrPrdx is highly expressed in all the other tissues of M. rosenbergii considered for analysis and the highest in gills. The expression is strongly up-regulated in gills after IHHNV infection. To understand MrPrdx functional properties, the recombinant MrPrdx protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. A peroxidise activity assay was conducted using recombinant MrPrdx protein at different concentrations. This peroxidises activity showed that the recombinant MrPrdx is a thiol-dependant protein. Additionally, this result showed that recombinant MrPrdx protein, as a secretory protein can remove H₂O₂ and protect DNA damage. This finding leads a possible way to propose the recombinant MrPrdx protein as an effective medicine for reactive oxygen species (ROS) related diseases.

  16. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus using recombinant capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangman, Pradit; Senapin, Saengchan; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-03-20

    The gene encoding the capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector and then transformed into the Escherichia coli strain BL21. After induction, capsid protein-glutathione-S-transferase (GST-MrNV; 64 kDa) was produced. The recombinant protein was separated using SDS-PAGE, excised from the gel, electro-eluted and then used for immunization for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Four MAbs specific to the capsid protein were selected and could be used to detect natural MrNV infections in M. rosenbergii by dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry without cross-reaction with uninfected shrimp tissues or other common shrimp viruses. The detection sensitivity of the MAbs was 10 fmol µl-1 of the GST-MrNV, as determined using dot blotting. However, the sensitivity of the MAb on dot blotting with homogenate from naturally infected M. rosenbergii was approximately 200-fold lower than that of 1-step RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis using these MAbs with infected shrimp tissues demonstrated staining in the muscles, nerve cord, gill, heart, loose connective tissue and inter-tubular tissue of the hepatopancreas. Although the positive reactions occurred in small focal areas, the immunoreactivity was clearly demonstrated. The MAbs targeted different epitopes of the capsid protein and will be used to develop a simple immunoassay strip test for rapid detection of MrNV.

  17. Molecular functions of chaperonin gene, containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-10-25

    Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches.

  18. Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  19. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  20. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Revathi Peranandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of tributyltin (TBT on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary. Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Xiaoyi Pan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV, was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs separated by an intergenic region (IGR and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs. Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-02-02

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii.

  3. A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

    2014-08-10

    Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-θ) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (Prosenbergii GST-θ in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection.

  4. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares Larval performance of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) submitted to different feeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Almada Thomaz; Lídia Miyako Yoshii Oshiro; Andrea Cecchetto Bambozzi; José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2004-01-01

    O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos), nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com q...

  5. Effect of ration size on the growth and food conversion of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklas, P.; Kwik, J.K.

    1987-05-13

    Growth-ration relationship were defined for 2, 5 and 15 g size classes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, fed commercial prawn pellets and fish flesh. Maintenance rations were 0.7, 0.5 and 0.25% of body weight/day for 2, 5 and 15 g prawns respectively. Optimum rations were 3.5, 2.5 and 0.9% of body weight/day. It was determined that feeding at or near maximum ration levels would result in the most cost effective production of prawns in intensive culture systems where heating costs predominate. A ration and growth rate versus size curve was constructed for determining feeding level requirements for prawns.

  6. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota.

  7. Distribution patterns of Macrobrachium rosenbergii relative to the presence of cover strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.

    1987-05-27

    The responses of adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii to the presence, absence and location of artificial cover strips in four different configurations were studied in aquaria. The animals displayed a strong preference for the cover strips. When strips dangling from the surface were presented, the animals could be induced to occupy the upper half of the water column at densities nearly 4.5 times higher than in a bare tank. Strips extending from the surface to bottom also resulted in a significant redistribution of animals. The animals associated with cover strips tended to favor horizontal surfaces such as those found at the tips of strips and at the bottom. The success of cover in redistributing the prawns appeared to be negatively influenced by the presence of dominant males who maintained a number of smaller animals herded in the corners of the aquaria.

  8. First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2014-09-01

    Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress.

  9. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  10. Macrobrachium rosenbergii cathepsin L: molecular characterization and gene expression in response to viral and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Milton, James; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2013-11-07

    Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (Prosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system.

  11. Morphological and histological studies on the embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen M. Habashy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to describe the embryonic changes during development of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on some morphological and histological features. In addition the biochemical composition of eggs was investigated during the embryonic development of the studied species. Results revealed that eggs of M. rosenbergii completed their development in 20 days at 28.5 ± 0.45 °C. The present investigation showed that primordial germ cells (PGCs were detected early in the examined embryos. In 6.5 days old embryo, a cluster of PGCs occupied the dorso-medial region behind the yolky portion. In addition, the biochemical data indicated that the protein content was significantly increased, while lipid and carbohydrate contents decreased during the embryonic development. The lowest water content was found in the bright orange eggs and reached its highest level in the deep brown eggs. It was noted that the increase in the water content was correlated with the increase in the egg diameters. It was also concluded that, variations in the biochemical compositions of eggs reflected changes in their morphogenesis during the embryonic development.

  12. Involvement of Relish gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the expression of anti-microbial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ru; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Feng, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an IκB-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group. MrRelish was expressed in all detected tissues, with the highest expression level in hemocytes and intestines. MrRelish was also upregulated in hepatopancreas at 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The over-expression of MrRelish could induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as Drosophila Metchnikowin (Mtk), Attacin (Atta), Drosomycin (Drs), and Cecropin (CecA) and shrimp Penaeidin (Pen4). The RNAi of MrRelish in gills showed that the expression of crustin (cru) 2, Cru5, Cru8, lysozyme (Lyso) 1, and Lyso2 was inhibited. However, the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) 1 and ALF3 did not change when MrRelish was knocked down. These results indicate that MrRelish may play an important role in innate immune defense against V. anguillarum in M. rosenbergii.

  13. Behavioral profile of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in mixed and monosex culture submitted to shelters of different colors

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    Daniele Bezerra Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research analyzed the behavioral activities of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its preference for colored shelters in male monosex, female monosex and mixed culture. Ten shrimps m-2 were maintained in eight 250-L aquaria. Three artificial shelters, colored red, black and orange, were placed in each aquarium. Four aquaria were maintained in light/dark photoperiod respectively between 6h00 am and 6h00 pm and between 6h00 pm and 6h00 am, whereas the other four aquaria were submitted to an inverted photoperiod. The animals were observed for 30 days by Focal Animal Method for 15 minutes, with instantaneous recording every 60 seconds, at six different instances within the light and dark phases. Preference for black shelters occurred in male monosex and mixed cultures, whereas red and orange shelters were the preference of female monosex. M. rosenbergii kept in the shelter mostly during the light phase in male monosex and mixed populations. Results suggest that black, red and orange shelters may improve the animals' well-being in the culture since aggressive encounters would decrease, especially during the light phase.

  14. First report on interferon related developmental regulator-1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii: bioinformatic analysis and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    This study reports the first full length gene of interferon related developmental regulator-1 (designated as MrIRDR-1), identified from the transcriptome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrIRDR-1 is 2459 base pair long with an open reading frame of 1308 base pairs and encoding a predicted protein of 436 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa. The MrIRDR-1 protein contains a long interferon related developmental regulator super family domain between 30 and 330. The mRNA expressions of MrIRDR-1 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infected M. rosenbergii were examined using qRT-PCR. The MrIRDR-1 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas along with all other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, haemocyte, pleopods, brain, stomach, intestine and eye stalk). After IHHNV infection, the expression is highly upregulated in hepatopancreas. This result indicates an important role of MrIRDR-1 in prawn defense system.

  15. Development of chitosan conjugated DNA vaccine against nodavirus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, V L; Sharma, R; Gireesh-Babu, P; Patchala, S R; Rather, A; Nandanpawar, P C; Eswaran, S

    2014-09-01

    The protective efficacy of a DNA construct containing extra small virus antisense (XSVAS) gene of nodavirus encapsulated with chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). The delivery was carried out using oral and immersion methods. A plasmid concentration of 100 ng μL(-1) when conjugated with chitosan NPs was found to be more effective in increasing the survivability of the infected prawn. The particle mean size, zeta potential and loading efficiency percentage were 297 nm, 27 mV and 85%, respectively. The ability of the chitosan to form a complex with the plasmid was studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. The NPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Persistence study showed the presence of the DNA construct up to 30th day post-treatment. The oral treatment was found to be better than the immersion treatment for delivery of the chitosan-conjugated DNA construct. This is probably the first report on the delivery of nanoconjugated DNA construct in M. rosenbergii, against nodavirus.

  16. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates.

  17. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. The effects of thermal treatments on protein profiles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant river prawn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Komathi; Misnan, Rosmilah; Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Prawn allergy is certainly the most frequent cause of allergic reactions in countries where this crustacean is a popular dish of seafood. The aim of this study was to determine the protein profiles of giant river prawn which scientifically known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Raw and cooked extracts (boiled, steamed and fried) of prawn samples were prepared and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). 27 protein bands between 6 to 207 kDa were detected in the SDS-PAGE gel of raw extracts while boiled, steamed and fried extracts revealed fewer protein bands. Steamed and boiled prawns presented higher numbers of protein bands compared to fried prawn. A prominent heat-resistant band between 32 to 38 kDa was seen in all extracts, might hypothesized to be tropomyosin. Other prominent bands between 17 to 20 kDa were also seen in all treated prawn extracts while bands of 24 to 27 kDa were seen in steamed and boiled prawn extracts. These positions are consistent with the known shellfish allergens myosin light chain, sacroplasmic calcium binding protein and troponin C respectively. Several other heat-sensitive protein bands at various molecular weights were also not detected in boiled, steamed and fried extracts of this prawn. This study showed that M. rosenbergii contains numerous heat-sensitive and heat-resistant proteins, which may play an important role in prawn allergy.

  19. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV.

  20. Effect of salinity on survival and growth of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

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    B.K. Chand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two independent experiments were performed to determine the effects of salinity on survival and growth of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii, first one was to determine the median lethal salinity (MLS-5096 h and second one was to assess the survival and growth at different sub-lethal salinities under field condition. In MLS-5096 h study 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ppt salinities were used to initially find out the salinity tolerance range. Accordingly, a definitive salinity tolerance test was done in next phase to find out exact median lethal salinity by directly transferring the test species to 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 ppt salinity for 96 h. The median lethal salinity of M. rosenbergii was estimated at 24.6 ppt. In the second experiment, survival and growth performances of the prawn were recorded at different sub-lethal salinities viz., 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppt along with 0 ppt as control during 60 days culture period. The prawn exhibited lowest final average weight at 20 ppt salinity and significantly highest at 10 ppt salinity. Highest SGR and weight gain were obtained at 10 ppt followed by 5 ppt, 15 ppt and 0 ppt salinity but differences among treatment were not significant (P > 0.05. Survival rate of prawn varied between 91% (at 0 ppt and 78% (at 20 ppt. The prawn grew and survived satisfactorily at 0–15 ppt salinities, implying that the species can be cultured commercially at wide salinity range. M. rosenbergii can be considered as an ideal species to promote, in view of current and future climate variables as more and more coastal areas of India are going to be vulnerable to saline water inundation.

  1. Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: function and putative signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Omri; Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2013-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are highly conserved members of the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily found in metazoans and plants. In arthropods, EGFRs are vital for the proper development of embryos and of adult limbs, gonads, and eyes as well as affecting body size. In searching for genes involved in the growth and development of our model organism, the decapod crustacean (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a comprehensive transcript library was established using next-generation sequencing. Using this library, the expression of several genes assigned to the signal transduction pathways mediated by EGFRs was observed, including a transcript encoding M. rosenbergii EGFR (Mr-EGFR), several potential ligands upstream to the receptor, and most of the putative downstream signal transducer genes. The deduced protein encoded by Mr-EGFR, representing the first such receptor reported thus far in crustaceans, shows sequence similarity to other arthropod EGFRs. The M. rosenbergii gene is expressed in most tested tissues. The role of Mr-EGFR was revealed by temporarily silencing the transcript through weekly injections of double-stranded Mr-EGFR RNA. Such treatment resulted in a significant reduction in growth and a delay in the appearance of a male secondary sexual characteristic, namely the appendix masculina. An additional function of Mr-EGFR was revealed with respect to eye development. Although the optic ganglion appeared to have retained its normal morphology, Mr-EGFR-silenced individuals developed abnormal eyes that presented irregular organization of the ommatidia, reflected by unorganized receptor cells occupying large areas of the dioptric portion and by a shortened crystalline tract layer.

  3. Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethi, V; Sivakumar, N; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M

    2012-12-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were produced in mice against the recombinant protein and the antibodies reacted specifically with the recombinant protein and XSV in WTD-infected tissues. This is the first report of detection of XSV using antibodies against recombinant capsid protein.

  4. Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2012-09-12

    As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID₅₀ ml⁻¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID₅₀ ml⁻¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID₅₀ ml⁻¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD₅₀ ml⁻¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD₅₀ ml⁻¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD₅₀ ml⁻¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence.

  5. Transcriptomics of a giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: de novo assembly, annotation and marker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungtaek Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP, is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e(-5 contig (80% and singleton (84% matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs.

  6. Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Ventura

    Full Text Available Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt. Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this

  7. Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of

  8. Three different anti-lipopolysaccharide factors identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Xin-Chang; Jie-Du; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a type of basic protein and an important antimicrobial peptide that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In this study, three forms of ALF designated as MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 genes encode 133, 121, and 120 amino acids of the corresponding proteins, respectively. All these ALF proteins contain LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues. The genomic sequences of MrALF5 and MrALF7 were amplified. The genomic structures of MrALF5 and MrALF7 comprise three exons interrupted by two introns. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were clustered into clade II. Evolutionary analysis showed that ALF genes from M. rosenbergii may suffer a rapid evolution. MrALF5 was expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas, gills, and heart. MrALF6 was mainly distributed in the intestine and hepatopancreas. The highest expression level of MrALF7 was detected in the hepatopancreas. MrALF6, as well as MrALF7, was downregulated by Escherichia coli challenge, and all three ALF genes were upregulated by Vibrio or white spot syndrome virus challenge. MrALF6 was also upregulated by Staphylococcus aureus challenge. In summary, the three isoforms of ALF genes may participate in the innate immune response against bacteria and virus infecting the giant fresh water prawn.

  9. Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2014-06-01

    Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii.

  10. Alterações na qualidade do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium rosenbergii durante estocagem em gelo Changes in the quality of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii during storage in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sendo escassos os estudos sobre a conservação pós-captura do Macrobrachium rosenbergii e insuficientes os conhecimentos existentes, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar alterações na sua qualidade quando armazenado inteiro, em gelo, durante 10 dias. Foram comparadas duas condições de armazenamento: com e sem contato direto com o gelo. Em ambos os tratamentos foram observados aumentos (PDue the scarcity of studies about post-harvest conservation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and few knowledge in this topic, the aim of this work was to evaluate it shelf-life when stored as a whole in ice during 10 days. Two conditions were compared: with direct ice contact and without ice contact. In both treatments were observed an increase (P<0,05 in Non-Protein Nitrogen, Total Volatile Base Nitrogen, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and pH values. No faecal coliforms were observed in the prawn muscles during the storage. The score of total coliforms and psychrotrophic counting that was present in the storage period didn´t exceed the law limits allowed for consumption. There was degradation in flavour and odour attributes for both treatments during the storage. Analysis of tactile and oral texture showed a fast and significant degradation in both treatments in the first days of storage, and the same occurred with the instrumental compression force tests. We concluded the Macrobrachium rosenbergii could be consumed until the 4th storage day, either if kept in direct ice contact or packed in polyethylene bags.

  11. Nutrient budgets and effluent characteristics in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2014-05-01

    It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97% total nitrogen (N), 98.7% total phosphorus (P) and 90% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37% N, 10% P and 15% OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer".

  12. PENYAKIT EKOR PUTIH (WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE PADA UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu keunggulan sistem budidaya udang galah yang selama ini diyakini para pembudidaya adalah belum munculnya permasalahan penyakit serius sebagaimana pada sistem budidaya udang windu dan vaname, yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus. Akan tetapi, pada lima tahun terakhir infeksi virus mulai dilaporkan mewabah pada sistem budidaya udang galah di dunia, dan menjadi masalah yang serius. Penyakit ekor putih (white tail disease, WTD merupakan salah satu penyakit serius pada kegiatan pembenihan udang galah, karena dapat menyebabkan kematian hingga 100% pada fase pembenihan, dan akhir-akhir ini juga telah terjadi di beberapa hatcheri di Indonesia. Pada tahun 2011, WTD telah terjadi di hatcheri Balai Pengembangan Teknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Samas, Jogjakarta, dan disusul pada tahun 2012 di hatcheri Balai Penelitian Pemuliaan Ikan (BPPI Sukamandi. Makalah ini merupakan gambaran mengenai virus MrNV (Macrobrachium rosenbergii Noda Virus, dampak yang ditimbulkan, serta upaya-upaya penanganan.

  13. Encapsulation and delivery of plasmid DNA by virus-like nanoparticles engineered from Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Somrit, Monsicha; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Xing, Li; Cheng, Holland R; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2014-01-22

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are potential candidates in developing biological containers for packaging therapeutic or biologically active agents. Here, we expressed Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) capsid protein (encoding amino acids M1-N371 with 6 histidine residuals) in an Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). These easily purified capsid protein self-assembled into VLPs, and disassembly/reassembly could be controlled in a calcium-dependent manner. Physically, MrNv VLPs resisted to digestive enzymes, a property that should be advantageous for protection of active compounds against harsh conditions. We also proved that MrNv VLPs were capable of encapsulating plasmid DNA in the range of 0.035-0.042 mol ratio (DNA/protein) or 2-3 plasmids/VLP (assuming that MrNV VLPs is T=1, i made up of 60 capsid monomers). These VLPs interacted with cultured insect cells and delivered loaded plasmid DNA into the cells as shown by green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. With many advantageous properties including self-encapsulation, MrNv VLPs are good candidates for delivery of therapeutic agents.

  14. Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2013-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical.

  15. Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  16. Aqueous Morinda citrifolia Leaves Extract Enhancing Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and α2-Macroglobulin Gene Expression on Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Atika Marisa Halim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia, known commercially as noni is often used for enhancing immunity, these plant-rich phenolic compound with antioxidant properties. In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed diets containing aqueous M. citrifolia leaves extract (AMLE at 0.6, 4 and 6 g kg-1. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx and α2-macroglubulin (α2-M  activity were conducted to measure an immune parameter, which was evaluated before and after 7, 21, 35, 49 and 63 days of feeding trial. The results showed that after 63 days of feeding treatment, significantly increased in GPx activity. Moreover, the gene expressions of α2-macroglubulin was significantly upregulated. These results recommend that administration of AMLE can be used as an immunostimulant and regulated immune response and immune gene expression in M. rosenbergii.

  17. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  18. The potential of mixed culture of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The production performance of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems were studied in farmers' ponds at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Fifteen ponds (200-300 m2 area and 1.0-1.5 m in depth) were used to c

  19. Effects of stocking density on production and economics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Rahman, S.M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of stocking density on pond (75 m2, depth 1.2 m) production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stocked at a fixed 3:1 tilapia:prawn ratio. Three stocking densities were tried in triplicate: 20 000 ha¿1

  20. An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Roy, Arpita; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% α-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria

  1. Breeding Experiment on Different Sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae%不同来源罗氏沼虾幼体的培育对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江林源; 韦信贤; 卢小花; 黄光华; 杨学明; 莫肇誉

    2011-01-01

    2010年2月,对采自江苏吴江、广西三塘和广西南宁国家级良种场共3种不同来源的罗氏沼虾(Macrobra-chium rosenbergii)进行从幼体阶段至变态苗阶段的培育试验;干量容积法推算产苗量,计算育苗成活率。试验结果表明,3种不同来源幼体的育苗成活率分别为73.6%、65.2%和90.4%,成活率差异明显;其中,国家级广西南宁罗氏沼虾良种场的育苗成活率最高。在育苗生产中,必须注重罗氏沼虾亲本的种质复壮与培育,才能保证幼虾的质量,有利于提高其养殖成活率。%In February 2010, three different sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae from private breeding farm of Jiangsu Province, Guangxi autonomous region and state level seed breeding farm of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Nanning, were connected and used for juvenile culture. Dry larval volume method was adopted to calculate the juvenile amounts and larvae survival rate. Experiment results indicated that the survival rate of 3 different sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval were 73.6% ,65.2% and 90.4%, respectively, having distinct difference among them. And the survival rate of larval from state-level seed breeding farm of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Nanning was the highest. Macrobrachium rosenbergii seedling must focus on quality of the larvae.

  2. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  3. Tracking the virus-like particles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in insect cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanapi, Ummi Fairuz; Yong, Chean Yeah; Goh, Zee Hong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2017-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc) produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells. Through fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation, the MrNvc was shown to enter Sf9 cells, and eventually arrived at the nucleus. The presence of MrNvc within the cytoplasm and nucleus of Sf9 cells was further confirmed by the Z-stack imaging. The presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chlorpromazine (CPZ) inhibited the entry of MrNvc into Sf9 cells, but cytochalasin D did not inhibit this process. This suggests that the internalisation of MrNvc VLPs is facilitated by caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The whole internalisation process of MrNvc VLPs into a Sf9 cell was recorded with live cell imaging. We have also identified a potential nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of MrNvc through deletion mutagenesis and verified by classical-NLS mapping. Overall, this study provides an insight into the journey of MrNvc VLPs in insect cells. PMID:28194311

  4. Tracking the virus-like particles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in insect cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Fairuz Hanapi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells. Through fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation, the MrNvc was shown to enter Sf9 cells, and eventually arrived at the nucleus. The presence of MrNvc within the cytoplasm and nucleus of Sf9 cells was further confirmed by the Z-stack imaging. The presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chlorpromazine (CPZ inhibited the entry of MrNvc into Sf9 cells, but cytochalasin D did not inhibit this process. This suggests that the internalisation of MrNvc VLPs is facilitated by caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The whole internalisation process of MrNvc VLPs into a Sf9 cell was recorded with live cell imaging. We have also identified a potential nuclear localisation signal (NLS of MrNvc through deletion mutagenesis and verified by classical-NLS mapping. Overall, this study provides an insight into the journey of MrNvc VLPs in insect cells.

  5. Metschnikowia bicuspidata dominates in Taiwanese cold-weather yeast infections of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chu; Chen, Yu-Chin; Kwang, Jimmy; Manopo, Ivanus; Wang, Pei-Chi; Chaung, Hso-Chi; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chiu, Shih-Hau

    2007-05-09

    At water temperatures below 17 degrees C, yeast infections often occurred in 6 to 11 mo old giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (8 to 12 cm) in Taiwan from May 2001 to December 2003, with a cumulative mortality of 20 to 95%. Gross signs of disease included milky hemolymph, a yellow exoskeleton, opaque muscles, and a swollen hepatopancreas (HP). Histopathology included marked edema and extensive necrotic lesions associated with large numbers of yeast aggregates and inflammation within the muscles, HP, and other internal organs such as the heart, ovary, and intestine. Yeast cell numbers isolated from various tissues ranged from 4.5 x 10(8) to 9.0 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mg. From diseased prawns from 12 affected farms, the presence of Metschnikowia bicuspidata (98.4% prevalence), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.8% prevalence), and Candida albicans (0.8% prevalence) was confirmed by biochemical tests and sequencing of PCR products from the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA. Experimental infection with these isolates caused gross signs and histopathological changes similar to those observed in naturally infected prawns, and lethal doses (LD50) were 3.8 x 10(3), 2.0 x 10(3), and 4.3 x 10(3) CFU prawn-1, respectively. Although the results of this study revealed that M. bicuspidata may be the major cause of yeast infections in the giant freshwater prawns in Taiwan, this is the first time that S. cerevisiae and C. albicans are also reported as pathogens.

  6. Genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Dinh

    Full Text Available Giant freshwater prawn (GFP Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females. In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (-0.96, whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76. Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic component for male

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2014-02-01

    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae.

  8. Genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Hung; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (-0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving

  9. Gene silencing of VP9 gene impairs WSSV infectivity on Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenton, Rod Russel R; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Maningas, Mary Beth B

    2016-03-02

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) remains the most widespread and devastating infectious agent that hit the shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. To date, there are no known effective strategies yet to combat WSSV infection. Hence, functional studies on genes critical for viral infection is essential in elucidating shrimp-virus interaction. Here we report the function of a gene from WSSV coding for a non-structural protein, VP9, utilizing RNA interference. Silencing of VP9 gene also effectively suppressed other gene region in the WSSV genome (wsv168 gene) as early as day 1 post infection (dpi). Three set-ups using Macrobrachium rosenbergii shrimp were prepared for treatment using VP9-dsRNA, GFP-dsRNA, and PBS. Each shrimp was challenge with WSSV, and survival rate was recorded. VP9- and GFP-dsRNA injected shrimps showed a significant survival rate of 80% and 70%, respectively, in contrast to 0% of the PBS injected shrimps at 25dpi. Re-infection of shrimp survivors using a higher viral titer concentration, concurrent with the infection of new shrimp samples for the PBS control group, resulted in a significant 67% survival rate for VP9-dsRNA compared to 0% with that of GFP-dsRNA and PBS group. Challenge test on two more species, Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus, also significantly increased survival after VP9-dsRNA treatment. Our results provided evidence that VP9 gene plays an essential role in WSSV replication and it can be a potent target gene in the development of RNAi therapeutics for shrimps.

  10. Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge.

  11. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir; Rosmilah Misnan; Noormalin Abdullah; Faizal Bakhtiar; Masita Arip; Shahnaz Murad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods: Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results: SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15-250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients’ sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies.

  12. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

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    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of an antioxidant enzyme catalase (MrCat) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

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    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we reported a full length of catalase gene (designated as MrCat), identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrCat is 2504 base pairs in length, and encodes 516 amino acids. The MrCat protein contains three domains such as catalase 1 (catalase proximal heme-ligand signature) at 350-358, catalase 2 (catalase proximal active site signature) at 60-76 and catalase 3 (catalase family profile) at 20-499. The mRNA expressions of MrCat in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MrCat is highly expressed in digestive tract and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, hemocyte, hepatopancreas, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated in digestive tract after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCat gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCat existed in high thermal stability and broad spectrum of pH, which showed over 95% enzyme activity between pH 5 and 10.5, and was stable from 40 °C to 70 °C, and exhibited 85-100% enzyme activity from 30 °C to 40 °C.

  14. Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn.

  15. Flow cytometry studies on the Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes sub-populations and immune responses to novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Ren, Qian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Flow cytometry provides rapid and reproducible methods for analyzing crustacean cellular immune responses to pathogens. We used this method to investigate the hemocytes sub-populations of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their immune responses to a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008. M. rosenbergii inoculated with 100 μl spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for total hemocytes count (THC) and changes in differential involvement of hemocytes sub-populations during 1-28 d after inoculation. The results showed that THC was dramatically lowered 1 d after inoculation, and it obviously increased at the 5 d after inoculation; thereafter, a high level of THC was maintained to 15 d. Three morphologically distinct hemocytes sub-populations including granular cells (GC), semigranular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) could be identified by flow cytometry, and the proportions of the 3 kinds of cell categories varied obviously during the infection of spiroplasma suggesting differential involvement according to the pathogen. The flow cytometry used in this study confirmed that the semigranular cells were the main hemocytes involved in the cellular defense against spiroplasma in the M. rosenbergii.

  16. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary.

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    Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Hanna, Peter J; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture.

  17. Bioinformatic characterization and gene expression pattern of apoptosis inhibitor from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

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    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2011-12-01

    Apoptosis is genetically programmed cellular killing processes that execute unnecessary or infected cells. It plays an important role in embryogenesis, homeostasis, insect metamorphosis and immunity. Apoptosis inhibitor (MrIAP) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrIAP consisted of 1753 base pair nucleotides encoded 535 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. MrIAP amino acid sequence contains IAP superfamily domain between 5 and 490. The deduced amino acid sequences of the MrIAP were aligned with the other IAP family members. The highest sequence similarity was observed in IAP-5 from ant Camponotus floridanus (67%) followed by IAP from body louse Pediculus humanus corporis (66%) and the lowest (62%) in IAP-5 isoform-5 from common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and IAP-5 from Aedes aegypti. The IAP phylogenetic tree showed that MrIAP closely related to other arthropod blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis, formed a sister group with IAP from a hemichordate acorn worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii and finally clustered together with IAPs from fish groups. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that significantly (P rosenbergii challenged to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was highly induced in hepatopancreas. The collective results of this study indicate that the MrIAP is an essential immune gene and influences the immune response against IHHNV infection in M. rosenbergii.

  18. EFFECT OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH, BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ENERGY UTILIZATION IN THE PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

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    C. Seenivasan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was incorporated in basal diet prepared with fish meal, soybean meal, groundnut oil cake, corn flour, tapioca flour, egg albumin, cod liver oil and vitamin Bcomplex, at four different concentrations (10g, 20g, 30g and 40g kg-1 and fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL for 90 days. The effect of this probiotic incorporation on the growth and survival performances, concentration of protein, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid, and energy utilization was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher at 40g kg-1 followed by 30g, 20g and 10g kg-1. 40g kg-1 S. cerevisiae incorporation was found to be established the highest rate of colony formation, 234x10-4 cfu (colony formation units. Actually, presence of Bacillus spp., Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae were deducted in water medium and the PL gut of control group. There is a general belief that Pseudomonas spp. and K. pneumonia are pathogenic to prawns. The establishment of S. cerevisiae colony in the gut of experimental PL has eradicated these pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that establishment of S. cerevisiae colony has led to better growth, survival and biochemical constituents in M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, S. cerevisiae could be taken as a useful probiotic in M. rosenbergii culture.

  19. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary.

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    Saowaros Suwansa-Ard

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture.

  20. Interaction study of a novel Macrobrachium rosenbergii effector caspase with B2 and capsid proteins of M. rosenbergii nodavirus reveals their roles in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngcharoen, Supak; Senapin, Saengchan; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Flegel, Timothy W; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis is an essential immune response to protect invertebrates from virus infected cells. In shrimp, virus infection has been reported to induce apoptosis. Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr) was considered to be a disease-resistant host when compared to penaeid shrimps. Caspase-3 was classified as an executioner caspase which played a key role in virus-induced apoptosis. In this study, an effector caspase gene of M. rosenbergii (Mrcasp) was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of Mrcasp was 957 nucleotide encoding 318 amino acid with a deduced molecular mass of 35.87 kDa. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of Mrcasp in all examined tissues. The phylogenetic tree indicated that Mrcasp was closely related with caspase 3 of shrimp. The functions of the Mrcasp, B2 and capsid proteins of M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) were assayed in Sf-9 cells. The results showed that Mrcasp induce apoptotic morphology cells; however, capsid protein of MrNV could inhibit apoptotic cells whereas B2 could neither induce nor inhibit apoptotic cells by DAPI staining. The protein interaction between Mrcasp and viral MrNV structure revealed that Mrcasp did not bind to B2 or capsid protein whereas B2 and capsid proteins could bind directly to each other. This study reported a novel sequence of a full-length Mrcasp and its functional studies indicated that Mrcasp could induce apoptotic cells. Our data is the first report demonstrating the direct protein-protein interaction between capsid protein and B2 protein of MrNV.

  1. Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chiu, Yun-Chih; Cheng, Winton; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2334 bp, a 72-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 316-bp 3'-UTR containing a stop codon and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (778 aa) was 86.67 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.4. The M. rosenbergii TG (abbreviated MrTG, accession no.: JF309296) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, two putative integrin-binding motifs (RGD), ten glycosylation sites, and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TGs. Sequence comparison and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into three subgroups, penaeid TG1, freshwater crustacean TG2 and marine crustacean TG2, and MrTG was more closely related to TG2 than to TG1. MrTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of M. rosenbergii, with MrTG mainly being synthesised by haemocytes. There was a negative correlation between clotting time of haemolymph, and MrTG expression and TG activity of haemocytes in prawn injected with Lactococcus garvieae. The pattern of MrTG mRNA expression and TG activity in haemocytes exhibited a contrary tendency with clotting time of haemolymph during the moult stages. Those results indicate that cloned MrTG is involved in the defence response, and is probably the major functional TG for haemolymph coagulation in M. rosenbergii.

  2. Impact of maintenance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae broodstock on the water used in culture ponds

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    JFV. Biudes

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production generates social and economic benefits, but can also cause environmental impacts. The objectives of this study were: a to characterise the impacts caused by the maintenance of broodstock of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on the physical and chemical characteristics of the water used in culture ponds, and b to evaluate the relationship between the biomass of the prawns and the impact of culture on the water used in the ponds. Between January and December 2004, we determined, monthly, the biomass of M. rosenbergii by means of biometrics, and the physical and chemical variables of the supply and effluent water from a pond used to maintain breeding stock. The results showed that the effluent water had higher contents of chlorophyll-a, suspended particulate matter (SPM, pH, dissolved oxygen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen (DKN, inorganic nitrogen (IN, total (TP and dissolved phosphorus (DP, and P-orthophosphate than the supply water. The highest biomass of M. rosenbergii occurred in April (127.0 g.m-2 and the lowest in August (71.5 g.m-2, and there were positive linear correlations between the biomass of the prawns and the intensity of the increases in TKN, DKN, IN, TP, and DP of the water used in the pond. The maintenance of broodstock of M. rosenbergii increased the chlorophyll-a, SPM, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of the water in the pond. Additionally, the increase in the biomass of the prawns intensifies the export of nitrogen and phosphorus from the pond in the effluent.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of turmeric, Curcuma longa (Magnoliophyta, Zingiberaceae on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Palaemonidae against Vibrio alginolyticus (Proteobacteria, Vibrionaceae

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    Jennifer R. Alambra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii is being favored for farming due to its large size. However, like other crustaceans, it is also prone to bacterial and viral infections. Turmeric, a derivative of the plant Curcuma longa, is a spice commonly used in Middle East and Asia as an herbal remedy. Immuno-modulatory effects of turmeric powder on hemocyte population and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs of M. rosenbergii challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus was investigated. Eighty (80 juveniles of M. rosenbergii were divided into three groups labeled as D0, D1 and D7 (Day 0, 1 and 7 respectively. D0 were fed with commercial feeds while D1 and D7 were fed with turmeric-incorporated (enhanced feeds for one and seven days respectively. The total hemocyte count (THC of D0 remained constant and a significant increase was observed from D1 to D7 treatment. Prawns were challenged with V. alginolyticus and total RNA was isolated and synthesized into cDNAs from hepatopancreas. RT-PCR was performed with crustin and lysozyme as target genes and EF-1α as the reference gene. PCR products were run through 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed an increasing expression of crustin and lysozyme PCR relative to duration of feeding, indicating a remarkable increase in the expression of AMPs (antimicrobial peptides. Challenged prawns fed with enhanced feeds also had an induced expression of AMPs. It is noteworthy to mention that this is the first report on AMPs expression in M. rosenbergii.

  4. Efeito da densidade populacional sobre as curvas de crescimento de Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man em cultivo semi-intensivo (Crustacea, Palaemonidae The effect of stocking density on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man growth curves in earthen ponds (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

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    Wagner Cotroni Valenti

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the length growth curves of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879 held in different population densities were analysed. Postlarvae prawns were stocked into five 0,02 ha earthen ponds at densities of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ind./m² during six months. Forthnightly, the mean total length of animals from each pond were obtained by means of random samples. For each population the length growth curves and the instantaneous growth rate expressions were determined. The growth rate and the asymptotic maximum length decreased with the stocking density raised. This effect is greater when the density ranges in low levels. The growth decrease can be due to intraspecific competition for life resources and to negative interactions between individuals, as aggressive or social behavior, that increase with the increase prawns density.

  5. Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

    2013-04-15

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), α2-macroglubulin (α2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these

  6. Growth inhibition of shrimp pathogens by isolated gastrointestinal microflora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

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    Seehanat, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, cultivated in earthen pond at Maha Sarakham province, Thailand, consisted of 14 isolates of Bacillus (B1 – B14 and 18 isolates of Lactic acid bacteria (LA1 – LA18. The abilities of all isolated bacteria on growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by paperdisc plate method. The results showed that the Bacillus B2 and B5 were unable to inhibit the growth of all of the tested pathogens. Bacillus B1, B10 and B12 were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 of 4 tested pathogen strains. Although all of the isolated lactic acid bacteria (LA1 –LA18 could not inhibit the E. coli growth, all of them could inhibit the growth of B. cereus. The isolated lactic acid bacteria which were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 tested pathogen strains (excluded E. coli were LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18. In order to select the high potential strain of bacteria for using as probiotics, Bacillus B1 , B3 , B4 , B10 and B12 and lactic acid bacteria LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18 were tested for their growth abilities in various growth conditions. The tested growth conditions included various concentrations of the bile salt and salt (NaCl and various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that Bacillus B1 and B10 and lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 exhibited high potential for using as probiotics. The results of biochemical test for identification of these high potential strains showed that Bacillus B1 and B10 were possibly B. licheniformis and B. thuringiensis respectively. The lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 were possibly the same strain and belonged to the genus Pediococcus.

  7. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budget in scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Adhikari, Subhendu; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2013-12-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85%) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44%) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34%) of added OC, respectively.

  8. Roles of dopamine receptors in mediating acute modulation of immunological responses in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Ke, Zhi-Han; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) was found to influence the immunological responses and resistance to pathogen infection in invertebrates. To clarify the possible modulation of DA through dopamine receptors (DAR) against acute environmental stress, the levels of DA, glucose and lactate in the haemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under hypo- and hyperthermal stresses were measured. The changes in immune parameters such as total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and phagocytic activity (PA) were evaluated in prawns which received DAR antagonists (SCH23390, SCH, D1 antagonist; domperidone, DOM, D2 antagonist; chlorpromazine, CH, D1+2 antagonist) followed by hypo- (15 °C) and hyperthermal (34 °C) stresses. In addition, pharmacological analysis of the effect DA modulation was studied in haemocytes incubated with DA and DAR antagonists. The results revealed a significant increase in haemolymph DA accompanied with upregulated levels of glucose and lactate in prawns exposed to both hypo- and hyperthermal stresses in 2 h. In addition, a significant decrease in RBs per haemocyte was noted in prawns which received DAR antagonists when they exposed to hyperthermal stress for 30 min. In in vitro test, antagonism on RBs, SOD and GPx activity of haemocytes were further evidenced through D1, D1, D1+D2 DARs, respectively, in the meantime, no significant difference in PO activity and PA was observed among the treatment groups. These results suggest that the upregulation of DA, glucose and lactate in haemolymph might be the response to acute thermal stress for the demand of energy, and the DAR occupied by its antagonistic action impart no effect on immunological responses except RBs in vivo even though the modulation mediated through D1 DAR was further evidenced in RBs, SOD and GPx activities in vitro. It is therefore concluded that thermal

  9. Expression and Assembly Mechanism of the Capsid Proteins of a Satellite Virus (XSV) Associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-min WANG; Hua-jun ZHANG; Zheng-li SHI

    2008-01-01

    The extra small virus (XSV) is a satellite virus associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its genome consists of two overlapping ORFs, CP17 and CP16. Here we demonstrate that CP16 is expressed from the second AUG of the CP17 gene and is not a proteinase cleavage result of CP17. We further expressed CP17 and several truncated CP17s (in which the N- or C-terminus or both was deleted), respectively, in Escherichia coli. Except for the recombinant plasmid CP17ΔC10, all recombinant plasmids expressed soluble protein which assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), suggesting that the C-terminus is important for VLP formation.

  10. ALTERATIONS IN THE MICROBIAL LOAD AT CERTAIN NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE SITES OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII SUPPLEMENTED WITH CENTELLA ASIATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINE ANAND

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been the focus of research in India in the past few years. As a negative impact tothe success of aquaculture due to intensification lead to higher disease outbreaks. The bacterial diseases are themost common due to intensification. In the present study the Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with diet containingmedicinal plant, Centella asiatica to test the antimicrobial activity. The prawns were fed with diet containingC.asiatica (0.2%. After 4 months both control and the experimental prawns were examined for microbial flora.Isolation and identification were also done. The investigation showed a significant reduction in the pathogenicbacteria and also found an improvement in the probiotic bacteria in prawns fed with experimental diet containingC.asiatica than the control diet. The % survival is 75% in medicated diet, but it is only 40% in control diet. Themedicated diet also showed improved growth parameters. The total microbial load at non-specific immune sites,such as gill, gut and exoskeleton of both control and medicated feed were examined after the experiment. Thetotal microbial load at gill, gut,exoskeleton were 41.00 x 105,50.00 x 106,30.00 x 106 respectively in control feed,but total microbial load at gill, gut, exoskeleton were 34.00 x 105, 28.00 x 106, 22.00 x 106 respectively inmedicated feed. Major pathogenic bacteria found in culture were Vibrio type I, Staphylococcus type III, Micrococcustype I, Strepto coccus I, Acinetobacter type I, Acinetobacter typeIII, Arthrobacter type I, Enterobacteriacea,Flavobacterium Vibrio type II, Strepto coccus II, Pseudomonas. After treating with medicated diet, diversity andintensity of microbial flora get reduced and culture of medicated diet also showed presence of probiotic bacteriasuch as Bacillus

  11. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance and Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Hatchery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S W Lee; M Najiah; W Wendy; A Zahrol; M Nadirah

    2009-01-01

    In this article,antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria isolated from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia are described.Although giant freshwater prawn was introduced into Malaysia since the 1980s,there was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from giant freshwater prawn (M.rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia.Therefore,this study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profile to control bacterial diseases in M.rosenbergii hatchery.The results can provide valuable information for local M.rosenbergii post-larval producer.Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out by disk-diffusion method against 15 types of antibiotics as follows:oxolinic acid (2 μg),ampicillin (10 μg),erythromycin (15 μg),furazolidone (15 μg),lincomycin (15 μg),amoxicillin (25 μg),col istin sulphate (25 μg),doxycycline (30 μg),florfenicol (30 μg),flumequine (30 μg),nalidixic acid (30 μg),tetracycline (30 μg),oleandomyein (15 μg),fosfomycin (50 μg),and spiramycin (100 μg),whereas heavy metal resistance profile of the present bacterial isolates was determined by 2-fold agar dilution technique.In this study,5 types of bacteria were successfully isolated;they were Aeromonas spp.(n= 77),Escherichia coil (n = 73),Edwardsiella spp.(n = 62),Salmonella spp.(n= 75),and Vibrio spp.(n = 43).The result showed that furazolidone was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study,approximately 89.7% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic.Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index indicated that the hatchery water source and M.rosenbergii post-larval and sediment tanks were at high-risk exposure to the tested antibiotic.Furthermore,all the tested heavy metals (Cd2+,Cr6+ Hg2+,and Cu2+) failed to inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates.Therefore,it indicated that the water source of the hatchery is

  12. オニテナガエビMacrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man)幼生期の変態過程について

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Diaz, Gabriel; Kasahara, Shogoro

    1987-01-01

    Larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) were reared individually at 28°C and 13.6 ppt of temperature and salinity conditions, to observe the development. Morphological observations were made on the shed carapaces after molting of each stage. (1) The larvae metamorphose into postlarva after developing through 17 zoeal instars. (2) Six new zoeal instars are introduced, in addition to the eleven instars reported elsewhere, and the main characteristics for identifi...

  13. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaz,Luciana Almada; Oshiro,Lídia Miyako Yoshii; Bambozzi,Andrea Cecchetto; Seixas Filho,José Teixeira de

    2004-01-01

    O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos), nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com q...

  14. Growth performance and survival rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1979) larvae using different doses of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahasan; Das, Nani Gopal; Hossain, M Belal

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of probiotics (Ecomarine) in rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae was evaluated in a commercial prawn hatchery for five weeks. Stage-1 (zero age) larvae (of length: 2 mm; weight: 0.12 mg) were stocked at the rate of 100 L(-1). The experiment determined the growth rate, survival rate of the larvae for the both treatment and control groups. Final average weight were found 8.39 ± 3.28E-04 and 8.18 ± 2.86E-04 mg and length were found 9.08 ± 0.649 and 9.02 ± 0.081 mm for treatment and control group respectively. Comparatively higher growth performance was observed in treatment than control. Post Larvae (PL) was first observed 20th days of culture in treatment tanks whereas PL in control tanks was found 24th days of culture. Survival rate was found 58 and 46% in treatment and control group respectively. There was significant (p rosenbergii while significant changes were not noticed in the physic-chemical parameters i.e., water temperature, salinity, DO, pH, nitrate-NO2, hardness and alkalinity observed in both the treatments.

  15. Genetic analysis of RNA1 and RNA2 of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) isolated from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaveenKumar, Singaiah; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2013-05-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is responsible for the newly emerging catastrophic disease known as white tail disease (WTD) in M. rosenbergii. The complete sequence of RNA2 (1175 bp) and 3126 bp region of RNA1 of an Indian strain of MrNV was generated. Sequence analysis of RNA2 revealed the presence of a single ORF encoding a capsid protein of 371 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 41.5 kDa and 8.97 respectively. RNA1 contained two ORFs, one encoding a partial RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of length 1034 amino acids and another a B2-like protein with a length 133 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the capsid protein, to related nodavirus sequences suggests the establishment of new genotypes within the Nodaviridae family and we suggest the name should be genus Gammanodavirus. A new reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay has been developed and optimized for the detection of shrimp nodavirus with a sensitivity to detect up to 24 copy numbers of plasmid construct.

  16. Enhanced immune response and resistance to white tail disease in chitin-diet fed freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Naveen Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is one of the natural biopolymer found abundantly in the shells of crustaceans, insects and in cell walls of fungi. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary administration of 0.5, 0.75 and 1% chitin on the immune response and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, challenged against Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV and extra small virus (XSV. We observed a significantly enhanced immune response, indicated as higher prophenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst of hemocytes, in 0.75% chitin-diet fed prawns compared to the chitin-free-diet fed prawns. Importantly, the relative percent survival (RPS following challenge with white muscle disease (WTD viruses was found relatively high in M. rosenbergii fed with diet containing 0.75% chitin (63.16%, suggesting an increased resistance to disease susceptibility. These results indicate that the incorporation of chitin in prawn diet would be beneficial in stimulating the immune response and thereby developing resistance against diseases.

  17. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-11-01

    Haemolymph norepinephrine (NE); total haemocyte count (THC); respiratory bursts (RBs); superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity; and prophenoloxidase (proPO)-system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein: LGBP, proPO, peroxinectin: PE, and α2-macroglobulin: α2-M) in haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated after transferring them from 28 °C to 22 °C, 28 °C, and 34 °C respectively. The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells (HCs), and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to 120 min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min of exposure as well as granular cells (GCs), semigranular cells (SGCs), and SOD activity decreased from 60 to 120 min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress. The proPO-system-related gene expression markedly increased with 60-120 min of exposure for the prawns transferred from 28 °C to 22 °C and 34 °C, except α2M at 120 min. These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. rosenbergii.

  18. Immunomodulatory effect of Withania somnifera supplementation diet in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Jawahar, Sundaram; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. The bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. The innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase activity, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were significantly enhanced in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of W. somnifera supplementation diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen. The total hemocyte counts (THC) significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses diet from weeks 1-4 against pathogen as compared to the control. These results strongly suggested that administration of W. somnifera through supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune system and enhanced survival rate in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila infection.

  19. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior.

  20. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests.

  1. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii.

  2. Single CRD containing lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrLec) participates in innate immunity against pathogen infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Li, Wen; Jin, Min; Ma, Fu-Tong; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Feng, Jin-Ling; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    As a type of pattern-recognition proteins, lectins perform important functions in the innate immunity of crustaceans, including prawns. Although several reports showed that C-type lectin domain family (CLEC) importantly functions in host-pathogen interactions, limited research has focused on CLEC in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In the present study, a new single CRD containing CLEC (designated as MrLec) was reported in freshwater prawns, M. rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrLec consisted of 1027 bp with an open reading frame of 801 bp, which encoded a peptide of 266 amino acid residues. Genomic sequence for MrLec was also obtained from the M. rosenbergii, which contain 4 exons and 3 introns. MrLec was found to contain a single carbohydrate-recognition domain with an EPN motif. MrLec was ubiquitously distributed in various tissues of a normal prawn, particularly in the hepatopancreas and gills. MrLec expression in the gills was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and downregulated at 24 h after MrLec RNA interference (MrLec-RNAi). The expression levels of some AMPs, including antilipopolysaccharide factor 1 (Alf1) and lysozyme 2 (Lyso2), also markedly decreased after MrLec-RNAi. Recombinant MrLec can agglutinate (Ca(2+)-dependent) and bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Results suggested that MrLec participates in the recognition of invading pathogens and functions in the immune response of prawn against pathogen infections.

  3. Norepinephrine depresses the immunity and disease-resistance ability via α1- and β1-adrenergic receptors of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Hung, Ming-Di; Cheng, Winton

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of norepinephrine (NE) on immunity and the pathway of its function in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae, were measured when the freshwater giant prawn, M. rosenbergii (16.2±2.1 g) was individually injected with saline or NE at 0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). Results showed that semi-granular cells, respiratory bursts and phagocytic activity at 2 h, PO activity and clearance efficiency from 2 to 4 h, THC at 8 h, and SOD activity from 4 to 8 h significantly decreased, but hyaline cells at 2 h, and respiratory bursts at 8 h had significantly increased after injection of NE at 50.0 pmol prawn(-1). In prawns that had received 5.0 pmol NE prawn(-1), the PO activity had decreased at 2 h, SOD activity at 8 h, and the clearance efficiency at 2 h. PO activity had decreased at 2 h after prawns had received 0.5 pmol NE prawn(-1). All of the immune parameters had returned to control values by 16 h after receiving NE. However, no significant differences were observed in the granular cells during the experimental period. An injection of NE also significantly increased the mortality of prawns challenged with L. garvieae, which appeared to be dose dependent. In another experiment, NE co-injected with prazosin, metoprolol, or propranolol significantly decreased the mortality of challenged prawns, especially when co-injected with prazosin and metoprolol. These results suggest that stress-inducing NE suppresses the immune system, which in turn promotes the susceptibility of M. rosenbergii to L. garvieae via both α1- and β1-adrenergic receptors.

  4. 罗氏沼虾脑的形态和结构%The Morphology and Structure of the Brain of the Prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii ( Crustacea : Decapoda)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖家遗

    2001-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)的脑位于两个眼柄基部中的一团海绵状组织内.它由神经根、前脑、中脑、后脑、神经连接和细胞体群组成.它的神经根从脑发出的位置及外伸的方向和已描述过的虾、蟹的脑神经根有一定的区别,未发现有副叶髓质和中脑连接.因此它可能是虾蟹另一种脑的类型.%The brain of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is located in a mass of spongy tissue within the base of eyestalks. It consists of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, tritocerebrum, nerve roots, commissures, and clusters of cell bodies. It is different from the described brains of the other prawn and crabs in the site where the nerve roots project from the brain and in the extension directions of the nerve roots. In the brain the accessory lobe, a neuropil, and the deutocerebral commissure could not be identified. The above differences suggest that the brain of Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be a new brain type of the prawns and crabs.

  5. [Rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus isolated in China by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Liu, Li; Hao, Gui-Jie; Cao, Zheng; Sheng, Peng-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Lei; Shen, Jin-Yu

    2014-09-01

    White coloration of the muscle of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a serious problem in China. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV) has been confirmed to be the pathogen that causes this disorder. To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific technology for the detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus isolated from China (MrNV-China), a reverse-transcription loop- mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) assay method is described. A set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the MrNV RNA2 gene. Results showed the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay was ten-times higher than the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was conducted with one-step amplification at 61°C in a single tube within 45 min. No product was generated from shrimps infected with other viruses, including DNA viruses (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV); white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)) and RNA viruses (Taura syndrome virus (TSV); infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV); yellow head virus (YHV)). Results were visualized by the LFD method. Therefore, the described rapid and sensitive assay is potentially useful for MrNV detection.

  6. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, A.; Broos, K.V. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadiq Bukhari, A., E-mail: abjmc@yahoo.in [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Syed Mohamed, H.E. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Singhal, R.K. [Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India); Venu-Babu, P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analyzing the impact of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation (low doses) in M. rosenbergii. •LD{sub 50} identified in 30 Gy; Irradiated exhibits morphological changes than control. •Significantly decreased HSI and histological changes in irradiated groups. •Aberration severities increased as increased of dose level. •Biomonitoring tool in determining low dose radiation pollution in aquatic ecosystem. -- Abstract: This study was framed to investigate the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD{sub 50} value of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of

  7. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-05-07

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  8. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungtaek Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  9. Virus-like particle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells is distinctive from that produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Chare Li; Yong, Chean Yeah; Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Soon Guan; Tan, Wen Siang

    2016-11-14

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is a virus native to giant freshwater prawn. Recombinant MrNV capsid protein has been produced in Escherichia coli, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, this recombinant protein is unstable, degrading and forming heterogenous VLPs. In this study, MrNV capsid protein was produced in insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells through a baculovirus system. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the recombinant protein produced by the insect cells self-assembled into highly stable, homogenous VLPs each of approximately 40 nm in diameter. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were highly antigenic and comparable to those produced in E. coli. In addition, the Sf9 produced VLPs were highly stable across a wide pH range (2-12). Interestingly, the Sf9 produced VLPs contained DNA of approximately 48 kilo base pairs and RNA molecules. This study is the first report on the production and characterization of MrNV VLPs produced in a eukaryotic system. The MrNV VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were about 10 nm bigger and had a uniform morphology compared with the VLPs produced in E. coli. The insect cell production system provides a good source of MrNV VLPs for structural and immunological studies as well as for host-pathogen interaction studies. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2016.

  10. C-terminal domain on the outer surface of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid is required for Sf9 cell binding and internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somrit, Monsicha; Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Ounjai, Puey; Suntimanawong, Wanida; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2017-01-02

    We have shown that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to infect Sf9 cells and that MrNV virus-like particles (MrNV-VLPs) were capable nanocontainers for delivering nucleic acid-based materials. Here, we demonstrated that chymotryptic removal of a C-terminal peptide and its truncated variant (F344-MrNV-VLPs) exhibited a drastically reduced ability to interact and internalize into Sf9 cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed that the loss of C-terminal domain either from enzyme hydrolysis or genetic truncation did not affect the generated MrNV-VLPs' icosahedral conformation, but did drastically affect the VLPs' internalization ability into Sf9 cells. Homology-based modelling of the MrNV capsid with other icosahedral capsid models revealed that this chymotrypsin-sensitive C-terminal domain was not only exposed on the capsid surface, but also constituted the core of the viral capsid protrusion. These results therefore suggest the importance of the C-terminal domain as a structure for targeted cell interaction which is presumably localized at the protruding domain. This work thus provided the functional insights into the role of the MrNV C-terminal domain in viral entry into Sf9 cells and lead to the development of strategies in combatting MrNV infection in susceptible cells.

  11. A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

    2014-04-01

    A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-β induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs.

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae

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    C. Seenivasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the optimization of probiotic, Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL. Experimental diets were the same in all, except for the variation in probiotic levels. The probiotic L. sporogenes was used at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% inclusion in the experimental diets. These diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. The food index parameters, such as SR, WG, SGR, FCE and PER were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL, whereas the FCR was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. This indicates the fact that this feed produced higher growth rate than that of other experimental diets. Similarly the proximate composition of the total protein, total free amino acid, total carbohydrate, and total lipid content was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. However, insignificant differences were recorded in ash and moisture contents between control and experimental groups. Energy utilization parameters, such as feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate and excretory rate were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. Statistically insignificant differences were recorded in metabolic rate between control and experimental groups. This indicates that there were no differences in energy loss between control and experimental groups. However, L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL produced better growth performance.

  13. Effect of Shilajit enriched diet on immunity, antioxidants, and disease resistance in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Hyder Ali, Abdul Rahuman; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; War, Mehrajuddin; Naveed, Mohamed Saquib; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Rani, Kuppusamy Umaa; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Shilajit, a multi-component natural mineral substance on the antioxidant activity, immune response, and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The total hemocyte count (THC) and phagocytic activity significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on first week and with other enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The respiratory burst (RB) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on weeks 1 and 2 whereas 2 and 4 g kg(-1) diets on week 4. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity increased significantly with 2 g kg(-1) diet only on second week and with other enriched diets only on fourth week. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with any enriched diet during the experimental period except with 6 g kg(-1) diets on first week. However, the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was enhanced significantly only with 2 g kg(-1) enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The cumulative mortality of the prawn fed with 2 and 4 g kg(-1) enriched diets was 10% and 15% whereas with 6 g kg(-1) diet the mortality was 20%. The results suggest that diet enriched with Shilajit at 2 g kg(-1) or 4 g kg(-1) positively enhances the antioxidant activity, immunity, and disease resistance in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila.

  14. Muscle tissue kinetics of oxytetracycline following intramuscular and oral administration at two dosages to giant freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S; Jermnak, U; Imsilp, K; Wannapat, N; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Kumagai, S

    2008-12-01

    The giant river shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a native species of Thailand, is either exported for commercial purposes or supplied to meet the local requirements in Thailand. Limited pharmacokinetic information of the major antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), is available for this freshwater shrimp. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the muscle tissue kinetics of OTC in M. rosenbergii following either intramuscular (i.m.) or oral (p.o.) administration at two dosages of 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The concentration of OTC in shrimp tissues was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. Muscle tissue concentrations were below the detection limit (LOD, 0.1 microg/g) after 96 and 120 h, following i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Peak muscle concentrations (C(max)) were 3.47 and 1.73 microg/g after i.m. and p.o. administration at a single dose of 11 mg/kg b.w. whereas they were 6.03 and 2.51 microg/g at a single dose of 22 mg/kg b.w., respectively. A noncompartment model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of OTC in the giant freshwater shrimp. The terminal half-lives of OTC were 28.68 and 28.09 h after i.m. and p.o. administration at a single dose of 11 mg/kg b.w., but 29.95 and 27.03 h at a single dose of 22 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The relative bioavailability was 82.32 and 64.67% following i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, i.m. and p.o. administration with OTC at a dose of 11 mg/kg b.w. would be appropriate for use in giant freshwater shrimp farming. To avoid the OTC residue in shrimp muscle, it should take at least seven half-lives (8 days) to wash out the drug from the muscle of M. rosenbergii.

  15. Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-08-01

    White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii under Salt Stress

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    Hirak Kumar Barman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

  17. The key molecular events during Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) infection and replication in Sf9 insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somrit, Monsicha; Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2016-09-02

    In this study we demonstrated that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to internalize and replicate in Sf9 insect cells, with levels of infection altered by substances affecting the caveolin-(CAV) mediated endocytosis pathway. The use of Sf9 cells for efficient MrNV replication and propagation was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and PCR amplification, through which early viral binding and internalization were initially detectable at 30min post-infection; whereas at 72h, the distinguishable sign of late-MrNV infection was observable as the gradual accumulation of a cytopathic effect (CPE) in the cells, ultimately resulting in cellular disruption. Moreover, during the early period of infection, the MrNV signals were highly co-localized with CAV1 signals of the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway. The use of genistein as an inhibitor of the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway significantly reduced MrNV and CAV1 co-localization, and also reduced the levels of MrNV infection in Sf9 cells as shown by PCR and ELISA. Moreover, the addition of the pathway agonist okadaic acid not only recovered but also augmented both the levels of MrNV co-localization with CAV1 and of Sf9 infection in the presence of genistein inhibition; therefore demonstrating that MrNV infection in Sf9 cells was associated with the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway machinery.

  18. Function of a novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Ying; Shi, Yan-Ru; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2015-03-01

    C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel C-type lectin gene, designated as MrCTL, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCTL contains 2 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs), namely MrCRD1 and MrCRD2. The MrCRD1 contains a QEP motif and MrCRD2 contains a motif of EPD. MrCTL was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The expression level of MrCTL in hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated after a challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 have an ability to agglutinate both Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) in a calcium dependent manner. The recombinant MrCTL, MrCRD1 and MrCRD2 bind directly to all tested microorganisms. All these results suggested that MrCTL may have important roles in immune defense against invading pathogens in prawns.

  19. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and metals from contaminated sediment by freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and clams, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.

    1986-02-01

    Freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and clams, Corbicula Fluminea, were exposed for 48 or 50 days to three concentrations of a river sediment that contained environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. The PCB sediment bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for prawns ranged from 0.11 to 0.90 for 1242 and 0.20 to 2.40 for 1254, and were highest for animals exposed to 10% sediment. Exposed clams also accumulated PCBs (1242 + 1254) from the sediment. Sediment BAFs for clams were 0.54 to 12.52 and were highest for animals exposed to 10% sediment. Analyses of clams for metals showed lead (Pb) in exposed animals at higher concentrations compared with controls. Bioaccumulation of Pb differed from PCB in that the Pb concentrations did not increase over time and concentrations were higher among animals exposed to 10% sediment compared to animals exposed to 100% sediment. Sediment 11-80 contained 99 mg/kg of Pb while exposed animals, at 48 days, contained approximately 2.2 mg/kg Pb. Analysis of clams for cadmium (Cd) showed exposed animals contained less Cd than controls.

  20. 罗氏沼虾苗的选购和运输%Selection and transport of larval Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢家燊; 况开河; 吕建平; 刘家红; 唐德文

    1999-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)自1976年由日本引进我国后,经过多年推广养殖,现已发展成为经济虾类的主要养殖对象.该虾的生态习性不同于一般虾类,其幼体阶段需要在海水中度过,种苗生产必须由具有专门生产设施和技术的生产单位才能进行.选购优质罗氏沼虾虾苗(下称虾苗),提高虾亩运输成活率已成为罗氏沼虾生产中的重要一环.1990~1997年,我们共运输淡化虾苗3740万尾,其中购进2285万尾,外运1455万尾,成活率75~95%,往来购销地点遍及全国各主要养虾地区.

  1. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

    2015-06-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 μg·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone.

  2. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total suspended solids (TSS, 73.2 ± 15.4 %) and total nitrogen (TN, 39.6 ± 44.2 %) between wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input.

  3. Immune responses and gene expression in hepatopancreas from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged by a novel pathogen spiroplasma MR-1008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Zhu, Huanxi; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Ren, Qian; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii inoculated with 100 μl novel pathogen spiroplasma strain MR-1008 in logarithmic phase (10(8) spiroplasmas ml(-1)) were examined for alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, as well as expressions of 7 immune related genes in hepatopancreas after 1-28 d. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed obvious pathological features in hepatopancreas connective and epithelial tissue. Enzyme activity analyze showed that hepatopancreas AKP and ACP activity increased markedly (P < 0.05) when inoculated with spiroplasma MR-1008 after 5 d and 10 d, respectively. SOD enzyme activity changed less obviously and slightly increased at 1 day post-inoculation, but CAT activity decreased significantly after 5 d inoculation. The expression levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), α2-macroglobulin (α2M), AKP, ACP, CAT, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu, Zn-SOD) genes in the hepatopancreas were examined by Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results demonstrated that these immune related genes were induced by challenge with spiroplasma MR-1008. The results suggested that the prawn immune responses could be activated or inhibited by spiroplasma MR-1008, and that the hepatopancreas also plays key roles in innate immunity for defense against the pathogen.

  4. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress.

  5. Fairy Shrimp (Streptocephalus sirindhornae as Live Feed Improve Growth and Carotenoid Contents of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanoamuang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of adult fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus sirindhornae, as live food for growth and enhancing the carotenoid contents in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Completely randomized cultures of 6-months-old prawns were treated individually with 5 different food ratios (adult fairy shrimp to dry shrimp diet; 0: 100, 25: 75, 50: 50, 75: 25 and 100: 0 for 60 days in circular black plastic containers containing 20 L of water. The diet was fed at a rate of 3% of the prawn body weight per day. Each food concentration was experimented with 12 replicates and the whole experiment (5 treatments using a total of 60 individuals. The results showed that the initial lengths (11.9-13.0 cm and weights (23.20-31.65 g of the experimental prawns with the 5 food ratios were not significantly different. However, length (0.87 cm and weight (15.14 g gains of the prawns fed pure fairy shrimp treatment (100: 0 were significantly different from those of the other dietary treatments (p-1 of fresh weight with large amounts of astaxanthin and -carotene, which was 2.8 times of those fed with pure dry diet treatment (p<0.05. Present results indicate improved growth performances and elevated carotenoid contents of prawns suggesting fairy shrimp as promising feeds in freshwater aquaculture.

  6. Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

    2013-06-01

    Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of fish and vegetable oils on the growth performance and muscle compositions of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Muralisankar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of three vegetable oils (sunflower oil, coconut oil and castor oil as an alternative dietary lipid source for cod liver oil to culture Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PLs. The experimental feeds contained 40% protein with separately incorporated three vegetable oils and cod liver oil. The feeding trial was conducted on M. rosenbergii PL for 60 days. In the final day of the experimental period, the survival rate, weight gain, length gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of prawns showed no significance (P > 0.05 between sunflower oil and cod liver oil incorporated feed fed groups. The coconut oil and castor oil showed lower performance when compared with cod liver oil. The present result showed biochemical accumulation of total protein, amino acids, carbohydrate and lipid in experimental groups. Also there is no significant difference in ash and mineral (Na+ and K+ contents. Among the tested diets, the recorded growth rate and biochemical constituents of sunflower oil and cod liver oil incorporated feed fed groups were similar. The present results revealed that the sunflower oil was on par with cod liver oil. Hence, the sunflower oil can be incorporated in feed formulation for M. rosenbergii PL culture. It can be concluded that the coconut oil and castor oil are not ideal vegetable lipid source with these concentrations which produced lower performance in survival, growth and biochemical compositions of M. rosenbergii PL.

  8. Impact of fishmeal replacement with Arthrospira platensis on growth performance, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the suitable level of replacement of fishmeal with a blue green microalga, Arthrospira platensis in feed for the post larvae (PL of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii by evaluating the growth performance, prawn proximate composition, feed utilization parameters and the activity of digestive enzymes. The prawns were fed 5 different diets: a control diet and 4 different diets containing A. platensis at various levels such as 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. These diets were fed to the PL for 90 days in triplicates. The growth performance in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio were found significantly (P  25 > 75 > 100% replacement of fishmeal with A. platensis. These results concluded that a partial replacement of the fishmeal with A. platensis at the level of 50% is beneficial for the growth of prawn M. rosenbergii.

  9. Main diseases of the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a review%罗氏沼虾主要病害研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洋; 沈锦玉; 姚嘉赟; 潘晓艺; 郝贵杰; 尹文林

    2012-01-01

    罗氏沼虾是一种重要的经济水产动物,目前在世界各地均有大规模的养殖,尤其集中于东南亚地区,随着养殖规模的扩大其病害发生也越来越多,给罗氏沼虾养殖行业带来了巨大的损失.总结了近年来国内外关于罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)主要疾病及防治方面的研究成果,按照病原的不同分为寄生虫疾病、细菌性疾病、病毒性疾病,主要围绕上述几类疾病的研究及防治的工作展开论述,为今后罗氏沼虾的病害防治提供依据.%The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean, being fanned on a large scale in many different countries. Its culture is mostly developed in Southern and South-Eastern Asian countries and to a lesser extent in the Caribbean (Northern South America and West Indies). To date, lots of diseases were reported and they cause severe economic losses in aqua-culture and giant freshwater prawn breeding. The present paper reviewed main diseases of the giant fresh water prawn. The current information cm the research results was summarized about the major disease and its prevention and treatment of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

  10. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms and hatcheries of north and south 24 Parganas districts in West Bengal were surveyed for the details of antibiotics and disinfectants used for controlling the prawn diseases and pathogens. During the survey, 4antibiotics and four 4disinfectants were found to be used commonly by the farmers during a 12-month period of study. The chemicals used in the culture systems as antibiotics or disinfectants for the culture water, tanks, other utensils, and others have serious health hazards for both the cultured prawns and human beings. The study also indicates no herbal medicines, and probiotics are being used in prawn farms.

  11. 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)smu-1基因的筛选、表达及功能研究%SCREENING, EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF smu-1 GENES FROM MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱美睿; 郑春静; 刘军; 王庆强

    2013-01-01

    从热诱导下罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)中枢神经的消减文库中,筛选到一种高温应激下表达水平显著上调的smu-1基因.该基因编码的氨基酸序列与其它物种的smu-1呈现较高的同源性,该蛋白的羧基端具有WD-40 repeat结构域,该区域含有6个重复的WD基元,因此属于WD40-repeat蛋白家族.采用荧光定量PCR方法,对不同环境因子诱导下smu-1基因的表达特征进行分析,结果表明,与正常组相比,冷热休克和重金属诱导下smu-1基因的相对表达水平显著上升(P<0.01和P<0.05),而在盐胁迫smu-1表达水平却有下调的趋势(P<0.05).进一步采用smu-1双链RNA干扰技术,深入探究了该基因的功能与高温诱导之间的相互关系.本研究在一定程度上为养殖虾类耐热性优良品种的改良和筛选提供了重要理论依据,从而为降低高温对养殖虾类造成的重大经济损失提供广泛应用前景.

  12. Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M. rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M. japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24 h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48 h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24 h and then was upregulated at 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24 h after infection and then went down at 48 h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection.

  13. Immune response of four dual-CRD C-type lectins to microbial challenges in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Li, Meng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

    2012-08-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are believed to play important roles in the innate immunity of invertebrates and serve as pattern recognition receptors, opsonins, or effector molecules. In this study, the full-lengths cDNA of 4 CTL genes from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were cloned and designated as MrLec1, MrLec2, MrLec3, and MrLec4. All of these 4 lectin cDNAs encode proteins with 2 carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). While MrLec1, MrLec3, and MrLec4 had signal peptides, no signal peptide was detected in MrLec2. Two carbohydrate recognition motifs within two CRDs of each lectin were predicted (QPE, EPG in MrLec1; EPT, EPA in MrLec2; QPT, NPR in MrLec3; KPN, EPD in MrLec4). Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec4 belongs to group A whereas MrLec1, MrLec2, and MrLec3 belong to group B. Positive selection in dual-CRD lectins suggested their probable roles in innate immunity, and positively selected induced amino acid diversity of lectins may confer their ability to recognize a broad range of microbes. The qRT-PCR analysis in adult prawns showed that MrLec1 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas, gills, and stomach, MrLec2 and MrLec4 are mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas, and MrLec3 is mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach. Time-course analysis using qRT-PCR showed that MrLec1 to MrLec4 are all upregulated by the Vibrio anguillarum challenge. MrLec1 is upregulated after 2, 12, and 24 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression of MrLec2 increases after 12 and 24 h of WSSV challenge, and the transcript of MrLec3 and MrLec4 are downregulated after 2 h of WSSV challenge. The results suggest the potential roles of dual-CRD lectins in the innate immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  14. Non-permissive C6/36 cell culture for the Australian isolate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakijkosol, O; Owens, L

    2013-04-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) that causes white tail disease (WTD) is an emerging disease that contributes to serious production losses in Macrobrachium hatcheries worldwide. Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) have been reported to support the growth of MrNV and used to observe the cytopathic effects (CPE) in infected cells. This study determined the susceptibility of C6/36 mosquito cells to the Australian isolate of MrNV in order to use fewer animals in further investigations. Different staining methods were used to observe MrNV viral activity in C6/36 cells. Typical cytopathic effects such as vacuolation and viral inclusion bodies were observed in infected C6/36 cells with H&E and Giemsa staining. With acridine orange, it was easier to detect presumptive MrNV messenger ribonucleic acid in the infected cells. Using neutral red staining to measure mitochondrial activity showed light absorption of infected cells maximized at day 4 (O.D. = 0.6) but was significantly lower (chi-square = 41.265, df = 1, P < 0.05) than control groups (O.D. = 2) which maximized at day 12. Using trypan blue staining to count the number of cells with disrupted cell membranes, the maximum number of presumptively dead cells at day 8 (4 × 10(5)  cells) in infected treatments was higher than the control treatment at day 10 (1.8 × 10(5)  cells). However, TaqMan real-time PCR did not confirm the replication of MrNV in the cells over 14 days. The mean viral copies and mean cycle times of positive samples were stable at 2.07 × 10(4) and 24.12, respectively. Limited evidence of viral replication was observed during four serial passages. This study determined the mortality of the C6/36 cell line to the Australian isolate of MrNV but suggests limited patent replication was occurring. Trying different cell lines or adapting the virus to the C6/36 cells may be necessary to successfully replicate Australian MrNV in cell lines.

  15. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares Larval performance of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submitted to different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos, nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os regimes alimentares substituindo progressivamente náuplio de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots foram os seguintes tratamentos: 100% Brachionus plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia (3 nas/mL + 40% Brachionus plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia (2 nas/mL + 60% Brachionus plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4, sendo adicionada a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da mudança dos subestádios larvais demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. No tratamento T1 (100% Brachionus plicatilis houve mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O efeito da ocorrência das primeiras metamorfoses para pós-larvas, ocorreu ao 27º dia nos tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. Conseqüentemente, o ciclo de larvicultura até a metamorfose de 90% para pós-larva (PL1 foi o mesmo nos tratamentos (35 dias. Portanto, a utilização do rotífero enriquecido e congelado no regime alimentar das larvas permitiu desempenho satisfatório em termos de desenvolvimento larval de M. rosenbergii até a passagem para o estádio de pós-larva.The feeding is one of the most important factors to larval development and the sucess of the commercial cultivation of decapod crustacean larvae depends on the efficient and economic utilization of the available food. The performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larva submitted to four different feeding systems was

  16. Comparison of Two Detection Methods on Nodavirus of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii%两种检测罗氏沼虾诺达病毒方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简贺君; 谢俊刚

    2014-01-01

    分别用三抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附测定、逆转录聚合酶链式反应两种方法,检测20尾采集自广东省肇庆市的典型白肉病症状罗氏沼虾肌肉中的诺达病毒。检测结果是两种方法阳性检出率均为95%。结果表明,两种方法均能有效的应用在实验室检测罗氏沼虾诺达病毒。%Three antibodies sandwich ELISA,reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used re-spectively to detect the Nodavirus from the muscle of 20 Macrobrachium Rosenbergii collected from Zhaoq-ing City,Guangdong Province,which have typical symptoms of white meat disease. The positive rate tested from these two methods was the same: 95%. The results of the comparison showed that both methods are effective on laboratory detection of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Nodavirus.

  17. Effect of cryoprotectants and cooling rates on fertility potential of sperm in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina Claudet, P; Narasimman, Selvakumar; Natesan, Munuswamy

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates freezing protocol with suitable cryoprotectants and their effects on the fertility potential of sperm in the cryopreserved spermatophores of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Spermatophores, collected using electroejaculation, were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), methanol, glycerol and ethylene glycol (EG) at different concentrations (10, 15 & 20% v/v), prepared in sterile-filtered pond water. Based on the cryoprotectant toxicity assay, DMSO and PG were used individually as well as in combination with three freezing protocols (i.e. -1.5, -3 and -5°C/min and to final temperature of -39°C) and plunged into liquid nitrogen at -196°C. After 90 days of storage (-196°C) thawing was done at 35°C in a water bath for 1min. Results showed that fresh and cryopreserved spermatophores held for 90 days registered sperm viability of 91.4±2.9% and 50.4±1.9% respectively. Further, fertility potential of sperm was assessed based on acrosome reactivity using calcium ionophore (A23187). Observations indicated that cryopreserved sperm registered 28.3±2.2% of acrosome reactivity compared to freshly collected spermatophores (85.3±2.5%). Thus, one-step slow cooling rate of -1.5°C/min between 27°C and -39°C stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C with DMSO (10%)+PG (10%) seems to be amenable for cryopreservation of spermatophores, compared to other cooling rates.

  18. Cloning and identification of four Mu-type glutathione S-transferases from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kai-Min; Hao, Fang-Yuan; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2013-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are essential components of the cellular detoxification system because of their capability to protect organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Four different GSTs (MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4) showing similarities with Mu-type GSTs were cloned from the hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These four GSTs have 219, 216, 218 and 219 amino acids in length, respectively. MrMuGST1-MrMuGST4 proteins all have a G-site in the N-terminus and an H-site in the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that four Mu-type GSTs are classified into two different clades (MrMuGST2 one clade; MrMuGST1, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 other clades). Nonetheless, no site under positive selection was detected but rapid evolution was found in the few of MuGST genes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 transcripts were expressed in all detected tissues, however, MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were just mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and intestines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MrMuGST1 and MrMuGST2 were down-regulated upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, whereas MrMuGST3 and MrMuGST4 were quickly up-regulated 2 h after the Vibrio challenge. Our results imply that different Mu-type GSTs may respond to Vibrio challenge with different manners.

  19. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns.

  20. Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2013-07-01

    The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single α-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (≈25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme.

  1. Toxicity effect of tributyltin(TBT)on Macrobrachium rosenbergii%三丁基锡(TBT)对罗氏沼虾的毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春华; 薛海波; 李广丽

    2011-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles and adults were exposed to different concentration tributyltin (TBT) to study the acute and chronic effects of TBT on the growth of M. rosenbergii and on the histological structure of the shrimp ’ s gill and hepatopancrese. For the juvenile and adult of M. rosenbergii, the 96 h median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) was 51 and 376 μg · L-1, and the safe concentration ( SC) was 5. 1 and 37. 6 μg · L-1, respectively. Compared with the control group, the body weight and length of juvenile M. rosenbergii after exposed to 1. 25 , 2. 5 , and 5 μg · L-1 of TBT for 30 d decreased significantly ( P<0. 05 ) , while the growth of adult M. rosenbergii after exposed to 2. 8, and 32 μg · L-1 of TBT for 30 d was less affected, but the histological structure of gill and hepatopancrese appeared abnormal. When the TBT concentration reached 8 μg · L-1 , the gill epithelial cells of treated M. rosenbergii swelled, nucleus in support cells contracted, and blood cells in blood cavity aggregated. Correspondingly, liver cells swelled and vacuolated. When the TBT concentration reached 32 μg · L-1 , liver cells vacuolated more seriously, nucleus disappeared, and parts of the cells disaggregated and appeared necrosis, showed that definite concentration TBT had strong toxicity to the gill and hepatopancrese of M. rosenbergii.%将罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)幼虾和成虾暴露在不同浓度的三丁基锡(tributyhin,TBT)溶液中,进行急性和慢性毒性实验,通过组织病理学观察研究TBT对罗氏沼虾的毒性效应.结果表明:TBT对罗氏沼虾幼虾和成虾的96 h半致死浓度(96 h LC50)分别为51和376 μg·L-1,安全浓度(SC)分别为5.1和37.6 μg·L-1;罗氏沼虾幼虾暴露在浓度分别为1.25、2.5和5μg·L-1的TBT溶液中30 d后,其体重和体长均极显著低于对照组(P<0.05);罗氏沼虾成虾暴露在浓度分别为2、8和32μg·L-1的TBT溶液中30 d后,生长速度虽未见明显差

  2. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae.

  3. Gene expression and functional studies of small heat shock protein 37 (MrHSP37) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we have reported a full length of small heat shock protein 37 (designated MrHSP37) gene, identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrHSP37 is 2,425 base pairs in length, and encodes 338 amino acids. MrHSP37 contains a long heat shock protein family profile in the amino acid sequence between 205 and 288. The mRNA expressions of MrHSP37 in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MrHSP37 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, stomach, haemocyte, intestine, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrHSP37 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity which increased with the concentration of the protein. And also the purified recombinant MrHSP37 protein was used for thermal aggregation assay (chaperone activity). It showed that the recombinant MrHSP37 protein is an active chaperone in this assay. Taken together, these results suggest that MrHSP37 is potentially involved in the immune responses against IHHNV challenge in M. rosenbergii.

  4. De novo transcriptome sequencing analysis and comparison of differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nguyen Thanh

    Full Text Available Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2. De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog-ID (KO-ID and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After

  5. Impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production of giant fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Kumar Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to observe the impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production performance of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii from August 2011 to March 2012. There were four experimental groups viz (a control or without probiotics treated prawn (T1, (b feed probiotics- Zymetin (T2 treated prawn, (c soil probiotics- Super PS (T3 treated prawn and (d Both Zymetin and Super PS (T4 treated prawn. Twelve ponds (each 120 m2 were used where stocking density was 2/m2 for all treatments and control and each was triplicated. After pond preparation, prawn PL was reared in the nursery pond for 45 days to become juvenile. At the time of stocking in growout ponds, average body weight of juvenile prawn was 1.04 g. After eight months (240 days of culture, the mean final weight became 39.5 ± 12.03, 43.4 ± 14.91, 48.0 ± 16.73 and 51.6 ± 15.58 g in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Significance difference was found among all treatments and T4 showed highest growth. The SGR was found to be 1.50 ± 0.13, 1.53 ± 0.13, 1.58 ± 0.13 and 1.61 ± 0.11 (%BW/day in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively and the difference was significant. The survival rate did not differ significantly but highest survival rate was found in T4 (90%. The average FCR was significantly lowest in T4 (1.39 and highest in T1 (1.9. The net average production was found to be significantly higher in T4 (914 kg/ha which was 35% and 21 % higher than the control group (T1 and feed probiotics (T2 respectively. Water and soil quality parameters were measured and were within the culturable range. The production of probiotics treated ponds was always higher than without probiotics treated ponds but highest growth and production were found in T4 where Zymetin and Super PS were used combinedly. The results of this study can be applied in the farmer’s pond to increase the total production of prawn in the country.

  6. 罗氏沼虾亲虾的能量代谢%Energy Metabolism of Adult Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小涛; 颉晓勇; 钟金香; 杨晓新

    2000-01-01

    在实验室中测定不同体质量(12.24~39.73g)和不同温度(20~32℃)条件下罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)亲虾的基础代谢,以探讨体质量和温度变化影响代谢的规律.结果表明,耗氧率(Ro)和氨氮排泄率(RN)随体质量(m)的增大而减少,其关系为Ro=1.6393m-0.4638和RN=0.79l5m-1.2780.体质量约20g的亲虾,其耗氧率和氨氮排泄率都随温度(θ)的升高而增大,其关系为Ro=0.169Oexp(0.1138θ)和RN=0.7×10-4exp(0.1981θ).不同体质量亲虾的能源物质(代谢底物)的供能比有显著性的差异,体质量最小的一组亲虾,主要以蛋白质为能源,但随着体质量的增大,蛋白质所占的比例有减少的趋势,而脂肪的比例增加.体质量最大的一组亲虾,脂肪取代蛋白质成为最主要的供能特质,另一方面,低温(20℃)条件下,亲虾主要以脂肪为能源,但随着温度的升高,脂肪所占的比例有减少的趋势,而蛋白质的比例增加.高温(32℃)条件下,蛋白质取代脂肪成为最主要的供能物质.

  7. De novo transcriptome sequencing analysis and comparison of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thanh, Hai; Zhao, Liangjie; Liu, Qigen

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP; Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is an exotic species that was introduced into China in 1976 and thereafter it became a major species in freshwater aquaculture. However the gene discovery in this species has been limited to small-scale data collection in China. We used the next generation sequencing technology for the experiment; the transcriptome was sequenced of samples of hepatopancreas organ in individuals from 4 GFP groups (A1, A2, B1 and B2). De novo transcriptome sequencing generated 66,953 isogenes. Using BLASTX to search the Non-redundant (NR), Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) databases; 21,224 unigenes were annotated, 9,552 matched unigenes with the Gene Ontology (GO) classification; 5,782 matched unigenes in 25 categories of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and 20,859 unigenes were consequently assigned to 312 KEGG pathways. Between the A and B groups 147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; between the A1 and A2 groups 6,860 DEGs were identified and between the B1 and B2 groups 5,229 DEGs were identified. After enrichment, the A and B groups identified 38 DEGs, but none of them were significantly enriched. The A1 and A2 groups identified 21,856 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function and the KEGG pathway defined 2,459 genes had a KEGG Ortholog-ID (KO-ID) and could be categorized into 251 pathways, of those, 9 pathways were significantly enriched. The B1 and B2 groups identified 5,940 DEGs in three main categories based on functional groups: biological process, cellular_component and molecular function, and the KEGG pathway defined 1,543 genes had a KO-ID and could be categorized into 240 pathways, of those, 2 pathways were significantly enriched. We investigated 99 queries (GO) which related to growth of GFP in 4 groups. After enrichment we

  8. STUDY ON EIGHT ENZYMES IN MUSCLES OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DEMAN)%罗氏沼虾肌肉8种同工酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琪; 何中央; 徐晓林; 李明云

    2004-01-01

    利用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术,对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)肌肉中的ADH,LDH,G6PDH,SOD,GDH,EST,AKP,ACP等8种同工酶进行分析,以期为其种质资源保护和开发以及遗传育种等方面的研究提供基础资料.结果表明,8种同工酶由17个基因位点所编码,其中G6pdh-1,Gdh-1和Est-3等3个基因位点具有多态现象.多态位点比例为17.6%.

  9. Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyi, S; Widart, J; Douny, C; Dang, P K; Baiwir, D; Wang, N; Tu, H T; Tung, V T; Phuong, N-T; Kestemont, P; Scippo, M-L

    2011-04-01

    Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 34, 142-152. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin (EF) and ciprofloxacin (CF) residues were investigated in the edible tissues of two important Asian aquacultured species such as Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Fish and prawn were treated with medicated feed with multiple doses of EF, in field conditions. A validation study of the analytical method was realized in terms of linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), recovery and decision limit (CCα). The time needed before the antibiotic disappears from animal tissues or reach the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100μg/kg) was assessed. The concentration values of EF detected in Tra catfish tissue were between the MRL and 2×MRL concentrations, according to the fish density, 7days following the end of the enrofloxacin treatment (20mg/kg body weight per day, for seven consecutive days). The concentration value of ER in prawn tissue was lower than the MRL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 14μg/kg) 5 and 7days after the stop of the EF treatment (50mg/kg body weight per day, for five consecutive days), respectively. The mean detected levels of CF was much lower in comparison with that of EF, indicating that only a small part of EF is metabolized into CF (Tra catfish and prawn. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. 耕水机在罗氏沼虾池塘养殖中的使用效果%The applicating effect of biofan to cultivate Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣福; 杨显祥; 孙龙生; 刘海平; 吴志强

    2012-01-01

    通过耕水机和叶轮式增氧机在罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)池塘养殖中使用效果的对比试验,分析了使用耕水机对罗氏沼虾养殖水体环境和养殖产出的影响.试验结果表明,耕水机使整个虾塘水体处于循环微流水状态,全面改善了养殖水体中溶氧分布,增加了虾塘中、下水层溶氧,保持了水体pH的稳定性,降低了水体中氨氮( NH4+ -N)、硫化氢(H2S)等有毒有害物质含量,改善了底层水体和底质淤泥状况,为罗氏沼虾创造了良好的生长环境,增加了养殖产量,提高了经济效益,并且节能降耗效果明显.%The contrast test about the application of biofan and paddle aerator in pond cultivation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was presented to study the influence of improving aquaculture environment and aquaculture benefit. The results showed that the application of biofan could make the pond water circulating to increase dissolved oxygen in the middle and bottom of the pond water effectively. It also could maintain the stability of the pH value, reduce harmful substances of NH4 + -N and H2S to improve water and sediment state in the bottom of pond water which provided suitable growth environment to improve the feeding rate and digestibility, so aquaculture production and economic benefits were raised. Meanwhile, the effect of energy saving and consumption reducing was obvious.

  11. Ablação ocular no camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae): efeitos sobre a reprodução, pigmentação epidérmica e atividade alimentar

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel José Martins dos Santos; Marcelo Antônio Amaro Pinheiro

    2000-01-01

    This study analyze the consequences of unilateral and bilateral ablation based on ovigerous percentage, consecutive spawns, and secondary effects of the surgical process in the females of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). Two experiments were carried out with four and seven months old females in intermolt stage. Each experiment was comprised of control, unilateral and bilateral ablation. Eyestalk ablation was done with a bistoury with a topic hot cauterization followed by application ...

  12. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, in Brazil: new insights from molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Iketani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

  13. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in Brazil: New insights from molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketani, Gabriel; Pimentel, Luciana; Silva-Oliveira, Glaúcia; Maciel, Cristiana; Valenti, Wagner; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2011-01-01

    The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

  14. Effect of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infection on caspase 3c expression and activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-01-01

    Caspase 3c (MrCasp3c) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrCasp3c consisted of 2080 bp nucleotide encoded 521 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 59 kDa. MrCasp3c sequence contains caspase family p20 domain profile and caspase family p10 domain profile at 236-367 and 378-468 respectively. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrCasp3c with the highest expression in haemocyte and the lowest in stomach. The expression of MrCasp3c after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in haemocyte. In addition, MrCasp3c was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The enzyme activity of MrCasp3c was also found to be up-regulated by IHHNV in haemocyte and hepatopancreas tissues. This study suggested that MrCasp3c may be an effector caspase associated with the induction of apoptosis which is potentially involved in the immune defence of M. rosenbergii.

  15. Effects of Temperature and Water Soluble Fraction of Palm Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel on Hatchability and Survival of First Stage Larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puncharas Gorcharoenwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of temperature and water soluble fraction (WSF of biodiesel and diesel on hatchability and survival of early stage Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated at the temperature of 25, 28, 31 and 34oC. The purpose of this study was to determine toxic effects of biodiesel and diesel on incubation period, hatchability, and survival of the first larval stage. The results showed a significant difference of incubation period among temperatures. The highest temperature (34°C resulted in the shortest incubation period (15 days while the lowest temperature (25°C gave the longest incubation period (19 days. One hundred percent of hatchability was found at temperature 28 and 31°C in the control group. The lowest hatchability occurred at 100% of WSF of palm biodiesel. The hatchability and survival of eggs through the first stage larvae in control and WSF of biodiesel decreased in higher temperature. However, in 50% WSF of diesel, the highest temperature (34°C increased the hatchability and survival whereas 100% WSF of diesel, no larval survival could be found. In comparison between WSF of biodiesel and diesel on newly hatched larvae, the diesel was more toxic to the larvae than that of the biodiesel. Regarding temperature and WSF of biodiesel and diesel effects on the first larval stage of M. rosenbergii, clearly diesel was more harmful to the larvae than biodiesel.

  16. Variation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ovaries and its effects on ovarian maturation and oocyte proliferation in the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sugiyama, Eiji; Soonklang, Nantawan; Meeratana, Prasert; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important bioactive mediators for many physiological functions. In some decapod crustaceans, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been detected in reproductive organs, and may play a role in the control of ovarian maturation. However, in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the presences of PGE2 and key enzymes for PGE2 biosynthesis, as well as its effects on ovarian maturation have not yet been investigated. In this study we reported the presence of PGE2, cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the ovarian tissues of M. rosenbergii, using immunohistochemistry. Intense immunoreactivities of PGE2 (PGE2-ir), COX1 (Cox1-ir) and PGES (PGES-ir) were detected in previtellogenic oocytes (Oc1 and Oc2), while the immunoreactivities were absent in the late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc4). This finding supports the hypothesis that the PGE2 biosynthesis occurs in the ovary of this prawn. To ascertain this finding we used LC-MS/MS to quantitate PGE2 concentrations during ovarian developmental cycle. The levels of PGE2 were significantly higher in the early ovarian stages (St I and II) than in the late stages (St III and IV). Moreover, we found that administration of PGE2 stimulated the ovarian maturation in this species by shortening the length of the ovarian cycle, increasing ovarian-somatic index, oocyte proliferation, and vitellogenin (Vg) level in the hemolymph.

  17. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  18. Effects of Two Dietary Lipid Sources at Two Levels on the Survival, Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chul kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 10 week feeding trial was conducted to investigate dietary crude palm oil (CPO or squid liver oil (SLO, at 3.5% (low or 9.5% (high as a 2 × 2 factorial design on survival, growth and whole body fatty acid composition of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  Growth performance was lowest and highest for prawns fed the CPO-low and SLO-high diets, respectively.  While prawns fed the CPO-high diet had lower growth than those fed the SLO-low diet, no significant differences were detected.  Significant interactions were found for oleic acid, arachidonic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and n-3/n-6 PUFA, while long chain PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid of the prawns were significantly lower when fed the CPO-based diets.  Lower growth of M. rosenbergii fed the CPO-based diets may be related to less favorable fatty acid ratios and/ or lowered digestibility but higher dietary CPO can help mitigate this. 

  19. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  20. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (Pgrowth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (Pgrowth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (Pmuscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on reproductive parameters in the hybrid offspring of protospecies of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%原种罗氏沼虾杂交后代的繁殖参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范忠刚; 屈长青; 邓潜; 赵永贞; 张彬

    2014-01-01

    为改良中国的罗氏沼虾种质资源,了解原种罗氏沼虾的杂交后代是否具有一定的杂交优势,以孟加拉引进种群Macrobrachium rosenbergii dacqueti ( Sunier,1925年)和越南引进种群 Macrobrachium rosenbergii rosenbergii ( De Man,1879年)为父母本做正、反杂交,并对杂交组合的繁殖参数进行统计分析;了解了正反杂交母本的怀卵量,受精率,体重相对繁殖力,体长相对繁殖力及受精卵规格。结果表明,正反交各杂交组的各项繁殖参数的平均值组间差异不显著( P>0.05),受精卵粒规格达到941.9~976.2粒/g。更大的卵粒会发育成更大的幼体,有助于提高种群的生存能力。%To improve the germplasm resources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in China , the hybrid offspring of protospecies was studied to understand their heterosis.The species introduced from Bangladesh(M.rosenbergii dacqueti)and Vietnam(M.rosenbergii rosenber-gii) were selected as the parents to conduct positive , reverse hybridization , and the reproductive parameters of hybridized combination were analyzed by statistic .Parameters such as the fecundity , fertilization rate , relative weight fecundity , relative body length fecundity and the fertilized egg size of female parent in the positive , reverse hybridization were studied .The reproductive parameters mean in each positive , reverse cross combinations was not significant in this study ( P>0.05 ) , and the fertilized egg size of the hybrid combina-tions reached to 941.9 -976.2 seeds per gram .The greater eggs could develop into greater larvae which could help to enhance the vi -ability of the population .

  2. Evaluation of paraprobiotic applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum in improving the immune response and disease protection in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Gyanaranjan; Raman, Ram Prakash; Pani Prasad, K; Makesh, M; Pradeep, M A; Sen, Swatipriyanka

    2015-03-01

    Paraprobiotics, also known as ghost probiotics, are non-viable microbial cells which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the host. However, the advantage of non-viable microbes over their viable counterparts is a much debated topic in aquaculture. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate paraprobiotic effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted by feeding prawn juveniles (mean weight ± SE: 0.54 ± 0.03 g) with three experimental diets prepared by supplementing basal diet (Crude protein: 38%; Gross energy: 387 kcal 100 g(-1)) with different concentrations of heat-killed probiotics bacteria viz. HKPB1 (10(7) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB2 (10(8) cfu g(-1) diet), HKPB3 (10(9) cfu g(-1) diet) and control diet (unsupplemented diet). In the present study, growth parameters viz. WG % and SGR and feed utilization parameters viz. FCE, FCR and PER, though improved marginally in all experimental groups, were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) compared to the control. The immune parameters viz. total hemocyte count (THC), phenol oxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) activity and clearance efficiency were significantly improved (P 0.05) compared to the control. Among the experimental groups, though the improvement in immune parameters was higher (P 0.05) was observed between HKPB2 and HKPB3. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the application of heat-killed L. plantarum at a concentration of 10(8) cfu g(-1) diet, though not effective in augmenting the growth and feed utilization parameters, can significantly improve immune parameters and disease resistance of M. rosenbergii in the laboratory condition.

  3. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii.

  4. Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806μM, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606μM) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696μM of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176μM and 0.168μM, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133μM in hemocytes and 0.272μM in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion.

  5. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  6. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles for Better Survival and Growth of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veeran; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Rajkumar, Gopalan; Satgurunathan, Thangavelu; Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-10-05

    This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0.04 g) for a period of 90 days. In the carcasses of experimental prawns, the content of Mg was found to be elevated significantly with respect to the individual diet (102.14, 183.29, 205.46, 221.03, 237.10 and 254.36 μg Mg g(-1) respectively) when compared with that of the control. The contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na and K levels were also found to be elevated in the carcasses of experimental prawns. Significant (P MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL. There were no significant elevations recorded in activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metabolic enzymes [glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)] recorded in any of the MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed increases in the staining intensity of polypeptide bands resolved in 500 mg kg(-1) MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Based on the gradual improvement in attaining survival, growth, FCR, biochemical constituents and haemocyte population, this study recommends MgO NP supplementation of 500 mg kg(-1) for sustainable maintenance of M. rosenbergii PL. As the studied highest concentration of MgO NPs showed the best performance, it is necessary to study with beyond 500 mg kg(-1) of MgO NPs to optimize the actual concentration.

  7. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  8. The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-11-01

    Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (Prosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research.

  9. Characterization of a novel nm23 gene and its potential roles in gametogenesis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ya-Nan; Lu, Cui-Yun; Chen, Jie; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-11-15

    Nm23 is a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, which functions in a wide variety of biological processes, including growth, development, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a novel nm23 gene, designated as Mrnm23, was identified from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA was 776bp in length, encoding for a protein of 176 amino acids with one typical NDP kinase domain that harbored all the crucial residues for nucleotide binding and enzymatic activity. Like human novel nm23-H1B, the putative protein contained a unique 21-amino-acid NH2-terminal extension as compared to human nm23 (nm23-H1) homologs. Further, 3 extra amino acid residues prolonged the COOH-terminus. The Mrnm23 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, including androgenic gland, gill, heart, liver, muscle, ovary, and testis. In situ hybridization to gonad sections indicated that the Mrnm23 mRNA was localized in the cytoplasm of cup-base of differentiating spermatids, in the spike of the umbrella-shaped spermatozoa and in the cytoplasm of the early previtellogenic oocytes, suggesting that the Mrnm23 has potential roles in spermiogenesis and early differentiation of oocyte.

  10. Use of artificial substrate in pond culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a new approach regarding growth performance and economic return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Milky Tuly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted for six months to evaluate the effects of artificial substrates on the survival, growth and production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles. The treatment T1 contained locally available bamboo-made substrate both vertical and horizontal and treatment T2 received no substrate. Juvenile prawns (0.40±0.13 g were stocked at the rate of 19,760 prawns ha-1. The water quality parameters range such as temperature, pH and DO were 22.06-33.45°C, 7.70-8.40 and 4.75-6.15 mgl-1 respectively which was no significant difference (P0.05 than T2 (56.87%. The specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were 1.19 % and 1.14 %, 3.15 and 4.39, 0.98 and 0.71 in T1 and T2 respectively which were not significantly different (P0.05 than T2. Thus growth and survival of prawn juveniles improved in presence of artificial substrate which could be economically viable technique for the freshwater prawn culture.

  11. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL E COMPOSIÇÃO PROXIMAL DE CAMARÕES DE ÁGUA DOCE Macrobrachium rosenbergii DEFUMADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of smoking and the presence of aromatic herbs on the quality of freshwater prawns muscle (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, through the analysis of sensory characteristics and proximate composition. Fifty-five freshwater thermally stunned prawns, with average weight of 33.9 ± 13.49g, were used. After cephalothoraxes and carapaces removal, the freshwater prawns were washed, weighed, identified, immersed in brine solution (20% and then smoked at a temperature of 50 to 90°C. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (T1 = smoked freshwater prawns with herbs; T2 = smoked freshwater prawns without herbs, with 25 experimental units per treatment. After smoking, samples were frozen (-18 C for proximate composition analysis and portions were sensorially evaluated by 40 tasters based on a simple stimulus method. The smoked freshwater prawns showed medium values of crude protein (44.72%, total lipids (1.39% and ashes (3.04% comparatively higher than the values of the in natura freshwater prawns (16.80%, 0.30% and 0.89%, respectively. The aromatic herbs did not affect significantly the proximate composition of smoked freshwater prawns and their use did not interfere on the sensory characteristics evaluated. The smoked freshwater prawns had a good acceptance by the taster.

  12. 罗氏沼虾繁殖前的技术处理%Some factors and methods about macrobrachium rosenbergii in reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗永

    2000-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium Rosenbergii)又称马来西亚长臂大虾、淡水大虾等,是淡水虾中个体最大、养殖最广的虾类这一.近几年来,罗氏沼虾的虾苗生产在我国一些省市发展较快,对我国罗氏沼虾的养殖起了很好的促进作用.但在虾苗生产过程中许多育苗场产量时高时低,质量时好时坏.造成这种现象的原因除了幼体培育的因素外,一个重要的原因就是亲虾培育工作没做好,造成抱卵亲虾质量差、数量不足.笔者通过生产实践和观察,认为影响抱卵亲虾数量和质量的因素主要有以下几个方面:

  13. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species.

  14. Structure of the olfactory receptor organs, their GABAergic neural pathways, and modulation of mating behavior, in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Anuracpreeda, Panat; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-06-01

    In the giant male prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the olfactory system is thought to be the main pathway for modulating sexual behavior through pheromone perception. In this report, we first used gross anatomical, histological, and SEM methods to describe the structures of the olfactory receptors (sensilla setae), their neural pathways, and possible role in modulating mating behavior. On the surfaces of antennule and antenna filaments there are four types of sensory receptors, viz single spike-like setae, single flagellum-like setae, multiple flagella-like setae, and aesthetascs (ASs). The ASs, which had previously been proposed to be odor receptor setae, are found only on the short filament of lateral antennule (slAn). Each AS on the slAn connects with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), whose axons form an outer central antennule nerve (ocAnNv), which then connects with the olfactory neutrophil (ON) of the brain. Thus, the slAn is the major olfactory organ that conveys sensory inputs from each AS to the ON within the deutocerebrum. GABA immunoreactivity was present in ASs, neurons of ORNs, inner central antennular, lateral tegumentary nerve, ocAnNv and the ON, inferring that GABA is the likely neurotransmitter in modulating olfaction. Disruption of the slAn by ablation or covering with Vaseline, resulted in significant reduction of mating behavior, indicating that this organ is crucial for sex pheromone perception. Identification of the active pheromones and further bioassays are now being performed.

  15. L-( sup 3 H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratumtan, P.; Govitrapong, P.; Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Poolsanguan, B. (Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand) Mahidol Univ., Nakorn Pathom (Thailand))

    1991-01-01

    Membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, was examined for the presence of specific L-({sup 3}H) glutamate binding. The optic lobes were isolated from live animals. The tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction isolated by differential centrifugation. The membrane suspension was incubated with 10-1,000 nM of L-({sup 3}H) glutamate at 37{degree}C for 60 min. Nonspecific binding was determined by incubating the mixture with 100 {mu}M L-glutamate. L-({sup 3}H) glutamate specifically bound to the membrane fraction with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 205 nM and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 2.04 n mol/mg protein. By using LIGAND computerized program, the saturation isotherm binding pattern indicates a single type of binding. To determine the type of glutamate receptors, competitive inhibition and IC{sub 50} of several glutamate agonists and antagonists were determined. The study reveals a metabotropic type of binding site.

  16. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alinejad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV. During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns.

  17. Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-12-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ).

  18. 罗氏沼虾白尾病研究进展%Review on white tail disease of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈之航; 董浚键; 叶星

    2015-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是重要的淡水养殖虾类,其养殖主要集中在亚洲国家,仅中国罗氏沼虾的养殖年产量就占全球总产量的50%以上.虽然罗氏沼虾具有相对较强的抗病能力,但近年由于养殖密度过大、水环境恶化等原因,导致罗氏沼虾养殖过程病害问题时有发生,其中白尾病对罗氏沼虾幼苗期造成的危害较大.综述了罗氏沼虾白尾病的病原及传播、检测技术和免疫预防等方面的研究进展.

  19. The cloning of the cdk2 transcript and the localization of its expression during gametogenesis in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Ping; Li, Zhen; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis.

  20. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns.

  1. 罗氏沼虾仔虾耗氧率与窒息点的初步测定%Determination of the Oxygen Consumption Rate and Suffocation Point of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琴; 黄景; 王邕

    2002-01-01

    在室内条件下测定了体重、温度对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)仔虾耗氧率与窒息点的影响.结果表明,仔虾的耗氧率与窒息点随体重的增加而降低,耗氧率与体重呈负相关的幂指数关系;耗氧率、窒息点随温度的升高而增加.

  2. 罗氏沼虾脑神经元细胞体群的研究%Studies on the Cell Body Clusters of the Brain Neurons of the Prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦照萍; 廖家遗

    2000-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)脑的神经元的细胞体在脑的表面聚集成细胞体群.根据细胞体群所在位置及细胞体的突起的走向的不同可将细胞体群分成9群:前、中、后脑各3群.各细胞体群的大小及形成细胞体群的细胞体的大小在各群之间也有一定的差别.

  3. The acute modulation of norepinephrine on immune responses and genes expressions via adrenergic receptors in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), immunocompetent parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Lactococcus garvieae), and prophenoloxidase (proPO) system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein, LGBP; prophenoloxidase, proPO; peroxinectin, PE; α2-macroglobulin, α2-M) expressions were investigated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii received NE through injection at 50 pmol/prawn after 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. Furthermore, the PO activity, RB, SOD activity, phagocytic activity and proPO system-related genes expressions were determined in haemocytes incubated with cacodylate buffer (CAC), NE, and NE co-treated with various adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists in vitro. Results showed that NE, THC, granular cells, PO activity, SOD activity, proPO system-related genes expressions, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae increased; PO activity per granulocyte and RB per haemocyte decreased from 30 to 120 min; semigranular cells and RB increased in the initial 30 min, and then decreased at 120 min when the prawns received NE by injection. In vitro studies, all the determined immune parameters and genes expressions were significantly decreased in haemocytes incubated with NE after 30 min. The negative effects of NE were prevented on the PO activity and phagocytic activity by the β-AR antagonist of metoprolol (Met), on the SOD activity by the β-AR antagonist of propranolol (Pro), on the RB by the β-AR antagonist of Met and prazosin (Pra), and on the proPO system-related genes expressions by α-AR antagonist of Pra. These results show that NE modulates prawn haemocytes proPO system-related genes expressions via α1-AR, PO activity and phagocytosis via β1-AR, respiratory burst via α1-and β1-ARs, and SOD activity via β2-AR. It is concluded that NE stimulates the regulation of immunocompetence parameters

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its transcription in relation to foreign material injection and the molt stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2009-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) complementary (c)DNA was cloned from the hepatopancreas of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1389 bp encoding a protein of 378 amino acids (aa) including a 15-aa signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (363 aa) was 41.2 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.73. The M. rosenbergii LGBP sequence contains (1) three putative integrin-binding motifs, (2) a glucanase motif, (3) a putative N-glycosylation site, (4) four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, (5) four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, and (6) a putative recognition motif. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acids of LGBP of M. rosenbergii had overall similarities of 60-71% to those of known crustacean LGBPs and beta-1,3-glucan-binding proteins (BGBPs). The LGBP of M. rosenbergii was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. The LGBP transcript of M. rosenbergii was downregulated in haemocytes, but was upregulated in the hepatopancreas when injected with LPS and poly:IC after 12 h. The LGBP messenger (m)RNA expression of prawns in the postmolt stage was significantly upregulated in haemocytes, but downregulated in the hepatopancreas, which revealed a complementary relationship between haemocytes and the hepatopancreas in the molt cycle.

  5. Duplex RT-PCR detection and sequences comparison of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii dicistrovirus%罗氏沼虾野田村病毒和双顺反子病毒双重RT-PCR检测方法与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓艺; 袁雪梅; 刘杜鹃; 沈锦玉; 张宇飞; 蔺凌云; 王军毅; 郝贵杰; 姚嘉赟; 徐洋

    2012-01-01

    罗氏沼虾野田村病毒(Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus,MrNV)和双顺反子病毒(M.rosenbergii dicistrovirus,MrDV)是已报道对罗氏沼虾易感的主要致病性病毒,该研究通过建立双重RT-PCR方法对MrDV和MrNV两种病毒同时进行检测。根据MrDV和MrNV基因组序列的保守区分别设计特异性引物,并对双重PCR的退火温度和引物浓度进行优化,在获得优化反应体系和反应条件后,对罗氏沼虾样品进行检测。结果表明,双重PCR最佳退火温度为60℃,反应体系最佳引物终浓度MrNV384为0.1μmol/L,MrDV472为0.05μmol/L,对病样总RNA的最低检测限为360fg。引物的特异性检测表明,该检测方法对TSV、WSSV、IHHNV和嗜水气单胞菌TPS-30基因组无交叉反应。对阳性样品的病毒扩增序列分析表明,MrDV RNA依赖性RNA聚合酶编码区序列无变异,MrNV-RNA2序列存在较多变异,进化树结果表明2011年长三角的MrNV病毒主要来自于中国基因型和东南亚基因型。该方法的建立为罗氏沼虾病毒性疾病的预防和种苗的繁育奠定了基础。%Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus(MrNV) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii dicistrovirus(MrDV) are the main viral pathogens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.In order to detect the two viruses,two pairs of primers targeted sequences located within the MrNV capsid protein gene and MrDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase(RDRP) gene amplified amplicons of 384 bp and 472 bp,respectively.The reaction conditions of the duplex RT-PCR were optimized and PCR products were sequenced.Meanwhile,the specificity and sensitivity of duplex RT-PCR were studied.Results reveal that optimum annealing temperature of duplex RT-PCR is 60 ℃ and the minimum concentrations of primers are 0.1 μmol/L of MrNV384 and 0.05 μmol/L of MrDV472.The detection limit of duplex RT-PCR was determined to be 360 fg of tissue total RNA for both the viruses.The two pairs of primers were found to be specific to MrNV and Mr

  6. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad 5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  7. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad  5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  8. Molecular characterization and immunological response analysis of a novel transferrin-like, pacifastin heavy chain protein in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, Aung; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2012-10-01

    The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with β-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals.

  9. Eficiência da eletroejaculação de morfotipos machos do camarão-de-água-doce Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Rubens Sterental

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade da técnica de eletroejaculação para manejos de inseminação artificial, bem como o potencial ejaculatório de cada um dos tipos morfológicos de machos adultos do Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Estímulos elétricos foram aplicados em 48 exemplares de camarão-de-água-doce, recém capturados em viveiros de engorda, para melhor compreensão do comportamento reprodutivo de cada um: os de quela azul (BC, sexualmente ativos e dominantes; os de quela laranja (OC, sexualmente inativos; e os pequenos (SM, com comportamento oportunista, os quais somente realizam a cópula, caso a corte da fêmea tenha sido previamente realizada por um macho BC. Não houve diferença entre as freqüências de ejaculação observadas para machos OC e BC, que foram 85 e 100%, respectivamente, demonstrando que os primeiros possuem potencial fisiológico para a cópula. A freqüência de 46,2%, nos testes de eletroejaculação bem sucedidos para os indivíduos SM, foi mais baixa em relação aos outros dois morfotipos. A freqüência de 79,2% de ejaculações, obtida entre o total de animais usados, demonstrou o potencial dessa técnica para a obtenção de espermatóforos em quantidade suficiente para a manutenção de fêmeas ovadas em épocas de baixas temperaturas.

  10. Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasindh Hangsapreurke

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs, the brooders in each salinity were separately transferred to the hatching tank with 15 ppt saline water for the second part of the study. After hatching, the healthy larvae from the brooders which were previously incubated in 3 levels of salinity were collected for the larviculture experiment. The closed recirculating water system with trickling filter unit packed with fiberglass and bioballs was used as incubation and larviculture units. The metamorphosis period and survival rate were examined. The rearing water from each larviculture aquarium was collected for determination of sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. The result showed that the percentage of ripe berried females (with heart beating stage embryos were not significantly different (p>0.05 between 5 and 15 ppt salinity but their values were significantly higher (p0.05 in the survival rate of post larvae and metamorphosis period among the treatments. The first post larvae stage occurred on the 26th day. During 30 days of larviculture, the survival rate of all treatments was 100% until the 19th day, after which it suddenly decreased. When the concentrations of the ions in the rearing water were determined in all treatments, it was found that the concentration of magnesium ions rapidly declined (p0.05. The low survival rate during the final stage of larviculture might be due to the depletion of the previously mentioned ions especially that of magnesium.

  11. 罗氏沼虾活虾无水运输研究%Studies on the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii live transportation without using water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宁

    2009-01-01

    基于日本对虾等甲壳类以无水方式活体运输有增加运销渠道及提供优质产品等优点,进行了3次罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)活虾无水运输模拟试验.运输容器为聚苯乙烯盒,填充物为浸水海绵及木屑.结果表明:以海绵作填充物的1 kg容量聚苯乙烯盒(分上下层,共20尾虾)试验结果显示,试验虾的存活率初眷远高于仲夏,初春高达91.7%,仲夏只有74%;在仲夏时,以6 kg容量的大盒(排列4层共80尾虾)试验结果显示,木屑组存活率(75.4%)高于海绵组(63.5%),但若在只有单层排列的小盒中(每盒各20尾),则海绵组存活率(74%)高于木屑组(68.7%),此结果与木屑及海绵的特性有关.本研究证实罗氏沼虾活虾无水运输确实可行.

  12. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections.

  13. Efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento y alimentación de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus y langostino (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron tres experimentos para analizar el efecto del probiótico Bacillus subtilis sobre el crecimiento de juveniles de tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticusy de langostino de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii . Los experimentos se realizaron en condiciones de laboratorio, minimizando de esta manera los efectos indirectos del probiótico sobre la calidad del agua y manteniendo únicamente los posibles efectos bactericidas y de apoyo a la digestión.También se diseñó un modelo de estrés en tilapia para comparar el efecto con individuos en situación normal.La dosis del probiotico en el alimento tratado en todos los casos fue de 0.1%(5x10 8 CFU/g y 99.9%maltrinaen la dieta seca.Cada 14 días se pesaron en grupo y se contaron los animales de cada acuario (tilapias ±0.1 g, langostinos ±0.001 gobteniéndose el peso promedio individual.En el primer experimento (tilapiasel crecimiento y la utilización del alimento fueron un poco peores en relación con el factor probiótico,pero las diferencias no fueron significativas.En el segundo experimento (tilapias tanto la tasa específica de crecimiento como el factor de conversión empeoraron con la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta;la diferencia fue significativa al 94%,apenas por debajo del 95%que se utiliza por convención estadística.El factor estrés,por el contrario,provocó un notable empeoramiento tanto del crecimiento como del factor de conversión.En el experimento con langostinos la adición de B.subtilis a la dieta provocó un ligero deterioro del crecimiento y de la utilización del alimento,con una probabilidad de error menor del 10%en el caso del crecimiento.Durante el experimento debieron prevalecer los efectos directos sobre el sistema digestivo de los animales experimentales,ya sea por aporte de macro-y micronutrientes o de enzimas que contribuyen a la digestión.El efecto negativo por la inclusión del probiótico fue pequeño (alrededor de un 10%en la tasa espec

  14. Effect of different levels of Chlorella meal on growth and survival of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii juvenile

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    Suniza Anis Mohamad Sukri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment in triplicate group of prawn (30 prawn per group with an initial weight of 2.5-2.6 g, were fed until apparent satiation with 32% crude protein diet containing various Chlorella levels ranging from 0 to 10% (Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and Diet IV for 56 days. At the end of the feeding trial, prawn given Diet IV gave the optimum growth and percentage survival which also contributed to the best feed efficiency. There was no significant difference in FCR in all treatments (p<0.05. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in growth rate among treatments and prawns fed Diet IV had the highest weight gain (WG and specific growth rate (SGR (3.58 g and 1.54 %/day, respectively. The percentage survival of M. rosenbergii ranged from 63-86% and similar by, prawn fed Diet IV had the highest survival with a value of 86%

  15. Ablação ocular no camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: efeitos sobre a reprodução, pigmentação epidérmica e atividade alimentar Eyestalk ablation in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: effects on reproduction, epidermic pigmentation and feeding activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel José Martins dos Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the consequences of unilateral and bilateral ablation based on ovigerous percentage, consecutive spawns, and secondary effects of the surgical process in the females of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879. Two experiments were carried out with four and seven months old females in intermolt stage. Each experiment was comprised of control, unilateral and bilateral ablation. Eyestalk ablation was done with a bistoury with a topic hot cauterization followed by application of antibiotic pomades. The animals were maintained at constant temperature (28 ± 1,05ºC and photoperiod of 12L: 12D within fibercement boxes with sandy bottom and biological filter. Females were observed once a day during fourteen weeks, registering gonadal condition, ecdysis and presence of spermatophore (mating and spawning. Unilateral ablation technique is more efficient due to the anticipation of the first spawn, repeatability between spawns, expressive rate of ovigerous females and survival, that favored its applicability. Bilateral eyestalk ablation produced the mortality of ali the females with change in coloration and food activity patterns. These results corroborate other observations on penaeid shrimps. though bilateral ablation on some lobsters was a success. These results showing an interespecific variation and can be used in aquaculture projects.

  16. 长三角地区罗氏沼虾成虾主要疾病的病原研究%Studies on the main pathogens of adult prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in the Yangtze River Delta region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洋; 沈锦玉; 姚嘉赟; 潘晓艺; 郝贵杰; 尹文林; 杨国梁; 王军毅

    2012-01-01

    An investigation on the diseases of adult prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) had been conducted from August 2009 to August 2010 in farms in the Yangtze River Delta region. The symptoms found in various localities, which were mainly divided into three categories; Shanghai and Zhejiang disease sample has pale body color, especially the tail with white spots; Jiangsu disease sample mainly has blue body-color and blue muscle; Zhejiang disease sample has red body-color, and reddish hepatopancreas. 11 strains of dominant bacteria were isolated from the disease samples of M. Rosenbergii, and 3 main pathogenic bacteria were selected by infecting healthy M. Rosenbergii artificially, namely SHB1, GYB8, HZL2. After morphological, physiological and biochemical properties and 16SrRNA identification, the 3 bacteria were determined as Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris. Conventional drug susceptibility tests showed that the 3 main pathogenic bacteria and other isolated bacteria had high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin.%2009年8月-2010年8月在长三角地区开展了罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)成虾主要疾病的流行病学调查.结果显示:所采集病样按其症状分为肌肉白浊病(以上海和浙江病样为主)、蓝体病(以江苏病样为主)、红体病(以浙江病样为主)三类.从采集的罗氏沼虾病样中分离到优势细菌11株,人工感染健康罗氏沼虾,筛选出3株主要致病菌,分别命名为SHB1,GYB8,HZL2.经形态学、生理生化特性及16 S rRNA鉴定,确定3株主要致病菌依次为嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila),费氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)、普通变形杆菌(Proteus vulgaris).常规药物敏感性试验表明,3种主要致病菌以及其它分离株细菌对环丙沙星和恩诺沙星高度敏感.

  17. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation in maturation diet on female reproductive performance and larval quality of giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Siranonthana, Nisa; Senanan, Wansuk

    2016-01-01

    The giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one of the most farmed freshwater crustaceans in the world. Its global production has been stalling in the past decade due to the inconsistent quality of broodstock and hatchery-produced seeds. A better understanding of the role of nutrition in maturation diets will help overcome some of the production challenges. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, ARA) is a fatty acid precursor of signaling molecules important for crustacean reproduction, prostaglandins E and F of the series II (PGE2 and PGF2α), and is often lacking in maturation diets of shrimp and prawns. We examined the effects of ARA in a combination of different fish oil (FO) and soybean oil (SO) blends on females’ reproductive performance and larval quality. Adult females (15.22 ± 0.13 g and 11.12 ± 0.09 cm) were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing one of two different base compositions (A or B), supplemented with one of three levels of Mortierella alpine-derived ARA (containing 40% active ARA): 0, 1 or 2% by ingredient weight. The two base diets differed in the percentages of (FO and SO with diet A containing 2% SO and 2% FO and diet B containing 2.5% SO and 1.5% FO, resulting in differences in proportional contents of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LOA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA)). After the eight-week experiment, prawns fed diet B with 1 and 2% ARA supplement (B1 and B2) exhibited the highest gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), egg clutch weight, fecundity, hatching rate, number of larvae, and reproductive effort compared to those fed other diets (p ≤ 0.05). Larvae from these two dietary treatments also had higher tolerance to low salinity (2 ppt). The maturation period was not significantly different among most treatments (p ≥ 0.05). ARA supplementation, regardless of the base diet, significantly improved GSI, HSI, egg clutch weight and fecundity. However, the diets with an enhanced ARA and LOA

  18. Changes of phosphatidylcholine and fatty acids in germ cells during testicular maturation in three developmental male morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity.

  19. Preliminary obervations on use of ethanol distiller's by-products for polyculture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.; Krueger, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two major by-products of ethanol distillation, corn distiller's solubles and corn distiller's mash, were evaluated for their potential use as a food source for freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) in mid-western United States. Corn distiller's solubles were not found to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that single applications not exceed 2000 ppM. Yield trials were conducted over a four month period in five 0.1 ha earthen ponds, located in proximity to an ethanol distillery. Each pond was stocked with 2000 postlarval shrimp (0.02 g mean weight). Three of these ponds were also each stocked with 75 adult golden shiner (27.0 g mean weight). One application of corn distiller's solubles (equivalent to approx. 2000 ppM) and three applications of corn distiller's mash (approx. 5 kg/application) were made over the course of the yield trails (approx. 120 days). No other food or fertilizer was added to the ponds. Survival of shrimp ranged from 34 to 75%. Survival of brood fish exceeded 90%. Mean weight of shrimp at harvest was approximately 12 g, and average production was equivalent to approximately 104 kg ha/sup -1/. Golden shiner reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to approxmately 130 kg ha/sup -1/. The presence of fish did not appear to impede shrimp production. Although production results of fish and shrimp were encouraging, several factors existed which impeded production; these included: (1) little by-product was applied to ponds because the distillery was undergoing its shakedown period; (2) ponds were new and had minimal natural productivity; (3) grass was not fully established on the watershed and ponds became turbid; and (4) lower than normal temperatures prevailed over much of the growing period. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Changes of phosphatidylcholine and fatty acids in germ cells during testicular maturation in three developmental male morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapan Siangcham

    Full Text Available Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, especially arachidonic acid (ARA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells, B (STs with mostly spermatids, and C (STs with spermatozoa], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM, orange claw male (OC, and blue claw male (BC]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1, PC (18:0/18:2, PC (18:2/20:5, and PC (16:0/22:6 in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5 in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity.

  1. The EM Observation on the Myelinated Nerve Fiber of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Radiated by He-Ne Laser%He-Ne激光照射罗氏沼虾腹髓鞘神经纤维的电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚泊; 黄丽宜; 曹爱娣; 梁美玉

    2005-01-01

    用He-Ne激光照射罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)的腹髓鞘神经纤维,结果表明,神经胶质细胞为不规则形,核的一端较大,另一端分叉,半包裹着轴突,呈蝴蝶形,核的横轴直径为3.07μm, 轴突直径为1.53 μm;在髓鞘中普遍出现增厚的膜层结构,且膜层结构厚薄不一,具有高嗜锇性、电子密度大,正常的膜层厚度为33.33 nm,增厚的膜层厚度可达100 nm.在两膜层之间存在着许多颗粒状物质.

  2. Muscle tissues ultrapathological changes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii suffering "white-body" disease%罗氏沼虾"白体病"肌肉组织的超微病理变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛宁; 袁莉民

    2005-01-01

    在江苏扬州的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)养殖区,选取具"白体病"典型症状的活体仔虾和幼虾,对其腹部肌肉的病变部位进行显微和超微结构观察,未见病原生物;光镜下未见明显病理变化;其超微病理变化主要在病程中后期可见,病变部位肌丝断解、形成肌溶灶;线粒体变性、并呈空泡化;特别是肌原纤维间脂滴明显增多,呈串珠状排列.分析该病可能是一种线粒体肌病,属脂质沉积性肌病.

  3. 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒(IHHNV)的流行病学调查%EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS HYPODERMAL AND HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS IN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范东东; 魏永伟; 苗亮; 陈炯

    2015-01-01

    传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒(infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus,IHHNV)是对虾养殖的重要病原之一,可感染多种虾种.罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是中国养殖的重要沼虾品种之一.根据国际兽疫局(Office International des Epizooties,OIE)推荐的IHHNV 检测方法,在中国大陆地区首次开展IHHNV在罗氏沼虾中的感染和流行情况调查.结果显示,在研究区的罗氏沼虾养殖区,IHHNV广泛流行,阳性率高达90%;但所有成年罗氏沼虾均未表现出明显的病症,仅表现为病毒的携带.通过基因序列分析显示,检测到的华南地区毒株属于Ⅰ型感染株,与菲律宾株进化关系较为接近;华东地区毒株属于Ⅱ型感染株,与东南亚株进化关系较近.本研究为IHHNV在罗氏沼虾内的感染、流行和防控提供了详细参考.

  4. 罗氏沼虾仔虾病原菌的分离鉴定及耐药性试验%Drug Resistance and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星; 赵笑笑; 李阳阳; 徐梦; 梁利国; 张晓君

    2011-01-01

    从病(死)罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)仔虾的匀浆液中分离到了一株大量生长的优势菌,感染试验表明分离菌对罗氏沼虾仔虾有较强的致病作用.对分离菌进行了形态、培养、生化和理化等表现生物学特性检验,同时对该菌进行了分子生物学鉴定,扩增了该菌的gyrB基因和16S rRNA基因并进行测序和序列同源性分析.综合分离菌的表型特征、理化特性及分子生物学鉴定结果,判定病原菌为气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)的嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila).采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)测试了分离株对44种抗菌类药物的敏感性,结果表明,供试菌均对所测定的44种抗菌类药物中的氨曲南等24种药物敏感.对青霉素G等8种药物耐药.%The dominant bacteria were obtained from diseased juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii and strong pathogenicity to M. rosenbergii were determined by immersion. The phenotypie characteristics of the isolate strain were examined, including morphological characteristics, and physical and chemical characteristics; the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes were amplified by PCR and compared with sequences deposited in database. The isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila based on comprehensive analysis of their phenotepie and molecular characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that the isolates exhibited susceptible to 24 kinds of agents (eg. astreonam), resistant to 8 agents (eg. penicillin G) by disc diffusion method (K-B).

  5. Efeito da composição iônica da água do mar artificial no desenvolvimento de larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4484 Effect of artificial seawater ionic composition on the development of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879 [Crustacea, Decapoda] at the larval stage II - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4484

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Mallasen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a importância da presença na água dos íons Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, Br-, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO42-, S2O32-, Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+ e Cu2+ para o desenvolvimento do Macrobrachium rosenbergii no estágio larval II. Aplicou-se um teste de inanição, que consistiu na estocagem das larvas em béqueres contendo 15ml de água salobra (12‰, de diferentes composições iônicas. A cada 8 horas contou-se o número de larvas vivas e calculou-se o tempo médio de vida em todos os tratamentos. Os elementos Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO42- e S2O32- não influenciaram o tempo de vida das larvas. O K+ e o Ca2+ foram os íons mais importantes para o desenvolvimento das larvas, seguidos pelo Br- e pelo HCO3-, respectivamente, a presença desses íons no meio é indispensável e as larvas devem apresentar mecanismos eficientes de absorção desses elementos.The importance of the ions Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, Br-, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO42-, S2O32-, Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ in water on the development of Macrobrachium rosenbergii at the larval stage II was evaluated. A starvation test was applied. It consisted in keeping larvae of M. rosenbergii in beakers containing 15ml of brackish water (12‰ with different ionic compositions. In order to estimate average life time, larvae which survived the treatment were counted every eight hours. Elements Al3+, Rb+, Zn2+, Co2+,Cu2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, HPO42-, Li+, MoO4M2- and S2O32 were not effective on the larvae life time, whereas K and Ca2+ were the most important ions for larvae development, followed by Br- and HCO3-, respectively. These ions are indispensable in water and larvae must have an efficient mechanism to absorb them.

  6. 饲料蛋白水平对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)生长和消化酶活性的影响%EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON GROWTH AND ACTIVITY OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES OF GIANT FRESH WATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云伟; 牛翠娟; 杜丽

    2001-01-01

    The Effects of dietary protein levels (w(protein)=20.2%, 29.6%,40.8% and 51.2%) on the growth and activity of digestive enzymes of giant fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are investigated. No significant differences between YSGR (P>0.05) and activity of amlyase (P=0.108) are found among experimental groups with different dietary protein levels. However, dietary protein levels have significant effects on the activity of tryptase (P=0.017) and pepsin (P=0.002). At higher dietary protein levels, the activity of pepsin and tryptase increase significantly, while the ratio of the activity of amylase to tryptase decrease. No correlation between growth and activity of digestive enzymes is found in present work.%探讨了饲料中不同蛋白水平(w(蛋白)分别为20.2%,29.6%,40.8%和51.2%)对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachiumrosenbergii)生长和消化酶活性的影响.结果表明,在本实验范围内,饲料中不同蛋白水平对罗氏沼虾的特殊生长率(YSGR)影响不显著(P>0.05),对淀粉酶的比活性也无显著影响(P=0.108),但显著影响类胰蛋白酶(P=0.017)和胃蛋白酶的比活性(P=0.002).在同一蛋白水平下,淀粉酶比活性最高,其次为类胰蛋白酶和胃蛋白酶.3种消化酶的比活性在w(蛋白)=51.2%组最高.随着饲料中蛋白水平的上升,3种消化酶的比活性也呈逐渐上升的趋势,而淀粉酶与类胰蛋白酶比活性的比值逐渐下降,表明罗氏沼虾消化酶活性对饲料中蛋白含量有适应性反应.

  7. Study on the Application of Cyclotella sp. in the Artificial Breeding of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%小环藻在罗氏沼虾人工育苗中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光华; 江林源; 卢小花; 邓潜

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to study the application situation of Cyclotella sp. in the artificial breeding of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. [ Method] The two batches artificial breeding experiments of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were respectively carried out on May 8,2009 and June 25,2010. By inoculating Cyclotella sp. into the culture seedling water body,the culture seedling water quality was regulated. The test was divided into the experimental group (inoculating the algae) and the control group (without inoculating the algae). [ Result] In the experimental group,the survival ratio of single pond was during 54.30% -71.11% ,and the average survival ratio was 63.44%. In the control group,the survival ratio of single pond was during 33.43% -59.86% ,and the average survival ratio was 43.98%. The survival ratio of experimental group was 19.46 percentage points higher than that of control group. The analysis result of water quality showed that the ammonia and nitrite contents in the experimental group were respectively 30.77% and 25.38% lower than that in the control group, and the water quality was obviously better than that in the control group. It illustrated that Cyclotella sp. had the obvious regulation effect on the quality of culture seedling water body. [ Conclusion]This ecological breeding method that used the algae provided a new thought for solving the current water quality worsening and disease problems in the seedling production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. It was worth to be popularized in the scale seedling production.%[目的]研究小环藻在罗氏沼虾人工育苗中的应用情况.[方法]2009年5月8日和2010年6月25日分别开展了2批罗氏沼虾人工育苗试验,通过在育苗水体中接种小环藻调节育苗水质,试验分为试验组(接种藻类)和对照组(不接种藻类).[结果]试验组单池育苗成活率为54.30%-71.11%,平均育苗成活率达到63.44%;对照组单池育苗成活率为33.43%-59.86%,

  8. Analysis on Sequences of Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾缅甸野生原种rDNA-ITS区序列特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪峰; 杨国梁; 王军毅; 高强; 宫金华; 叶少群; 张海鹏

    2011-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacers in ribosomal DNA were often used as molecular sequence in phylogenetic study. The complete sequence of internal transcribed spacers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was isolated by PCR. The length of ITS1 was 1 070 - 1 150 bp with a GC content of 5l. 4% -52.7% , and the length of 5.8S was 163 bp with a GC content of 55.2%. Compared to ITS1, the length of ITS2 (484 -545 bp) was shorter while GC content (53.4% - 54. 6% ) was higher. By comparison of sequence from different individuals, 61 SNP loci were found in ITS1, including 28 C/T transitions (45.9%) , 23 A/G transitions (37.7%), 1 A/T transversions ( 1.6% ), 3 T/G transversions (4.9%), 4 C/G transversions ( 6. 6% ) , and 2 A/C transversions (3.3%); 15 SNP loci were found in ITS2, including 6 C/T transitions (40%), 5 A/G transitions ( 33.3% ), i A/T transversions ( 6. 7% ) , 2 T/G transversions ( 13.3% ), and 1 C/G transversions (6. 7% ). SSR loci were searched by the SSRHunter software, and the results showed that the SSR loci in ITS1 and ITS2 were 14 and 6 respectively, the type of (AG)n was rich in ITS1 and the type of (GA) n was rich in ITS2. There were three repeat units with a length of 59 bp in ITS1, and the loci were 181,390 and 781, respectively. The results of ITS intravariances analysis demonstrated that clones from the same individual were different in length because of SSR. Furthermore, homology comparison of ITS sequence indicated that the similarity of each ITS1 was 45.39% - 50.64% , and the highest occurred between M.rosenbergii and M. hainanense, while the lowest occurred between M. rosenbergii and Exopalaemon carinicauda.5.8S showed very high similarity with other crustaceans, and the homology was 100% between M. rosenbergii and M. nipponense. The similarity of each ITS2 was 42.53% -53.46% , and the highest occurred between M.rosenbergii and M. nipponense, while the lowest occurred between M. rosenbergii and Procambarus clark

  9. Effcets of 4-nonylphenol on growth and sex differentiation in Macrobrachium rosenbergii%壬基酚(NP)对罗氏沼虾幼虾生长和性别分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春华; 薛海波; 李郁娇; 黄国钟; 刘易洋; 李广丽

    2011-01-01

    Time of sex differentiation, as well as effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP)on growth and sex differentiation in juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied by morphologic observation and histological sections. Ten zoea were collected randomly every 3 days, fixed in Bouin's solution, then embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Transverse sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to identify its sex differentiation time. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were divided into 5 groups( n =200 per group) :control,5,15,45, and 135 μg/L NP,respectively. All these juvenile M. rosenbergii were immersed in different doses of NP solutions for 30 days, and 50% NP solutions were renewed every 2 days to keep NP's steady concentration. Ten juvenile M. rosenbergii were collected randomly from each group on 15,20,25, and 30 d,and both the body mass and length were measured respectively for the assessment of NP on growth. Thirty juvenile M. rosenbergii were collected randomly from each group on 30 d to identify their sex by outward features( gonopore, appendix masculine, etc)under anatomical lens, and 10 were fixed, embedded and sectioned to observe its gonad histology. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple rang test. Results showed that primordial germ cells (PGCs)appeared in 15 d larva;however, genital duct,a wrinkled and pimply plastron, and a sunken basal part on the 4th -5th walking legs appeared in 24 d larva in some M. rosenbergii. In addition, a rudiment of the appendix masculine on the internal of the 2nd pleopod was found in 45 d larva in some M. rosenbergii, and gonads could be identified easily as testis and ovary, respectively. M. rosenbergii larvae were not affected in their body weight and length if treated by NP less than 15 d, however, they were inhibited significantly in a dose-dependent manner if treated more than 20 d( P <0.05). Spermatogonium and oogonium were observed respectively in the testis and ovary in the control

  10. 罗氏沼虾诺达病毒单克隆抗体的制备及应用%Production and application of monoclonal antibodies to Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘问; 钱冬; 吴建翔; 邵健忠

    2005-01-01

    罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病(whitish muscle disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是一种发生在罗氏沼虾苗种阶段的流行病,发病虾苗出现肌肉白浊、白斑或白尾症状,死亡率高达60%以上.作者所在实验室在确定其病原是罗氏沼虾诺达病毒(Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus, MrNV)的基础上,用MrNV免疫BALB/c小鼠,取小鼠脾细胞与SP2/0鼠骨髓瘤细胞融合,用间接ELISA筛选阳性孔,经有限稀释法克隆,得到12株能特异分泌抗MrNV的单克隆抗体(Mab)的杂交瘤细胞.注射小鼠,制备腹水单克隆抗体,ELISA效价为1∶105~106.亚型鉴定结果表明,有6株单抗为IgG1型,4株单抗为IgG2a型,2株单抗为IgG2b型.12株单抗与对虾白斑综合征病毒(WSSV)和桃拉综合征病毒(TSV)均无交叉反应.挑选效价高的腹水单抗2B5,建立了检测罗氏沼虾诺达病毒的三抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附测定(TAS-ELISA)法, 该方法检测灵敏度达0.98 ng左右.Wesrtern blot分析表明,2B5能与MrNV 43kD的外膜蛋白特异性结合.

  11. Cu2+和Zn2+对罗氏沼虾体外培养肌细胞的影响%Effect of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on cultured muscle cells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军霞; 刘金; 王维娜; 杨波; 翟宗昭

    2005-01-01

    研究了L-15和M199两种培养基对体外培养罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)肌细胞生长的差异.结果表明,L-15较M199更有利于罗氏沼虾肌细胞的生长.分别测定了不同浓度的Zn2+(0~160 μg/L)和Cu2+(0~10μg/L)对罗氏沼虾离体培养肌细胞的影响,通过MTT法测定肌细胞的增殖,NBT法测定肌细胞活性氧的产生,结果表明,Zn2+浓度为80~120μg/L时细胞的增殖效果较好,细胞内活性氧的产生最少;Cu2+浓度为8μg/L时细胞的增殖达到最大,活性氧产生最少.

  12. 产卵前后罗氏沼虾输卵管的显微和超微结构%Observation on microstructure and ultrastructure of the oviduct of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓云; 卢建平

    2006-01-01

    利用光镜和电镜技术对罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)在产卵前后的输卵管结构进行了观察.输卵管由管壁上皮和基膜组成.管壁上皮为一单层柱状上皮细胞,附着在基膜上.电镜下上皮细胞有明暗之分,细胞面向管腔伸出长而密集的微绒毛.细胞核呈椭圆形,核仁一个或者若干,细胞质内含有丰富的线粒体和粗面内质网.产卵前细胞结构完整,核仁明显,管腔内有大量分泌物;产卵后,游离面细胞膜破碎,微绒毛断裂,细胞内含物排向管腔,管腔内残留少量分泌物.

  13. A study on the relationship between culture density and output of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾养殖密度与产量关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锐全; 肖学铮; 黄樟翰; 卢迈新; 谢骏

    2000-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)个体大,生长快,食性广,肉质好,营养价值高,是一种优良的淡水养殖品种.90年代以来,罗氏沼虾的养殖在全国范围内迅速发展,养殖面积不断扩大,养殖技术和单位面积产量也不断提高.不同地区罗氏沼虾的养殖模式大同小异,基本上都是采取一次放足苗,分批起捕,捕大留小的模式.但不同地区罗氏沼虾的养殖密度和单位面积产量则差异很大.为了探讨罗氏沼虾在池塘中的适宜放养密度及放养密度与产量及经济效益的关系,我们进行了如下试验.

  14. Ultrastructural observation on muscle tissues of Macrobrachium rosenbergii with white-body disease%患"白体病"罗氏沼虾腹部肌肉病变的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜开和; 王文; 荣黎雯; 王沼锦

    2002-01-01

    取患"白体病"罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)腹部的病变组织及其鳃、心肌、肝胰腺、生殖腺等器官和组织,经光镜和电镜制样观察,未发现病原体,表明该病为非病原体引起的疾病.光镜下的病变组织结构与正常组织相比无明显异常.但在电镜下,病变主要表现为肌肉细胞的线粒体和肌质网的变性、坏死.线粒体肿胀、空泡化,肌质网增多且形成许多内陷小泡,表明细胞处于缺氧和钙代谢紊乱状态,这可能与虾生存的环境和养殖条件有关.根据超微病理与组织学观察结果,认为"罗氏沼虾白体病"更确切的命名应为"罗氏沼虾肌肉细胞线粒体坏死症".

  15. Nutritive requirement of sprawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii:a review%罗氏沼虾营养需求的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军霞; 翟宗昭; 王维娜; 刘金; 张辉

    2004-01-01

    总结了近年来国内外关于罗氏沼虾Macrobrachium rosenbergii营养学方面的研究成果,从蛋白质、脂类、碳水化合物、维生素和矿质元素等方面论述了对罗氏沼虾营养学的研究现状,为罗氏沼虾的科学养殖提供依据.

  16. 罗氏沼虾产业在中国持续增长的经济与社会原因分析%Social and Economical Factors of Sustained Growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Industry in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国梁; 陈雪峰; 王军毅; 高强; 潘茜; 张宇飞

    2011-01-01

    It has been more than 30 years since the Macrobrachium rosenbergii,an exotic species,was first introduced into mainland China in 1976.Till 2009,China has had the biggest farming industry of this species in the world for ten years,with annual productions of over 25 billion postlarvae,135 thousand metric tons of grow-outs,the gross monetary value of the aquaculture is estimated to have reached over 3 billion RMB,and an allocation of 30 thousand hectares of farming area.The development of M.rosenbergii industry in China is sustained by:(1) the excellent biological characteristics of this species;(2)technological advances in prawn hatchery and grow-out farming;(3)fluctuation of marine shrimp farming;(4)economic development of China;(5) government policies.In conclusion,M.rosenbergii has some advantages: fast growth,short farming time,steady market,high profit,and now is one of the major cultivated shrimp species in China,the authors believe that M.rosenbergii farming is an effective way to overcome poverty and achieve prosperity for farmer in developing countries.%罗氏沼虾作为外来物种自1976年引入中国大陆已有30多年历史。到2009年,全国罗氏沼虾年育苗量达250×108尾以上,养殖面积约3×104 hm2,养殖产量超过13.5×104 t,养殖产值超3.0×109元,已连续10年成为世界第一的罗氏沼虾养殖大国。其持续增长的原因有:1、罗氏沼虾优良生物学特性是其产业发展的前提;2、苗种繁育和商品虾养殖技术的进步支撑了产业的发展;3、对虾养殖产业的波动为罗氏沼虾养殖产业的增长提供了机会;4、中国经济发展带动了国内罗氏沼虾的消费市场;5、政府支持和水产技术推广是罗氏沼虾产业发展的保障和技术支撑。罗氏沼虾生长迅速、养殖时间短、市场稳定、经济效益显著,已成为我国主要淡水养殖虾类。因此,推广罗氏沼虾的健康养殖应是农民脱贫致富的一条有效途径。

  17. Macrobrachium rosenbergii mannose binding lectin: synthesis of MrMBL-N20 and MrMBL-C16 peptides and their antimicrobial characterization, bioinformatics and relative gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2015-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an antimicrobial protein, is an important component of innate immune system which recognizes repetitive sugar groups on the surface of bacteria and viruses leading to activation of the complement system. In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization of cDNA encoded for MBL from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). Two short peptides (MrMBL-N20: (20)AWNTYDYMKREHSLVKPYQG(39) and MrMBL-C16: (307)GGLFYVKHKEQQRKRF(322)) were synthesized from the MrMBL polypeptide. The purity of the MrMBL-N20 (89%) and MrMBL-C16 (93%) peptides were confirmed by MS analysis (MALDI-ToF). The purified peptides were used for further antimicrobial characterization including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, kinetics of bactericidal efficiency and analysis of hemolytic capacity. The peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity towards all the Gram-negative bacteria taken for analysis, whereas they showed the activity towards only a few selected Gram-positive bacteria. MrMBL-C16 peptides produced the highest inhibition towards both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the MrMBL-N20. Both peptides do not produce any inhibition against Bacillus sps. The kinetics of bactericidal efficiency showed that the peptides drastically reduced the number of surviving bacterial colonies after 24 h incubation. The results of hemolytic activity showed that both peptides produced strong activity at higher concentration. However, MrMBL-C16 peptide produced the highest activity compared to the MrMBL-N20 peptide. Overall, the results indicated that the peptides can be used as bactericidal agents. The MrMBL protein sequence was characterized using various bioinformatics tools including phylogenetic analysis and structure prediction. We also reported the MrMBL gene expression pattern upon viral and bacterial infection in M. rosenbergii gills. It could be concluded that the prawn MBL may be one of the important molecule which

  18. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii.

  19. 罗氏沼虾育苗系统中生物滤池对水质的净化作用%Water purification effect of biofilter in Macrobrachium rosenbergii seeds nursery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛建美; 李倩; 周志明; 胡廷尖; 王军毅; 刘士力; 王雨辰

    2014-01-01

    Water purification effect of biological membranes in circulating water nursery system of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. The results showed that water pollutant clearance rates of biological membranes were higher in the early seedling stage and the highest clearance rates for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) and CODMn were up to 46.13%, 58.33%, 22.68%, 32.22% and 7.73% respectively. In the middle stage, clearance rates for each contaminant had different degrees of decline. Changing the water of the seedling pool during middle seedling stage effectively controlled the concentration of pollutants in water.%研究了生物膜对罗氏沼虾( Macrobrachium rosenbergii)循环水育苗系统水体的净化效果.结果表明,在罗氏沼虾育苗早期,生物膜对水体中污染物的清除率均较高,对水体中总氮( TN)最高清除率可达46.13%,对总磷(TP)最高清除率可达58.33%,对氨氮(NH3-N)最高清除率可达22.68%,对亚硝酸盐氮(NO2-N)最高清除率可达32.22%,对化学需氧量CODMn最高清除率可达7.73%.育苗中期,生物膜对各污染物清除率均有不同程度的减弱.于育苗中期对育苗池进行一次换水可以有效控制水体中污染物的浓度.

  20. Comportamento alimentar do camarão de agua doce, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Palaemonidae durante a fase larval: análise qualitativa Feeding behavior of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenberch (De Man (Crustácea, Palaemonidae, during the larval phase: qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice P Barros

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of the larvae's prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879, in each stage of development was studied face alArtemia Linnaeus, 1758 nauplii, dry and wet diets. Groups of ten larvae in each stage were placed in 500 ml beakers at 29ºC in filtered brackish water. After the fasting period of acclimatization, the three types of food were offered separately to the larvae and the feeding behavior was observed during 30 min. Feeding perception, capture, grasp and ingestion of food were used to determine feeding pattern. Stage I lawac do not eat. The feeding behavior of larvae was similar on the stages II - XI. The perception in distance does not occur in most individuais; the feeding process generally started with the physrcal contact of food with the animal. Food is captured by thoracic appendages (maxillipeds until stage III, and maxillipeds + pereopods in stages IV - XI and particles are grasped and handled by maxillipeds. Inopposition at the capture, the ingestion is a seletive process. Selective responses decrease in later stages and larvae become omnivorous in greater degree.

  1. 马氏沼虾蚤状幼体发育特征及其与罗氏沼虾幼体的形态差异%MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENCE ON ZOEA LARVAE OF MACROBRACHIUM MALCOLMS ONII AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵朝阳; 周鑫; 王桂芹; 邴旭文

    2011-01-01

    From hatching to metamorphosis for larvae of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, the larvae had experienced the molting process twelve times accompany with changes of Morphology and appendage characteristics. Through microscopic observation and photography on 30 samples from Z, to Z12 larvae, the results showed that there were big differences in compound eye between Zi and Z2. The main characters were located on the telson between Z3 and Z2, Z4 and Z5. There was proleg germination occurred on abdomen of Z6. The morphological variations between Z7 and Z8 lain in changes of antennule inner and outer flagellum appendage. The main periodical standards to discriminate Z9 and Z12 were morphology of periopods, proleg and rostrum. Therefore, it could provide biological basis in different zoea stages of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii by means of observation on morphological variations such as the inner and outer flagellum of the first antennule, flagellum and antennal scale of the second antenna, rostrum, dorsal spur, compound eye, the first and second legs on the carapace, pleopod, telson, tail fan from Z1 to Z12 larvae, as well as determination of mor-phometric character of the larvae such as the number of segments, quantity of seta during the period from Z1 to Z12 stages. In addition, morphological variations of zoea larvae of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii have been compared with Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which could provide reference to identify these two kinds of zoea larvaes by measuring the number of antennal flagellum segmentation.%马氏沼虾(Macrobrachium malcolmsonii)的幼体从孵化到变态为幼虾要经过多次蜕皮,每次蜕皮均伴随形态及附肢特征的改变.采用显微观测摄像法对马氏沼虾Z1-Z12各期幼体样本30尾进行了观察,测量结果表明Z2与Z1在复眼上存在较大差异,Z3与Z2、Z4与Z5的主要分期特征均位于尾节上,Z6的腹部出现腹足萌芽,Z7与Z8的形态差异在于第一触角内鞭和

  2. 左旋咪唑对罗氏沼虾免疫功能及抗病力的影响%Effects of Levamisole on the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 李义; 郝向举

    2008-01-01

    以0(对照)、50、100和150 mg/kg饲料的剂量将左旋咪唑(LMS)添加于基础饲料中制成颗粒饲料投喂罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)14 d,采样测定了罗氏沼虾血细胞吞噬活性、血清酚氧化酶(PO)、溶菌酶(I.SZ)及超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活性,并以6×102cells/mL浓度的致病性嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)对罗氏沼虾进行肌肉注射(20?L/尾),记录接种7 d后罗氏沼虾的累积死亡率.结果表明,3个LMS处理组的罗氏沼虾血细胞吞噬百分比和吞噬指数、血清PO、KSZ及SOD活性均显著地高于对照组(P<0.05);LMS处理组的罗氏沼虾对嗜水气单胞菌的抵抗力明显增强.因此,饲喂适量的LMS能促进罗氏沼虾的免疫力和抗病力;在本试验条件下,100 mg/kg饲料的剂量为最适添加剂量.

  3. Studied on Yellow and Black Gills of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Caused by Pseudoonas%假单胞菌引起罗氏沼虾黄鳃、黑鳃病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶保华; 石和荣; 黄俊文; 王刚

    2000-01-01

    对高密度养殖条件下患细菌病的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)作了初步研究,病虾症状为:食欲下降,黄鳃或黑鳃、断须、断腿,有的甲壳上有黄色或黑色的斑块,取上述典型症状的病虾鳃部和肝胰腺组织进行细菌分离、纯化和保种,经鉴定,该病原菌为恶臭假单胞菌和铜绿假单胞菌.将分离菌进行回接感染,发现有很强的致病作用,且产生与自然发病相似的症状,从再感染的病虾体内分离的细菌经鉴定也为恶臭假单胞菌(P.putida)和铜绿假单胞菌(P.aeruginosa),由此可认为它们是此次发病的病原菌.药敏实验发现,铜绿假单胞菌对环丙沙星、氟哌酸氯和庆大霉素的敏感性较强:恶臭假单胞菌对庆大霉素,环丙沙星、卡那霉素、强力霉素和新生霉素较为敏感.

  4. 复方中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾生长和非特异性免疫功能的影响%Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicines on Growth and Nonspecific Immunity of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀武; 陈万光; 李文辉; 郭黛健

    2008-01-01

    在基础饲料中添加0.5%、1.0%和2.0%的复方中草药制剂,连续投喂56 d后,通过测定供试岁氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)的生长性能、血细胞的吞噬活性、血清酶活性、酚氧化酶活性,比较了复合中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾促生长及非特异性免疫功能的影响.结果显示:饲料中添加0.5%的复方中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾的生长影响显著(P<0.05),添加1%和2%的中草药制剂对罗氏沼虾的血细胞的吞噬活性、溶菌酶活力、酚氧化酶活力影响极显著(P<0.01).用嗜水气单胞菌攻毒7 d显示试验组免疫保护率高达44.7%~59.8%.因此,从促生长、提高免疫力和经济角度3方面考虑,建议添加剂量为1.0%为宜.

  5. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.

  6. 罗氏沼虾三群体间肌肉营养品质的比较%Comparison of Muscle Nutritional Composition of Three Different Populations of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧; 陈立侨; 陈杰; 李二超; 杨国梁; 姚茜

    2006-01-01

    对饲养在相似环境下的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)三群体肌肉营养成分进行了分析和比较,3个群体分别为浙江湖州的人工养殖群体(A)、缅甸引进种子二代群体(B)和"南太湖1号"杂交群体(B-+).结果表明,3个群体粗蛋白含量的高低顺序依次为:B-+群体(17.57%)、B群体(16.65%)、A群体(15.88%),但三群体之间没有显著性差异(P>0.05);而A群体的粗脂肪含量为2.04%,显著高于B群体的1.24%(P<0.05).3个群体中,B-+群体的总氨基酸含量、必需氨基酸含量、鲜味氨基酸和脂肪酸中的EPA+DHA含量均为最高,且必需氨基酸指数最高,为68.06;相比之下,A群体的上述各项指标值均较低.可见,以上三群体中杂交种群(B-+)的肌肉营养品质较优,而人工养殖群体(A)的肌肉品质相对较差.

  7. Effect of Zhiqi Fungal Substance on Performance, Immunity and Inosine Monophosphate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%芝芪菌质对罗氏沼虾生长和免疫及肌苷酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光明; 张李阳; 张永江; 阮鸣; 饶玉鹏

    2009-01-01

    以罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)为研究对象,研究芝芪菌质对其生长性能、机体免疫水平和肌苷酸含量的影响.将罗氏沼虾随机分成4组,每组3个平行,每个平行约70尾,第1组为对照组,常规投喂;另外3组为试验组,在基础日粮中分别添加0.25%、0.5%、1%的芝芪菌质,饲养35 d后测定其生长、血清和肝胰腺溶菌酶、SOD、碱性磷酸酶和酸性磷酸酶活力及肌肉中肌苷酸含量.试验表明,与对照组相比,试验组罗氏沼虾的增重率提高、死亡率降低.血清溶菌酶和SOD活性明显升高,0.5%、1%组中肝胰脏碱性磷酸酶和酸性磷酸酶活力明显增高(P0.05).饲喂适量的芝芪菌质能促进罗氏沼虾的生长和免疫力的提高.

  8. Comparison on the Culture Effects of Four Different Strains of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾不同品系的养殖对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁万文; 陈福艳; 杨学明; 江林源; 黄光华

    2006-01-01

    对罗氏沼虾(Macrobracium rosenbergii)四个选育系--新引进系、原引进系、正交系和反交系,进行了养殖对比研究.研究结果表明:新引进系的生产性能最优,试验池单位养殖产量比反交系增产3.40%,比正交系增产8.35%,比原引进系增产12.16%;试验塘单位养殖产量比反交系增产21.24%,比正交系增产27.60%,比原引进系增产11.12%;杂交系的杂种优势不明显.

  9. Development and Application of the PCR Detection Method of Pathogenic Enterobacters in the Larvae of the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)幼体病原肠杆菌 PCR 检测技术的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪峰; 杨国梁; 高强; 夏正龙; 濮剑威; 慎佩晶; 黄振远

    2015-01-01

    The current study was to develop a PCR-based method to detect Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Two pairs of primers targeted sequences located within the omp A gene of E. cloacae and gyr B gene of E. aerogenes were used to detect E. cloacae and E. aerogenes. Samples collected from infected larvae were detected with the developed PCR method. The expected DNA fragments of 385 bp and 201 bp were from E. cloacae and E. aerogenes, respectively, and no PCR products were amplified from other bacterium. The sensitivity test showed that the detection limits of PCR were 103 CFU/ml for E. cloacae and 102 CFU/ml for E. aerogenes. In addition, the detection results of larval samples were consistent with the actual case of the infectious disease. In summary, the PCR diagnostic method was specific and sensitive and is a reliable tool for identification of E. cloacae and E. aerogenes in infected samples with a little time and cost, which would play an important role in quick diagnose, epidemiology investigation and SPF populations construction of the giant freshwater prawn.%根据罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)幼体培育期主要细菌性病原阴沟肠杆菌 omp A基因序列、产气肠杆菌 gry B 基因序列设计特异性引物,通过对 PCR 扩增产物进行测序鉴定与特异性和敏感性试验,建立了两种病原菌的 PCR 快速检测方法,并对发病样品进行了检测。结果显示,设计的阴沟肠杆菌与产气肠杆菌检测引物能分别扩增出与预计大小一致的385 bp 和201 bp 的特异性片段,与其余供试菌株无交叉反应。两种检测方法的灵敏度分别为103 CFU/ml 和102 CFU/ml。罗氏沼虾幼体样品的检测结果与实际发病情况一致,建立的检测方法也可直接对样品进行 PCR 检测,而无需细菌分离培养。本研究建立的阴沟肠杆菌与产气肠杆菌 PCR 检测方法具有较高的特异性与灵敏度,可缩短检测

  10. Breeding Experiment on Different Sources of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae%不同来源罗氏沼虾幼体的培育对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江林源; 韦信贤; 卢小花; 黄光华; 杨学明; 莫肇誉

    2011-01-01

    2010年2月,对采自江苏吴江、广西三塘和广西南宁国家级良种场共3种不同来源的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii进行从幼体阶段至变态苗阶段的培育试验;干量容积法推算产苗量,计算育苗成活率.试验结果表明,3种不同来源幼体的育苗成活率分别为73.6%、65.2%和90.4%,成活率差异明显;其中,国家级广西南宁罗氏沼虾良种场的育苗成活率最高.在育苗生产中,必须注重罗氏沼虾亲本的种质复壮与培育,才能保证幼虾的质量,有利于提高其养殖成活率.

  11. 不同脂肪源对罗氏沼虾生长及体组织常见组分的影响%Effects of different lipid sources on growth and common nutrients of body tissues in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒; 曹维维; 孙龙生; 李荣福; 王亚君; 陈春风

    2009-01-01

    用5种不同脂肪源组合的饲料(Ⅰ.鱼油0.5%+豆油2.5%;Ⅱ.鱼油0.5%+菜籽油2.5%;Ⅲ.鱼油0.5%+花生油2.5% ;Ⅳ.鱼油0.5%+亚麻油2.5%;Ⅴ.豆油1.5%+亚麻油1.5%)投喂体重为(2.22±0.04)g的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)40 d,研究不同脂肪源对其生长及全虾和肌肉中水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量的影响.结果显示:在生长方面,第Ⅴ组的罗氏沼虾增重显著高于Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组(P<0.05),Ⅰ组和Ⅳ组增重也显著大于Ⅱ组(P<0.05).在体成分方面,Ⅰ组全虾总水分含量最低,显著低于Ⅲ组和Ⅳ组(P<0.05),其他各组间无显著差异(P>0.05);Ⅴ组全虾粗脂肪含量最高,显著高于其他各试验组(P<0.05);Ⅲ组全虾粗蛋白含量显著低于Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组及Ⅴ组(P<0.05);Ⅳ组肌肉总水分含量显著高于其他各组;肌肉粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量各试验组之间差异不显著(P>0.05).

  12. Concentrações de amônia, nitrito e nitrato em larvicultura do camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, realizada em sistema fechado com água salobra natural e artificial Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in a recirculating Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man hatchery, performed with natural and artificial brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cotroni Valenti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da água salobra natural e artificial e da sua utilização em dois cultivos consecutivos sobre as concentrações de amônia, nitrito e nitrato, em sistema fechado de larvicultura de M. rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda. A amônia oscilou entre 1,1 e 74,0 µg/l e o nitrito entre e 1,1 e 34,6 µg/l; estes não diferiram entre os tipos de água analisados. A concentração de nitrato (N aumentou ao longo do tempo (T de forma similar na água natural e artificial, seguindo um modelo linear (N = 0,241T – 0,734. Os resultados indicaram que a água salobra artificial não alterou o processo de nitrificação, tampouco o comportamento das principais variáveis ambientais. A reutilização da água também não produziu nenhum efeito negativo sobre essas variáveis. A fórmula de água do mar artificial aqui apresentada pode ser, portanto usada em sistemas de recirculação para a produção de pós-larvas de M. rosenbergii em até dois cultivos consecutivos.Variations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in a recirculating M. rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda hatchery, reusing natural and artificial brackish water, in two successive cultures, were studied. Ammonia and nitrite values oscillated between 1.1 to 74.0 µg/l and 1.1 to 34.6 µg/l, respectively, and did not differ among the tested water types. Nitrate concentrations (N increased similarly with time (T, according to a linear model (N = 0,241T – 0,734 with both natural and artificial water. Data suggested that the use and reuse of the artificial water did not affect the nitrification process. Therefore, it can be used in recirculating systems for M. rosenbergii hatchery.

  13. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879) Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Almada Thomaz; Lídia Miyako Yoshii Oshiro; Andrea Cecchetto Bambozzi; José Teixeira de Seixas Filho; Leonardo Azevedo da Silva Rosadas

    2004-01-01

    Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786) sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Art...

  14. 罗氏沼虾18S rRNA基因生物素标记探针的制备及应用%Preparation and application of the biotin-labeled probe of 18S rRNA gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高风英; 叶星; 白俊杰; 吴锐全; 劳海华; 简清; 罗建仁

    2005-01-01

    Probes are essential for study of gene expression and regulation. In this study, a method was established to prepare the biotin-labeled probe for 18S rRNA gene of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. And the labeled method was used to produce a lysozyme gene probe, then applied in analysis of lysozyme gene expression. Primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of 18S rRNA of Decalxxta in order to isolate the 18S rRNA gene sequences of M. rosenbergii. Total genomic DNA was isolated from hepatopancreas of the freshwater prawn. A specific DNA fragment with desired size was amplified by PCR using the total DNA as templates. The DNA fragment was inserted into pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. The result of BLAST and alignment analysis confirmed that the DNA fragment isolated was the 18S rRNA gene of M. rosenbergii, which was 418 nt in length.Biotin-labeled probe of the 18S rRNA was then produced by PCR using the recombinant plasmid as templates. The biotin-21-dTTP and the non-labeled dNTP were added to the PCR reaction system. Ratio of the biotin-21-dTTP and the non-labeled dTFP was 3 to 1.The yield of the labeled probe is 300 ng·μL-1. The detection limit of the probe is 60 pg. A biotin-labeled probe of lysozyme gene was prepared by the same label method, and the yield of the lysozyme gene probe is 500 ng·μL-1. These biotin-labeled probes were applied in Northern dot blotting analysis of tissue distribution of lysoyzme mRNA of M. rosenbergii. Signals were scanned and quantified by Analysis System of Biology Image. The signal intensity ratio of the lysozyme to 18S rRNA represents the relative expression level of lysozyme mRNA. The results showed that the lysozyme mRNA existed in all the tissues checked, including eye,muscle, gill, hepatopancreas, haemocytes and intestine. But lysoyzme mRNA levels varied among different tissues. The highest level was found in the intestine, and the second was in the hepatopancreas and the lowest was in the

  15. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786 sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots e testaram-se os seguintes tratamentos: 100% B. plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia sp. (5 nas/mL (T2, 60% Artemia sp. (3 nas/mL + 40% B. plicatilis (12 rots/mL (T3 e 40% Artemia sp. (2 nas/mL + 60% B. plicatilis (18 rots/mL (T4, adicionando-se a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da sobrevivência final em pós-larvas foram analisados pelo teste do X² e demonstraram não haver diferenças significativas do tratamento T2 (68,36% sobre os tratamentos T3 (68,76% e T4 (64,60%. O tratamento T1 (100% B. plicatilis apresentou mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O peso seco médio das pós-larvas foi analisado estatisticamente pela ANOVA, não apresentando diferenças significativas entre os valores de 3,29 mg (T2, 3,08 mg (T3 e 3,38 mg (T4. A taxa de mortalidade baseada no número de larvas encontradas mortas diariamente, em relação ao número de larvas estocadas inicialmente, foi maior para todos os tratamentos nos primeiros 15 dias do experimento. Portanto, os resultados demonstraram que a substituição total de rotíferos enriquecidos e congelados acarretou a mortalidade total das larvas, mas a substituição parcial de 40% e 60% dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo B. plicatilis foi viável, não apresentando prejuízos significativos em termos de sobrevivência e peso seco das pós-larvas.This work was carried out to identify the replacement of the nauplii Artemia

  16. Obtention and characterization of chitin and chitosan from M. rosenbergii; Obtencao e caracterizacao de quitina e quitosana a partr de M. rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, Marcos V.; Campana Filho, Sergio P. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: scampana@iqsc.sc.usp.br

    2001-07-01

    Chitin was extracted from previously ground shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii by applying acid and alkaline treatments, aiming at its demineralization and deprotenization, respectively. Its characteristics and properties were compared with those exhibited by commercial samples of chitin. Commercial chitosan and samples produced by the deacetylation of chitin obtained from M. rosenbergii shells were also compared. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosities of the chitosan were determined by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and by capillary viscosimetry, respectively. The results show that the chitin extracted from Macrobrachium rosenbergii has a lower content of inorganic materials as compared to commercial samples but the chitosan obtained from the former chitin sample is very similar to commercial chitosan. (author)

  17. 豆粕替代鱼粉对罗氏沼虾生长和消化酶活性的影响%EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN SOURCES ON GROWTH AND ACTIVITIES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云伟; 牛翠娟

    2000-01-01

    用豆粕替代鱼粉作为蛋白源配制成5种近似等比能(15.5~18.2kJ.g-1)、等蛋白含量(w(蛋白)=39%)的饲料,其中用豆粕蛋白(SP)分别替代鱼粉蛋白(FP)质量的25%,50%,75%和100%,对照饲料全部以鱼粉作为蛋白源.用上述5种饲料饲喂罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)21d.结果表明,饲料中不同蛋白源对罗氏沼虾生长和消化酶活性没有显著性影响(p>0.05).生长实验和消化酶活性实验的结果都证明,在饲料中用豆粕蛋白替代鱼粉蛋白质量的50%不但不会对罗氏沼虾的生长造成不良影响,反而可以降低饲料成本.

  18. 罗氏沼虾胸神经节中促肌肉蛋白质合成激素的初步分离%Preliminary Isolation of Hormone Stimulating Muscle Protein Synthesis in Thoracic Ganglia from the Prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖家遗; 孙继贤

    2001-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)成虾的胸神经节匀浆液,经Sephadex G-50柱层析所得的第2个峰,再经HPLC分离得到9个组分。把第2个组分的溶液注入罗氏沼虾幼虾体内,其肌肉蛋白质合成明显增加(P<0.01),这种促进蛋白质合成的能力随该溶液的蛋白质浓度的增加而增强。结果表明罗氏沼虾胸神经节能分泌促进虾肌肉生长的激素。该激素的分子量在3.4?kDa以下,可能是虾的生长激素。

  19. 罗氏沼虾白斑综合征病毒囊膜蛋白VP28基因的克隆及分析%Gene Clone and Analysis of Envelope Protein VP28 of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兰; 贡成良; 薛宇醒; 曹广力; 魏育红; 陈辉; 许雅香; 张伟明; 薛仁宇

    2007-01-01

    根据已公布的罗氏沼虾白斑综合征病毒(WSSV)囊膜蛋白VP28基因序列设计一对特异性引物,从疑似患白斑病毒病的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)中提取总DNA,并以此为模板,经PCR扩增、克隆并测序后将该片段通过GenBank比对,证实为WSSV的VP28基因;与20个已公布的WSSV VP28进行同源性比较,结果显示:从中国对虾、斑节对虾、南美白对虾、日本对虾、波纹龙虾提取的病毒株聚为一类,印度对虾WSSV VP28为另一类,罗氏沼虾WSSV VP28又单独为一类.根据测序结果推测VP28蛋白的二级结构在氨基酸的7~29区间可能为跨膜螺旋区,且该区域高度保守.

  20. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879)

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaz,Luciana Almada; Oshiro,Lídia Miyako Yoshii; Bambozzi,Andrea Cecchetto; Seixas Filho,José Teixeira de; Rosadas,Leonardo Azevedo da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786) sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Art...

  1. 实时荧光定量PCR检测凡纳滨对虾和罗氏沼虾卵黄蛋白原mRNA在卵巢和肝胰腺中的表达%Quantitative analysis of vitellogenin mRNA expression in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 蔡生力; 刘红

    2012-01-01

    Vitellin, as the major constituent of the yolk protein is to provide nutrition to the developing of embryos and early larve in crustaceans. Its source and biosynthesis regularity have been the focus of crustacean research in past decades. The accurate site for vitellogenin synthesis was investigated in two representative shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii with real-time PCR in this experiment.Based on histological observation, the ovarian development was divided into six stages in L. vannamei (oogonium proliferation, previtellogenic, primary vitellogenic, secondary vitellogenic, mature, and recovery stages) and five stages in M. rosenbergii (previtellogenic, primary vitellogenic, secondary vitellogenic, mature, and gravid stages). It was found that both L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii expressed Vg-mRNA in hepatopancreas and ovary. In L. vannamei, the relative quantity of Vg-mRNA expression of each developmental stage was 1.1, 5.9, 10.4, 26.9, 85.3, and 1.5 in ovary, and 1.3, 3.2, 7.1, 37.2, 51.6, and 1.0 in hepatopancreas respectively. In M. rosenbergii, the relative quantity of Vg-mRNA expression of hepatopancreas in each ovarian developmental stage was 3.4, 12.6, 15.2, 38.9, and 2.9 compared to 1.0, 1.3, 1.7, 4.8, and 1.5 in ovary, respectively. In all examined shrimps the Vg-mRNA expression decreased sharply to the minimum at the last development stage. The research confirmed that both penaeid shrimp(Litopenaeus vannamei) and caridea prawn(Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were able to synthesize the vitellin in ovary and hepatopancreas, and with the gonad development, the vitellin synthesis showed clear regularity.%卵黄磷蛋白作为卵黄蛋白的主要成分,可为甲壳动物胚胎和早期幼体发育提供能量,为研究其来源及合成规律,实验应用SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量PCR法检测了凡纳滨对虾和罗氏沼虾性腺不同发育时期卵巢和肝胰腺两种组织中卵黄蛋白原mRNA的表达水平.结果发

  2. 虾青素对日本沼虾血细胞密度及吞噬活力的影响%Effects of astaxanthin on density and phagotrophic ability of blood lymphocyte of prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢剑华; 管越强; 王静波

    2008-01-01

    从雨生红球藻粉中提取虾青素,以60mg/kg的浓度添加到日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponensis)的配合饵料中,在实验室条件下饲养三周,研究虾青素对日本沼虾血淋巴密度及吞噬活力(吞噬百分比和吞噬指数)的影响.结果显示添加虾青素组的日本沼虾不论是血细胞密度还是吞噬活力都显著高于对照组,表明虾青素可显著提高日本沼虾的免疫力.

  3. Fecundity and Embryonic Development in Three Macrobrachium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannatul Ferdous

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity of three Macrobrachium species (M. rosenbergii, M. malcolmsonii and M. lamarrei was estimated through random sampling followed by egg counting where highest fecundity was observed in M. rosenbergii (1408±709 and lowest in M. malcolmsonii (32±7. Fecundity per individual, per unit body length and per unit body weight was higher in summer (in M. rosenbergii. In all three species, length vs. fecundity relationship was found to be significant but weight vs. fecundity was insignificant in case of M. malcolmsonii and M. lamarrei. Relative fecundity (/cm vs. total length relationship of M.rosenbergii was insignificant in winter but significant in summer, insignificant for M. malcolmsonii and significant for M. lamarrei. Whereas, relative fecundity (/gm vs. total weight relationship was insignificant in all the species. Comparatively larger eggs were found in M. lamarei (0.55mm and smaller in M. rosenbergii (0.39mm. In the same time, a microscopic study was conducted to observe the embryonic development of selected species where successive stages of embryonic development was visualized from developing eggs of same individual indicated the asynchronous fertilization.

  4. Effects of Vitamin C Content on the Growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii%饲料中维生素C添加量对罗氏沼虾生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锐全; 肖学铮; 黄樟翰; 卢迈新; 谢骏

    2000-01-01

    用分别添加了100~800ms/kg饲料维生素C的多聚磷酸酯(LAPP,维生素C含量25%)的实用性饲料饲养罗氏沼虾(Mcrobrachium rosenbergii)40d.结果显示:投喂添加维生素C饲料的罗氏沼虾的成活率为85.6%~88.9%;增重率为118.15%~140.59%,饲料系数为2.80~2.54.与不添加维生素C相比,在饲料中添加200mg/kg饲料以上的LAPP,虽然对成活率的影响不显著,但能使生长速度显著提高,饲料系数显著降低.据此认为以LAPP作罗氏沼虾饲料的维生素C源的适宜添加量为200mg/kg.

  5. Effects of Crystalline Methionine and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) Butanoic Acid on Growth Performance and Protein Metabolism of Juvenile Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii%饲料中补充晶体蛋氨酸和羟基蛋氨酸钙对罗氏沼虾幼虾生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雄培; 周歧存; 黎明; 杨晴; Zacharia Cassian Elmada

    2015-01-01

    饲料中添加30%鱼粉为对照组饲料和6组试验饲料(分别替代对照组中16.67%、33.33%和50.00%的鱼粉,同一鱼粉替代水平的2组分别添加晶体蛋氨酸和羟基蛋氨酸钙,使其蛋氨酸含量与对照组一致)喂养罗氏沼虾(初始体重为(0.29±0.04) g )10周,研究不同鱼粉替代水平下,分别添加晶体蛋氨酸和羟基蛋氨酸钙对罗氏沼虾幼虾生长性能和血清生化指标的影响.结果表明:复合蛋白源替代对照组16.67%鱼粉并补充羟基蛋氨酸钙组的增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率和饲料系数同对照组无显著差异(P>0.05);同一鱼粉替代水平下,羟基蛋氨酸钙组的增重率、特定生长率和蛋白质效率均显著高于晶体蛋氨酸组(P<0.05).血清生化组成的分析结果表明:血清总蛋白含量各处理组之间差异显著(P<0.05),对照组血清谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活力显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),其中同一替代水平下,饲料中添加羟基蛋氨酸钙组谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活力低于添加晶体蛋氨酸组.由此可见,与晶体蛋氨酸相比,羟基蛋氨酸钙能更有效提高罗氏沼虾生长性能和饲料利用效率.%This experiment is conducted to study the effects of L-Methionine (L-Met) or Methionine hydroxy analogue calcium (MHA-Ca) on growth performance, plasma biochemical indices and protein metabolism of juvenile giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A fish meal diet was included as a control. 2×3 factorial arrangement with two methionine resources (L-Met and MHA-Ca) and three fish meal replacement levels (16.67%, 33.33% and 50.00%) was used. L-Met and MHA-Ca were supplemented respectively to the experimental diets in order to match the methionine profile of the control diet. Each diet was fed to juvenile giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (average initial weight (0.29±0.04) g) for 10 weeks. The results are presented as follows

  6. EFEKTIVITAS MINERAL KALSIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN YUWANA UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Emmawati Hadie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pertumbuhan udang galah dibatasi oleh kulitnya yang bersifat tidak elastis, karena terdiri atas khitin. Agar udang galah tumbuh dengan baik, maka harus ada unsur mineral dalam pakannya. Salah satu mineral yang bersifat esensial adalah mineral kalsium. Kalsium mempunyai fungsi dalam pembentukan tulang, jaringan lunak, proses regulasi dalam tubuh, dan menjaga keseimbangan asam basa. Oleh karena peran penting dari kalsium tersebut, maka dilakukan penelitian mengenai efek mineral kalsium dalam ransum pakan udang galah terhadap pertumbuhannya. Hewan uji yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah yuwana udang galah dengan kisaran bobot 56,0 ± 3,0 mg. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah kalsium 1,0%; 3,0%; 5,0%; 7,0%; dan 0,0% sebagai kontrol. Setiap perlakuan mendapat 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kadar kalsium dalam ransum pakan sangat mempengaruhi laju pertumbuhan harian udang galah (P<0,05. Kadar kalsium yang optimal dalam ransum pakan udang galah adalah sebesar 3,46%. The growth of giant prawn is limited by a non elastic material called chitin, which is a limiting factor in its growth. Feed containing mineral is needed to improve its growth. One of the essential minerals is calcium. The function of calcium is essential in bone and soft tissue formations, acid balancing, and regulation processes in the body. Because of its benefits, the research on the calcium effect on giant prawn was conducted. The aims of this study was to know the effect of calcium on the growth rate of giant prawn juvenile. Test animals were juveniles of giant prawn with average weight of 56.0 ± 3.0 mg. Research design employed complete randomized design with five calcium mineral treatments as follows:1.0%, 3.0%, 5.0%, 7.0%, and 0.0% as control. Each treatment has three replications. The result showed that calcium affected the daily growth rate of giant prawn (P<0.05. The calcium dosage of 3.46% is the optimum level for giant prawn juvenile.

  7. RESPONS SELEKSI UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii DALAM LINGKUNGAN AIR PAYAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Hadie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi respons seleksi udang galah yang dipelihara dalam lingkungan bersalinitas hingga generasi kedua. Udang galah dipelihara dalam lingkungan air payau dengan salinitas 0‰, 10‰, dan 15‰. Penelitian dilakukan hingga generasi kedua dalam lingkungan yang sama. Metode seleksi pada generasi pertama dan kedua dilakukan dengan seleksi keluarga (family selection. Seleksi pada masing-masing generasi dilakukan pada karakter pertumbuhan dalam masing-masing lingkungan salinitas. Secara keseluruhan respons seleksi harapan untuk semua genotipe mencapai 5,58 g per generasi dan respons seleksi kenyataan untuk semua genotipe mencapai 3,07 g per generasi di atas rataan tetua. Hasil ini sangat bermakna dalam meningkatkan ukuran bobot badan udang galah sebagai keberhasilan program seleksi. Hasil ini berlaku untuk seleksi pada salinitas perlakuan hingga 15‰. This research aimed to evaluate the selection response of the giant freshwater prawn cultured in different salinity levels that were observed up to second generation. Prawns were reared in brackish water environment with salinity levels of 0%, 10%, and 15%. Research was conducted up to the second generation in the same salinity level environments. Method of selection was family selection applied to both first and second generations. Selection process of each generation was performed on the growth character of prawns in each salinity level environment. Overall, expected selection response of all genotype achieved 5.58 g per generation and real selection response for all genotype reached 3.07 g above the parent generation. The result is arguably very meaningful in the effort of increasing the body mass of tiger prawn. The findings are valid for selection using salinity level up to 15 ppm.

  8. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species.

  9. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  10. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system.

  11. Obtenção e caracterização de α-quitina e quitosanas de cascas de Macrobrachium rosembergii Preparation and characterization of α-chitin and chitosan from the shells of Macrobrachium rosembergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Battisti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were submitted to deproteinization (Dp and demineralization (Dm aiming the extraction of α-chitin. The different parts of the shells were processed independently by carrying out sequence 1 (Dp/Dm and sequence 2 (Dm/Dp. Both sequences allowed the extraction of chitins with low contents of calcium and magnesium, regardless of the part being processed. The sequence 1 lead to higher extraction yields while sequence 2 resulted in lower contents of inorganic compounds. Extensively deacetylated chitosans (GA<10% of medium molecular weight (0,9 x 10(5 < Mv < 2 x 10(5 g/mol resulted from the deacetylation of chitin.

  12. Mixed culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of periphyton-based aquaculture has been tested and applied in aquaculture. Positive effects of substrate addition for periphyton development included increasing the food supply and providing shelter for culture animals. The aim of this project was to develop a low-cost

  13. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  14. Genetic variation among different morphotypes of the male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differences between the blue claw male (BC, orange claw male (OC and small male (SM morphotypes of male freshwater prawns were assessed using microsatellite DNA markers. Thirty individuals from each of the three groups of male prawns were collected from a hatchery rearing system in Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Significant differences in growth were observed between the three groups. The total numbers of alleles per locus in the BC, OC and SM groups were found to be 23, 27 and 21, respectively from all loci. The average observed heterozygosities (Ho ranged from 0.48 to 0.56 across all loci in the three groups. The mean FIS of −0.018 indicated an excess of heterozygosity. The pair-wise comparisons and the FST values revealed significant genetic differentiation across the groups. The greatest genetic distance was observed between the BC and SM groups and lowest one was between the BC and the OC groups.

  15. KORELASI PADAT TEBAR DAN DEBIT AIR DALAM TEKNIK PENDEDERAN BENIH UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii SECARA INTENSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Hadie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Riset ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui korelasi antara padat tebar dan debit air dalam teknik pendederan udang galah. Riset dilakukan dengan menggunakan bak ukuran 4 m x 2 m x 0,75 m yang mempunyai sistem air mengalir. Perlakuan yang diaplikasikan adalah padat tebar dalam tiga tingkatan yaitu 250, 500, dan 750 ekor/m2 yang dikombinasikan dengan tiga tingkat debit air yaitu 0,010; 0,020; dan 0,030 liter/detik/m2. Setiap perlakuan dilakukan dengan 3 ulangan. Udang galah dalam penelitian ini adalah PL-44 dengan ukuran 0,04 g. Pendederan udang galah dilaksanakan selama 40 hari. Hasil riset menunjukkan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara variabel padat tebar dan debit air. Variabel debit air memberikan kontribusi sebesar 57% dan variabel padat tebar mempunyai kontribusi 18% dalam mendukung sintasan benih udang galah. Hasil terbaik dicapai oleh perlakuan padat tebar 500 ekor/m2 dan debit air 0,030 liter/detik/m2 dengan laju pertumbuhan harian udang mencapai rata-rata 2,84% dan sintasan sebesar 89,6% selama 40 hari masa pemeliharaan. The research aim was to evaluate the correlation between fry density and water flow rate in the nursery of giant prawn. The experiment was conducted in concrete tanks. The treatment consisted of three levels, 250, 500, and 750 fry/m2 and combination of three levels of water flow, i.e. 0.010, 0.020, and 0.030 litre/second/m2. Three replications were used in each treatments. The prawn fry were PL-14 with 0.04 g of average weight. The research was conducted for 40 days of post-larvae rearing. Result of this experiment showed that there was interaction between density and water flow. The data analysis indicated that there were 57% contribution of water flow and 18% of fry density to survival rate of giant prawn. The best result was showed by the density of 500 fry/m2 and water flow of 0.030 litre/second/m2. The specimen have specific growth rate of 2.84% and survival rate of 89.6% for 40 days of rearing.

  16. UPAYA PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS DALAM USAHA PEMBESARAN UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang galah mengalami perkembangan yang cukup pesat, khususnya pada sektor pembesaran. Namun demikian, pada kondisi di lapangan masih sering muncul berbagai kendala, disebabkan belum tersosialisasikan sistem budidaya dan kurangnya penguasaan teknologi spesifik dalam budidaya udang galah. Oleh karena itu, sosialisasi teknologi tepat guna dalam mendukung perkembangan udang galah menjadi hal yang sangat penting dalam rangka lebih dimengertinya sistem budidaya udang galah. Upaya peningkatan produktivitas dalam usaha pembesaran udang galah dapat dilakukan dengan penerapan intensivikasi pemeliharaan dan pengembangan sentra budidaya.

  17. RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD FINGERPRINTING OF SIX INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of giant fresh water prawn (GFP germ plasms. Best utilization of these resources for the purpose of either aquaculture development or conservation of genetic resources requires some information on the structure and levels of their genetic diversity. This study was aimed to characterize those GFP genetic resources by applying RAPD genetic markers. Six Indonesian populations of GFP from Asahan, Barito, Ciasem, Ogan, GImacro and Papua were collected and analyzed for their genetic variation using five RAPD primers. The results showed the diversity within the populations, as revealed by the level of polymorphism, ranged from 29% to 76% while genetic divergence between populations as shown by genetic distance ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. In terms of genetic divergence, two genetically distinct groups of GFP, namely the Papua GFP in one group and the remaining five GFP populations in the other, were identified. The results also showed the presence of specific population markers that are useful for genetic identification of GFP populations. Implication of these finding with regard to breed development is discussed.

  18. Macrobrachium rosenbergii whitish muscle disease%罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱平; 江育林; 钱冬; 陈昌福; 李安兴; 黄捷; 杨冰

    2011-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病,又称白尾病(WTD),是由罗氏沼虾野田村病毒引起的一种急性病毒性疾病,主要危害罗氏沼虾苗种,以急性死亡、病虾肌肉呈白斑或白浊状为特征.我国将其列为二类疫病,OIE将其列为必须通报疾病.

  19. THE EFFECT OF INBREEDING ON THE EARLY PERFORMANCE OF FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression has often been considered to be responsible for the deterioration of performance in aquaculture species. Despite a crucial impact that may result from inbreeding depression, comprehensive information reviewing this subject is limited. This study was aimed to gain information on the effect of inbreeding on the early performance of freshwater prawn. The study was performed by comparing performance of inbred and outbred populations. Inbred population was established by brother-sister mating (inbreeding rate of 25% while the outbred population was formed by mating unrelated individuals. Several fitness and productivity related traits including survival, the rate of larval development, stage dispersion and growth of larvae were evaluated. Results suggest that inbred families performed poorer than that of the outbred in survival. However, inbreeding depression did not seem to occur in other traits including the rate of larval development, larval stage dispersion and growth. This study implies that to maintain genetic quality of farmed prawn stocks, inbreeding rate in farmed population must be controlled not to exceed that level. Implications that these findings may have on aquaculture practices and possible alternatives for the solutions are discussed.

  20. Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Kenkre, V.D.; Sreepada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    collected to screen bacteria in ovary, digestive tract and ventral abdominal muscles. Before sacrificing, eggs were collected from their brood pouches using sterile forceps. Eggs collected from the same tank were mixed in a sterile test tube containing... sterile distilled water to form one sample. The remaining four berried prawns from each broodstock tank were then transferred to two different spawning tanks. Eggs were Ž. collected from the two spawning tanks 2 days after transfer day 2 . Two more samples...

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF SEVERAL INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in morphological variability have been the main basis for conventional genetic improvement program, particularly in selective breeding. Proper understanding on these patterns hence, is of crucial prerequisite before any scheme of breeding program is undertaken. This study was aimed to explore those morphological variations with emphasis on the assessment of among-population and among-trait variations and assessment of predictive traits that may serve for inter-population differentiation. A total 281 individuals representing four natural populations (Asahan, Ogan, Barito, and Ciasem and one domesticated stock (GIMacro were sampled and analyzed for variability in thirteen morphological traits. While descriptive analyses were applied to analyze both among-stock and among-trait variations, discriminant function analysis was used to search for the best traits for interpopulation differentiation. The relative variability, expressed in the coefficient of variation (CV, was used to compare the amount and patterns of morphometric variability both among traits and between stocks. Results showed that total body weight was the most variable trait while the length and meristic traits were of lower level. Discriminant analysis found that rostrum length and abdoment length to be the best morphological discriminators among intraspecific populations. However, the continuous natures of these traits make them have limited applicability for intraspecific population differentiation.

  2. Research on the river shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium (Bate, 1868 (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae with known or potential economic importance: strengths and weaknesses shown through scientometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Chong-Carrillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed that the scientific interest in the genus Macrobrachium was not restricted to a biological point of view, but included also social and economic aspects. Many species of the genus are subject of traditional fisheries and culture worldwide. Several research groups across the globe have developed projects in various subject areas on commercial or non-commercial native species of this genus. This investigation aimed to contribute to the development of the genus Macrobrachium research through a scientometric study. The study was based on publications (1980 to 2013 registered in the following databases: Biological Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, SciELO Citation Index, BioOne, Science Direct, Scopus, and Redalyc. A total of 2165 publications on Macrobrachium in the last 33 years were included in this analysis. The themes that yielded most posts were related to culture, nutrition/feeding, and genetics with almost 60% of the total. Publications concerning M. rosenbergii represented more than 60% of the total with the remaining 40% encompassing 22 other species. Analysis performed by geographical regions evidenced that Latin America produced 23% of the publications, South Asia 22%, and East Asia 16%. Brazil generated 65% of the percentage mentioned for the Latin American region. It is necessary to strengthen research on topics of basic biology, especially those of native species. This will allow rapid progress in the generation of production technologies sustained by a solid biological knowledge base.

  3. Fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. da Silva

    Full Text Available In Brazil, studies with native freshwater prawn species were discontinued due to great importance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Therefore, it is necessary to continue investigations about our species, in order to develop technology adequate to our reality and in a future allow prawn farmers to culture other species. The aim of this study was to determine the fecundity and fertility of Macrobrachium amazonicum captured monthly from June 1999 to June 2001 from Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará, Brazil. Prawns were collected using fishing net and transferred at Biological Science Laboratory, Ceará State University (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Among the ovigerous M. amazonicum females, 60 were randomly selected to determine fecundity. The eggs adhered to the pleopods were taken out and they were then placed in a Gilson solution, and then stored in alcohol 70%. Individual fecundity was determined from the total egg counting, using a stereoscopic microscope. To determine fertility, ovigerous M. amazonicum females were stored in individual 10 L-glass tanks maintained under strong aeration. After the hatching, the larvae were siphoned and counted. The data referring to total length and weight of all the females, storage date, coloration and number of eggs, weight and coloration of gonad and number of hatched larvae were noted. With respect to average fecundity (F by length classes, the lowest and highest number of eggs observed was 696 and 1,554, respectively. As for fecundity by weight classes, the lowest number of eggs observed was 760 and the highest, 1,690. The highest number of eggs observed individually per hatching was 2,193. Average fecundity/total length (L and average fecundity/total weight (W may be expressed by a linear relationship. The adjusted equations are: F = -411.6 + 203.1 L (p < 0.0001 and F = 566.4 + 157.3 W (p < 0.0001, respectively. In the analysis of average fertility (N per length classes, the lowest and highest number of

  4. 罗氏沼虾诺达病毒TAS-ELISA检测法的建立及应用研究%Establishment and application of TAS-ELISA for the detection of M. rosenbergii Nodavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱冬; 刘问; 潘晓艺; 曹铮; 于涟

    2006-01-01

    罗氏沼虾肌肉白浊病(Whitish muscle diseases of Macrobrachium rosenbergii)是近年来流行于罗氏沼虾苗种阶段的严重疾病,该病病原已确定为罗氏沼虾诺达病毒(Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus,MrNV).作者在病毒超离提纯的基础上,制备了罗氏沼虾诺达病毒兔抗血清,并应用抗罗氏沼虾诺达病毒单克隆抗体2B5,建立了三抗体夹心酶联免疫检测方法(TAS-ELISA).TAS-ELISA最适反应条件为:兔抗体以1μg/mL包板,小鼠单抗2B5的工作浓度为1:50000,该法检测MrNV的灵敏度达0.98ng,对WSSV、TSV及其他细菌感染死亡的罗氏沼虾苗没有非特异性反应.通过对2000-2002年病虾及疑似病虾的病毒检测,表明TAS-ELISA法比间接ELISA法和核酸电泳法有更高的阳性检出率和符合率;此外还摸索了降低孵育温度和缩短孵育时间对病毒检测的影响,表明各步孵育温度和时间分别为25℃和20 min对于白浊症状的病苗检测无明显影响,使得本法更加适合于生产实践.

  5. Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC, orange claw (OC and small male (SM at harvest in all-male culture and assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m−2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m−2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density was significant (P < 0.05 affect adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yields performance was from 20 juvenile m−2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22 was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01 and the BC (0.43 population. The survival rate of the SM population was 100% while others were 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the OC male (23.87 g than the SM (19.57 g and the BC male (6.31 g. Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.

  6. RADE-OFFS DAN COST OF PLASTICITY SIFAT PERTUMBUHAN DAN REPRODUKSI PADA PERSILANGAN UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii DALAM SALINITAS BERBEDA

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    Wartono Hadie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh salinitas pada karakter pertumbuhan dan reproduksi dalam bentuk trade-offs dan cost of plasticity. Benih udang galah dengan bobot 0,01 ± 0,012 g dipelihara pada tiga level salinitas 0‰, 10‰, dan 15‰ dengan tiga ulangan. Sembilan persilangan diperoleh dari perkawinan antar dan dalam strain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada salinitas 10‰, udang memperlambat pertumbuhan sebesar 16,4% dan pada salinitas 15‰ memperlambat pertumbuhan 34,5%. Trade-offs terjadi dengan menurunkan fekunditas sebesar 0,47% pada salinitas 10‰, dan sebesar 18,73% pada salinitas 15‰. Sintasan udang mengalami penurunan sebesar 33,04% pada salainitas 10‰, dan 41,99% pada salinitas 15‰. Pertumbuhan udang terbaik terjadi pada salinitas 0‰ dengan rataan bobot mencapai 25,16 g, sintasan sebesar 63,17%, dan fekunditas berjumlah 23.384 butir telur. Research aimed to evaluated the effects of growth and reproduction trait in salinity expressed on the trade-offs and cost of plasticity. Giant prawn juvenile 0.01 ± 0.012 g of body weight were reared at three different salinities level i.e. 0‰, 10‰, and 15‰ with three replications. Nine crosses strain were obtained from cross breeding between and within strain. Result of research indicated that salinity of 10‰, prawn slower the growth equal to 16.4% and at salinity of 15‰ slower the growth up to 34.5%. Trade-offs happened by decreasing fecundity equal to 0.47% and 18.73% at salinity 10‰ and 15‰ respectively. Decreased of survival rate were 33.04% and 41.99% at salinity 10‰ and 15‰ respectively. The best performance is that salinity of 0‰ are 25.16 g, 63.17%, and 23,384 eggs for the body weight, survival rate, and fecundity respectively.

  7. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KALSIUM PADA MEDIA TERHADAP SIKLUS MOLTING DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIOMASSA UDANG GALAH, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

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    Azam Bachur Zaidy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penambahan kalsium ke dalam media dalam proses peningkatan kadar kalsium kulit dan konsumsi pakan, serta konsekuensinya bagi pertumbuhan udang. Penelitian tahap 1 dengan perlakuan dosis penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 0 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 45 mg/L, dan 60 mg/L, dengan 3 ulangan. Penelitian tahap 2 dengan perlakuan penambahan kalsium 0 mg/L, 30 mg/L, dan 60 mg/L. Parameter yang diukur meliputi kadar kalsium kulit, tingkat konsumsi pakan, laju pertumbuhan, dan efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan. Penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 15-60 mg/L meningkatkan kadar kalsium media (25,51-35,22 mg/L dibanding dengan kontrol (18,53 mg/L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan kalsium Ca(OH2 sebanyak 30 mg/L mampu mempercepat laju peningkatan kadar kalsium kulit. Laju peningkatan kadar kalsium kulit yang lebih cepat berimplikasi terhadap peningkatan konsumsi pakan dan berkonsekuensi lanjut bagi peningkatan pertumbuhan udang. Aplikasi penggunaan kalsium  Ca(OH2 sebanyak 15-30 mg/L untuk mempercepat proses ganti kulit udang berimplikasi terhadap pertumbuhan udang. Konsumsi pakan harian, mulai meningkat pada penambahan Ca(OH2 15 mg/L, dan tertinggi pada perlakuan penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 45 mg/L. Laju pertumbuhan biomassa pada media yang ditambah Ca(OH2 sebanyak 30 dan 60 mg/L memberikan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05. Efisiensi tingkat konsumsi pakan perlakuan penambahan Ca(OH2  sebanyak 30 mg/L lebih tinggi dibanding perlakuan penambahan Ca(OH2 sebanyak 0 dan 60 mg/L. This research was aimed to study the effect of calcium addition into culture media in order to increase husk calcium and food consumption and its consequences to prawn growth. Research phase 1 consisted of treatments of Ca(OH2 addition i.e. 0 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 45 mg/L, and 60 mg/L, with 3 replications for all  treatments. Research phase 2 consisted of treatments of calcium addition of 0 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 60 mg/L. The measured parameters were the rate of husk calcium, feed consumption rate,  growth rate, and feed conversion ratio. The Ca (OH2 addition was 15-60 mg/L to increase calcium concentration in the media (25.51-35.22 mg/L compared to the control (18.53 mg/L. Result of the research indicated that the usage of calcium Ca(OH2 of 30 mg/L can accelerate the calsium deposition in prawn husk. Acceleration of calsium deposition has direct implication to the increase of FCR and thus it increases prawn growth rate. Application of calcium Ca(OH2 addition of 15-30 mg/L to accelerate molting process has positive effect on the growth rate of prawn. Daily food consumption rate started to increase with the addition of 15 mg/L of Ca(OH2, and the highest was reached at the concentration of 45 mg/L Ca(OH2. Growth rate of prawn biomass in culture media added with 30 and 60 mg/L of Ca(OH2 were significantly different (P<0.05. Better food consumption efficiency levels were achieved by the treatment of Ca(OH2 addition of 30 mg/L compared to the other treatments.

  8. PERTUMBUHAN DAN SINTASAN BENIH UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man PADA PENDEDERAN BERBASIS SISTEM HETEROTROF DENGAN PADAT TEBAR BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategi untuk meningkatkan produksi udang galah dapat ditempuh melalui penyediaan benih unggul dalam jumlah memadai dan berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan komponen teknologi pendederan udang galah yang lebih produktif. Teknologi bioflok pada sistem pendederan udang galah, dengan titik berat pada optimasi peran bakteri heterotrof untuk pengendalian senyawa toksik limbah budidaya diharapkan dapat meningkatkan produktivitas melalui peningkatan padat tebar dan sintasan benih. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga tingkat kepadatan benih dan satu kontrol, yang terdiri dari: A kepadatan 1 ekor/L, tanpa sistem heterotrof (TSH; B kepadatan 1 ekor/L dengan sistem heterotrof (SH; C 2 ekor/L dengan SH; D 3 ekor/L dengan SH, masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Sistem heterotrof dijalankan dengan menambahkan molase sebagai sumber karbon dan bakteri Bacillus sp. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan padat tebar dan sistem pengelolaan air memberikan pengaruh nyata (P<0,05 baik terhadap sintasan maupun pertumbuhan benih. Nilai sintasan akhir benih yang diperoleh yaitu 63,3±13,6%; 78,0±22,0%; 88,7±8,1%; dan 89,6±3,7%, berturut-turut untuk perlakuan A, B, C, dan D. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa melalui penerapan teknologi bioflok pendederan udang galah dapat dilakukan tanpa pergantian air dengan kepadatan hingga 3 ekor/L.

  9. 罗氏沼虾养殖技术要点%Technical key on culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑慧; 曾党胜

    2000-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾原产于热带淡水或咸淡水域.1962年人工繁殖取得成功,1976年我国从日本引进试养,并很快推广到全国各地.近年养殖面积不断增加,养殖技术也不断提高.现将罗氏沼虾的养殖技术要点进行归纳,希望对养殖户有所帮助.

  10. C/N ratio control and substrate addition for periphyton development jointly enhance freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii production in ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Huque, S.; Salam, M.A.; Azim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) control in ponds with or without substrate addition for periphyton development on production of giant freshwater prawn. C/N ratios of 10, 15 and 20 were investigated in 40 m¿ 2 ponds stocked with 2 prawn juveniles (5.0

  11. ISOLASI DAN SKRINING BAKTERI NITRIFIKASI SERTA APLIKASINYA PADA BIOFILTRASI MEDIA PEMELIHARAAN LARVA UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan isolat bakteri nitrifikasi yang memiliki potensi mengoksidasi amonia dan nitrit pada media pemeliharaan larva udang galah. Bakteri diisolasi dari bak pengolahan air bekas pemeliharaan larva udang galah di Loka Riset Pemuliaan dan Teknologi Budidaya Perikanan Air Tawar, Sukamandi. Sebanyak 52 isolat bakteri berhasil diisolasi, yang terdiri atas 25 isolat tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-1 dan 27 isolat tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-2. Di antara isolat bakteri yang tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-1 hanya tiga isolat yang mampu mengoksidasi amonia, yaitu Acinetobacter ligniersii A10, Chromobacterium violaceum C2, dan Acinetobacter anitratus C1. Uji oksidasi amonia terhadap tiga isolat yang diperoleh dan satu strain kontrol, Pseudomonas stutzeri ASLT2, menunjukkan bahwa P. stutzeri mempunyai kemampuan oksidasi amonia lebih tinggi dibanding A. ligniersii A10, C. violaceum C2, dan A. anitratus. Uji kemampuan 27 isolat bakteri yang tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-2 menunjukkan bahwa semua isolat tersebut tidak dapat mengoksidasi nitrit. Inokulasi bakteri nitrifikasi (P. stutzeri dan bakteri denitrifikasi (Alcaligenes sp. pada bak filter tidak berpengaruh terhadap perbaikan kualitas air dan pertumbuhan larva udang galah. The aim of this study was to obtain nitrifying bacteria which have high potency to oxidize ammonium and nitrite and to know the effectiveness of application of bioremediation bacteria in giant freshwater larvae rearing. The bacteria were isolated from waste water treatment tank of freshwater prawn hatchery of Research Institute for Breeding and Freshwater Aquaculture, Sukamandi. Fifty two isolates, i.e. 25 isolates grew on nitrification-1 medium and 27 isolates grew on nitrification-2 medium. The ammonium oxidation test showed that only three of 25 isolates were capable to oxidize ammonium, i.e. Acinetobacter ligniersii A10, Chromobacterium violaceum C1, and Acinetobacter anitratus C2 and one control strain, Pseudomonas stutzeri ASLT2. Further test or screening, showed that P. stutzeri oxidized ammonium more effective than either A. ligniersii A10, C. violaceum C2, or A. anitratus C1. The nitrite oxidation test showed that all isolates could not oxidized nitrite. The result on bacteria Inoculation, i.e. nitrifying bacteria (P. stutzeri and denitrifying bacteria (Alcaligenes sp., on filter tank indicated that the bacteria was not able to either reduce ammonium and nitrite concentration or stimulate prawn larvae growth.

  12. Potentialités et intérêts de l'élevage larvaire de la crevette d'eau douce indigène Macrobrachium carcinus (L. (Palaemonidae aux Antilles françaises

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    HERMAN F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available De précédents travaux, réalisés en laboratoire, ont montré que le développement larvaire de Macrobrachium carcinus nécessitait un environnement salin. Le nombre de larves mises en élevage lors de ces essais était cependant trop faible pour envisager une production de masse de l'espèce. Lors de l'expérience ici présentée, 46.900 larves au stade I ont été mises en élevage à une température oscillant entre 28 et 30°C. Il a été montré qu'en faisant varier la salinité, la production de masse de post-larves était possible en 45 jours, avec un taux de survie finale de 14,3 % et un taux de métamorphose de 10,6 %. Ces résultats sont nettement inférieurs à ceux obtenus en routine avec l'espèce indonésienne Macrobrachium rosenbergii, mais attestent des possibilités d'élevage de M. carcinus aux Antilles françaises et ailleurs.

  13. 罗氏沼虾育苗生产上的光照条件%Light conditions on larval rearing ofMacrobrachiun rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小涛

    1998-01-01

    @@罗氏沼虾 ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii )是世界淡水养殖的优良品种之一.近年来,随着我国特别是南方各省养殖业的迅速发展,对苗种需求量猛增,人工育苗已由小规模、粗放式向高密度、工厂化发展.但育苗生产中出现的种种问题也暴露出对幼体生理生态等基础研究的不足.作者曾就罗氏沼虾幼体的摄食生态及生物能量学等作过系统的研究,其中有的研究成果具有较大的实用价值.本文介绍照度、光照时间及饲育容器的色彩和亮度影响幼体摄食的结果并探讨在育苗生产上的应用.

  14. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural

  15. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower 4066, QLD (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Exposed three species of prawns of same genus to solid- and dissolved-phase metals. • Cd bioaccumulated from dissolved phase was significantly different between species. • All three species retained >95% of bioaccumulated Cd during the depuration phase. • Bioaccumulation of As, Pb and Zn from solid phase was different between species. • Results highlight variability among species, even under controlled conditions. - Abstract: Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p < 0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated

  16. Review of Palaemoninae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Vietnam, Macrobrachium excepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Van N.

    1992-01-01

    An account is presented of the species of Palaemoninae known from Vietnam, the genus Macrobrachium excluded. Of each species a description or descriptive notes are provided, and the habitat and economic importance are discussed. Illustrations of each species, two of which are new to science, are giv

  17. Foregut morphology of Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, J.F.; GARCIA, J. da S.; Tavares, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Macrobrachium carcinus is a Brazilian native prawn with recognized potential for use in aquaculture activities. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate in detail the morphology of the M. carcinus foregut. The foregut comprises the mouth, esophagus and stomach. It is lined by a simple cylindrical epithelium overlain by chitinous cuticle. The cardiac chamber is well supplied with muscles and lined with chitin thickened in places to form a complex, articulating set of ossic...

  18. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.

  19. Presence of the Japanese Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium Nipponense (De Haan, 1849) (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, S.S.C.; Khoo, H.W.; Ng, P.K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Characters of adults and larvae are given to differentiate between Macrobrachium nipponense and M. sintangense. The presence of the former in Singapore is stated and explained as an introduction from Japan or China, possibly with ornamental fishes.

  20. Effect of ambient temperature on heart rate and tissue magnesium concentration between Macrobrachium rosenbergii and macrobrachium nipponese%水温对罗氏沼虾和青虾心率及组织中镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺昌; 于敏; 魏亦军

    2003-01-01

    罗氏沼虾的心率随水温的降低而变化,在17℃时只有79次/min,为30℃的1/3;其血清Mg的含量随水温的降低而升高,肌肉中Mg有降低的趋势,但差异不明显.青虾心率在水温从24℃到17℃时,无明显改变;血清Mg随水温的降低而升高,但变化幅度小于罗氏沼虾.

  1. Heavy metal contamination of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and prawn feed in Bangladesh: A market-based study to highlight probable health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiul Islam, G M; Habib, Mohammad Ruzlan; Waid, Jillian L; Rahman, M Safiur; Kabir, J; Akter, S; Jolly, Y N

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the dietary risk of heavy metal exposure to humans is important since it is the main source of exposure. This study aimed to estimate the degree of contamination and assess the probable health risk in the prawn food chain. In prawn feed, the concentrations of metals were detected in the following order: Hg > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals in prawn were the highest for Co and lowest for Cd. Trace amounts of As and Cr were detected in the analyzed sample. Target hazard quotients for heavy metals for adults were >1 for Pb, Cd, Hg, and Co, and for children, the same were high for Co and Hg, indicating significant health risks upon dietary exposure. All the prawn samples contained nine-fold and fourteen-fold higher concentrations than the maximum acceptable levels for Pb and Hg, respectively (0.5 mg kg(-1); WHO/FAO). Human health risk due to the Co exposure is quite alarming as the level of exposure was found to be very high. In the prawn samples intended for human consumption, the hazard index (HI) was highest in the samples obtained from Bagerhat (3.25 in flesh and 3.26 in skin), followed by the samples obtained from Satkhira (2.84 in flesh and 3.10 in skin) and Dhaka City Corporation (2.81 in flesh and 3.42 in Skin); this indicates a potential risk of prawn consumption obtained from Southeast Bangladesh. This is particularly problematic as this area accounts for the majority of prawn production and export of the country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Test on culturing zoaea of Macrobrachium rosenbergii with spirulina feed%螺旋藻培育罗氏沼虾溞状幼体初步试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓东

    2000-01-01

    @@ 本试验以螺旋藻为饵料基础与传统生产中的鸡蛋加卤虫作比较,研究作为开口饵料螺旋藻对罗氏沼虾溞状幼体生长的影响,为人工育苗生产提供理论依据.

  3. 罗氏沼虾常见病害的防治%Prevention and cure of common disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李信书

    2000-01-01

    @@ 近年来,罗氏沼虾养殖业发展迅速,经济效益显著,不过在生产上已发现不少病害,经常对生产造成较大损失.但许多养殖户还不太了解虾病的病症及防治方法.

  4. Effect of culture season and stocking density on the growth and production of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Ma raised in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Baysa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of culture season and different stocking density on productivity of freshwater prawn that was raised in northern Thailand. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study was divided into two experiments; each treatment was replicated three times. The first experiment investigated the effect of climatic condition on the culture and production of freshwater prawn post larvae (PL 10; mean weight of 0.02 g stocked in 400m2 ponds. Results of the first experiment revealed freshwater prawn raised during the dry season to summer obtained higher growth rate (0.19 g and 0.15 g/day and survival rate (34.27% and 24.49% than that of summer to rainy season (p<0.05. The second experiment investigated the effect of 2 different socking densities (25 and 50 individuals/m2 on the production survival of freshwater prawn. Results showed that the rate of growth, survival rate, and production, were much higher at a stocking density of 25 individuals/m2 (p<0.05 in contrast to 50 individuals/m2. Growth performances of freshwater prawns were triggered by stocking density and season.

  5. The effects of green tea extract additive feeds on the growth performance and survival rate of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpimol, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE additive feeds on the growth performance in the giant freshwater prawn. Two separate trials were determined by using two different stages of prawn for initial stocking, one was the small post larva (PL10, the other was 5.6 g prawn. A Completely Randomized Design was applied in this study. The small post larva (PL10 were raised in cement tanks(1x1.5 m2. Three treatments with three replications each were performed applied as following: treatment 1 (control was the commercial pellet feed; treatment 2 and 3 were feeds with 1% and 2% green tea extract, respectively. This assay was run for 8 weeks. The prawns were randomly selected for weight determination every week. The result showed there was no significant difference in the specific growth rate and survival (P > 0.05 but the feed conversion ratio was reduced in prawn fed with green tea extracts (P 0.05. Therefore, green tea extract has potential as growth enhancer in giant freshwater prawn culture.

  6. Effects of addition of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and substrates for periphyton developments on pond ecology and production in C/N-controlled freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Benerjee, S.; Akter, T.; Hasan, M.M.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of addition of tilapia and substrates for periphyton development on pond ecology, production and economic performances in C/N controlled freshwater prawn farming system. The absence and presence (0 and 0.5 individual m- 2) of tilapia were investigated in

  7. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF VITAMIN C ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF THE FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of vitamin C on growth and survival rate of freshwater prawn larvae. The treatment dosages of vitamin C were 0.0, and 0.75 mg/L. Each treatment was in triplicates and arranged in a complete randomized design. Vitamin C was given to the larval rearing media every three days. Larvae were cultured in six conical fibreglass tanks of 50 L volume installed in a fibreglass tank (2 m x 0.8 m x 0.8 m filled with water for temperature stabilizer. Each conical tank was stocked with 6,500 larvae (nauplii. Artemia nauplii were given on D3 and egg custard as artificial feed on D9. Larval rearing was done for 25 days in constant temperature (29oC–31oC using automatic heater. Statistical analysis showed that metamorphosis speed of larvae was significantly affected by adding of vitamin C (P0.05. Addition of vitamin C also resulted in a better growth of freshwater prawn larvae.

  8. Effects of stocking density of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and addition of different levels of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on production in C/N controlled periphyton based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Mondal, M.N.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of stocking density of freshwater prawn and addition of different levels of tilapia on production in carbon/nitrogen (C/N) controlled periphyton based system. The experiment had a 2 × 3 factorial design, in which two levels of prawn stocking d

  9. 不同形态型雄性罗氏沼虾的交配能力%Mating capacity of male Macrobrachium rosenbergii with different morphotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春; 成永旭

    2010-01-01

    从行为生态学角度,对采自孟加拉国库尔纳专区羌纳县布苏尔河罗氏沼虾原产地池塘种群中3种不同形态型雄虾的繁殖行为及交配能力进行了初步研究.结果表明:社群中蓝螯型(BC)、橙螯型(OC)和小型(SM)雄性罗氏沼虾的交配行为模式没有明显的区别,但BC、OC和SM雄虾在交媾前守卫、交媾及精荚传递和交媾后守卫3个典型行为中投入的时间存在明显差异.BC雄虾交媾前守卫、交媾及精荚传递用时明显比OC、SM雄虾短,而交媾后守卫用时明显比OC、SM雄虾长.SM雄虾在交媾前守卫和精荚传递上投入的时间最长,而交媾后守卫用时最短.在雌虾体质量为雄虾体质量的80%,且♀∶♂为8∶1性比条件下,BC、OC和SM雄虾在120 h内平均交媾次数分别为4.6、2.2、1.3,BC雄虾具有较强的连续交媾能力.罗氏沼虾的交配能力与其体质量相关,雄、雌虾的体质量相匹配才能保证成功交媾.否则会出现"假交"现象.

  10. An Experiment on the Aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Ponds%东平湖区池塘养殖罗氏沼虾试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广军; 吴雷

    2001-01-01

    试验塘共4口,总面积0.71 hm2,共放养虾苗21.5万尾.经过一个养殖周期,共收获成虾1 591kg,平均产量2 241 kg/hm2,平均体重23.8g/尾.总收入79 550,盈利37 300元,投入产出比1:1.88.

  11. 罗氏沼虾池塘养殖高产的关键技术%Key points of pond farming Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志来

    2000-01-01

    @@ 杭州市从1978年引进罗氏沼虾,至今已有20多年的历史.养殖面积从最初的几亩,发展到今天的5000亩以上,成为该市名特优水产品养殖中一个重要的组成部分.单季亩产一般150-200公斤,200-250公斤的也有相当面积,最高亩产达315公斤.

  12. 电厂余热水养殖罗氏沼虾技术%Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture by utilization of surplus warmwater from power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴礼

    2003-01-01

    @@ 罗氏沼虾自引进以来,就深受广大养殖者的青睐.为探索罗氏沼虾养殖的新途径,2002年我们在临沂市矿务局电厂旧凉水池中利用电厂余热水进行了罗氏沼虾养殖试验,取得了良好的效果.现将试验结果报告如下.

  13. 罗氏沼虾个体发育早期的同工酶研究%STUDIES ON ISOZYMES DURING EARLY ONTOGENY OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广丽; 朱春华

    2001-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺梯度凝胶电泳技术,对罗氏沼虾个体发育早期9个时期的八种同工酶系统(EST、ALP、AMY、GDH、MDH、LDH、SOD、ME)进行研究,结果表明:SOD、ME在早期发育过程中酶谱相对稳定,SOD表现为三条谱带,ME表现为两条谱带;而EST、ALP、AMY、GDH、MDH、LDH则随发育其酶谱表现出明显差异,酶谱渐趋复杂。

  14. Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-ping; ZHANG Xiao-hui; YU Xiao-yun

    2006-01-01

    The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types Ⅰ and Ⅱ) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types Ⅲ and Ⅳ) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type Ⅲ cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type Ⅲ cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type Ⅲ cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order:Ⅳ→Ⅰ→Ⅱ→Ⅲ.

  15. The status of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii Weiner et al. 2000. Request for an Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qiliang; Li, Chongping; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and several key phenotypic features, it was ascertained that the culture cited as the type strain of the species Hyphomonas rosenbergii, ATCC 43869(T), does not conform to the description of the species, [Weiner, R. M., Melick, M., O'Neill, K. & Quintero, E. (2000). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 459-469]. The type strain does not exist in any other established culture collection or with the authors who described this species. Therefore, it cannot be included in any scientific study. It is proposed that the Judicial Commission place the name Hyphomonas rosenbergii on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain is not found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion.

  16. Efeito do fornecimento de ração complementada com semente de linhaça sobre os macronutrientes e colesterol em tecidos de camarões da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosenbergii Effect of Supplying Food Complemented with Linseed on the Chemical Composition of Malaysian Shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lindenberg dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a composição centesimal dos camarões alimentados com dieta complementada com semente de linhaça. Foram utilizados 800 camarões pós-larvas, divididos em 2 tratamentos: 1 grupo teste à base de caseína complementada com linhaça; e 2 grupo caseína. Os valores médios de umidade (79,8 ± 0,82; 78,9 ± 1,68, cinzas (0,62 ± 0,07; 0,68 ± 0,2, carboidratos (2,63 ± 0,13; 1,58 ± 0,7 e proteínas (15,6 ± 1,02; 16,0 ± 0,58 dos grupos controle e teste, respectivamente, não apresentaram diferença significativa ao final do experimento. Entretanto, a concentração de lipídio total sofreu uma redução significativa (p The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of shrimp fed with a diet complemented with linseed. 800 post larvae shrimp were divided into two types of treatment: 1 a test group based on casein complemented with linseed, and 2 a casein group. At the end of the experiment, the two treatments showed no significant differences in the mean values of humidity (79.8 ± 0.82; 78.9 ± 1.68, ashes (0.62 ± 0.07; 0.68 ± 0.2, carbohydrates (2.63 ± 0.13; 1.58 ± 0.7 and proteins (15.6 ± 1.02; 16.0 ± 0.58. However, the concentration of total lipids in both groups declined significantly during this study. This decline was more marked in the control group (74%. At the end of the experiment, the lipid content was higher (p < 0.05 in the test group (1.87 ± 0.03 than in the control group (1.12 ± 0.021. However, the cholesterol content in the test group (0.115 ± 0.004 was lower than in the control group (0.1306 ± 0.001, albeit without a statistically significant difference. It was concluded that the addition of linseed to the food seems to increase the shrimps' lipids, which suggests that this increase does not imply heightened cholesterol levels. It is also possible that the increase in lipids is due to the incorporation of a large proportion polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  17. A Review of Species Suitable for Containment Site Culture (Fresh Water),

    Science.gov (United States)

    most salinity regimes which might occur in a containment area. Invertebrates which deserve consideration include crawfish (Orchonectes spp. and Procambarus spp.) and freshwater shrimp ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii ).

  18. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  19. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSA715 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ial manga... 74 2e-12 DQ157765_1( DQ157765 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii m...itochon... 74 2e-12 EU077525_1( EU077525 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii mitochon... 74 2e-12 AY675508_

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1275 ref|YP_214003.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Macrobrachium rose...nbergii] gb|AAT52176.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Macrobrachium rosenbergii] YP_214003.1 0.015 24% ...

  2. Conservation and aquaculture of native freshwater prawns: the case of the cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum (Bate, 1868

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo García-Guerrero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Latin America has a high diversity of Macrobrachium prawns, some of them with commercial interest. Among them, the cauque river prawn Macrobrachium americanum is a large prawn of the western coast with commercial value due to its size and taste, but it has been extensively subjected to fishery exploitation, leading to population decline. Cultivation is an option for commercial production and conservation. Some research focused on domestication has been performed. Here, we revise the status of that research and discuss possibilities for sustainable freshwater prawn aquaculture in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America.

  3. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pileggi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × M. heterochirus, M. americanum × M. carcinus, M. digueti × M. olfersii, M. hancocki × M. crenulatum, M. tenellum × M. acanthurus and M. panamense × M. amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups.

  4. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  5. OCORRÊNCIA DE Macrobrachium amazonicum (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA) NA DIETA DE Lysapsus bolivianus (ANURA, HYLIDAE).

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Fabiana Melo Furtado; Carlos Eduardo Costa-Campos; Suelique de Souza Queiroz; Kelly Juliana Gaya Correa; Inacia Maria Vieira

    2013-01-01

    A dieta de Lysapsus bolivianus está baseada principalmente em pequenos artrópodes, representados geralmente por Diptera, Collembola e Hemiptera, sendo os crustáceos encontrados ocasionalmente. No presente trabalho registramos a presença de Macrobrachium amazonicum na dieta de L. bolivianus em planície de Inundação no Norte do Brasil. Palavras-chave: dieta, Crustacea, Amazônia Oriental. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p185-187

  6. Comportamiento reproductivo y fertilidad de Macrobrachium carcinus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El camarón "gigante" de agua dulce Macrobrachium carcinus se encuentra presente en Venezuela tanto en puequeflos ríos litorales como en ríos más caudalosos. En el presente trabajo, seis machos y 22 hembras capturados en el río Manzanares del Edo. Sucre, fueron mantenidos durante 14 meses en el laboratorio con el objeto de hacer observaciones sobre el proceso de muda, apareamiento, desove, período de incubación, eclosión de los huevos y número de zonas/hembra. De los 33 procesos de muda observ...

  7. 罗氏沼虾养殖技术规范%Technical Criteria for Giant Freshwater Shrimp ( Mactobrachium rosenbergii ) Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增崇; 余晓丽; 唐章生

    2000-01-01

    罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergu)养殖技术的综合标准,具体分为①亲虾;②人工繁殖技术;③幼虾培育技术;④食用商品虾饲养技术;⑤虾苗运输技术.该综合标准适用于罗氏沼虾的人工繁殖和养殖生产.

  8. Biología y cultivo de Macrobrachium tenellum: Estado del arte Biology and culture of Macrobrachium tenellum: State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Espinosa-Chaurand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como propósito reunir y clasificar la información existente sobre aspectos biológicos y de cultivo del langostino Macrobrachium tenellum, de una forma clara y secuencial, que permita integrar el conocimiento para desarrollar nuevos caminos en la investigación y aprovechamiento sustentable de este recurso. Se abordan diversos temas que incluyen la taxonomía y sistemática, distribución geográfica, ecología, reproducción, desarrollo, patologías, pesca y acuicultura de la especie, tomando en cuenta toda la información generada por diversos autores, desde hace cuatro décadas a la fecha. Se concluye que existen vacíos importantes en el conocimiento de aspectos básicos y aplicados sobre la biología de la especie y que se requiere un gran esfuerzo de investigación para la correcta comprensión de este organismo nativo, que permita su protección y adecuado aprovechamiento. Se recomienda poner especial interés en estudios que permitan conocer completamente su distribución, el efecto de la contaminación y la pérdida de sus hábitats naturales. Es necesario también revisar la normatividad de aprovechamiento y conservación, así como desarrollar y mejorar las técnicas de manejo acuicultural.This research aims to collect and classify information on the biology and culture of the prawn Macrobrachium tenellum, in a clear and sequential manner, which would integrate the knowledge to develop new ways in research and sustainable exploitation of this resource. It covers various topics including taxonomy and systematics, geographic distribution, ecology, reproduction, development, pathology, fisheries and aquaculture of this species, taking into account all the information generated by different authors, from four decades to today. We conclude that there are significant knowledge gaps of basic and applied aspects of the biology of the species and this requires a great deal of research for the correct understanding

  9. 罗氏沼虾亲虾蜕壳僵死的原因探讨%The studies on the reason causing parent Macrobrachium rosenbergii to death at exuviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄景; 陈琴

    2003-01-01

    通过调查和试验研究,结果表明:蓝藻在亲虾池中大量生长繁殖,蓝藻死亡后产生毒素毒害亲虾,亲虾摄食差导致体质弱,没有足够的能量进行完全蜕壳而僵死在旧壳中.

  10. 罗氏沼虾养殖技术之二:罗氏沼虾稻田养殖技术%Technique of farming Macrobrachium rosenbergii in rice paddy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祖荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ 稻田养殖罗氏沼虾,可以收到稻、虾双丰收的效果,利用稻田的生产效能做到了一水两用、一季两收,提高了稻田的生产利用效率,是农民增收致富的好门路.

  11. 罗氏沼虾在不同温度贮藏期间鲜度的变化%Changes in freshness of Macrobrachium rosenbergii during storage at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 周培根; 戚晓玉

    2002-01-01

    通过感官评定、微生物和生化指标的分析,评价了不同贮藏温度(10℃、5℃、0℃)对罗氏沼虾鲜度的影响.冰藏能明显抑制细菌的繁殖,有效地延长罗氏沼虾的贮藏期,但虾肌肉组织变得较松软.在三种贮藏温度条件下K值和TVBN均随着贮藏时间的延长而增加.K值可作为评价罗氏沼虾高质量鲜度的指标,35%为可接受的极限值.TVBN可用来显示沼虾死后后期质量变化的特点,25mg/100g为可食用的极限值.

  12. Retraction notice to “Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate” [Aquaculture Reports 3C (2016 184-188

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2017-08-01

    One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  13. [Nutrition of juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) with diets of vegetable and marine residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Sánchez, R; Vaillard-Nava, Y; Re-Araujo, A D

    1995-01-01

    Juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus were fed two different diets: restaurant by-products (diet I) and fish and vegetable market by-products (diet II). These diets were evaluated by proximal analysis, assimilation efficiency and the factor conversion rate (FCR). Diet I registered a higher efficiency, but there was no difference in the growth rate. The growth mean (G. L.) for three months was 0.254 +/- 0.13 cm (diet I) and 0.191 +/- 0.1 cm (diet II). The conversion rate was good for both, suggesting that 6 to 7 kg of food are needed to obtain 1 kg of prawn. Survival was 76% and 100% for diets I and II, respectively.

  14. Effects of different dietary of protein and lipid levels on the growth of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium carcinus) broodstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Benítez-Mandujano; Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the effects of varying dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of adult freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus 1758), in a recirculation system for 11 weeks (77 days). Materials and methods. The experimental treatments were assigned in triplicate. Six test diets were formulated with three different protein levels (35, 40 and 45%) and two lipid levels (8 and 13%). Results. The highest survival rate, growth indices and feed ut...

  15. Effects of different dietary of protein and lipid levels on the growth of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium carcinus) broodstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Benítez-Mandujano; Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the effects of varying dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of adult freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus 1758), in a recirculation system for 11 weeks (77 days). Materials and methods. The experimental treatments were assigned in triplicate. Six test diets were formulated with three different protein levels (35, 40 and 45%) and two lipid levels (8 and 13%). Results. The highest survival rate, growth indices and feed ut...

  16. Natural diet and feeding habits of a freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium carcinus: Crustacea, Decapoda) in the estuary of the Amazon River.

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, J.F.; GARCIA, J. da S.; SILVA, T. C. da

    2014-01-01

    Macrobrachium carcinus is a Brazilian native prawn with recognized potential for use in aquaculture activities. However, there is little information about the natural diet and feeding habits of this species. The aim of this study was the identification of the diet items of M. carcinus based on the analysis of the stomach contents. Specimens were collected in the Amazon River estuary between January 2009 and January 2010. The stomach analysis was carried out by using the frequency of occurrenc...

  17. Ultrastructural changes of the oocyte Ⅰ during the vitel logenesis in Macrobachium rosenbergii%罗氏沼虾初级卵母细胞在卵黄形成期 超微结构的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃澄; 卢建平; 袁保京

    2001-01-01

    对罗氏沼虾初级卵母细胞在卵黄形成期的超微结构变化进行了研究。卵黄形成期早期,初级卵母细胞体积和细胞核迅速增大,核内核糖 体等物质通过核孔复合体活跃地向胞质转移,同时滤泡细胞中的营养物质开始进入初级卵母 细胞。初级卵母细胞内卵黄形成的主要细胞器是线粒体、高尔基体、粗面内质网和核糖体, 其合成过程始于卵黄形成期中期,并一直延续至后期。在卵黄形成期中期,发现滤泡细胞内 的线粒体也有类似的卵黄物质合成功能。同时滤泡细胞继续有物质通过指状通道进入初级卵 母细胞,直接或间接转化为卵黄物质。卵黄形成期后期,初级卵母细胞核膜逐渐消失,随着卵黄粒在初级卵母细胞中大量沉积,滤泡细胞内的营养物质向初级卵母细胞的转移通道变细 ,转移过程也最后停止。%In this paper,the ultrastructural changes of the oocyte of the first order of Macrobrachium rosenbergii are discussed during the vitellogenesis. In its early vitellogenesis,it was observed that the substance of its nucleus was activ ely transferred to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore or membrance; that the substance of the follicle cell came into the oocyte I through sawtooth-like pr ojections. The primary cell organelles of the formation of yolk granule were th e mitochondria, the golgi complex, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the ribos ome in the oocyte Ⅰ. This process of formation began in the middle to later vi tellogenesis.In middle vitellogenesis, it was observed that mitochondria of the follicle cell has similar function of the formation of yolk. In later vitellog enesis, the nuclear membrance of oocyte Ⅰ disappeared gradually. The finger-l ike channel between the oocyte Ⅰ and the follicle cell became tiny, along with large accumulation of the yolk granule. The process for the substance of the f ollicle cell to tranform

  18. EFEKTIFITAS MEMBRAN KHITOSAN DARI KULIT UDANG GALAH (Macrobanchium rosenbergii UNTUK MENURUNKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Yunarsih

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Penanggulangan terhadap pencemaran air limbah yang mengandung senyawa fosfat terutama yang berasal dari air limbah laundry dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi membran. Pada penelitian ini, membran dibuat dari bahan polimer alam yaitu senyawa khitosan yang diperoleh dari khitin yang terdapat di dalam kulit udang galah (Macrobanchium rosenbergii melalui proses deasetilasi menggunakan NaOH 50%. Kualitas khitosan yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini ditentukan dengan FTIR dan diperoleh derajat deasetilasi (DD sebesar 66.27%.Khitosan dilarutkan dalam asam asetat 1% yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk membuat membran dengan variasi konsentrasi khitosan 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% dan 5%. Membran tersebut digunakan untuk menurunkan kadar fosfat larutan standar KH2PO4 10 ppm dengan waktu kontak 30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit.Membran khitosan 3% dan waktu kontak p60 menit merupakan membran terbaik karena mampu menurunkan kadar fosfat larutan standar KH2PO4 10 ppm secara optimal. Kondisi ini diaplikasikan untuk menurunkan kadar fosfat total yang terdapat dalam air limbah laundry. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa membrane tersebut dapat menurunkan kadar fosfat total sampai 97.40% setelah dilakukan filtrasi sebanyak empat kali dan pH larutan berubah dari 9 menjadi 8. Countermeasures against pollution waste water containing phosphate compounds derived primarily from laundry wastewater can be performed using membrane technology. Membranes can be made from natural polymers that is compound chitosan obtained from chitin is in shrimp shells. Chitin obtained from prawn shell can be converted to chitosan by deacetylation process using 50% NaOH. The quality of chitosan obtainedin this study was determined by FTIR and the degree of deacetylation ( DD was calculated to be 66.27%. Further, the chitosan was dissolved in 1% acetic acid and then used to make membranes with various concentrations of chitosan 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. Those membraneswere used to reduce the level of

  19. Biodiversity of decapod crustaceans in the estuarine floodplain around the city of Belém (Pará) in Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Viveiros Cavalcante; Bianca Bentes da Silva; Jussara Moretto Martinelli-Lemos

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the decapod fauna of the fluvial-estuarine environment of the Guajará Bay, in the Brazilian state of Pará, where specimens were collected monthly from six sites, from May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 6,793 specimens were captured, belonging to 11 species of crab and shrimp: eight palaemonids - Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879), Macro...

  20. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) = Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) larval survival

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Pereira dos Santos; Patrícia Maria Moraes da Silva; Eudes de Souza Correia; Albino Luciani Gonçalves Leal

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI) foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas) e seis repetições: 1) filé de peixe (Dp); 2) filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB); 3) dieta fo...

  1. Molecular cloning and expression pattern of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N M A; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Qiao, H; Jin, S; Bai, H K; Zhang, W Y; Liang, G X; Gong, Y S; Xiong, Y W; Wu, Y

    2016-08-29

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) produces nitric oxide (NO) by catalyzing the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline, with the concomitant oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recently, various studies have verified the importance of NOS invertebrates and invertebrates. However, the NOS gene family in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length NOS complementary DNA from M. nipponense (MnNOS) and characterized its expression pattern in different tissues and at different developmental stages. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed the MnNOS gene to be expressed in all investigated tissues, with the highest levels observed in the androgenic gland (P < 0.05). Our results revealed that the MnNOS gene may play a key role in M. nipponense male sexual differentiation. Moreover, RT-qPCR revealed that MnNOS mRNA expression was significantly increased in post-larvae 10 days after metamorphosis (P < 0.05). The expression of this gene in various tissues indicates that it may perform versatile biological functions in M. nipponense.

  2. Antibacterial activity of different extracts of prawn shell (Macrobrachium nipponense against human bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Karimzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Bioactive compounds existing in crustacean shells have the potential to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic microorganism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different extracts of prawn shells (Macrobrachium nipponense on some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Sampling (prawn was conducted in summer 2014 from Anzali wetland in southern coast of Caspian Sea. Then, the hydroalcoholic, methanolic, and acetone extracts of prawn shells were applied for this purpose. Two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus and three Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli were used as test organisms. The antibacterial activity was determined by paper disk diffusion. Results: The prawn shell extracts showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. The highest antibacterial activities were measured in B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae with the zone of inhibition being 12.12 ± 0.32 mm, 12.51 ± 0.14 mm, and 12.35 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. Among all the strains, S. aureus exhibits a significant zone of inhibition against all extracts (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that different prawn shell extracts, particularly hydroalcoholic, have bactericidal effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae species.

  3. EFFLUENTS QUALITY DURING THE GROW-OUT PHASE OF THE AMAZON SHRIMP Macrobrachium amazonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years shrimp culture farms have been one of the most growing sectors in aquaculture. Research has been carried out in order to establish a sustainable production maintaining profit and low environmental impact. Current investigation analyzed source and effluent water produced during the final grow-out phase of the Amazon shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum. Twelve natural-bottom ponds, with continuous water flow and stock density comprising 40, 60, 80 and 100 young shrimps/m2 were analyzed. The experiment design comprised totally randomized blocks with four treatments and three replications. Microbiological analyses for Escherichia coli was attempted, coupled to physical and chemical analyses for pH, temperature, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of water supply and pond effluents. Results show that whereas effluent quality complied with current legal rules, there was no significant difference between supply and effluent water for the analyzed variables and between stock densities. Under the conditions investigated and the intensification of culture in the final grow-out phase up to a density of 100 young shrimps/m2, the production of M. amazonicum reveals low potential for environmental impact for the variables analyzed.

  4. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  5. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  6. Enterobacteria and Vibrio from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoel de Arajo Neto Paiva; Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro; Andr Jalles Monteiro; Jos Jlio Costa Sidrim; Marcos Fbio Gadelha Rocha; Jamille Alencar Sales; Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes; Yago Brito de Ponte; Clia Maria de Souza Sampaio; Jos Luciano Bezerra Moreira; Lucas Pereira de Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the isolation of enterobacteria associated with Macrobrachium amazonicum (M. amazonicum) farming and evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio strains. Methods: Strains were isolated from female M. amazonicum prawns and environmental and hatchery water. Biochemical assays were used to identify bacterial genera and those belonging to the genus Vibrio were submitted to further analyses for species identification, through Vitek 2 automated system and serotyping. Susceptibility test was performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The following genera of enterobacteria were recovered: Enterobacter (n=11), Citrobacter (n=10), Proteus (n=2), Serratia (n=2), Kluyvera (n=2), Providencia (n=2), Cedecea (n=1), Escherichia (n=1), Edwardsiella (n=1) and Buttiauxella (n=1). As for Vibrio, three species were identified: Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (n=4), Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) (n=1) and Vibrio mimicus (n=1). Vibrio spp. showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values within the susceptibility range established by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for almost all antibiotics, except for V. vulnificus, which presented intermediate profile to ampicillin. Conclusions:Enterobacteria do not seem to be the most important pathogens associated with M. amazonicum farming, whereas the recovery of Vibrio spp. from larviculture, with emphasis on Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus, deserves special attention due to their role as potentially zoonotic aquaculture-associated pathogens. Furthermore, the intermediate susceptibility of V. vulnificus to ampicillin reflects the importance of monitoring drug use in prawn farming.

  7. Study of biochemical biomarkers in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to organophosphate fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, S; García, C; Crespo, R; Pedrini, N; Heras, H

    2013-10-01

    Several agrochemicals like organophosphates are extensively used to control pests in agricultural practices but they also adversely affect non-target fauna. The effect of organophosphorous fenitrothion on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii was evaluated. The 96-h LC50 was determined. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid oxidation levels, were evaluated in the hepatopancreas from adults exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In addition, superoxide dismutase mRNA expression, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and haemocyte DNA damage were determined. The 96-h LC50 was 4.24μg/l of fenitrothion. Prawn exposed to sublethal FS concentrations showed an increase of both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, mainly after 2 and 4 days exposure and an increase of glutathione-S-transferase activity from day 2 to day 7 while lipid oxidation levels increased mainly on day 1. Superoxide dismutase transcripts were significantly higher in fenitrothion -treated prawns, indicating an induction mechanism. Hemolymph analysis showed that while acetylcholinesterase activity decreased after 2 days, haemocytes displayed most DNA damage after 7-day exposure to fenitrothion. These results indicate that prawn enzymes are highly sensitive to fenitrothion exposure, and these biological responses in M. borellii could be valuable biomarkers to monitor organophosphorous contamination in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Crustacea: Decapoda), to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Ramle, Nur-Amalina; Abas, Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT₅₀) and concentrations (LC₅₀) were calculated. At the end of the 4-day period, live prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT₅₀ and LC₅₀ increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC₅₀s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 32.3, 7.0, 525.1 and 35.0 µg/L, respectively. Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb bioconcentration in M. lanchesteri increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to M. lanchesteri, followed by Pb, Cu and Zn. Comparison of LC₅₀ values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean organisms reveals that M. lanchesteri is equally or more sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested crustaceans.

  9. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.

  10. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti,Wagner C; Jeanette de T.C. de Mello; Vera L Lobão

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW), southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L...

  11. Nutrición en juveniles del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus (Cmstacea: Decapoda) con dietas de residuos vegetales y marinos

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, Ruth; Vaillard-Nava, Yvette; Re-Araujo, Ana Denisse

    2015-01-01

    Juveniles del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus fueron alimentados con dos dietas: de desechos de restaurante (dieta 1) y de pescado y productos vegetales (dieta ll). Las dietas fueron evaluadas mediante análisis proximal, bioensayos de digestibilidad (Eficiencia de Asimilación), bioensayos de crecimiento y Factor de Conversión (FCR). A pesa:[" de que, los organismos asimilaron con mayor eficiencia la dieta 1, el crecimiento no fue diferente, siendo éste, en promedio para los tres meses del e...

  12. Utilização de diferentes dietas na larvicultura do camarão pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Pereira dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    A produção do camarão pitu Macrobrachium carcinus tem sido explorada comercialmente em diversos países. No Nordeste, a pesca do pitu é de grande importância no Baixo São Francisco. A produção em larga escala de pós-larvas do pitu continua sendo o principal empecilho para o cultivo comercial e recuperação dos estoques naturais. Desta forma, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho testar diferentes dietas na larvicultura de M. carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas, com ...

  13. El camarón de agua dulce Macrobrachium cacinus (decapada, Palaemonida) y su potencial para la acuacultura en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio es conocer aspectos básicos acerca el ciclo de vida de macrobrachium carcinus, un langostino que por su gran tamaño tiene potencial para la comercialización en la región. Universidad de Costa Rica

  14. Effect of the diet and growing conditions on the manifestations of cannibalism in the eastern freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense De Haan, 1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of diet and water flow composition on the manifestations of cannibalism of shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense during rearing under controlled conditions. Methodology. The material for the work was shrimp fry with a length 2.0-3.5 cm and weight 1.5-3.0 g, caught in autumn 2016 in ponds of the lower reaches of the Dniester river. The shrimp were kept in tanks of the recirculation system with a volume of 0.3 m3. The temperature regime, light (period and intensity, and other environmental parameters were maintained in accordance with the specified parameters. Weighing was carried out on an AXISAD-50 electronic balance with an accuracy of 0.001 g. The length was measured with a ruler or with a caliper. In chronic experiments, two groups of shrimps were kept at the stocking density of 3 ind./L, temperature of 26-29°C and other equal conditions in tanks of a recirculating system. The diet of the first group consisted of animal food (bloodworm, fish, squid, snail, tubule, artemia, the second group was fed by plant feeds (cereals, vegetables, spinach, nuts, alfalfa, rice, chickpeas. Maturation of females in the second group was not observed. At the same time, cases of aggressive behavior were rare, and cannibalism was not observed, which ensured 100% survival. In the second series of experiments, shrimp were kept in fattening tanks at stocking density of 2 ind./L and a ratio ♂♂: ♀♀ - 1: 4. The diet of shrimp consisted of animal and plant feeds (1: 1. During the 30 days of the experiment, the water temperature was maintained at 26.0 ± 0.5 °C, the photoperiod was 12 hours light, 12 hours dark. Findings. The shrimp, which received animal food, grew faster. 20% of the females formed eggs. At the same time, their aggressiveness was high, which led to the loss due to injuries and cannibalism of 40% of the individuals. The shrimp, which received vegetable food, grew slower. Their final weight and size were significantly

  15. The exploited population of the brackish river prawn (Macrobrachium macrobrachion Herklots 1851 in the Cross River estuary, Nigeria

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    Francis M. Nwosu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the exploited population of Macrobrachium macrobrachion in the Cross River estuary, Nigeria, were studied based on monthly length-frequency data collected from January 1997 to June 1998 (18 months, from the landings of the artisanal Macrobrachium fishery. Sexual dimorphism was indicated in the growth and mortality parameters. For the males, the von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as L∞ = 141.35 mm, K = 1.21 year-1, C = 1.0 and WP = 0.15. For the females, they were L∞ = 117.55 mm, K = 1.60 year-1, C = 0.81 and WP = 0.51. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z was estimated as 9.53 year-1 (males and 9.14 year-1 (females. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M was estimated as 2.44 year-1 (males and 3.09 year-1 (females, while the instantaneous rate of fishing mortality (F was estimated as 7.09 year-1 (males and 6.05 year-1 (females. The exploitation rate (E obtained was 0.74 for the males and 0.66 for the females, suggesting that the prawn population was over-fished for both sexes. It is necessary to analyse the catch and effort data for the last 10 years and to apply other methods of stock assessment in order to estimate the long term trends in the fishery.

  16. Abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948 (Palaemonidae) in the Amazon estuary, north of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, D V; Bentes, B S; Martinelli-Lemos, J M

    2017-01-01

    Macrobrachium surinamicum is a small shrimp that inhabits rivers of low salinity. It is mainly caught as bycatch in Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum fisheries, which is widely exploited by artisanal fisheries for food and economic needs of the riverside population. This study aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the freshwater shrimp M. surinamicum in the Guajará Bay and on Mosqueiro Island, correlating the abundance of this species with abiotic factors (temperature and salinity). Samples were taken from May 2006 to April 2007 in six locations: Mosqueiro Island (Furo das Marinhas and Porto do Pelé); Icoaraci district; Arapiranga Island, edge of the city of Belém; and Combu Island, using traps named 'matapis'. A total of 361 shrimps were caught. The abundance was higher in December and lower in July 2006. The biggest catch occurred on Arapiranga Island and the lowest on Mosqueiro Island. The abundance differed significantly in December 2006 and no variable studied had significant influence on M. surinamicum abundance. In Guajará Bay, particularly the more sheltered places, as Arapiranga and Combu islands, favor the development of M. surinamicum, indicating that this species has preference for less disturbed areas.

  17. Osmoregulation in larvae and juveniles of two recently separated Macrobrachium species: Expression patterns of ion transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    In this comparative study, osmoregulatory mechanisms were analyzed in two closely related species of palaemonid shrimp from Brazil, Macrobrachium pantanalense and Macrobrachium amazonicum. A previous investigation showed that all postembryonic stages of M. pantanalense from inland waters of the Pantanal are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water, while this species was not able to hypo-osmoregulate at high salinities. In M. amazonicum originating from the Amazon estuary, in contrast, all stages are able to hypo-osmoregulate, but only first-stage larvae, late juveniles and adults are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these physiological differences have not been known. We therefore investigated the expression patterns of three ion transporters (NKA α-subunit, VHA B-subunit and NHE3) following differential salinity acclimation in different ontogenetic stages (stage-V larvae, juveniles) of both species. Larval NKAα expression was at both salinities significantly higher in M. pantanalense than in M. amazonicum, whereas no difference was noted in juveniles. VHA was also more expressed in larvae of M. pantanalense than in those of M. amazonicum. When NHE3 expression is compared between the larvae of the two species, further salinity-related differences were observed, with generally higher expression in the inland species. Overall, a high expression of ion pumps in M. pantanalense suggests an evolutionary key role of these transporters in freshwater invasion.

  18. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MALASIAN GIANT SHRIMPS (Macrobrachium rosembergii RAISED WITH CHICKEN MANURE QUALIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE CAMARÕES GIGANTES DA MALÁSIA (Macrobrachium rosembergii CULTIVADOS COM DEJETOS DE AVES

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    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The bacteriological quality of Malaysian giant shrimps (Macrobrachium rosnnbergii raised under captivity condition and fed with aviculture residue was studied in the Station of Pisciculture of the Veterinary School, Federal University of Goiás. The following results were observed: research of Salmonella free in 25g, in all samples; Staphylococcus aureus counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 2,0 x 10¹ CFU/g; aerobic or aerobic facultative mesophiles counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0³ CFU/g; psicrotrophiles count was < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0 x 10³ CFU/g; MPN of total coliforms was 3 to 15/g; MPN of fecal coliforms was 3 to 7/g. All the values above are in agreement to the national pattern.

    KEY-WORDS: Macrobrachium rosembergii; shrimp; chicken manure.

    No presente experimento verificou-se a qualidade bacteriológica de camarões gigantes da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosembergii cultivados em cativeiro, em consórcio com dejetos de avicultura, na Estação de Piscicultura da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás, obtendo-se os seguintes resultados: pesquisa de Salmonella ausência em 25g em todas as amostras; contagem de Staphylococcus aureus - variou de < 1,0 x 10¹ a 2,0 x 10¹ UFC/g contagem de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis - < 1,0 x 10¹ a 1,0 x l0³ UFC/g ; psicrotróficos - < 1,0 x

  19. Crescimento relativo do camarão canela Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae em viveiros Relative growth of Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M.C. Moraes-Riodades

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some morphometric relationships in Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 reared in earthen ponds were studied. A total of 239 individuals were collected, sexed and sorted to juvenile or adult. Total length (Lt, post-orbital length (Lpo, carapace length (Lcp and queliped length (Lql were measured. The relationships Lt/Lpo, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp are the same for juveniles, males and females, indicating unchanged growth pattern during post-larval ontogenetic development. While Lt/Lpo showed isometric growth, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp showed negative allometry. On the other hand, for the Lql/Lcp relationship, juveniles showed isometric growth, females slight positive allometry and males a strong positive allometry. It suggests that the importance of chelipeds may be different in these groups. Quelipeds play important role on food capture and on agonistic, social and reproductive behavior. Therefore, inter and intraspecific interactions may change during prawn growth, even after morphological

  20. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Ammar, Dib [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia, Campus Universitario, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Bioquimica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: sallodi@histo.ufrj.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-06-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm{sup -2} UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of

  1. PROTOCOLO PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN METAGENÓMICO BACTERIANO DEL LANGOSTINO Macrobrachium carcinus L

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ulises González-de la Cruz; H. Delfin-González; Ma. C. de la Cruz-Leyva; R. A. Rojas-Herrera; M. Zamudio-Maya

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se adecuó un protocolo para la extracción de ADN metagenómico (ADNmg) bacteriano del sistema digestivo (intestino, estómago y hepatopáncreas) del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus L., tomando como referencia la metodología de extracción de ADN bacteriano de suelos y sedimentos (Rojas-Herrera et al., 2008). Esta metodología constaba de lisis enzimática, física, mecánica y química; después de una serie de ensayos se suprimió la lisis enzimática. Sin embargo, el éxito de la extra...

  2. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner C Valenti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01817-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dis isolat... 103 4e-21 AY466445_1( AY466445 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii..... 102 1e-20 DQ660140_1( DQ660140 |pid:none) Macrobrachium nipponense heat shoc... 102 1e-20 D89341_1( D8934

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13541-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-73 AY466445_1( AY466445 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii heat sho... 237 5e-73 AB206478_1( AB206478 ...1( AY836799 |pid:none) Saussurea medusa heat shock protei... 231 8e-73 DQ660140_1( DQ660140 |pid:none) Macrobrachium

  5. A new record of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Taiwan, with notes on its taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Jhy-Yun; Wowor, Daisy; Ng, Peter K L

    2013-11-04

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) is recorded from Taiwan for the first time and extends the distribution of the species to north of the Tropic of Cancer. The Taiwanese specimens differ slightly from material from Indonesian Papua in the density of the spination of the adult second pereipods, the relative length of the ridge of the posterior submedian plate of thoracite sternite 4, and the color of the carapace, abdomen and pleural condyles.

  6. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When

  7. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense

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    Azam Moshtaghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i, reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii, performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries

  8. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Md. Lifat; Nguyen, Viet Tuan; Mather, Peter B.; Hurwood, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp) with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO) terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million) ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries. Among the

  9. Produção de pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, sob condições controladas de laboratório

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    Aline Do Vale Barreto

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on production of post-larvae of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum under controlled laboratory conditions were developed at the Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, from September 1980 to February 1982. Experiments were undertaken in aquaria and tanks where the salinity and density of the populations had been changed. The best production was obtained with salinity 14/00 with a density of 38 larvae per litre. The food provided for larvae was crushed fish and nauplii of Artemia salina. Out of 13 experiments a total of 20,000 post-larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum were obtained.

  10. Effects of different dietary of protein and lipid levels on the growth of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium carcinus broodstock

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    Mario Benítez-Mandujano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effects of varying dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of adult freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus 1758, in a recirculation system for 11 weeks (77 days. Materials and methods. The experimental treatments were assigned in triplicate. Six test diets were formulated with three different protein levels (35, 40 and 45% and two lipid levels (8 and 13%. Results. The highest survival rate, growth indices and feed utilization were observed for M. carcinus adults fed protein:lipid diets of 35:13, 40:13 and 45:13, and the lowest values for these parameters were recorded for prawns fed diets with the lowest lipid levels; the differences in these parameters between these types of diets were significant (p<0.05. A nonsignificant tendency for an increased percentage of protein in the body with an increased dietary protein level was observed. The percentage of lipids decreased with an increasing dietary protein level, and no definite trends in ash content were found. Conclusions. The results suggest that a diet with 35% dietary crude protein and 13% lipids enhances the growth and body composition of adult M. carcinus.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Hexokinase from the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in Response to Hypoxia

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    Shengming Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic adjustment to hypoxia in Macrobrachium nipponense (oriental river prawn implies a shift to anaerobic metabolism. Hexokinase (HK is a key glycolytic enzyme in prawns. The involvement of HK in the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs pathway is unclear in prawns. In this study, the full-length cDNA for HK (MnHK was obtained from M. nipponense, and its properties were characterized. The full-length cDNA (2385 bp with an open reading frame of 1350 bp, encoded a 450-amino acid protein. MnHK contained highly conserved amino acids in the glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, ATP, and Mg+2 binding sites. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assays revealed the tissue-specific expression pattern of MnHK, with abundant expression in the muscle, and gills. Kinetic studies validated the hexokinase activity of recombinant HK. Silencing of HIF-1α or HIF-1β subunit genes blocked the induction of HK and its enzyme activities during hypoxia in muscles. The results suggested that MnHK is a key factor that increases the anaerobic rate, and is probably involved in the HIF-1 pathway related to highly active metabolism during hypoxia.

  12. Estudo da qualidade dos efluentes gerados em diferentes fases do cultivo do camarão-da-amazônia Macrobrachium amazonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Mayra [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas, a carcinicultura de água doce é um dos setores que mais cresceu dentro da aqüicultura. Muitas pesquisas têm sido realizadas a fim de buscar metodologias para se ter uma produção sustentável, ou seja, lucrativa e com baixo impacto ambiental. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisou a qualidade da água de abastecimento e efluente em todas as fases do cultivo do camarão-da-amazônia, Macrobrachium amazonicum. Nas fases de larvicultura e berçário o sistema de cultivo adotado...

  13. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 = Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 larval survival

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    Edson Pereira dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas e seis repetições: 1 filé de peixe (Dp; 2 filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB; 3 dieta formulada (Df; e 4 dieta formulada+ biomassa de artêmia adulta (DfB. As dietas foram ofertadas quatro vezes ao dia (07, 10, 13 e 16 horas durante 49 dias. No final do cultivo, as taxas de sobrevivência média das larvas foram 3,47; 7,40; 14,83 e 7,57%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos Dp, DpB, Df e DfB. No tratamento Dp obteve-se a menor sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05. A maior sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05 foi obtida com a dieta Df (14,83%, que se apresenta como a alternativa mais apropriada para a produção de pós-larvas de M. carcinus. Entretanto, o uso de biomassa deartêmia adulta pode resultar na melhoria da taxa de sobrevivência quando associada a filé de peixe.This work aimed to evaluate different diets in Macrobrachium carcinus larval culture in order to improve the performance of prawn postlarvaeproduction. Twenty-four 20 L circular recipients provided of water recirculating and aeration systems were used, where 25 larvae per liter were stocked (stages V-VI. Four treatments (related to diets and six replicates were adopted: 1 Fish flesh (Ff; 2 Fish flesh+ adult Artemia biomass (FfB; 3 Formulated diet (Fd; and 4 Formulated diet + adult Artemia biomass (FdB. The diets were offered four times a day (07:00, 10:00, 13:00 and 16:00 hrs during 49 days. At the end of culture, the average of larval survival rates were3.47, 7.40, 14.83 and 7.57%, respectively for Ff, FfB, Fd and FdB treatments. Ff treatment obtained the lowest survival (p ≤ 0

  14. Biologia reprodutiva de Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegman (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae coletados na Ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproductive biology of Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegman (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae collected at Santa Catarina's Island, Brazil

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    Dib Ammar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the reproductive features of Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegman, 1836 from Santa Catarina's lsland. The animals were collected in freshwater streams of the Ratones Hidrografic Basin (site A1 and at the Peri's Pond (site A2. In the laboratory, the procedures of sexual differentiation were carried out to classify the individuais in males, females or ovigerous females, followed by the determination of total weight (g, quelipod relative weight (g and total length (mm. The eggs were removed from the ovigerous females and counted. Sexual maturity and fecundity were analyzed based in the dimensions and number of eggs carried by ovigerous females. The water temperature on the capture sites varied from 17 to 29ºC throughout the months of study. A total of 503 individuais were captured, with 129 individuais from site A1 and 374 from site A2. The mean total size and length was 49.65 mm and 3.79 g for the males, 38.75 mm and 1.61 g for the females and 36.19 mm and 1.08 g for the ovigerous females. At the sites A1 and A2, the individual sexual maturity was reached with 27.3 and 21.2 mm of total length, respectively, while populational sexual maturity was estimated for the 45.0 to 50.0 mm class at site A1 and for the 30.0 to 35.0 mm class at site A2. The ovigerous females carried an average of 3464 eggs at site A1, and 1440 eggs at site A2. These reproductive features, presented by M. olfersii, show the species' plasticity, which can be associated with environmental variations, contributing to its reproductive success.

  15. Endemic shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense as a test species to assess potential contamination by pesticides in Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mayara Pereira; Jesus, Fátima; Almeida, Ana Rita; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Domingues, Inês; Hayd, Liliam

    2017-02-01

    Pantanal is a biome characterized by an extraordinary diversity and abundance of wildlife and houses several endemic species such as the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense. However, the increase in agriculture and husbandry activities in the region has contributed with residues of pesticides reaching aquatic systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the sensitivity of the endemic shrimp M. pantanalense compared with other freshwater species: the shrimp M. amazonicum, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the fish Danio rerio. The sensitivity of these organisms was assessed through acute exposure to copper and cypermethrin (through the formulation Barrage(®), widely used in Pantanal). For copper the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: D. similis (48 h-EC50 0.051 mg/L) > M. pantanalense > D. rerio > M. amazonicum (48 h-LC50 26.34 mg/L). Copper caused reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish and reduced heartbeat of zebrafish embryos. For cypermethrin the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: M. pantanalense (96 h-LC50 0.05 μg/L) > M. amazonicum > D. similis > D. rerio (144 h-LC50 1680 μg/L). Major effects of cypermethrin included reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish, as well as early hatching and increased incidence of developmental deformities in zebrafish embryos. This study highlights the importance of using endemic species for risk evaluations in sensitive biomes such as Pantanal. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of testing pesticides toxicity as commercial formulations. Furthermore, we suggest that the endemic shrimp species M. pantanalense can be successfully used as a test species in ecotoxicology.

  16. Efecto del nivel proteico de la dieta sobre el desarrollo de juveniles de Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871

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    Luis Espinosa-Chaurand

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de cinco niveles de proteína cruda (PC en alimentos balanceados sobre el crecimiento, sobrevivencia y tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCA en juveniles de Macrobrachium tenellum. Materiales y métodos. Se alimentó por 60 días a juveniles de M. tenellum (0.31±0.01 g y 32.62±1.10 mm con niveles de 20, 25, 30, 35 y 40% de PC en el alimento. Los organismos fueron distribuidos al azar en 15 tinas experimentales de 64 L (15 org./tina bajo condiciones controladas (5.95±0.41 ppm de oxígeno, 29.89±0.72ºC, y pH 8.44±0.15 y alimentados con el 10% de su peso vivo. Resultados. El porcentaje de sobrevivencia fue del 98.22±3.96% sin diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (p>0.05. Los organismos alimentados con un 40% de PC tuvieron un peso significativamente mayor (p<0.05 respecto a los demás tratamientos (cambio de peso de 0.54±0.02g; incremento de peso de 173.60±12.99%; y tasa de crecimiento específico de 1.68±0.08. El FCA fue significativamente mejor (p<0.05 en los organismos alimentados con 35 y 40% de PC (2.85±0.18 y 2.40±0.05, respectivamente que los demás tratamientos. Conclusiones. Los organismos juveniles de M. tenellum alimentados con niveles altos de proteína (40%, se desarrollaron más rápido que organismos que recibieron una menor concentración de proteína bajo las condiciones experimentales establecidas en este estudio.

  17. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) to physical and chemical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizkar, Babak; Seidavi, Alireza; Ponce-Palafox, Jesús Trinidad; Pourashoori, Parastoo

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50 mg/kg, AX100 with 100 mg/kg, and AX150 with 150 mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36 org/m2 per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1 g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5 mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05 mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75 mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5 mg/L). The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  18. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae to physical and chemical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Tizkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquacultureand its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX to the shock and stress of differentphysicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50mg/kg, AX100 with 100mg/kg, and AX150 with 150mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1 000L used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36org/m² per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C, ammonia (0.75mg/L, and reduced oxygen (0.5mg/L. The time to lethargyand the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  19. Macrobrachium Nipponensis Resources and Its Artifical Enhacement and Aquaculture in Saline-Alkali Wetlands%盐碱湿地青虾资源及其增养殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富亿

    2000-01-01

    The author discussed biological characteristics of Macrobrachium nipponensis and present situation of its resources utilization,as well as the ways of artifical enhacement and key techniques of one aquaculture with pond,paddy field and net cages were put forward.%青虾是松嫩平原盐碱湿地重要的渔业生物资源,具有一定的渔业经济价值。以新荒泡为例,介绍了青虾的生物学特征、资源利用现状及其增殖途径,提出了青虾的池塘、稻田与网箱养殖的模式及其主要技术措施。

  20. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of androgenic gland for discovery of novel genes from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, using Illumina Hiseq 2000.

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    Shubo Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203, KEGG (17,868, and COG analyses (13,817, identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. CONCLUSION: Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights

  2. AcEST: DK962030 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ot sp_hit_id Q6XNL5 Definition sp|Q6XNL5|RDRP_MRNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase OS=Macrobrachium rosenbergii ...ge factor 6 O... 30 8.9 >sp|Q6XNL5|RDRP_MRNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase OS=Macrobrachium...cted RNA polymerase OS=Macrobrachium... 35 0.36 sp|Q4R7Z5|F187B_MACFA Protein FAM187B OS=Macaca fascicularis...ences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q6XNL5|RDRP_MRNV RNA-dire

  3. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

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    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii.

  4. Levels of Platinum Group Metals in Selected Species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa in Some Estuaries and Lagoons Along the Coast of Ghana

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    D. K. Essumang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae, brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae, shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae, and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 μ/g (dry weight Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast.

  5. Occurrence of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in Leopoldo's inlet (Ressaco do Leopoldo, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil

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    Andréa Bialetzki

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the occurrence, temporal distribution and nychthemeral variation of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 were undertaken in Leopoldo's Inlet, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil. Seventeen thousand and sixty specimens (11,786 larvae and 5,274 juveniles were captured with a conicalcylindrical plankton net of mesh 0.5mm in monthly samples between February 1991 and February 1992. Results show that the greatest densities of larvae (301.83 larvae/10m³ and juveniles (168.8/10m³ of this species were caught in December 1991. Largest captures were made during the night. With regard to abiotic factors water temperature ranged from 20º to 30ºC, pH ranged from 5.66 to 7.37 and electric conductivity ranged from 51.83 to 65.33µS/cm. Relationship between the density of larvae and juveniles and abiotic factors was calculated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA which revealed the influence of some limnological variables especially on the distribution of larvae.

  6. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB.

  7. Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xie, Shouqi; Lei, Wu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2004-08-01

    The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37 g) were fed at 20.7-22.4 degrees C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of fish meal by MBM or PBM. The control diet used white fish meal as the sole protein source, the other four diets were prepared with 15% or 50% fish meal protein substituted by either MBM (MBM(15), MBM(50)) or PBM (PBM(15), PBM(50)). The results showed that replacement of fish meal by MBM in diets did not affect growth performance of M. nipponense (P > 0.05), while specific growth rate in PBM(15) was significantly higher than that in other groups (P meal protein in diets for M. nipponense.

  8. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarãode água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.444

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Edson Pereira dos; UFRPE; Gonçalves Leal, Albino Luciani; UFRPE; Silva, Patrícia Maria Moraes da; FESO; Correia, Eudes de Souza; UFRPE

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI) foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas) e seis repetições: 1) filé de peixe (Dp); 2) filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB); 3) dieta fo...

  9. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M

    1987-09-01

    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  10. Effects of stocking density, periphyton substrate and supplemental feed on biological processes affecting water quality in earthen tilapia-prawn polyculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif Uddin, M.; Milstein, A.; Ekram Azim, M.; Abdul Wahab, M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The technical and economic potentials of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), polyculture in periphyton-based systems are under investigation in an extensive research programme. This article is a combined analysis of data from four experimen

  11. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for…

  12. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

  13. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for…

  14. Biodiversity of decapod crustaceans in the estuarine floodplain around the city of Belém (Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Viveiros Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the decapod fauna of the fluvial-estuarine environment of the Guajará Bay, in the Brazilian state of Pará, where specimens were collected monthly from six sites, from May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 6,793 specimens were captured, belonging to 11 species of crab and shrimp: eight palaemonids - Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, Macrobrachium spp. 1-4 -, one portunid - Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 -, and two trichodactylids - Sylviocarcinus devileii H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and Sylviocarcinus pictus (Milne-Edwards, 1853. While no significant differences were found in the ecological indices of diversity with respect to season, site, or trap size, a tendency for increased abundance and species richness was found during the dry season (August-November, in particular at some sites, apparently reflecting the influence of the estuary's saline wedge.

  15. Estudio taxonómico de las especies del género macrobrachium bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decápoda: Palaemonidae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha de Campos Martha H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron, determinaron y/o confirmaron taxonómicamente los camarones de agua dulce del género Macrobrachium de seis colecciones en el país. Un total de 21 especies se encuentran en el país, registrándose por primera vez en éste trabajo a Macrobrachium cortezi Rodríguez, 1982,
    M. ferreirai Kensley y Walker, 1982, y M. cf. quelchi De Man, 1900. Descripciones, ilustraciones y una clave para la identificación de las especies basada en la morfología del rostro, del segundo par de pereiopodos y del telson son incluidas. El análisis de la distribución geográfica, se realizó con base en el material examinado y los registros en la literatura. Se confirma la hipótesis en la que se plantéa que las diferencias en la distribución de las especies que poseen un
    desarrollo larval abreviado, con respecto a las especies que poseen un desarrollo larval completo están directamente relacionadas con la productividad primaria del hábitat. Se plantea la posibilidad de que las diferencias en la composición de especies entre las vertientes del Caribe y el Pacífico, no obstante la comunicación existente entre el río Atrato y el San Juan por el Arrastradero de Tadó, se deban a factores ecológicos particulares en cada una de las dos vertientes, por lo que se recomienda realizar estudios ecológicos y muestreos detallados en ambas vertientes que permitirían comprobar esta hipótesis. La similitud en la composición de especies entre las vertientes del Orinoco y Amazonas se debe a que las especies que comparten son de amplia distribución, y a la comunicación que hay entre ambas vertientes por el río Casiquiare. El caso de M. heterochirus, en el que se encontraron registros a una distancia de más de 500 km de la costa, permite pensar en la posibilidad de que se trate de una especie que ha logrado independizarse en su desarrollo larval de la influencia de aguas salobres; esto plantea la necesidad de desarrollar estudios sobre el

  16. Growth of fresh-water prawn Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871 juveniles fed isoproteic diets substituting fish meal by soya bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Ulloa Gomez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth parameters (standard length, weight, specific growth rate and daily weight gain of prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles fed 40% crude protein isoproteic diets substituting fish meal with soya bean meal at various levels (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were evaluated for 45 days under laboratory conditions. Experimental diets were compared with a 100% fish meal based diet. Total survival was recorded for all the treatments at the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 for all the growth parameters among the dietary treatments. The initial mean weight (0.36 ± 0.10 g increased almost three times (1.00 ± 0.13 g after 45 days. The final specific growth fluctuated from 1.82% BW/d for the 60% soya bean meal inclusion diet, to 2.62% for the 100% fish meal diet. The mean final survival was 91.66%. Growth performance of M. tenellum juveniles was not affected by the dietary soya bean meal levels tested.Os parâmetros do crescimento (comprimento padrão, peso, taxa de crescimento específica e ganho diário do peso de juveniles do Macrobrachium tenellum alimentaram a 40% a proteína crua as dietas isoproteic que substituem a refeição de peixes com feijão de soya a refeição nos vários níveis (20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% foi avaliada por 45 dias sob condições do laboratório. As dietas experimentais foram comparadas com uma dieta baseada da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência total foi gravada para todos os tratamentos no fim da experiência. Não havia nenhuma diferença significativa (p > 0.05 para todos os parâmetros do crescimento entre os tratamentos dietéticos. O peso médio inicial (0.36 ± 0.10 g aumentado quase três vezes (1.00 ± 0.13 g após 45 dias da cultura. O crescimento específico final flutuou de 1.82% BW/d para a dieta do inclusion da refeição do feijão de soya de 60%, a 2.62% obtidos para a dieta da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência final média foi de 91.66%. O

  17. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  18. Aspectos reprodutivos do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae na Serra do Piloto, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reproductive aspects of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidade in Serra do Piloto, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana dos Santos Antunes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller, 1880 foram coletados mensalmente de julho/2001 a junho/2002. No laboratório os camarões foram separados por sexo e mensurados. Fêmeas ovígeras foram separadas e seus ovos contados e mensurados. Foram capturados um total de 1162 indivíduos, dos quais 50% eram fêmeas, 47% machos e 3% juvenis. O período reprodutivo ocorreu durante a primavera-verão. Fêmeas ovígeras apresentaram comprimento total variando de 25,9 a 40,3 mm. A fecundidade média foi de 24,0 ± 9,0 ovos. A primeira maturação sexual ocorreu aos 25,9 mm de comprimento total. As dimensões médias dos ovos foram iguais a 1,56 e 2,08 mm para os eixos menor e maior, respectivamente, durante o estágio inicial de desenvolvimento embrionário e 1,70 e 2,46 mm, respectivamente, para os eixos menor e maior durante o estágio final de desenvolvimento.Samples of Macrobrachium potiuna (Müller, 1880 were collected monthly from July/2001 to June/2002. At the laboratory, shrimps were separated by sex and measured. The ovigerous females were separated and theirs eggs measured and counted. A total of 1162 shrimps were collected, 50% was females, 47% was males and 3% juveniles. The reproductive period occurred during the spring-summer. The ovigerous female showed total length from 25.9 to 40.3 mm. The mean fecundity was 24,0 ± 9,0 eggs. The first sexual maturation occurred at 25.9 mm total length. The eggs showed means dimensions from 1.56 and 2.08 mm, respectively, for the short and the long axis during the initial stage of development and from 1.70 and 1.89 mm, respectively, for the short and long axis during the final stage of development.

  19. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  20. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Julin; Wang, Xueqin; Gu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-10-08

    Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48-96 h (p activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  1. INCLUSIÓN DE HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA EN ALIMENTOS EXPERIMENTALES PARA MACROBRACHIUM TENELLUM: EFECTOS EN LA PIGMENTACIÓN, CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín A. Aréchiga P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la naturaleza, los pigmentos tienen la principal función de colorear; sin embargo, también tienen efectos sobre el estado de salud y desarrollo de los organismos. Los compuestos sintéticos dirigidos a incrementar la coloración en organismos con importancia comercial, representan entre el 15 al 20% del costo de la dieta. Por lo anterior, la investigación sobre pigmentos de origen natural (más baratos y menos tóxicos se ha incrementado sustancialmente en los últimos años. Las antocianinas pueden ser utilizadas como una alternativa para la pigmentación de organismos. En este estudio se utilizaron los cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa, planta popular que acumula antocianinas que proporciona su característico color rojo. Langostinos Macrobrachium tenellum fueron alimentados con dietas que incluían cálices de H. sabdariffa (jamaica bajo los siguientes tratamientos: i pigmento extraído con agua, ii pigmento extraído con etanol acidificado [0.1 M HCl (v/v], y iii harina de cálices. El efecto pigmentante de las dietas experimentales se comparó con langostinos sometidos a una dieta control sin pigmentos añadidos y con langostinos extraídos del medio silvestre. Los langostinos alimentados con la dieta de inclusión de polvo de jamaica mostraron la mayor expresión de eritróforos (color rojo en el exoesqueleto del pleon (abdomen y ganancia en longitud y peso, después de 60 días. Estos resultados sugieren que H. sabdariffa puede ser utilizado como complemento alimenticio natural, puesto que tiene un efecto positivo en los parámetros de crecimiento y pigmentación.

  2. Developmental effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi: Mitochondria as a target of environmental UVB radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Thaline; Schramm, Heloísa; Zeni, Eliane C; Simioni, Carmen; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2016-10-01

    In South America, increased UVB radiation has become an important environmental issue that is potentially threatening aquatic ecosystems. Considering that species exhibit different degrees of sensitivity to UVB radiation and that embryos are more sensitive than organisms at later life stages, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of UVB radiation on subcellular compartments of embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi. This species lives and reproduces in clear and shallow waters, where UV radiation can fully penetrates. Embryos were irradiated with a UVB 6W lamp for 30min and examined after 1h, 12h, 24h and 48h of exposure. The irradiance of the UVB used simulates the UV radiation that embryos receive in the natural environment. The subcellular compartment most affected by the UVB radiation was the mitochondria, which exhibited a circular shape, a decrease in mitochondrial cristae, rupture of membranes and a morphology compatible with fission. These impairments were observed simultaneously with increased ROS production, just after 1h of UVB exposure. Thus, we investigated proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Drp-1) and fusion (Mfn-1), which are essential to cell maintenance. We found a significant increase in Drp-1 expression at all analyzed time-points and a significant decrease in Mfn-1 expression only after 24h of UVB exposure. Additionally, a decrease in embryonic cell viability was verified via the mitochondrial integrity assay. To conclude, we observed important mitochondrial dysfunctions against the environmental stress caused by UVB radiation. Moreover, the cellular responses found are critical and should not be disregarded, because they impact embryos that can potentially compromise the aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Moringa oleifera inhibits growth of Candida spp. and Hortaea werneckii isolated from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming with a wide margin of safety

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    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of M. oleifera extracts against fungi isolated from farmed prawns and test the toxicity of the extracts on larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum. The ethanol extracts of pods, seeds, leaves, stems and flowers and chloroform extract of flowers of M. oleifera were tested against 14 strains of Candida spp. and 10 strains of Hortaea werneckii isolated from farming water and the digestive tract of M. amazonicum. Antifungal activity was determined by microdilution, based on the M27-A3 and M38-A2 CLSI documents. Toxicity was evaluated by exposing larvae of M. amazonicum at concentrations between 10-1000mg mL-1, counting dead larvae (CL50 after 24 hours. The best results were verified with the chloroform extract of flowers, acting against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.019 to 2.5 mg mL-1. Ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and seeds acted against 22/24, 21/24 and 20/24 strains, respectively. The extract of pods was only effective against strains of Candida spp. (14/24 and extract of stem only against four strains of H. werneckii (4/24. Extracts of seeds, flowers (chloroform fraction, stems and leaves showed low or no toxicity, whereas extracts of pods and flowers (ethanol fraction showed moderate toxicity. Thus, the antifungal activity of these extracts agaisnt Candida spp. and H. werneckii was observed, a wide margin of safety for larvae of M. amazonicum, demonstrating to be promising for the sustainable management of effluents from M. amazonicum farming

  4. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  5. Identification and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies by RT-qPCR during embryonic development of the emerging model organism, Macrobrachium olfersii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Ammar, Dib; Quispe, Ruth L; Guzman, Frank; Margis, Rogerio; Nazari, Evelise M; Müller, Yara M R

    2017-01-20

    RT-qPCR is a sensitive and highly efficient technique that is widely used in gene expression analysis and to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying embryonic development. The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium olfersii is an emerging model organism, but, the stable reference genes of this species need to be identified and validated for RT-qPCR analysis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of six genes (β-act, GAPDH, EF-1α, RpL8, RpS6, AK) in embryos and in adult tissues (cerebral ganglia, muscle and hepatopancreas) of M. olfersii. The expression stabilities of these genes were evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCt method and integrated tool RefFinder. In the general ranking, RpL8 and RpS6 were the most stable genes in embryos, while RpS6 and RpL8 were the most stable in a combined adult tissue analysis. Analysis of the adult tissues revealed that β-act and AK were the most stable genes in cerebral ganglia, RpL8 and AK in muscle, and RpS6 and β-act in hepatopancreas. EF-1α and GAPDH were the least stable genes and as normalizer genes in RT-qPCR affected expression of the Distal-less gene during M. olfersii development. This study provides suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis and allows future studies of the gene expression in M. olfersii for understanding the molecular mechanisms of their development. To our knowledge, this is the first published study that identifies and evaluates reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in M. olfersii and could be useful as basis for evaluations of reference genes in other prawns.

  6. 日本沼虾和克氏原螯虾胃容量的研究%Stomach Volumes of Macrobrachium nipponense and Procambarus clarkii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫红; 陈立侨; 李二超

    2010-01-01

    以体重0.672~4.827g的13本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponense)和3.678~43.163g的克氏原螯虾(Procambarus clarkii)为试验对象,研究这两种虾的胃容量及其与体长、体重间的关系.结果表明,日本沼虾和克氏原螯虾胃容量随着体重和体长的增加而增加:将日本沼虾、雄性克氏原螯虾和雌性克氏原螯虾的胃容量(y)和体重(x)进行回归分析,分别得方程式:y=0.021 5x+0.0065(r~2=0.9485),y=0.044 7x-0.0085(r~2=0.9648),y=0.0436x+0.0519(r~2=0.9787);3.009~4.827g的日本沼虾比胃容量显著小于0.672~2.811g的个体,12.967~42.071g的雄性克氏原螯虾比胃容量显著小于3.678~9.754g的个体,不同规格的雌性克氏原螯虾比胃容量差异不显著.

  7. Cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola (Macrobrachium jelskii a dos temperaturas y dos velocidades de aire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Roberti Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola Macrobrachium jelskii. La experimentación se llevó a cabo en un secador de bandejas, a temperaturas de 70 y 80 ºC y velocidades de aire de secado de 2 y 3 m/s, determinándose en cada experiencia la disminución de los valores de masa total a través del tiempo para construir las gráficas de humedad libre (XL versus tiempo, relación de humedad (X’ versus tiempo y la de velocidad de secado (N contra la humedad promedio, utilizando Microsoft® Excel. El análisis de los resultados se realizó a través de un diseño factorial 2 E2, siendo la variable de respuesta el tiempo de secado y los factores: temperatura de secado y velocidad del aire, determinando que el factor más influyente sobre el tiempo de secado fue la temperatura del proceso, con un nivel de significancia p = 0,0162. Las curvas de secado de esta especie demostraron que el fenómeno ocurrió solo en el período de velocidad de secado decreciente. La curva de velocidad de secado contra humedad promedio presentó concavidad hacia abajo, característico del secado de alimentos con capilares porosos y gran superficie de evaporación. Asimismo, se determinaron los valores de la humedad inicial (X0 para el M. jelskii cuyo promedio fue de 3,27 ± 0,10 g H2O/g sólido seco; el tiempo promedio de secado para alcanzar la humedad en el equilibrio (X* a temperatura de 70 ºC fue de 295 minutos a velocidad de aire de secado de 3 m/s y de 325 minutos a velocidad del aire de secado de 2 m/s, en contraste con la temperatura en la cámara a 80 ºC donde se alcanzó la humedad en el equilibrio en base seca en 270 minutos a velocidad del aire de 2 m/s y 235 minutos a 3 m/s. Con los resultados obtenidos se logró una data experimental que permite predecir el tiempo de deshidratación y datos importantes para el diseño de un secador con aire caliente para esta especie.

  8. Transciptomic and histological analysis of hepatopancreas, muscle and gill tissues of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in response to chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengming; Xuan, Fujun; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Ge, Xianping; Gu, Zhimin

    2015-07-03

    Oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is a commercially important species found in brackish and fresh waters throughout China. Chronic hypoxia is a major physiological challenge for prawns in culture, and the hepatopancreas, muscle and gill tissues play important roles in adaptive processes. However, the effects of dissolved oxygen availability on gene expression and physiological functions of those tissues of prawns are unknown. Adaptation to hypoxia is a complex process, to help us understand stress-sensing mechanism and ultimately permit selection for hypoxia- tolerant prawns, we performed transcriptomic analysis of juvenile M. nipponense hepatopancreas, gill and muscle tissues by RNA-Seq. Approximately 46,472,741; 52,773,612 and 58,195,908 raw sequence reads were generated from hepatopancreas, muscle and gill tissues, respectively. A total of 62,722 unigenes were generated, of the assembled unigenes, we identified 8,892 genes that were significantly up-regulated, while 5,760 genes were significantly down-regulated in response to chronic hypoxia. Genes from well known functional categories and signaling pathways associated with stress responses and adaptation to extreme environments were significantly enriched, including genes in the functional categories "response to stimulus", "transferase activity" and "oxidoreductase activity", and the signaling pathways "oxidative phosphorylation", "glycolysis/gluconeogenesis" and "MAPK signaling". The expression patterns of 18 DEGs involved in hypoxic regulation of M. nipponense were validated by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR; average correlation coefficient = 0.94). In addition, the hepatopancreas and gills exhibited histological differences between hypoxia and normoxia groups. These structural alterations could affect the vital physiological functions of prawns in response to chronic hypoxia, which could adversely affect growth and survival of M. nipponense

  9. Cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola (Macrobrachium jelskii a dos temperaturas y dos velocidades de aire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Roberti Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola Macrobrachium jelskii. La experimentación se llevó a cabo en un secador de bandejas, a temperaturas de 70 y 80 ºC y velocidades de aire de secado de 2 y 3 m/s, determinándose en cada experiencia la disminución de los valores de masa total a través del tiempo para construir las gráficas de humedad libre (XL versus tiempo, relación de humedad (X’ versus tiempo y la de velocidad de secado (N contra la humedad promedio, utilizando Microsoft® Excel. El análisis de los resultados se realizó a través de un diseño factorial 22, siendo la variable de respuesta el tiempo de secado y los factores: temperatura de secado y velocidad del aire, determinando que el factor más influyente sobre el tiempo de secado fue la temperatura del proceso, con un nivel de significancia p = 0,0162. Las curvas de secado de esta especie demostraron que el fenómeno ocurrió solo en el período de velocidad de secado decreciente. La curva de velocidad de secado contra humedad promedio presentó concavidad hacia abajo, característico del secado de alimentos con capilares porosos y gran superficie de evaporación. Asimismo, se determinaron los valores de la humedad inicial (X0 para el M. jelskii cuyo promedio fue de 3,27 ± 0,10 g H2O/g sólido seco; el tiempo promedio de secado para alcanzar la humedad en el equilibrio (X* a temperatura de 70 ºC fue de 295 minutos a velocidad de aire de secado de 3 m/s y de 325 minutos a velocidad del aire de secado de 2 m/s, en contraste con la temperatura en la cámara a 80 ºC donde se alcanzó la humedad en el equilibrio en base seca en 270 minutos a velocidad del aire de 2 m/s y 235 minutos a 3 m/s. Con los resultados obtenidos se logró una data experimental que permite predecir el tiempo de deshidratación y datos importantes para el diseño de un secador con aire caliente para esta especie.

  10. Potentialités et intérêts de l'élevage larvaire de la crevette d'eau douce indigène Macrobrachium carcinus (L.) (Palaemonidae) aux Antilles françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, F.; Fièvet, E.; BOUCHER P.

    1999-01-01

    De précédents travaux, réalisés en laboratoire, ont montré que le développement larvaire de Macrobrachium carcinus nécessitait un environnement salin. Le nombre de larves mises en élevage lors de ces essais était cependant trop faible pour envisager une production de masse de l'espèce. Lors de l'expérience ici présentée, 46.900 larves au stade I ont été mises en élevage à une température oscillant entre 28 et 30°C. Il a été montré qu'en faisant varier la salinité, la production de masse de po...

  11. 罗氏沼虾胚胎发育过程中同工酶的研究%The isozyme patterns in embryo development of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建平; 姜乃澄

    2000-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术, 对罗氏沼虾Macrobrachium rosenbergii胚胎发育过程中5种同工酶系统的表达进行了分析.结果表明,在胚胎发育过程中LDH、MDH、G6PD、Cytc.Oxidase和EST均有明显的变化,同工酶酶谱随胚胎的发育渐趋复杂,酶活性也随之增加.膜内氵蚤状幼体期初为胚胎同工酶基因被激活的关键时期.EST酶谱变化过程同卵黄的消化过程有关.

  12. Population biology of shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1778 (Decapoda, Palaemonoidea at the Grande River at northwest of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Biologia populacional do camarão Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1778 (Decapoda, Palaemonoidea no Rio Grande no noroeste do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara de Paiva Barros-Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The population biology of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated here emphasizing the length-frequency distribution, sex ratio, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment. In addition, the abundance of individuals was correlated with the abiotic factors. METHODS: Samples were collected on a monthly basis from July 2005 to June 2007 along the river margin in shallow water of Grande River, at Planura region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (20º 09' S and 48º 40' W, using a trawl net (1.0 mm mesh size, and 2.0 m × 0.5 m wide. The fishing gear was handled by two people along the marginal vegetation of the Grande River in a course of 100 m, covered for one hour. In the laboratory, the specimens were identified, measured and sexed. RESULTS: A total of 2,789 specimens was analyzed, which corresponded to 1,126 males (549 juveniles and 577 adults and 1,663 females (1,093 juveniles, 423 adults non-ovigerous and 147 ovigerous. The sex ratio differed significantly in favor of the females of M. jelskii (1:1.48; χ² = 103.95; p OBJETIVO: A biologia populacional do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium jelskii foi investigada, com ênfase na distribuição de frequência em classes de tamanho, razão sexual, período reprodutivo e recrutamento juvenil. Além disso, a abundância dos indivíduos foi correlacionada com os fatores abióticos. MÉTODOS: Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente de julho de 2005 a junho de 2007, às margens do Rio Grande, região de Planura, estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil (20º 09' S e 48º 40' W, usando uma rede de arrasto (1.0 mm tamanho da malha e 2.0 × 0.5 m de largura. O equipamento foi arrastado por duas pessoas às margens da vegetação do rio por 100 metros de distância, percorridos por uma hora. Em laboratório, os espécimes foram identificados, mensurados e sexados. RESULTADOS: Um total de 2,789 espécimes foi analisado, no qual correspondem a 1,126 machos (549 jovens e 577 adultos e 1,663 f

  13. Estagiamento de embriões de Macrobrachium olfersi (Wiegman (Crustacea, Palaemonidae através de critérios morfológicos nos dias embrionários Macrobrachium olfersi (Wiegman (Crustacea, Palaemonidae embryo staging through morphological landmarks identified in each embryonic day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Simões-Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Em embriões de Macrobrachium olfersi (Wiegman, 1836 foram analisadas as características morfológicas bem como o dia do desenvolvimento em que estas características surgiram. Machos e fêmeas de M. olfersi foram coletados na Ilha de Santa Catarina e colocados em aquários de água doce, na temperatura de 26°C e ciclo escuro e claro de 10:14 horas. Fêmeas ovígeras foram monitoradas diariamente para retirada de uma amostra de 20 ovos da câmara incubadora. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi caracterizado através do sistema de estagiamento diário. Embriões vivos e fixados foram analisados (48x em intervalos de 24 horas (dia embrionário. O índice do olho foi calculado em cada dia embrionário, a partir do aparecimento da pigmentação no olho. O desenvolvimento de M. olfersi foi caracterizado em 14 dias embrionários (E, onde entre E1 a E4 ocorreu a clivagem, gastrulação, disco germinativo e organização do nauplius embrionizado. Nos dias subseqüentes foi caracterizado o crescimento do nauplius embrionizado bem como a formação e encurvamento do pós-nauplius. Em E7 observou-se a pigmentação no olho, seguida do início dos batimentos cardíacos em E8. Entre E9 e E14, ocorreu de forma mais intensa o processo de organogênese, principalmente dos sistemas nervoso, cardiovascular e digestivo. O estagiamento diário do desenvolvimento de M. olfersi permitiu o reconhecimento de diferentes formas embrionárias, bem como de ritmos de crescimento e diferenciação do embrião, os quais são essenciais à formação gradual do plano do corpo.Morphological landmarks of Macrobrachium olfersi embryos were examined and their appearance times were related to each embryonic day. Males and females of M. olfersi (Wiegman, 1836 were captured in Santa Catarina Island and kept in freshwater small tanks at 26ºC and 10:14 dark: light cycle. Ovigerous females were monitored daily to remove samples of 20 eggs from brood pouch. The embryonic development

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense exposed to environmental hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengming; Xuan, Fujun; Ge, Xianping; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Shiyong

    2013-10-25

    Hypoxia represents a major physiological challenge for prawn culture, and the hepatopancreas plays an important role in these processes. Here, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to detect the gene expression profile of the hepatopancreas in M. nipponense in response to hypoxia for 3h and hypoxia for 24h. Gene expression profiling identified 1925 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated by dissolved oxygen availability. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes revealed that oxygen transport, electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species generation/scavenging, and immune response were the differentially regulated processes occurring during environmental hypoxia. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using six genes independently verified the tag-mapped results. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed, for the first time, hemocyanin protein expression as significant hypoxia-specific signatures in prawns, which opens the way for in depth molecular studies of hypoxia exposure. The analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in oriental river prawn provides a preliminary basis for a better understanding of the molecular response to hypoxia exposures. Crown Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.

  15. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  16. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCM. Mazzarelli

    Full Text Available Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum populations, those regarding osmoregulation and metabolism play a key role for being related to the occupation of diverse habitats. To this effect, we investigated osmoregulation through the role of free amino acids in cell volume control and metabolism, through oxygen consumption in larvae (zoeae I, II, V and IX and/or post-larvae of a M. amazonicum population from Amazon, kept in aquaculture fish hatcheries in the state of São Paulo. The results add information regarding the existence of distinct physiological responses among M. amazonicum populations and suggest that possible adjustments to metabolism and to the use of free amino acids as osmolytes of the regulation of the larvae and post-larvae cell volume depend on the appearance of structures responsible for hemolymph osmoregulation like, for example, the gills. In this respect, we verified that zoeae I do not alter their metabolism due to the exposition to fresh or brackish water, but they reduce intracellular concentration of free amino acids when exposed to fresh water, what may suggest the inexistence or inefficient performance of the structures responsible for volume regulation and hemolymph composition. On the other hand, in zoeae II and V exposed to fresh and brackish water, metabolism alterations were not followed by changes in free amino acids concentration. Thus it is possible, as the structures responsible for osmoregulation and ionic regulation become functional, that the role of free amino

  17. Dietary CoPPer Requirement of Juvenile Uriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense%日本沼虾幼虾对饲料中铜的需求量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建林; 陈建明; 潘茜; 沈斌乾; 孙丽慧; 姜建湖

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在通过研究饲料中铜含量对日本沼虾( Macrobrachium nipponense)幼虾生长性能、体成分、免疫力以及组织中铜、锌、铁含量的影响,以确定日本沼虾幼虾对饲料中铜的需求量。以无水硫酸铜为铜源,配制铜含量分别为0.63、6.70、12.64、19.15、25.64、31.99、65.27 mg / kg的7种试验饲料。选取初始体重为(0.10±0.01)g 的健康日本沼虾幼虾840尾,随机分成7组,每组3个重复,每个重复40尾。每组投喂1种试验饲料,试验期为49 d。结果表明:随着饲料中铜含量的增加,日本沼虾幼虾的增重率(WGR)和特定生长率(SGR)均呈先升高后降低的趋势,饲料系数( FCR)则呈相反的变化趋势。以25.64 mg / kg 组的 WGR 和 SGR 最高,显著高于0.63、6.70、12.64、19.15和65.27 mg / kg 组(P<0.05);以25.64 mg / kg 组的 FCR 最低,显著低于0.63、6.70、12.64和65.27 mg / kg 组( P<0.05)。饲料中铜含量对日本沼虾幼虾的成活率以及全虾水分、粗蛋白质、粗脂肪、粗灰分含量均无显著影响( P>0.05)。血清酚氧化酶(PO)和铜锌超氧化物歧化酶(CuZn-SOD)活力均在31.99 mg / kg 组获得最高值,比0.63 mg / kg组分别提高了101.09%(P<0.05)和76.64%(P<0.05)。0.63、6.70和12.64 mg / kg 组全虾中铜含量较低,显著低于31.99和65.27 mg / kg 组(P<0.05)。随着饲料中铜含量的增加,肌肉和肝胰脏中铜含量持续上升,63.70 mg / kg 组肌肉和肝胰脏中铜含量显著高于其他各组( P<0.05)。随着饲料中铜含量的增加,全虾中锌含量呈先平稳后下降的趋势,全虾中铁含量呈阶段式下降的趋势。在本试验条件下,饲料中适宜的铜含量能提高日本沼虾幼虾的生长性能和免疫力,且饲料中铜含量影响组织中铜、锌、铁含量。

  18. Genetic diversity of 15 Macrobrachium nipponense populations in Poyang Lake based on microsatellite analysis.%鄱阳湖日本沼虾15个群体遗传多样性的微卫星分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏翔; 汪桂玲; 冯建彬; 李家乐; 李远宁

    2011-01-01

    By the method of microsatellite analysis, an investigation was conducted on the genetic diversity of 15 wild populations of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Poyang Lake. The 10 microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, and a total of 129 alleles were detected. The tests of departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicated lhat at least 5 loci for each population were in significant heterozygosity deficiency. For all the populations, there existed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The 15 populations all showed high genetic diversity; the genetic diversity in Dabawai and Xinchi populations was relatively higher compared with the Wanhu and Hukou populations. Bottleneck effect and mutation-drift equilibrium tests indicated that the M. Nipponense populations in the Lake did not suffer bottleneck effect, and had no decline in their quantity in recent time. The Fst and AMOVA analysis across all the populations suggested that there was a significant genetic differentiation among the 15 populations (FST = 0. 04709, P<0. 01). This study showed that the M. Nipponense populations in Poyang Lake had high genetic diversity, with greater potential for breeding.%利用徽卫星分子标记研究鄱阳湖15个日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponense野生群体的遗传多样性.结果表明:10个微卫星位点呈高度多态性,共检测到129个多态性位点;每个群体中至少有5个位点显著偏离Hardy-Weinberg平衡,表现出杂合不足;15个日本沼虾群体均表现出较高的遗传多样性,其中大坝外群体和星池群体遗传多样性较高,万户和湖口群体相对较低.瓶颈效应和突变-漂移平衡分析表明,鄱阳湖日本沼虾群体近期没有经历过瓶颈效应,群体数量也没有下降.群体间F统计量及AMOVA分析显示,鄱阳湖日本沼虾群体存在极显著的遗传分化程度(FST=0.04709,P<O.01).综上所述,鄱阳湖日本沼虾群体具有丰富的遗传多样性,可作为日本沼虾选育的基础群.

  19. Polyculture of fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 wifh Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus feeding with ration pelleted and mashed / Policultivo do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 com a Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com rações peletizada e farelada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bohnenberger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 in performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in polyculture system and feeding with ration pelleted and mashed. The work was realized in Centro de Pesquisa em Aqüicultura Ambiental-CPAA/IAP – Toledo/PR during 37 days. Were utilized like experimental unit 16 ponds excavated, covered with concrete but with bottom of soil with dimension the 4 x 3 m and useful volume the 3,5 m3. Were utilized 30 tilapias e 150 shrimps for experimental unit distributed at an entirely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications, where TF: tilapia feeding with ration mashed; TCF: tilapia and shrimp feeding with ration mashed; TP: tilapia feeding with ration pelleted; TCP: tilapia and shrimp feeding with ration pelleted. The density used were the 2,6 fishes/m2 with medium initial weight the 5,58 ± 0,10 g and initial length the 5,56 cm, and the density of shrimp was the 13 shrimps/m2 with initial length the 1,04 cm. The temperature was gauged daily, while the variables dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity, weekly. The quantity of ration supplied was the 10% of total biomass of fishes, with feed frequency the 4 times a day, being corrected weekly in function of the biometry. During the experimental period the medium values of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the ponds water were 23,42 ± 0,83ºC, 5,32 ± 0,52 mg/L, 7,02 ± 0,39, e 100,96 ± 1,81 µS/ cm respectively. Won´t registering any influence of shrimp during the cultivation and the ration pelleted provide the better conversion alimentary and performance of tilapias.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 no desempenho da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus cultivada no sistema de policultivo e alimentada com rações peletizadas e fareladas

  20. Níveis de vitamina E e de selênio para pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1965 Dietary level of vitamin E and selenium on diets for post larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra da Silva Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar os melhores níveis dietários de vitamina E e de selênio para pós-larvas do camarão amazônico, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea. Nesse sentido, pós-larvas com peso médio de 280mg e comprimento médio de 20,60mm foram mantidas em 28 aquários de 12L dotados de sistema de recirculação de água e de controle automático de temperatura, submetidas à esquema fatorial 3x2, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 1 tratamento adicional, totalizando 4 repetições por tratamento. As pós-larvas foram alimentadas com rações purificadas à base de albumina e de gelatina, contendo 3 níveis de vitamina E (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg e 400,00mg/kg, 2 níveis de selênio (0,50mg/kg e 1mg/kg e 1 tratamento adicional (sem suplementação de selênio e de vitamina E. Após 30 dias, avaliou-se o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar aparente, a taxa de sobrevivência e a concentração de selênio no filé. Observou-se que: 200mg de vitamina E/kg e 0,50mg de selênio/kg proporcionam melhores respostas de ganho de peso e de conversão alimentar aparente; 100mg de vitamina E/kg e 0,50mg de selênio/kg proporcionam melhor taxa de sobrevivência e, 200mg de vitamina E/kg e 1mg de selênio/kg proporcionam maior concentração de selênio no filé. Com base nesses resultados, recomenda-se 200mg de vitamina E/kg e 0,50mg de selênio/kg de ração, na alimentação de pós-larvas de camarão amazônico, de modo a proporcionar melhores resultados quanto ao desempenho produtivo.The objective of this study was to determine the best dietary level of vitamin E and selenium on diets for Amazon prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea. Thus, post-larvae of 280mg average weight and 20.60mm average length were kept in 28 aquaria (12.00L supplied with water. They were maintained in automatic control of temperature, in a completely randomized factorial experiment 3x2 design, plus an additional treatment, with four

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  2. EFEITO DA TEMPERATURA E DOS ALIMENTOS PROTÉICO E LIPÍDICO NOS ESTÁDIOS DE MATURAÇÃO OVARIANA E ESTÁGIOS DE MUDA DO Macrobrachium acanthurus (WIEGMANN, 1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ CARLOS GASTELÚ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the reproductive physiology of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus in relation to controlled factors, such as processed food and temperature variations, would help to develop culture techniques,assuring its survival. Aiming at the finding some data on this subject, females of M. acanthurus were submitted to the effect of three temperatures (20, 25 and 30oC and three types of food (lipidic, proteic and commercial. Following this procedure, the effects of haemolymph glucose, total protein and total lipid levels on ovarian maturation as well as in the moulting stages wereanalyzed. Results showed that nutrient levels usually increased as the animals reached D stage and the temperature increased. The nutrient levels also increased as animals reached stage III of ovarian maturation. Glucose and total protein levels increased with increasing temperature, while total lipid levels diminished at 30oC.Lipid food produced an increase in the haemolymph glucose and total proteins, while lipid and commercial food produced an increase in total lipids. In spite of that, results showed no significant differences among moulting stages and ovarian maturation, when measured at the same temperature.

  3. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  5. Coexistence of reactive plasticity and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer diseased brains

    OpenAIRE

    J. Guevara; Dilhuydy, H.; Espinosa, B.; Delacourte, A; Quirion, R; Mena, R.; Joanette, Y.; Zenteno, E; Robitaille, Y

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a pathological process characterized by neuron degeneration and, as recently suggested, brain plasticity. In this work, we compared the reactive plasticity in AD brains associated to O-glycosydically linked glycans, recognized by lectins from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MRL), and the tau neuritic degeneration. The neuritic degenerative process was evaluated by the quantification of aggregated neuritic ...

  6. STUDIES ON THE INGESTION CHARACTERISTICS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, CHINESE PRAWN AND GIANT TIGER PRAWN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  7. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  8. 池养罗氏沼虾初见成效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国璋

    1978-01-01

    广东省水产研究所淡水渔业室暨广州淡水养殖试验场科技人员和工人,努力钻研科学技术,对引进国外新品种罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)进行越冬、繁殖、培苗和池养试验初获成功。

  9. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  10. 罗氏沼虾的试验性养殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彤

    1974-01-01

    淡水中有很多大而味美的虾类,其中最有名的是印度太平洋地区的罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)(即马来西亚大虾—译者注),其成体的最大体长雄性为25厘米,雌性为15厘米。

  11. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    OpenAIRE

    MNP Henares; AFM Camargo

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m(3)) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a ...

  12. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  13. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  14. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Analysis and Evaluation of Nutrition Components in the Muscle of Four Kinds of Shrimp%4种常规养殖虾肌肉营养品质分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封功能; 韩光明; 王爱民; 吕富; 殷玉岗

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the muscle nutritional composition of Procambarus clarkii, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Macrobrachium nipponense and Litopenaeus vannarnei, the results showed that the moisture and crude ash of Procambarus clark were the highest, the total sugar and phosphorus content of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were higher, the crude fat, calcium, iron, copper and lead of Macrobrachium nipponense were higher, the flesh content and crude protein of Litopenaeus vannamei were the highest. To fatty acids, the four kinds of shrimp were rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (18 dilute acid) was the highest; from the view of EPA+DHA, the contents of Litopenaeus vannamei were the highest, and the contents of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were the lowest; the ratio of n-6/n-3 of four kinds of shrimp were all over Chinese DRIs, but Procambarus clark was the closest to the reference value; P/S value of Procambarus clark was the biggest, followed by Macrobrachium nipponense, the value of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was the smallest.%对人工养殖的克氏原螯虾、罗氏沼虾、日本沼虾和南美白对虾的肌肉营养成分检测表明,克氏原螯虾的水分和粗灰分最高,罗氏沼虾的总糖和磷的含量较高,日本沼虾的粗脂肪、钙、铁、铜、铅含量较高,南美白对虾的含肉率、粗蛋白含量最高.4种虾均富含单不饱和脂肪酸和多不饱和脂肪酸,其中油酸(十八烯酸)含量最高;从EPA+DHA的含量来看,南美白对虾最高,罗氏沼虾最低;4种虾(n-6)/(n-3)比值均超过了膳食营养素参考摄入量范围,但克氏原螯虾的值与参考值最接近;多不饱和脂肪酸与饱和脂肪酸的比例以克氏原螯虾最大,日本沼虾次之,罗氏沼虾最小.

  16. Spatial distribution of the amazon river prawn Macrobrachium Amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae in two perennial creeks of an estuary on the northern coast of Brazil (Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará Distribuição espacial do camarão-da-amazônia - Macrobrachium Amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae em dois canais perenes de um estuário da costa norte do Brasil (Baía do Guajará - Belém, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS. Bentes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is the most frequently consumed freshwater crustacean by river communities of the Amazon. Despite its relative abundance and vast knowledge on the species from data on cultivated specimens, little is known regarding its biology in the natural environment, especially its use of creeks that are strongly influenced by the tide. Specimens of Macrobrachium amazonicum were collected in September 2006 (dry season and March 2007 (rainy season from two perennial creeks of the Guajará Bay in the state of Pará (northern Brazil, using traps similar to the matapis used by local fishermen to identify the spatial distribution of the species. Shrimps of all sizes use the tidal creeks in both seasons, including for breeding purposes. The greatest abundance of the species occurred in headwater areas and in the dry season. It is suggested that abundant allochthonous organic matter and the preference for protected areas may explain the abundance and breeding activity of this species in the headwaters of the creeks.Macrobrachium amazonicum é o crustáceo dulcícola mais frequentemente consumido pelas populações ribeirinhas da Amazônia. Entretanto, apesar de sua relativa abundância e vasto conhecimento da espécie a partir de dados de cultivo, pouco se conhece sobre sua biologia no ambiente natural, especialmente quanto à forma de utilização de canais fortemente influenciados pelas marés. Amostras desse camarão foram coletadas em setembro/06 (período seco e março/07 (período chuvoso, em dois canais perenes da Baía do Guajará, Pará, utilizando armadilhas (matapis como as utilizadas pelos pescadores locais para identificar a distribuição espacial dos organismos. Os canais de maré são utilizados por camarões de todos os tamanhos nas duas estações do ano, inclusive para a reprodução. A maior abundância de indivíduos da espécie foi encontrada no período seco, nas áreas a montante dos canais . Postula-se que a

  17. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  18. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  19. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  20. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  1. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  2. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  4. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Novel Probiotic Bacteria Bacillus vireti 01 on Antioxidant Defence System of Freshwater Prawn Challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya Hindu, S; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Thomas, John

    2017-08-23

    The aim of the present work was to isolate probiotic bacteria from the intestinal tract of healthy freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and to examine the effect of the isolated probiotic Bacillus vireti 01 in controlling Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. This is probably the first report on the isolation of probiotic B. vireti 01 from the intestine of M. rosenbergii. The compounds present in B. vireti 01 were identified using GC-MS analysis. The effect of B. vireti 01-incorporated diet on survival and antioxidant enzymes was studied in M. rosenbergii for 2 weeks. Decreased mortality was observed in M. rosenbergii which were administered with the probiotic diet compared to control diet. The antioxidant defence enzymes activities such as SOD, catalase and GSH were analysed in various organs of M. rosenbergii probiotic-treated and control groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities were considerably lowered (p < 0.01) in the muscles, hepatopancreas and gills of prawns infected by P. aeruginosa when compared to that of prawns fed with the probiotic-supplemented diet. The histopathological results suggest that the hepatopancreas, gills and muscles infected with P. aeruginosa were altered structurally. The result of the present work demonstrates that the probiotic B. vireti 01 could be used as a substitute to antibiotics for treating P. aeruginosa infection in prawns.

  5. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  6. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  7. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  8. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  9. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarãode água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.444 Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumcarcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) larval survival - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.444

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Maria Moraes da Silva; Albino Luciani Gonçalves Leal; Edson Pereira dos Santos; Eudes de Souza Correia

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI) foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas) e seis repetições: 1) filé de peixe (Dp); 2) filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB); 3) dieta fo...

  10. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  11. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  12. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  13. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  14. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  15. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  16. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  17. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  18. Prevalence and distribution of covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) in cultured crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingli; Xu, Tingting; Wan, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Xiaoping; Dong, Xuan; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jie

    2017-04-02

    An emerging covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) was proved to be the infectious agent of shrimp viral covert mortality disease (VCMD). Prevalence and distribution of CMNV were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), nested reverse transcription PCR, gene sequencing, histopathology, in situ RNA hybridization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) in this study. RT-LAMP results showed that CMNV positive samples appeared in the cultured crustaceans including Litopenaeus vannamei, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and mostly distributed the coastal provinces in China. The prevalence rates of CMNV among the collected samples in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 45.93% (130/283), 27.91% (84/301) and 20.85% (54/259), respectively. CMNV infection in M. japonicas and P. monodon was verified by ISH. The presence of CMNV particles were confirmed by TEM analysis in the CMNV positive samples diagnosed by RT-LAMP. The high prevalence and wide epidemic distribution of CMNV in this investigation revealed that it was necessary to pay close attention to the high risk of CMNV transmission in farmed crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

    2014-12-01

    The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca²⁺/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean

  20. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  1. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  2. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  3. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  4. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  5. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  6. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  7. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  8. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  9. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  10. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  11. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  12. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  13. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  14. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e proteína das farinhas de resíduo da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e da corvina (Plagioscion squamosissimus e farinha integral do camarão canela (Macrobrachium amazonicum para a tilápia do Nilo Apparent digestibility of energy and protein of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and corvina (Plagioscion squamosissimus by-product meal, and canela crayfish (Macrobrachium amazonicum meal for Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido objetivando determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa da energia bruta (EB e proteína bruta (PB, das farinhas de peixe obtidas a partir de resíduos de filetagem da corvina (FC, resíduos da filetagem da Tilápia (FT e farinha integral de camarão canela (FM para tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 40 peixes revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 40 g, acondicionados em um tanque de alimentação de 500L. A coleta de fezes foi feita em duas cubas cilíndricas com fundo cônico, de 150L. A determinação dos CDa foi feita por metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 0,1% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3, como indicador incorporado à ração. As médias de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica, durante o período experimental, foram de 28,5 ± 0,5ºC; 3,57 ± 0,12 mg/L; 7,21 ± 0,03; e 0,18 ± 0,01 mS/cm, respectivamente. Os CDa para a PB e EB foram de 70,67 e 54,45 para FC; 67,09 e 48,52 para FT; e 88,79 e 68,38 para FM, apresentando valores de proteína (% e energia (kcal/kg digestíveis, na matéria natural, de 37,50 e 2107,46 para FC; 28,72 e 1927,18 para a FT; e 53,74 e 2763,23 para FM, respectivamente. Os alimentos estudados têm potencial para utilização na alimentação da tilápia do Nilo, sendo necessária a determinação dos seus níveis de inclusão em rações para as diferentes fases de cultivo da espécie.The trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (CDa of gross energy (EB and crude protein (PB of tilapia (FT and corvina (FC processing by-product meal, and canela crayfish (Macrobrachium amazonicum meal (FM, for Nile tilapia fingerlings. Forty sexual reverted fishes, with average weight of 40 g, were allotted to 500 L feeding tanks. Feces collection was performed at two 150 L conical tanks. CDa was evaluated by an indirect method, with 0.1% chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the indicator. Average temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and

  15. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  16. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  17. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  18. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  19. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  20. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  1. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  2. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  3. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  4. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  5. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  6. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  7. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  8. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  9. Physiological stress response of Macrobrachium vollenhoevenii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... impact and risk assessment now facing ecotoxicologists in the new century is how to ... containers as they minimize absorption of toxicants and prevent risk of corrosion and ..... A World Bank financed study for the. Ministry of ...

  10. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  11. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  12. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  13. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  14. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of CPO (Crude Palm Oil dock activity in Mentaya River of Central Borneo caused degradation of ecosystem, particularly on both mangrove and macrozoobenthos community. One of methods used for monitoring of ecosystem degradation was to determine species that were still survive under the polluted conditions. These survival species were assumed to synthesize alloenzyme that can be used as indicator. Alloenzyme was synthesized as an effort of adaptation processes toward environmental pressures caused by CPO spill on Mentaya River. Alloenzyme would be expressed as phenotypic and genotypic adaptation processes or phenotypic plasticity. Research was carried out, consisted of field research included collecting sample and environmental data (oil content, temperature, pH, electric conductivity and redox potential, and laboratory research included series analysis of water quality (DO, BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and also alloenzyme content of Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. The alloenzyme of root and leaves mangrove and prawn’s hepatopancreas was analyzed using Spencer starch gel electrophoresis modified method of exposed on sucrose solution. Separated components of alloenzyme were detected by special staining for Esterase isozyme. The results revealed that Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man were bioindicator organisms for the polluted site by oil spills from CPO loading activities. The polluted river water by oil spill from CPO activities decreased redox potential, DO, increased oil content, DHL, water temperature, pH sediment, pH water, TDS, BOD, COD, TSS. Gel electrophoretical analysis demonstrated that Mangrove Soneratia caseolaris synthesized alloenzyme consisted of complex enzymes such as EST in its root and leave cells. Those enzymes were nearly similar to those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The oil spill from CPO have ester bonding so its adaptation mechanism with release Esterase

  15. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  16. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  17. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  18. 罗氏沼虾莫格球拟酵母病的治疗试验%Experiment on the Treatment for Pseudosaccharomycetes Disease of Giant Freshwater Prawn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董任彭; 金红燕

    2003-01-01

    @@ 在我国,罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium,rosenbergii)已被引进、养殖数十年.随着该虾养殖历史的不断增长,其病害问题渐显突出.1998年沼虾越冬期间,奉化市海带育苗厂18只越冬池内3万多尾亲虾每天都有死亡,有时多达250~300尾.

  19. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Semi-annual report No. 1, 1 November 1976-1 April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.; Eble, A.F.

    1977-05-01

    A pilot aquaculture facility utilizing heated river water from condenser cooling (Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, New Jersey) is being used to culture the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) during the warmer months of the year and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) during the colder months. Laboratory tests are also being conducted at Rutgers University to develop shrimp feeds with supplemented amino acids in order to reduce feed costs. Most of the work during the first six months of the proof-of-concept phase of the Mercer Aquaculture Project has been concerned with facility design, groundwater well construction and trials of the groundwater on trout.

  20. Responses of prawn to water flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.; Nilas, P.U.

    1987-05-28

    An aquarium study to determine the responses of postlarval macrobrachium rosenbergii to varying water changes was carried out. Six week old postlarvae were raised in glass aquaria receiving 0, 1.15, 7.2 and 14.4 water changes per day over a 12 week period. The treatments had significant influences on survival, biomass, and average size of the animals. Maximum survival and highest biomass were found in the 1.15 water turnover treatment; however, this treatment also produced the smallest average size animals. Early high mortalities were attributed to poor growing conditions in the high and low flow treatments, while later mortality appeared to be biomass dependent.