Alexandra M. AVDONINA
Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the digestive system of tardigrades was already described in some species, but it has never been studied in relationship to diet. We performed ultrastructural analyses of the midgut and hindgut of phytophagous Ramazzottius tribulosus and zoophagous Macrobiotus richtersi. In addition, the foregut of R. tribulosus was analyzed. New ultrastructural details have been observed. Among them are: (a distinct transverse pillar-like structures, lacking in electron-dense and compact cuticle of the buccal tube; (b a hole or groups of holes sometimes present in the buccal tube; (c a large cavity within each of the salivary glands where secreted mucus accumulates; and (d already found in zoophagous Isohypsibius prosostomus, one valve, formed by folds of the pharynx and located at the transition from pharynx to esophagus. In both analyzed species the increase of midgut surface is identified by two orders of folds of the gut wall and by microvilli. In R. tribulosus there are many first-order folds and few second-order folds, whereas in M. richtersi the opposite pattern is found. A peritrophic membrane and microvilli with a well developed glycocalyx are found only in the midgut lumen of R. tribulosus. The density of microvilli and the ratio between the real surface with microvilli and the hypothetical surface without microvilli is lower in zoophagous M. richtersi and I. prosostomus than in phytophagous R. tribulosus. All of these data represent an indirect indication of differences in digestive physiology between phytophagous and zoophagous tardigrade species. The shape of the hindgut is similar in both species and the lumen of the hindgut looks like a heartshaped cavity with some narrow cell evaginations.
Full Text Available From a moss sample collected in the Manabí Province in Ecuador, we extracted 96 specimens of a new species of eutardigrade. No eggs were found. In order to obtain eggs, an in vitro culture was prepared. In total, 136 specimens (including ten simplex, one exuvia and 44 eggs (including two with embryos of the new species were obtained. In addition to the traditional taxonomic description with morphometrics, light and scanning microscopy imaging, we also provide nucleotide sequences of three nuclear (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-2 and one mitochondrial (COI DNA fragments of the new species. Macrobiotus polypiformis sp. nov. belongs to the hufelandi group and is most similar to Ma. paulinae Stec, Smolak, Kaczmarek & Michalczyk, 2015, but differs from it mainly by the lack of dorso-lateral patches of granulation on the cuticle, egg processes with longer and more numerous filaments and in some morphometric characters of both eggs and adults. Moreover, we provide a short discussion on the modifications/abnormalities of the claws in eutardigrades and the possible consequences on the taxonomic status of Mesobiotus armatus (Pilato & Binda, 1996, suggesting its consideration as species inquirenda (with uncertain taxonomic status.
Roszkowska, M.; Ostrowska, M.; Stec, D.; Janko, Karel; Kaczmarek, Ł.
Roč. 327, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-19 ISSN 2118-9773 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : new species * morphological abnormalities * South America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2016
Tumanov, Denis V
For this paper I analysed the descriptions of all species, attributed to the genus Diphascon Plate, 1889, to ascertain if they fit the diagnosis of this genus, provided by Bertolani et al. 2014. Thirty four species (the majority of the species diversity classified within the genus) fully match its emended diagnosis, while three: Diphascon opisthoglyptum Maucci, 1987, Diphascon procerum Pilato, Sabella Lisi, 2014 and Diphascon ziliense Lisi, Sabella Pilato, 2014, demonstrate a combination of characters, typical to the genus Pilatobius Bertolani et al., 2014. I propose the transfer these three species to the genus Pilatobius, thus their new taxonomic positions are as follows: Pilatobius opisthoglyptus (Maucci, 1987) comb. nov., Pilatobius procerus (Pilato, Sabella Lisi, 2014) comb. nov. and Pilatobius ziliense (Lisi, Sabella Pilato, 2014) comb. nov. Descriptions of three other Diphascon species (Diphascon mariae (Mihelčič, 1951), Diphascon rivulare (Mihelčič, 1967) and Diphascon punctatum (Iharos, 1962)) contain too little detail to conclude on their taxonomic position. The species Pilatobius halapiense (Iharos, 1964) was erroneously transferred from the genus Diphascon, and here I suggest it is transferred back to Diphascon. The new taxonomic position of this species is: Diphascon halapiense (Iharos, 1964) comb. nov. Emended list of species, attributed to the genus Diphascon is given.
Sandra J. MCINNES
Full Text Available The preservation of tardigrade eggs and exuviae in Antarctic lake sediments provided an opportunity to assess post-glacial colonisation and Holocene tardigrade dynamics on the southern continent. Tardigrade eggs were recovered from five lakes, two from the maritime Antarctic and three from continental Antarctica. Eggs were identified from the following species: Dactylobiotus cf. ambiguus, Macrobiotus furciger, Macrobiotus blocki, Minibiotus weinerorum and Acutuncus antarcticus. Other, unornamented eggs were also observed. The preservation of some of these eggs in exuviae allowed identification to at least genus. Significant variations were observed in egg abundance within the sediment of each lake, and in one lake a species (Dactylobiotus cf. ambiguus became locally extinct, probably as the result of penguin-associated eutrophication. Tardigrades generally did not become abundant for a considerable period after the lakes’ formation. The presence of an in-part endemic fauna is consistent with slow colonisation from Antarctic sources rather than wind transport from extra-continental sites. Tardigrade eggs appear to be abundant in high-latitude lake sediments, and greater use could be made of these records when evaluating tardigrade dynamics during the Holocene.
Peluffo, J. R.
Full Text Available Tardigrade diversity was studied in a medium-sized city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina. Samples were collected between February 1999 and January 2000 from lichens and mosses growing on sidewalk trees of the urban and periurban area. Five species of tardigrades were found, i.e., Echiniscus rufoviridis du Bois-Reymond Marcus, 1944, Macrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840, Milnesium cf. tardigradum and a non-described species of Macrobiotus. Only one species, M. cf. tardigradum, was found in areas with high levels of vehicle traffic. Results are compared with those from cities in the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. Measurements and pt index values (percentage ratios between the length of the structure considered and the buccal tube length are provided for M. areolatus, R. oberhaeuseri and M. cf. tardigradum. Amongst the characters considered, the pt index for the stylet support insertion shows the least intraspecific variation. This character is also independent from body length and buccal-tube length.
Full Text Available RESÚMEN Este trabajo se realizó bajo la hipótesis de que existe una pérdida creciente de diversidad en las comunidades de tardígrados, desde las áreas rurales hacia las urbanas, incrementando la homogenización de sus comunidades producto de la urbanización. Para la ciudad de Salta, se tomaron muestras en áreas con tránsito vehicular alto y muestras en áreas rurales circundantes. Se identificaron en total ocho especies/morfoespecies. El inventario tuvo una completitud mayor al 94%. La comunidad rural fue más diversa y estructuralmente más uniforme que la comunidad urbana. Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze, 1834 resultó especie indicadora y Milnesium sp. como detectora para el hábitat urbano, mientras que Paramacrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907 resultó indicadora para el hábitat rural.
Full Text Available Two transects were established and sampled along altitudinal gradients on the slopes of Ariekammen (77°01′N; 15°31′E and Rotjesfjellet (77°00′N; 15°22′E in Hornsund, Spitsbergen. In total 59 moss, lichen, liverwort and mixed moss–lichen samples were collected and 33 tardigrade species of Hetero- and Eutardigrada were found. The α diversity ranged from 1 to 8 per sample; the estimated number of species based on all analysed samples was 52±17 for the Chao 2 estimator and 41 for the incidence-based coverage estimator. According to the results of detrended canonical correspondence analysis, altitude and type of substratum were the most important factors influencing tardigrade communities in the investigated area. Macrobiotus crenulatus, M. hufelandi hufelandi and Hypsibius pallidus dominated in the lower elevations, whereas Echiniscus wendti and E. merokensis merokensis prevailed in samples from higher plots. Macrobiotus islandicus islandicus was collected most often from mosses collected from rock whereas Isohypsibius coulsoni from mosses collected from soil. Analyses of covariance were employed to test for differences in species richness between the transects in relation to altitude. Contrary to expectations, there were significant differences in species richness between the transects, but richness was not significantly related to altitude. Interestingly, significant effects of colonies of seabirds, little auk (Alle alle, on the tardigrades communities were detected. Additionally, in one of the samples first ever males of Milnesium asiaticum were found. Their measurements and microphotographs are provided herein.
Full Text Available The first investigations of the tardigrades of Svalbard took place in the early 20th century and 30 papers on the subject have been published to date. In this article, we summarize available information on the distribution of tardigrades in this Arctic archipelago with remarks on the dubious species and records. Additionally, we examined 28 new moss, lichen and soil samples collected from the islands of Nordaustlandet, Edgeøya and Prins Karls Forland. These samples yielded 324 specimens, 15 exuvia and 132 free-laid eggs belonging to 16 limnoterrestrial species (Heterotardigrada and Eutardigrada. These include five first records of water bears from Nordaustlandet, eight new records for Edgeøya and four for Prince Karls Forland. The most dense population of tardigrades was found in a sample with 253 specimens/10 g of dry material and the least dense population in a sample with three specimens/10 g of dry material. The most frequently recorded species in samples collected in this study were Testechiniscus spitsbergensis Scourfield, 1897, Macrobiotus harmsworthi harmsworthi Murray, 1907, and M. islandicus islandicus Richters, 1904. This article also provides the first ever scanning electron microscope photomicrographs of Tenuibiotus voronkovi Tumanov, 2007.