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Sample records for macrobiotus macrocalix bertolani

  1. DNA barcoding in Tardigrada: the first case study on Macrobiotus macrocalix Bertolani & Rebecchi 1993 (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae).

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    Cesari, Michele; Bertolani, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena; Guidetti, Roberto

    2009-05-01

    Morphological and molecular studies on a tardigrade species have been carried out to verify the possibility of using a DNA barcoding approach for species identification in this phylum. Macrobiotus macrocalix Bertolani & Rebecchi, 1993 was chosen as the test species since it belongs to a group of species in which the taxonomy is quite problematic. Animals and eggs belonging to three Italian and one Swedish populations have been investigated. Both morphological and molecular analyses show that all the populations belong to the same species. The low genetic distances recorded among the studied populations (0.3-1.0%) and the high genetic distance (15.9-16.3%) between these populations and a closely related species confirm the possibility of identifying a specimen of this species by its cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence. Data from other authors support our results indicating that DNA barcoding can be applied to tardigrades. With our protocols, we have obtained voucher specimens that enable us to show a correspondence between morphology and molecular data.

  2. Three new species of Macrobiotus (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae, tenuis-group from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Spitsbergen

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    Denis V. TUMANOV

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated descriptions of Macrobiotus danilovi sp. n., Macrobiotus tenuiformis sp. n. from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Macrobiotus voronkovi sp. n. from Spitsbergen are given. These new species belong to the tenuis-group of the genus Macrobiotus. Members of the tenius-group have claws with a particularly long and thin common tract with a prominent frontal appendage at the base. Macrobiotus danilovi and M. tenuiformis differ from all known species of this group in the structure of their buccal armature. Macrobiotus voronkovi differs from all known species of the tenuis-group in its combination of features in adult animals and in the egg shell.

  3. Tolerance to Ammonia of Thulinius ruffoi (Bertolani, 1981), a Tardigrade Isolated from a Sewage Treatment Plant.

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    Sobczyk, Mateusz; Michno, Klaudia; Kosztyła, Paulina; Stec, Daniel; Michalczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity of ammonia on Thulinius ruffoi (Bertolani, 1981), a eutardigrade isolated from a small waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland, was estimated. Our results show that no active individuals survived a 24 h exposure to solutions equal to or higher than 125 mg/L of total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N + NH4 (+)-N), which, under the conditions in our experiment, was equivalent to 1.17 mg/L of un-ionised ammonia (NH3). The LC50 concentration of total ammonia nitrogen was equal to 52 mg/L (or 0.65 mg/L un-ionised ammonia). Given that the norms for the concentration of ammonia in treated waters leaving WWTPs are usually several times lower than the LC50 for T. ruffoi, this species does not seem to be a good bioindicator candidate for WWTPs. In this paper we also note that various ecotoxicological studies use different methodological approaches and we suggest that a more uniform methodology may aid interspecific comparisons of LC50 values.

  4. An integrative description of Macrobiotus paulinae sp. nov. (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae: hufelandi group) from Kenya.

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    Stec, Daniel; Smolak, Radoslav; Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Michalczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we describe Macrobiotus paulinae, a new species of the hufelandi group from the Kenyan highlands. In addition to the traditional taxonomic description, aided with morphometrics as well as light and scanning microscopy imaging, we also provide nucleotide sequences of three nuclear (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-2) and one mitochondrial (COI) DNA fragment of the new species. The sequences allowed not only a more accurate description but also provided an independent verification of the taxonomic status of Ma. paulinae sp. nov. Such integrative approach requires a considerable number of individuals and eggs, which we have partially subsidised by employing an in vitro culture of the new species. Our analyses revealed that Ma. paulinae sp. nov. is most similar to Macrobiotus madegassus Maucci, 1993 and Macrobiotus modestus Pilato & Lisi, 2009, however it differs from these species, as well as from all other known species of the hufelandi group, by the presence of seven paired dorso-lateral patches of cuticular granulation and the presence of chorionic filaments growing out of terminal discs of egg processes. Macrobiotus paulinae sp. nov. is an example of a species with a miniaturised buccal apparatus (i.e. with reduced peribuccal lamellae and oral cavity armature, and stylet supports inserted on the buccal tube more anteriorly than in typical Ma. hufelandi group species), and it therefore resembles two recently described two-macroplacoided Minibiotus species: Mi. acadianus Meyer & Domingue, 2011 and Mi. julianae Meyer, 2012. The re-examination of the type material for these two species confirmed that they are equipped with peribuccal lamellae and therefore we transfer them to the genus Macrobiotus, specifically to the hufelandi group.

  5. Morphometric analysis of some metric characters of two Macrobiotus species (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae

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    Oscar LISI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on individual variability was carried out on some metric characters of two species of Eutardigrada Macrobiotidae: Macrobiotus diffusus and Macrobiotus areolatus. Other than range of variability for various characters considered, correlation analysis and regression analysis for some of them were carried out by means of binary comparisons. By means of prediction ellipses, which were always determined with a probability of P = 99.9%, it was possible to hypothesize - with an error risk of 0.1% - if an individual whose data were outside the confidence interval belonged to a species. The value of the pt index relative to the point of insertion of the stylet supports is particularly significant, showing variations with extremely limited and independent dispersion both for body length and for buccal tube length.

  6. Arginine kinase from the Tardigrade, Macrobiotus occidentalis: molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and enzymatic properties.

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    Uda, Kouji; Ishida, Mikako; Matsui, Tohru; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2010-10-01

    Arginine kinase (AK), which catalyzes the reversible transfer of phosphate from ATP to arginine to yield phosphoarginine and ADP, is widely distributed throughout the invertebrates. We determined the cDNA sequence of AK from the tardigrade (water bear) Macrobiotus occidentalis, cloned the sequence into pET30b plasmid, and expressed it in Escherichia coli as a 6x His-tag—fused protein. The cDNA is 1377 bp, has an open reading frame of 1080 bp, and has 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of 116 and 297 bp, respectively. The open reading frame encodes a 359-amino acid protein containing the 12 residues considered necessary for substrate binding in Limulus AK. This is the first AK sequence from a tardigrade. From fragmented and non-annotated sequences available from DNA databases, we assembled 46 complete AK sequences: 26 from arthropods (including 19 from Insecta), 11 from nematodes, 4 from mollusks, 2 from cnidarians and 2 from onychophorans. No onychophoran sequences have been reported previously. The phylogenetic trees of 104 AKs indicated clearly that Macrobiotus AK (from the phylum Tardigrada) shows close affinity with Epiperipatus and Euperipatoides AKs (from the phylum Onychophora), and therefore forms a sister group with the arthropod AKs. Recombinant 6x His-tagged Macrobiotus AK was successfully expressed as a soluble protein, and the kinetic constants (K(m), K(d), V(ma) and k(cat)) were determined for the forward reaction. Comparison of these kinetic constants with those of AKs from other sources (arthropods, mollusks and nematodes) indicated that Macrobiotus AK is unique in that it has the highest values for k(cat) and K(d)K(m) (indicative of synergistic substrate binding) of all characterized AKs.

  7. Two New Records of Macrobiotus (Tardigrada,Macrobiotidae) in Shaanxi Province%陕西省大生属(缓步动物,大生熊虫科)两个新纪录种记述

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    杜祥云; 王立志; 刘艳

    2012-01-01

    记述了陕西省2个缓步动物新纪录种,它们是球蚜大生熊虫Macrobiotus adelges Dastych,1977(真缓步纲,大生熊虫科)和阿瑞科姆大生熊虫Macrobiotus ariekammensis Wêglarska,1965(真缓步纲,大生熊虫科)。%Two records of tardigrades are described from Shaanxi Province in this article.They are Macrobiotus adelges Dastych,1977 and Macrobiotus ariekammensis Wêglarska,1965.Both species belong to genus Macrobiotus,family Macrobiotidae,order Parachela and class Eutardigrada.

  8. Two New Records of Macrobiotus (Tardigrada, Macrobiotidae) in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区大生属(缓步动物,大生熊虫科)两个新纪录种记述

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    刘莹; 王立志

    2013-01-01

    记述了广西壮族自治区2个缓步动物新纪录种,即毛氏大生熊虫[Macrobiotus mauccii Pilato,1974(真缓步纲,大生熊虫科)]和胡氏大生熊虫[Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833(真缓步纲,大生熊虫科)].%Two records of tardigrades in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were described,which were Macrobiotus mauccii Pilato,1974 and Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833.Both species belonged to genus Macrobiotus,family Macrobiotidae,order Parachela and class Eutardigrada.

  9. Light and electron microscopic studies on the excretory system of Macrobiotus richtersi Murray, 1911 (Eutardigrada).

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    Weglarska, B

    1980-01-01

    The excretory system of Macrobiotus richtersi consists of one dorsal and two lateral components and shows a high degree of structural complexity. In each of these a tricellular external lobe and a column can be distinguished, the two parts being connected distally. The surface of the lobe cells is increased by deep basal infoldings and fingerlike processes which form a labyrinth next to the basal lamina. Their cytoplasm contains numerous mitochondria, a well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, and granules in amounts depending on the physiological state of the animal. Excretory crystals occur in caveolae located in the lobe: between the fingershaped processes of the cell and in the space enclosed by the basal lamina on one side and the column on the other. The column faces an extracellular channel meandering along its whole length which is surrounded on the outside by a basal lamina. Morphologically the column is similar to the protonephridial channel of Rotifera. At the ultrastructural level, the cytoplasm of the column shows numerous mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and a well developed Golgi apparatus. The lumen of the channel is coated by glycocalyx. At the base of the column several small cells form the proximal part of a duct that communicates with the gut. The morphology and ultrastructure of the excretory system of M. richtersi have been compared with similar a system in Isohypsibius megalonyx (Greven, 1979), and on these grounds a proposal is put forward to call the excretory organs of Tardigrada "nephridia" instead of "Malpighian tubules" .

  10. Ultrastructure of the digestive system of Ramazzottius tribulosus and Macrobiotus richtersi (Eutardigrada in relationship with diet

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    Alexandra M. AVDONINA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the digestive system of tardigrades was already described in some species, but it has never been studied in relationship to diet. We performed ultrastructural analyses of the midgut and hindgut of phytophagous Ramazzottius tribulosus and zoophagous Macrobiotus richtersi. In addition, the foregut of R. tribulosus was analyzed. New ultrastructural details have been observed. Among them are: (a distinct transverse pillar-like structures, lacking in electron-dense and compact cuticle of the buccal tube; (b a hole or groups of holes sometimes present in the buccal tube; (c a large cavity within each of the salivary glands where secreted mucus accumulates; and (d already found in zoophagous Isohypsibius prosostomus, one valve, formed by folds of the pharynx and located at the transition from pharynx to esophagus. In both analyzed species the increase of midgut surface is identified by two orders of folds of the gut wall and by microvilli. In R. tribulosus there are many first-order folds and few second-order folds, whereas in M. richtersi the opposite pattern is found. A peritrophic membrane and microvilli with a well developed glycocalyx are found only in the midgut lumen of R. tribulosus. The density of microvilli and the ratio between the real surface with microvilli and the hypothetical surface without microvilli is lower in zoophagous M. richtersi and I. prosostomus than in phytophagous R. tribulosus. All of these data represent an indirect indication of differences in digestive physiology between phytophagous and zoophagous tardigrade species. The shape of the hindgut is similar in both species and the lumen of the hindgut looks like a heartshaped cavity with some narrow cell evaginations.

  11. Ovary organization and oogenesis in the tardigrade Macrobiotus polonicus Pilato, Kaczmarek, Michalczyk & Lisi, 2003 (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae): ultrastructural and histochemical analysis.

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    Poprawa, Izabela; Schlechte-Wełnicz, Weronika; Hyra, Marta

    2015-05-01

    The female reproductive system, the process of oogenesis, and the morphology of the egg capsule of Macrobiotus polonicus were analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The female reproductive system of Macrobiotus polonicus consists of a single ovary and a single oviduct that opens into the cloaca. The seminal receptacle filled with sperm cells is present. The ovary is divided into two parts: a germarium that is filled with oogonia and a vitellarium that is filled with branched clusters of the germ cells. Meroistic oogenesis occurs in the species that was examined. The yolk material is synthesized by the oocyte (autosynthesis) and by the trophocytes and is transported to the oocyte through cytoplasmic bridges. The process of the formation of the egg envelopes starts in the late vitellogenesis. The egg capsule is composed of two envelopes-the vitelline envelope and the three-layered chorion. The vitelline envelope is of the primary type while the chorion is of a secondary type. The surface of the chorion is covered with conical processes that terminate with a strongly indented terminal disc.

  12. 我国缓步动物新记录种——细齿大生熊虫%A Newly Recorded Species of Tardigrade——Macrobiotus crenulatus

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    任桢; 孙西寨

    2014-01-01

    记述了福建省武夷山缓步动物的一个新记录种细齿大生熊虫(Macrobiotus crenulatus Richters,1904),该种隶属缓步动物门(Tardigrada)、真缓步纲(Eutardigrada)、并爪目(Parachela)、大生熊虫科(Marcobiotidate)、大生熊虫属(Macrobiotus).

  13. Reproductive traits of Macrobiotus hufelandi during a long-term field study with notes on Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Diphascon pingue (Eutardigrada

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    Rolf Schuster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied reproductive traits in populations of the eutardigrade species Macrobiotus hufelandi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi, and Diphascon pingue from a carpet of the moss Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus in the Black forest, Germany, over a period of 53 months. Specimens were fortnightly extracted, measured, and divided into dead and living individuals. The living specimens were divided into juveniles, ovigerous females (i.e. females with mature eggs and immature, but vitellogenetic eggs, and females with undifferentiated oocytes. Males were never found during the investigation period. For the most abundant species, M. hufelandi, it was shown that i ovigerous females were found throughout the year; ii reproductive activity (expressed as the percentage of ovigerous females in the total population was highest from January to June, but peaks in these months varied considerably within the investigation period; iii development of eggs may be considerably delayed compared with data obtained from cultures; iv presence of ovigerous adults and juveniles was nearly opposite, i.e. the more adults the fewer juveniles were found, and a maximum of adults was followed by a maximum of juveniles with some delay and vice versa; v number of oocytes, as well as length and percentage of ovigerous females relative to the total number of specimens appeared to be negatively correlated, whereas percentages of juveniles (<260 μm in length appeared to be positively correlated with temperature. Other correlations included humidity (number of oocytes, negative; percentage of juveniles, positive and the sum of hours of sunshine (length and percentage of ovigerous females, negative; percentage of juveniles, positive. The relatively low numbers of P. richtersi and D. pingue collected during the investigation period did not allow a more detailed analysis, but here as well ovigerous females were found throughout the year.

  14. Sequence analysis of the DNA-repair gene rad51 in the tardigrades Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi

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    Eliana A. Beltrán-Pardo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are known for being resistant to extreme conditions, including tolerance to ionising and UV radiation in both the hydrated and the dehydrated state. It is known that these factors may cause damage to DNA. It has recently been shown that single and double DNA strand breaks occur when tardigrades are maintained for a long time in the anhydrobiotic state. This may suggest that perhaps tardigrades rely on efficient DNA repair mechanisms. Among all proteins that comprise the DNA repair system, recombinases such as RecA or Rad51 have a very important function: DNA exchange activity. This enzyme is used in the homologous recombination and allows repair of the damaged strand using homologous non-damaged strands as a template. In this study, Rad51 induction was evaluated by western blot in Milnesium cf. tardigradum, after exposure to gamma radiation. The Rad51 protein was highly induced by radiation, when compared to the control. The rad51 genes were searched in three tardigrades: Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi. The gene sequences were obtained by preparing and sequencing transcriptome libraries for H. dujardini and M. cf. harmsworthi and designing rad51 degenerate primers specific for M. cf. tardigradum. Comparison of Rad51 putative proteins from tardigrades with other organisms showed that they are highly similar to the corresponding sequence from the nematode Trichinella spiralis. A structure-based sequence alignment from tardigrades and other organisms revealed that putative Rad51 predicted proteins from tardigrades contain the expected motifs for these important recombinases. In a cladogram tree based on this alignment, tardigrades tend to cluster together suggesting that they have selective differences in these genes that make them diverge between species. Predicted Rad51 structures from tardigrades were also compared with crystalline structure of Rad51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These

  15. Effects of temperature and thermal acclimation on locomotor performance of Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze (Tardigrada: Macrobiotidae)%温度和热驯化对胡氏大生熊虫运动行为的影响

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    李晓晨; 王立志

    2005-01-01

    The beneficial acclimation hypothesis (BAH) predicts that animals acclimated to a particular temperature have enhanced performance or fitness at that temperature in comparison with animals acclimated to other temperatures. The BAH has been tested by a variety of empirical examinations, and was rejected by some of them. In order to provide new evidences for the BAH, the effects of acute and acclimation temperature (AT) on locomotor performance of Macrobiotus hufelandi (Tardigrada: Macrobiotidae) were investigated. The tardigrades were collected from Nanwutai, Qinling Mountains which traverse from west to east in central China. The subjects were acclimated to either 2℃ or 22℃ for 2 weeks. The animal was transferred onto a frosted slide and allowed to walk freely at the performance temperature (PT) 2℃ or 22℃. Only one individual was tested per test bout, which lasted from three to five minutes. To avoid occurrence of thermal acclimation effect, the standard adaptation time was limited to 1.5 min. Each subject was tested for once at the same PT, and was tested only at one PT. A total of 25 individuals were tested and measured at the same PT. The locomotor performance of the animals was recorded with a digital video camera mounted on a microscope at 4×10 amplification and replayed on a PC. Every subject was identified. Walking speed (WS) and percentage of time moving (PTM) at both PTs (2℃ or 22℃) were selected as the rate parameters of locomotor performance. The two-way repeated measures ANOVA with a significance level of α= 0.05 and Duncan multiple range test were used to analyze the data. WS of the animals acclimated to and tested at the same temperatures was significantly faster than that for animals acclimated to and tested at the different temperatures, similarly, PTM of the animals acclimated to 22℃ and tested at 22℃ was significantly greater than PTM of animals acclimated to 22℃ and tested at 2℃, which indicated that the animals acclimated

  16. Germ cell cluster organization and oogenesis in the tardigrade Dactylobiotus parthenogeneticus Bertolani, 1982 (Eutardigrada, Murrayidae).

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    Poprawa, Izabela; Hyra, Marta; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-07-01

    Germ cell cluster organization and the process of oogenesis in Dactylobiotus parthenogeneticus have been described using transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The reproductive system of D. parthenogeneticus is composed of a single, sac-like, meroistic ovary and a single oviduct that opens into the cloaca. Two zones can be distinguished in the ovary: a small germarium that is filled with oogonia and a vitellarium that is filled with germ cell clusters. The germ cell cluster, which has the form of a modified rosette, consists of eight cells that are interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges. The cell that has the highest number of stable cytoplasmic bridges (four bridges) finally develops into the oocyte, while the remaining cells become trophocytes. Vitellogenesis of a mixed type occurs in D. parthenogeneticus. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), while the second part is synthesized in the trophocytes and transported to the oocyte through the cytoplasmic bridges. The eggs are covered with two envelopes: a thin vitelline envelope and a three-layered chorion. The surface of the chorion forms small conical processes, the shape of which is characteristic for the species that was examined. In our paper, we present the first report on the rosette type of germ cell clusters in Parachela.

  17. Two new records of Tardigrades from Anhui province%安徽省缓步动物两新纪录种记述

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    熊成香; 王怡婷; 王大勇

    2008-01-01

    记述了安徽省缓步动物两新纪录种,分别是:Macrobiotus adelges Dastych, 1977和Macrobiotus richtersi Murray 1911,此两种均属于真缓步纲(Eutardigrada)并爪目(Parachela)大生科(Macrobiotidae)大生属(Macrobiotus),在安徽省属首次发现.

  18. Two New Records of Tardigrada for Jilin and Hubei%吉林和湖北缓步动物二新纪录

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    王立志

    2005-01-01

    记述了吉林省和湖北省2个缓步动物新纪录.它们是Macrobiotus harmsworthi Murray,1907; Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833.2个种同属于缓步动物门(Tardigrada)、真缓步纲(Eutardigrada)、并爪目(Parachela)、大生熊虫科(Macrobiotidae)、大生熊虫属(Macrobiotus).

  19. Published records of limno-terrestrial tardigrades (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada, Eutardigrada from Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

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    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following 6 species were reported for the area by Iharos (1961: Echiniscus testudo, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri, Hypsibius convergens, Macrobiotus hufelandi, Minibiotus intermedius, Paramacrobiotus richtersi. Specimens from the Macrobiotus hufelandi species group were recorded and during present study from one locality.

  20. Front Matter

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    Lorena Rebecchi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 12th International Symposium on TARDIGRADA.Proceedings Guest EditorsLorena Rebecchi (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, ItalyDiane R. Nelson (East Tennessee State University, USARoberto Bertolani (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, ItalyPaulo Fontoura (University of Porto, Portugal

  1. Two New Records of Tardigrada from Chongqing City%重庆市缓步动物两新记录种记述

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    李宏群; 刘晓莉

    2009-01-01

    记述了重庆市2个缓步动物新记录种,它们是真缓步纲高生科的Isohypsibius marcellinoi Binda & Pilato和真缓步纲大生熊虫科的Macrobiotus richtersi Murray.%Two new records of Tardigrada in Chongqing city were reported in this article. They were Isohypsibius marcellinoi Binda & Pilato,Hypsibiidae,Eutardigrada and Macrobiotus richtersi Murray,Macrobiotidae,Eutardigrada.

  2. A Newly Recorded Species of Genus Hypsibius (Tardigrada: Hypsibiidae) from the Wuyi Mountains, Southeastern China%武夷山高生熊虫属(缓步动物门:高生熊虫科)新纪录种

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    范瑞娜; 孙西寨

    2014-01-01

    记述了我国缓步动物1种新纪录种皮氏高生熊虫(Hypsibius pedrottii Bertolani,Manicardi&Gibertoni,1987).该种属于真缓步纲(Class Eutardigrada Richters,1926)、并爪目(Order Parachela Schuster,Nelson Grigarick& Christenberry,1980)、高生熊虫科(Family Hypsibidae Pilato,1969)、高生熊虫属(Genus Hypsibius Ehrenberg,1848).

  3. Recipient Wound Bed Characteristics Affect Scarring and Skin Graft Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-13

    multipotent stem cells as well as to be a source of adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, which are anti- inflammatory, and leptins , which increase expression...Petrai I, Bertolani C, Parola M, Colombatto S, Novo E, et al. Upregulation of proinflammatory and proan- giogenic cytokines by leptin in human hepatic...Chang LT, Chen YL, Tsai TH, et al. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell protects kidneys against ischemia-reperfusion injury through suppressing

  4. TARDIGRADES FROM SOME MOSSES OF SHENNONG FRAME STATE FOREST PARK IN CHINA%中国神农架国家森林公园苔藓中的缓步动物

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    杨潼

    2007-01-01

    记述了采自湖北省西部神农架国家森林公园苔藓中的缓步动物12种,包括:日本棘影熊虫Echiniscus japonicus Morikawa,1951;双粒棘影熊虫Echiniscus bigranulatus Richters,1907中国新纪录种;华美假棘影熊虫Pseudechiniscus facettalis Petersen,1951;于猪假棘影熊虫Pseudechiniscus suillus(Ehrenberg,1853);迟缓小斑熊虫Milnesium tardigradum(Doyère,1840);隐匿大生熊虫Macrobiotus adelges Dastych,1977;锦葵大生熊虫Macrobiotus hibiscus Barros,1942中国新纪录种;胡芬大生熊虫Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833;华丽大生熊虫Macrobiotus richtersi Murray,1911;陆栖大生熊虫Macrobiotus terricola Mihel(c)I(c),1949;水生趾生熊虫Dactylobiotus aquatilis Yang,1999;金猴等高熊虫Isohypsibius jinhouensis sp. Nov..所有的标本均保存于中国科学院水生生物研究所.

  5. Notes to the species composition of the genus Paramacrobiotus Guidetti et al., 2009 (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degma, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For this paper I analyzed the descriptions of all seventy seven currently known Macrobiotus species with three macroplacoids, with or without a microplacoid, to ascertain if they fit to the morphological diagnosis of the genus Paramacrobiotus Guidetti et al., 2009. Most (sixty three species) differed from the genus Paramacrobiotus characters as they were either members of the Macrobiotus harmsworthi and furciger species groups or did not possess the combination of two unique genus characters (elongated macroplacoids and microplacoid considerably distant from the third macroplacoid, if present). Insufficient descriptions for a further ten species means their taxonomic positions remain unclear. Four Macrobiotus species are transferred to the genus Paramacrobiotus and their new taxonomic position is Paramacrobiotus danielisae (Pilato, Binda & Lisi, 2006) comb. nov., Paramacrobiotus hapukuensis (Pilato, Binda & Lisi, 2006) comb. nov., Paramacrobiotus priviterae (Binda, Pilato, Moncada & Napolitano, 2001) comb. nov. and Paramacrobiotus sklodowskae (Michalczyk, Kaczmarek & Weglarska, 2006) comb. nov.

  6. 江西省缓步动物四个新纪录种记述%Four New Records of Tardigrada for Tardigrade Fauna of Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁笛

    2006-01-01

    本文报道了江西省缓步动物4个新记录种:双裂角棘影熊虫Cornechiniscus lobatus Ramazzotti,1943(异缓步纲,棘影熊虫科),节值大生熊虫Macrobiotus harmsworthi Murray, 1907(真缓步纲,大生熊虫科),胡氏大生熊虫Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze, 1833 (大生熊虫科)和杜氏高生熊虫Hypsibius dujardini Doyére, 1840(高生熊虫科).

  7. Preliminary Investigation on Tardigrada Fauna of Qinghai Province%青海省缓步动物区系初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽琼; 王立志

    2008-01-01

    记述了青海省发现的14种缓步动物,它们属于2纲、3目、4科、10属.2种(叉状大生熊虫Macrobiotus furciger Murray,1906和马氏等高熊虫Isohypsibius marcellinoi Binda & Pilato,1971)是中国新纪录种,12种(叶状角棘影熊虫Cornechiniscus lobatus Ramazzotti,1943、加拿大棘影熊虫Echiniscus canadensis Murray,1910、文氏棘影熊虫Echiniscus wendti Richters, 1903、小刻面假棘影熊虫Pseudechiniscus facettalis Petersen,1951、缓步米氏熊虫Milnesium tardigradum Doyére,1840、哈氏大生熊虫Macrobiotus hamsworthi Murray,1907、胡氏大生熊虫Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833、瑞氏大生熊虫Macrobiotus richtersi Murray, 1911、介小生熊虫Minibiotus intermedius Palte,1889、苏格兰双相熊虫Diphascon scoticum Murray,1905、黄色腹矛熊虫Doryphoribius flavus Iharos,1966和杜氏高生熊虫Hypsibius dujardini Doyére,1840)是青海省新纪录种.本文系青海省对该类动物的首次报道.

  8. New records of tardigrades(Tardigrada) from Taiwan%台湾缓步动物(缓步动物门)新纪录种记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阴环; 李晓晨

    2011-01-01

    报道了采自台湾的缓步动物(缓步动物门)的7个新纪录种.这些缓步动物属于2纲、3目、4科、5属,它们是翠绿棘甲熊虫Echiniscus viridisMurray、苏氏假棘甲熊虫Pseudechiniscus suillus(Ehrenberg)、凯氏米氏熊虫Milnesium katarzynae Kaczmarek et al.、山地大生熊虫Macrobiotus montanus Murray、瑞氏大生熊虫Macrobiotus richtersi Murray、吉伯具矛熊虫Doryphoribius%Seven new record species of tardigrades(Phylum Tardigrada) from Taiwan are reported.They belong to two classes,three orders,four families and five genera.They are Echiniscus viridis Murray,Pseudechiniscus suillus(Ehrenberg),Milnesium katarzynae Kaczmarek,Michalczyk Beasley,Macrobiotus montanus Murray,Macrobiotus richtersi Murray,Doryphoribius gibber Beasley Pilato,and Doryphoribius zappalai Pilato.A key to Taiwanese species of the tardirada is also given.

  9. Two New Records of Tardigrada in Zhejiang Province%浙江省缓步动物2个新纪录种记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉屏; 郑乐; 王西安

    2008-01-01

    记述了浙江省2个缓步动物新纪录种,它们分别是Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833(真缓步纲,大生熊虫科)和Isohypsibus prosostomus Thulin,1928(真缓步纲.高生熊虫科).系浙江省缓步动物的首次报道.

  10. 中国东部武夷山风景区苔藓中的缓步动物%TARDIGRADES FROM SOME MOSSES OF WUYI MOUNTAIN SCENERIES IN EAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨潼

    2008-01-01

    记述了采自中国东部福建省武夷山风景区苔藓中的缓步动物11种,包括:日本棘影熊虫 Echiniscus japonicusMorikawa,1951中国东部新纪录种;结痂棘影熊虫 Echiniscus scabrospinesus Fontoura,1982中国东部新纪录种;华美假棘影熊虫 Pseudechiniscus facettalis Petersen,1951中国东部新纪录种;迟缓小斑熊虫 Milnesium tardigradum(Doyère,1840);埃卡门大生熊虫 Macrobiotus ariekammensis Weglarska,1965 中国东部新纪录种;节值大生熊虫,模式亚种 Macrobiotus harmswodsrthiharmsworthi Murray,1907;华丽大生熊虫 Macrobiotus richtersi,1911;陆栖大生熊虫 Macrobiotus terricola Mihelcic,1949;异常拉玛熊虫 Ramazzottius anomalus(Ramazzotti,1962)中国新纪录种;肥曲拉玛熊虫 Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri(Doyère,1840);黄色具矛熊虫 Doryphoribius flavus(Iharos,1966)中国东部新纪录种.所有的标本均保存于中国科学院水生生物研究所.

  11. Tardigrada of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

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    William R. MILLER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the Tardigrada fauna of China, and there are no previous tardigrade records for Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China's largest administrative division. Moss specimens of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (St. Louis, U.S.A. were used as a source of tardigrades from this region. Of the 270 moss specimens sampled, 78 yielded tardigrades. Species found were Bryodelphax asiaticus, Cornechiniscus holmeni, Echiniscus blumi, Echiniscus canadensis, Echiniscus granulatus, Echiniscus testudo, Echiniscus trisetosus, Macrobiotus alekseevi, Macrobiotus mauccii, Milnesium asiaticum, Milnesium longiungue, and Milnesium tardigradum. Of the species found, the Heterotardigrada are better represented, which is probably a reflection of the higher altitudes at which the samples were taken and the arid environment of the region; the species found are primarily ones considered to be xerophilic or montane. Seven species new to China are reported.

  12. Two New Records of Tardigrada for Xizang Municipality%西藏缓步动物两新记录种记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠艳荣; 张蓉清; 王立志

    2007-01-01

    记述了西藏2个缓步动物新纪录,它们是哈氏大生熊虫和胡氏大生熊虫.这2个种同属于缓步动物门(Tardigrada)、真缓步纲(Eutardigrada)、并爪目(Parachela)、大生熊虫科(Macrobiotidae)、大生熊虫属(Macrobiotus).

  13. 陕西省延安黄龙山缓步动物区系初步调查%A Checklist of Tardigrada from Mount Huanglong of Yanan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏群; 刘晓莉

    2010-01-01

    报道了陕西省延安黄龙山的缓步动物名录.该名录包含了13种缓步动物,隶属于2纲、2目、3科、6属.其中帕氏双向熊虫(Diphascon patanei Binda & Pilato, 1971)和马氏等高熊虫(Isohypsibius marcellinoi Binda & Pilato, 1971)是陕西省新纪录种,其余叶状角棘影熊虫(Cornechiniscus lobatus Ramazzotti,1943)、加拿大棘影熊虫(Echiniscus canadensis Murray,1910)、日本棘影熊虫(Echiniscusm japonicus Morikawa,1951)、太白棘影熊虫(Echiniscus taibaiensis Wang and Li,2005)、假棘影阿斯皮尔熊虫(Oseydecgubuscys asoer Abe,Utsugi & Takeda, 1998)、假棘影苏氏熊虫(Pseudechiniscus suillus Ehrenberg,1883)、假棘影乳突状熊虫(Pseudechiniscus papillus Li,Wang, Liu and Su,2005)、哈氏大生熊虫(Macrobiotus hamsworthi Murray, 1907)、胡氏大生熊虫(Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833)、瑞氏大生熊虫(Macrobiotus richtersi Murray,1911)、Diphascon scoticum Murray (1905)是陕西省延安黄龙山新纪录种.

  14. THE TARDIGRADES FROM SOME MOSSES OF LIJIANG COUNTY IN YUNNAN PROVINCE(HETEROTARDIGRADA: ECHINISCIDAE; EUTARDIGRADA: PARACHELA:MACROBIOTIDAE, HYPSIBIIDAE)%云南省丽江苔藓中缓步动物(异缓步纲:棘节目:棘影熊虫科;真缓步纲:近爪目:大生熊虫科,高生熊虫科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨潼

    2002-01-01

    记述了采自云南省丽江县的缓步动物13种,包括:安哥拉棘影熊虫Echiniscus angolensis da Cunha et al.,凹口棘影熊虫Echiniscus cavagnaroi Schuster, 米吉棘影熊虫Echiniscus migiurtinus Franceschi,华美假棘影熊虫 Pseudechiniscus facettalis Petersen,丽江苔小猪熊虫Bryodelphax lijiangensis sp. nov., 隐匿大生熊虫Macrobiotus adelges Dastych,云杉大生熊虫Macrobiotus yunshanensis sp.nov.,华丽大生熊虫Macrobiotus richtersi J.Murr.,双甲高生熊虫Hypsibius biscuitiformis Bartol,锐齿高生熊虫Hypsibius runae Bartol,棒形双相熊虫Diphascon clavatum (Bartol),云南等高熊虫Isohypsibius yunnanensis sp.nov.,隆肿等高熊虫Isohypsibius tuberculatus (Plate).本文所用标本均保存在中国科学院水生生物研究所.

  15. Tardigrades from Peru (South America), with descriptions of three new species of Parachela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Lukasz; Cytan, Joanna; Zawierucha, Krzysztof; Diduszko, Dawid; Michalczyk, Lukasz

    2014-04-17

    In four samples of mosses and mosses mixed with lichens collected in the Peruvian region of Cusco, 344 tardigrades, 78 free-laid eggs and six simplexes were found. In total, nine species were identified: Cornechiniscus lobatus, Echiniscus dariae, E. ollantaytamboensis, Isohypsibius condorcanquii sp. nov., Macrobiotus pisacensis sp. nov., Milnesium krzysztofi, Minibiotus intermedius, Paramacrobiotus intii sp. nov. and Pseudechiniscus ramazzottii ramazzottii. Isohypsibius condorcanquii sp. nov. is most similar to I. baldii, but differs mainly by the absence of ventral sculpture, the presence of the oral cavity armature, a different macroplacoid length sequence and a different shape of macroplacoids. The new species also differs from other congeners by a different dorsal sculpture, the absence of cuticular bars under the claws and the absence of eyes. Macrobiotus pisacensis sp. nov. differs from the most similar M. ariekammensis and M. kirghizicus by a different oral cavity armature, the presence of cuticular pores, details of egg morphology and some morphometric characters of both animals and eggs. Paramacrobiotus intii sp. nov. differs from most similar species of the genus by a different type of the oral cavity armature, details of egg morphology and some morphometric characters of both animals and eggs. In addition, we briefly discuss the tardigrade fauna of Peru, and propose a simple and economic system of describing relative lengths of pharyngeal macroplacoids. The system is especially useful in interspecific comparisons and differential diagnoses.

  16. Two new tardigrade species from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

    2014-01-14

    Two new species of tardigrades are described from Sicilian moss samples: Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum sp. nov.        Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. is a species of the harmsworthi-group characterized by both posterior and anterior claws of the hind legs, which are different in shape from those of the first three leg pairs. The IV claws have extended basal tract where the branches are joined and the secondary branch breaks at near right angle to the primary branch and is clearly shorter than the main branch and the secondary branch of claws I-III. The eggs are not areolated and have conical processes with a reticular ornamentation.        Diphascon (D.) procerum sp. nov. has a delicate cuticular ornamentation of very small tubercles, almost dots; two macroplacoids and septulum are present; thin accessory points are present on the main branches of the slender claws; lunules are absent but the base of the external claws of the hind legs are enlarged and slightly indented; a cuticular bar is present near the internal claw of the first three leg pairs and two cuticular bars are present on the hind legs between the base of the claws and near the base of the anterior claw. 

  17. Species diversity and morphometrics of tardigrades from a medium-size city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina

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    Peluffo, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrade diversity was studied in a medium-sized city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina. Samples were collected between February 1999 and January 2000 from lichens and mosses growing on sidewalk trees of the urban and periurban area. Five species of tardigrades were found, i.e., Echiniscus rufoviridis du Bois-Reymond Marcus, 1944, Macrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840, Milnesium cf. tardigradum and a non-described species of Macrobiotus. Only one species, M. cf. tardigradum, was found in areas with high levels of vehicle traffic. Results are compared with those from cities in the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. Measurements and pt index values (percentage ratios between the length of the structure considered and the buccal tube length are provided for M. areolatus, R. oberhaeuseri and M. cf. tardigradum. Amongst the characters considered, the pt index for the stylet support insertion shows the least intraspecific variation. This character is also independent from body length and buccal-tube length.

  18. Tardigrade eggs and exuviae in Antarctic lake sediments: insights into Holocene dynamics and origins of the fauna

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    Sandra J. MCINNES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of tardigrade eggs and exuviae in Antarctic lake sediments provided an opportunity to assess post-glacial colonisation and Holocene tardigrade dynamics on the southern continent. Tardigrade eggs were recovered from five lakes, two from the maritime Antarctic and three from continental Antarctica. Eggs were identified from the following species: Dactylobiotus cf. ambiguus, Macrobiotus furciger, Macrobiotus blocki, Minibiotus weinerorum and Acutuncus antarcticus. Other, unornamented eggs were also observed. The preservation of some of these eggs in exuviae allowed identification to at least genus. Significant variations were observed in egg abundance within the sediment of each lake, and in one lake a species (Dactylobiotus cf. ambiguus became locally extinct, probably as the result of penguin-associated eutrophication. Tardigrades generally did not become abundant for a considerable period after the lakes’ formation. The presence of an in-part endemic fauna is consistent with slow colonisation from Antarctic sources rather than wind transport from extra-continental sites. Tardigrade eggs appear to be abundant in high-latitude lake sediments, and greater use could be made of these records when evaluating tardigrade dynamics during the Holocene.

  19. Two New Recorded Species of Tardigrades (Tardigrada, Macrobiotidae, Hypsibiidae) from China%中国缓步动物2新纪录种(缓步动物门,大生熊虫科,高生熊虫科)记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2008-01-01

    本文记述了缓步动物门2新纪录种,阿瑞科姆大生熊虫Macrobiotus ariekammensis Wêglarska, 1965和帕氏双相熊虫Diphascon patanei Binda & Pilato, 1971.阿瑞科姆大生熊虫模式标本爪无附棘,但中国标本有.帕氏双相熊虫模式标本的吸咽较来自中国标本的吸咽要短圆一些,前者吸咽的长宽比是1.21~1.25∶1,而后者的吸咽平均长宽比为1.47∶1.

  20. Evaluación de la diversidad en comunidades de tardígrados (Ecdysozoa: Tardigrada en hábitats urbano y rural de la ciudad de Salta (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea González-Reyes

    Full Text Available RESÚMEN Este trabajo se realizó bajo la hipótesis de que existe una pérdida creciente de diversidad en las comunidades de tardígrados, desde las áreas rurales hacia las urbanas, incrementando la homogenización de sus comunidades producto de la urbanización. Para la ciudad de Salta, se tomaron muestras en áreas con tránsito vehicular alto y muestras en áreas rurales circundantes. Se identificaron en total ocho especies/morfoespecies. El inventario tuvo una completitud mayor al 94%. La comunidad rural fue más diversa y estructuralmente más uniforme que la comunidad urbana. Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze, 1834 resultó especie indicadora y Milnesium sp. como detectora para el hábitat urbano, mientras que Paramacrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907 resultó indicadora para el hábitat rural.

  1. TWO NEW SPECIES AND THREE NEW RECORDS OF THE TARDIGRADA (HETERO TARDIGRADA, ECHINISCIDAE; EUTARDIGRADA, MILNESIIDAE, MACROBIOTI DAE, HYPSIBIIDAE)%中国缓步动物门二新种及三新纪录种和亚种(异缓步纲,棘影熊虫科;真缓步纲,小斑熊虫科,大生熊虫科,高生熊虫科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨潼

    2003-01-01

    记述采自河南省洛阳市、湖北省京山县和四川省都江堰市的缓步动物门2新种及3新纪录种和亚种:异缓步纲棘影熊虫科的四棘棘影熊虫,新纪录Echiniscus quadrispinosus Richters,1902;真缓步纲小斑熊虫科的都江小斑熊虫,新种Milnesium dujiangensis sp.nov.,大生熊虫科的节值大生熊虫戴冠亚种,新纪录Macrobiotus harmsworthicoronatus Barros,1942;高生熊虫科的大指等高熊虫,新纪录Isohypsibius macrodactylus(Maucci,1978)和京山等高熊虫,新种Isohypsibius jingshanensis sp.nov..

  2. Neural markers reveal a one-segmented head in tardigrades (water bears.

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    Georg Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While recent neuroanatomical and gene expression studies have clarified the alignment of cephalic segments in arthropods and onychophorans, the identity of head segments in tardigrades remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the tardigrade head and its enclosed brain comprises one, or several segments, or a non-segmental structure. To clarify this, we applied a variety of histochemical and immunocytochemical markers to specimens of the tardigrade Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi and the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies. A suboesophageal ganglion is clearly lacking. Our data further reveal a hitherto unknown, unpaired stomatogastric ganglion in Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, which innervates the ectodermal oesophagus and the endodermal midgut and is associated with the second leg-bearing segment. In contrast, the oesophagus of the onychophoran E. rowelli possesses no immunoreactive neurons, whereas scattered bipolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies are found in the midgut wall. Furthermore, our results show that the onychophoran pharynx is innervated by a medullary loop nerve accompanied by monopolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of the nervous system innervating the foregut and midgut structures in tardigrades and onychophorans to that of arthropods indicates that the stomatogastric ganglion is a potential synapomorphy of Tardigrada and Arthropoda. Its association with the second leg-bearing segment in tardigrades suggests that the second trunk ganglion is a homologue of the arthropod tritocerebrum, whereas the first ganglion corresponds to

  3. A long-term study of population dynamics of tardigrades in the moss Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (Hedw. Warnst

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    Rolf SCHUSTER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Variation of abundance, dominance and diversity of tardigrades were studied over a period of 54 months in a carpet of the moss Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus that covered a lawn in the Black Forest (Germany. Altogether 19,909 individuals belonging to 24 species were extracted from the moss. Macrobiotus hufelandi (56%, Macrobiotus richtersi (18% and Diphascon pingue (12% were the most abundant and dominant species. Dominances of the other species varied between 0.01 to 2.15%. Generally, species diversity (Shannon-Index and evenness was highest during the winter. A temporal variation in numbers with a decline in winter and an increase in spring until fall was seen in M. hufelandi, D. pingue and less clear in M. richtersi. Three species (Diphascon rugosum, Hypsibius dujardini, Hypsibius cfr. convergens showed a cyclic variation with clear peaks in wintertime. The moist season favoured species that were considered as hygrophilous in the literature, whereas the relatively dry sunny seasons promoted the relative increase of euryhygric species. The composition of the tardigrade community was strikingly robust over the years. Fourteen species were always present during the entire period of investigation. However, changes in the species composition over the years, and cyclical temporal presence of certain species stress the significance of long-term studies to estimate species richness in a given habitat. Application of the Spearman rank correlation test to the data set of the whole study period showed different correlations between the mean number of tardigrades as well as the mean number of individuals of selected species (dominance >1 and rainfall, humidity and temperature. Correlations confirmed some of the ecological dependences of tardigrade species known from literature. Conflicting classifications suggest dependence from other variables or perhaps presence of ecotypes.

  4. Distribution and diversity of Tardigrada along altitudinal gradients in the Hornsund, Spitsbergen (Arctic

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    Krzysztof Zawierucha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two transects were established and sampled along altitudinal gradients on the slopes of Ariekammen (77°01′N; 15°31′E and Rotjesfjellet (77°00′N; 15°22′E in Hornsund, Spitsbergen. In total 59 moss, lichen, liverwort and mixed moss–lichen samples were collected and 33 tardigrade species of Hetero- and Eutardigrada were found. The α diversity ranged from 1 to 8 per sample; the estimated number of species based on all analysed samples was 52±17 for the Chao 2 estimator and 41 for the incidence-based coverage estimator. According to the results of detrended canonical correspondence analysis, altitude and type of substratum were the most important factors influencing tardigrade communities in the investigated area. Macrobiotus crenulatus, M. hufelandi hufelandi and Hypsibius pallidus dominated in the lower elevations, whereas Echiniscus wendti and E. merokensis merokensis prevailed in samples from higher plots. Macrobiotus islandicus islandicus was collected most often from mosses collected from rock whereas Isohypsibius coulsoni from mosses collected from soil. Analyses of covariance were employed to test for differences in species richness between the transects in relation to altitude. Contrary to expectations, there were significant differences in species richness between the transects, but richness was not significantly related to altitude. Interestingly, significant effects of colonies of seabirds, little auk (Alle alle, on the tardigrades communities were detected. Additionally, in one of the samples first ever males of Milnesium asiaticum were found. Their measurements and microphotographs are provided herein.

  5. Energy allocation in two species of Eutardigrada

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    Lorena REBECCHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve our knowledge on life histories in tardigrades and the energy allocated for their reproduction and growth, we have studied two species (Macrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius convergens differing in evolutionary histories, diet and ways of oviposition. For both species we considered a bisexual population dwelling in the same substrate. In both species we investigated energy allocations in males with a testis rich in spermatozoa and females, each with an ovary containing oocytes in advanced vitellogenesis. The age of the specimens was estimated on the basis of buccal tube length and body size. Body and gonad areas were calculated using an image analysis program. In both species females reach a larger size than males. Macrobiotus richtersi has both a significantly longer buccal tube and wider body area than H. convergens. Statistical analyses show that the buccal tube has a positive correlation with body area and gonad area. For an estimate of the relative energy allocated for reproduction in one reproductive event (relative reproductive effort = RRE, we have used the ratio between gonad area and body area. In males of both species, the absolute amount of energy and the RRE is statistically lower than that of females. Males and females of H. convergens have a RRE higher than those of M. richtersi. In M. richtersi, the gonad increases proportionally more when animals are large (old, whereas in H. convergens this direct relationship is not detectable. In M. richtersi the energy allocated for a reproductive event increases during the life of the females. In males, the increase of the gonad size is progressive during the animal life. In each reproductive event, females of H. convergens allocate a lower amount of energy in absolute value when compared to M. richtersi. Nevertheless, when considering the RRE, their investment is higher than that of M. richtersi.

  6. Neural markers reveal a one-segmented head in tardigrades (water bears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Kauschke, Susann; Rüdiger, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    While recent neuroanatomical and gene expression studies have clarified the alignment of cephalic segments in arthropods and onychophorans, the identity of head segments in tardigrades remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the tardigrade head and its enclosed brain comprises one, or several segments, or a non-segmental structure. To clarify this, we applied a variety of histochemical and immunocytochemical markers to specimens of the tardigrade Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi and the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies). A suboesophageal ganglion is clearly lacking. Our data further reveal a hitherto unknown, unpaired stomatogastric ganglion in Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, which innervates the ectodermal oesophagus and the endodermal midgut and is associated with the second leg-bearing segment. In contrast, the oesophagus of the onychophoran E. rowelli possesses no immunoreactive neurons, whereas scattered bipolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies are found in the midgut wall. Furthermore, our results show that the onychophoran pharynx is innervated by a medullary loop nerve accompanied by monopolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies. A comparison of the nervous system innervating the foregut and midgut structures in tardigrades and onychophorans to that of arthropods indicates that the stomatogastric ganglion is a potential synapomorphy of Tardigrada and Arthropoda. Its association with the second leg-bearing segment in tardigrades suggests that the second trunk ganglion is a homologue of the arthropod tritocerebrum, whereas the first ganglion corresponds to the deutocerebrum. We therefore conclude that the tardigrade brain consists of a single

  7. Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor neurons within the nervous system relative to the appendages they serve in arthropods, tardigrades and onychophorans. Results Contrary to a previous report from a Macrobiotus species, our immunocytochemical and electron microscopic data revealed contralateral fibres and bundles of neurites in each trunk ganglion of three tardigrade species, including Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius dujardini. Moreover, we identified additional, extra-ganglionic commissures in the interpedal regions bridging the paired longitudinal connectives. Within the ganglia we found serially repeated sets of serotonin- and RFamid-like immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, our data show that the trunk ganglia of tardigrades, which include the somata of motor neurons, are shifted anteriorly with respect to each corresponding leg pair, whereas no such shift is evident in the arrangement of motor neurons in the onychophoran nerve cords. Conclusions Taken

  8. Comparative studies on storage cells in tardigrades during starvation and anhydrobiosis

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    Andy REUNER, Steffen HENGHERR, Franz Brümmer, Ralph O. SCHILL

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of starvation and anhydrobiosis on the number and size of the storage cells in the tardigrade species Milnesium tardigradum, Paramacrobiotus tonollii and Macrobiotus sapiens was investigated to gain more insight on the energetic side of anhydrobiosis. Storage cells are free floating cells within the body cavity of tardigrades and are presumed to store and release energy in form of glycogen, protein and fat to maintain a constant nutrient regime for the other tissues. The body size of the animals was not correlated with the size of the storage cells, however, M. tardigradum the largest species analysed also had the largest storage cells. A reduction in the size of the storage cells is apparent in all three species after seven days of starvation. A seven-day period of anhydrobiosis leads to a decrease in cell size in M. tardigradum but not in P. tonollii and M. sapiens. Although M. sapiens was raised on green algae, and M. tardigradum and P. tonollii were fed with rotifers and nematodes this difference in nourishment was not reflected in the response of the storage cells to anhydrobiosis [Current Zoology 56 (2: 259–263, 2010].

  9. The 18S rDNA sequences support polyphyly of the Hypsibiidae (Eutardigrada

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    Hartmut GREVEN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To extend data on 18S rDNA gene phylogeny within the Eutardigrada and to provide additional information on unclear taxonomic status of a glacier tardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi, gene sequences from seven tardigrade species of the family Hypsibiidae (Hypsibius klebelsbergi, Hypsibius cf. convergens 1, Hypsibius cf. convergens 2, Hypsibius scabropygus, Hebensuncus conjungens, Isohypsibius cambrensis, Isohypsibius granulifer were analysed together with previously published sequences from ten further eutardigrade species or species groups. Three distinctly separated clades within the Hypsibiidae, 1 the Ramazzottius - Hebesuncus clade, 2 the Isohypsibius clade (Isohypsibius, Halobiotus, Thulinius, and 3 the Hypsibius clade (Hypsibius spp. have been obtained in each of four phylogenetic trees recovered by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbour Joining, Minimum Evolution and UPGMA. Hybsibius klebelsbergi has been located always within the Hypsibius clade. The detailed sister group relationship was not resolved adequately, but there is robust support for a sister group relationship between the Hypsibius clade and the remaining clades. We cannot exclude that the Ramazzottius - Hebesuncus clade is a sister group of the Macrobiotus clade. Our findings suggest polyphyly of the Hypsibiidae, and thus multiple evolutions of some structures currently applied as diagnostic characters (e.g., claws, buccal apophyses.

  10. Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks

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    Harry A. MEYER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, while sampling in Mississippi and Georgia has been more localized. Currently 51 species have been identified in the region: 19 in Texas, 16 in Louisiana, 10 in Mississippi, 33 in Alabama, 3 in Georgia, and 15 in Florida. These tardigrades have been collected from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts on trees and rocks, from soil and leaf litter, and from freshwater. Twenty species are widely distributed in the region (i.e., found in ≥ 2 non-contiguous states, while 27 have been found in only one state. Eighteen species are probably cosmopolitan. Seven species, widespread in the Gulf Coast states but unknown elsewhere in the Nearctic Region – Echiniscus kofordi, Echiniscus cavagnaroi, Parexapodibius pilatoi, Hexapodibius christenberryae, Biserovus bindae, Minibiotus fallax and a new Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi – may represent a distinctive regional fauna in cryptogams.

  11. Current knowledge of the Tardigrada of Svalbard with the first records of water bears from Nordaustlandet (High Arctic

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    Krzysztof Zawierucha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The first investigations of the tardigrades of Svalbard took place in the early 20th century and 30 papers on the subject have been published to date. In this article, we summarize available information on the distribution of tardigrades in this Arctic archipelago with remarks on the dubious species and records. Additionally, we examined 28 new moss, lichen and soil samples collected from the islands of Nordaustlandet, Edgeøya and Prins Karls Forland. These samples yielded 324 specimens, 15 exuvia and 132 free-laid eggs belonging to 16 limnoterrestrial species (Heterotardigrada and Eutardigrada. These include five first records of water bears from Nordaustlandet, eight new records for Edgeøya and four for Prince Karls Forland. The most dense population of tardigrades was found in a sample with 253 specimens/10 g of dry material and the least dense population in a sample with three specimens/10 g of dry material. The most frequently recorded species in samples collected in this study were Testechiniscus spitsbergensis Scourfield, 1897, Macrobiotus harmsworthi harmsworthi Murray, 1907, and M. islandicus islandicus Richters, 1904. This article also provides the first ever scanning electron microscope photomicrographs of Tenuibiotus voronkovi Tumanov, 2007.

  12. First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G; Carranza, S; Baguñà, J; Riutort, M; Ribera, C

    1996-01-01

    The complete 18S rDNA gene sequence of Macrobiotus group hufelandi (Tardigrada) was obtained and aligned with 18S rDNA and rRNA gene sequences of 24 metazoans (mainly protostomes). Discrete character (maximum-parsimony) and distance (neighbor-joining) methods were used to infer their phylogeny. The evolution of bootstrap proportions with sequence length (pattern of resolved nodes, PRN) was studied to test the resolution of the nodes in neighbor-joining trees. The results show that arthropods are monophyletic. Tardigrades represent the sister group of arthropods (in parsimony analyses) or they are related with crustaceans (distance analysis and PRN). Arthropoda are divided into two main evolutionary lines, the Hexapoda + Crustacea line (weakly supported), and the Myriapoda + Chelicerata line. The Hexapoda + Crustacea line includes Pentastomida, but the internal resolution is far from clear. The Insecta (Ectognatha) are monophyletic, but no evidence for the monophyly of Hexapoda is found. The Chelicerata are a monophyletic group and the Myriapoda cluster close to Arachnida. Overall, the results obtained represent the first molecular evidence for a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade. In addition, the congruence between molecular phylogenies of the Arthropoda from other authors and this obtained here indicates the need to review those obtained solely on morphological characters.

  13. A cDNA library of the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi Mihelčič, 1959 and analysis of the actin gene

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    Hartmut GREVEN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A cDNA library was constructed from the glacier-dwelling eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi from more than 2000 individuals collected in the Austrian Central Alps. RNA, DNA and proteins were successively isolated by the Trizol®-method. From the RNA preparation a cDNA library was constructed with the cDNA inserted unidirectionally in the phagemid expression vector TriplEx2. The primary gene library had a titre of 107 pfu ml-1 and the final amplified gene library a titre of 6×109 pfu ml-1. The average insert length was about 1.6 kb. The partial sequence of H. klebelsbergi actin (746 bp showed highest similarity to GenBank data of Drosophila melanogaster actin at the nucleic acid level (84.9% and at the amino acid level (98%. Compared with actin fragments of the eutardigrades Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (450 bp and Macrobiotus sp. (453 bp the identities were 85% - 81% and 100% - 98% with respect to the nucleic/amino acids. Identity with actin fragments (359 bp of Hypsibius dujardini from GenBank was 96% - 100%.

  14. New tardigrade records for the Baltic states with a description of Minibiotus formosus sp. n. (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae

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    Krzysztof Zawierucha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In sixteen moss, lichen and mixed (moss/lichen samples, collected from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 291 specimens, 48 simplexes, including one exuvium with 6 eggs, and 8 free-laid eggs of eutardigrades were found. In total, 17 species, together with one new to science, were identified (all are new records for the Baltic states: Astatumen bartosi, Diphascon (Adropion prorsirostre, D. (Diphascon bullatum, D. (D. pingue pingue, D. (D. recamieri, D. (D. rugosum, Hypsibius convergens, H. dujardini, H. cf. scabropygus, Isohypsibius ronsisvallei, I. sattleri, Macrobiotus harmsworthi harmsworthi, M. hufelandi hufelandi, Milnesium asiaticum, Milnesium tardigradum tardigradum, Minibiotus formosus sp. n. and Paramacrobiotus richtersi. The new species is most similar to Minibiotus gumersindoi, but differs from it mainly by the presence of two types of cuticular pores, the absence of a triangular or pentagonal arrangement of pores above a single large pore on legs, the presence of granulation on all legs and a different macroplacoid length sequence. In this paper we also provide photographs and morphometrics of H. cf. scabropygus.

  15. New tardigrade records for the Baltic states with a description of Minibiotus formosus sp. n. (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawierucha, Krzysztof; Dziamięcki, Jakub; Jakubowska, Natalia; Michalczyk, Lukasz; Kaczmarek, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    In sixteen moss, lichen and mixed (moss/lichen) samples, collected from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 291 specimens, 48 simplexes, including one exuvium with 6 eggs, and 8 free-laid eggs of eutardigrades were found. In total, 17 species, together with one new to science, were identified (all are new records for the Baltic states): Astatumen bartosi, Diphascon (Adropion) prorsirostre, D. (Diphascon) bullatum, D. (D.) pingue pingue, D. (D.) recamieri, D. (D.) rugosum, Hypsibius convergens, H. dujardini, H. cf. scabropygus, Isohypsibius ronsisvallei, I. sattleri, Macrobiotus harmsworthi harmsworthi, M. hufelandi hufelandi, Milnesium asiaticum, Milnesium tardigradum tardigradum, Minibiotus formosus sp. n. and Paramacrobiotus richtersi. The new species is most similar to Minibiotus gumersindoi, but differs from it mainly by the presence of two types of cuticular pores, the absence of a triangular or pentagonal arrangement of pores above a single large pore on legs, the presence of granulation on all legs and a different macroplacoid length sequence. In this paper we also provide photographs and morphometrics of H. cf. scabropygus.

  16. Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects: First Results of Experiments on the LIFE-TARSE Mission on FOTON-M3 (September 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, Lorena; Altiero, Tiziana; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Bertolani, Roberto; Negroni, Manuela; Rizzo, Angela M.

    2009-08-01

    The Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects (TARSE) project, part of the mission LIFE on FOTON-M3, analyzed the effects of the space environment on desiccated and active tardigrades. Four experiments were conducted in which the eutardigrade Macrobiotus richtersi was used as a model species. Desiccated (in leaf litter or on paper) and hydrated tardigrades (fed or starved) were flown on FOTON-M3 for 12 days in September 2007, which, for the first time, allowed for a comparison of the effects of the space environment on desiccated and on active animals. In this paper, we report the experimental design of the TARSE project and data on tardigrade survival. In addition, data on survival, genomic DNA integrity, Hsp70 and Hsp90 expressions, antioxidant enzyme contents and activities, and life history traits were compared between hydrated starved tardigrades flown in space and those maintained on Earth as a control. Microgravity and radiation had no effect on survival or DNA integrity of active tardigrades. Hsp expressions between the animals in space and the control animals on Earth were similar. Spaceflight induced an increase of glutathione content and its related enzymatic activities. Catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased with spaceflight, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances did not change. During the flight mission, tardigrades molted, and females laid eggs. Several eggs hatched, and the newborns exhibited normal morphology and behavior.

  17. Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects: first results of experiments on the LIFE-TARSE mission on FOTON-M3 (September 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, Lorena; Altiero, Tiziana; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Bertolani, Roberto; Negroni, Manuela; Rizzo, Angela M

    2009-01-01

    The Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects (TARSE) project, part of the mission LIFE on FOTON-M3, analyzed the effects of the space environment on desiccated and active tardigrades. Four experiments were conducted in which the eutardigrade Macrobiotus richtersi was used as a model species. Desiccated (in leaf litter or on paper) and hydrated tardigrades (fed or starved) were flown on FOTON-M3 for 12 days in September 2007, which, for the first time, allowed for a comparison of the effects of the space environment on desiccated and on active animals. In this paper, we report the experimental design of the TARSE project and data on tardigrade survival. In addition, data on survival, genomic DNA integrity, Hsp70 and Hsp90 expressions, antioxidant enzyme contents and activities, and life history traits were compared between hydrated starved tardigrades flown in space and those maintained on Earth as a control. Microgravity and radiation had no effect on survival or DNA integrity of active tardigrades. Hsp expressions between the animals in space and the control animals on Earth were similar. Spaceflight induced an increase of glutathione content and its related enzymatic activities. Catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased with spaceflight, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances did not change. During the flight mission, tardigrades molted, and females laid eggs. Several eggs hatched, and the newborns exhibited normal morphology and behavior.

  18. Comparison of tardigrade community structure along altitude gradient%不同海拔缓步动物群落结构的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 李晓晨

    2006-01-01

    为研究海拔对缓步动物群落结构的影响,对地处秦岭北坡的南五台山缓步动物群落进行了初步调查研究.调查设置3个样区、45个样方,共采集缓步动物919个,个体密度平均816.89个·m-2,隶属缓步动物门2纲2目3科7属11种.其中Macrobiotus hufelandi和M.harmsworthi共占总采量的92.93%,为优势类群.采用Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener信息指数、Pielou均匀度指数和修正的Hill指数来计算各生境缓步动物群落结构特点.研究表明,海拔对缓步动物群落结构有一定的影响.随着海拔的下降其物种的个体数量、群落优势类群的数量和优势物种数都呈下降趋势;物种多样性的变化趋势为中海拔地区>低海拔地区>高海拔地区,而群落优势度的变化趋势完全相反;不同海拔样区的群落相似性较低.

  19. A DNA barcoding approach in the study of tardigrades

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    Michele Cesari

    2013-05-01

    scanning electron microscopy images, and molecular sequence. This approach is particularly useful in describing new species, and important when applied on material collected in species type localities. Results using this approach are presented, primarily focusing on a number of species from the so-called Macrobiotus hufelandi group.

  20. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada: cryptobionts contain a large fraction of unidentified organic solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak; Ramløv, Hans; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2013-04-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion composition and total osmotic concentration of five different species of tardigrades (Echiniscus testudo, Milnesium tardigradum, Richtersius coronifer, Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi and Halobiotus crispae) using high-performance liquid chromatography and nanoliter osmometry. Quantification of the ionic content indicates that Na(+) and Cl(-) are the principal inorganic ions in tardigrade fluids, albeit other ions, i.e. K(+), NH4(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), F(-), SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were also detected. In limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the respective ions are concentrated by a large factor compared with that of the external medium (Na(+), ×70-800; K(+), ×20-90; Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), ×30-200; F(-), ×160-1040, Cl(-), ×20-50; PO4(3-), ×700-2800; SO4(2-), ×30-150). In contrast, in the marine species H. crispae, Na(+), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) are almost in ionic equilibrium with (brackish) salt water, while K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and F(-) are only slightly concentrated (×2-10). An anion deficit of ~120 mEq l(-1) in M. tardigradum and H. crispae indicates the presence of unidentified ionic components in these species. Body fluid osmolality ranges from 361±49 mOsm kg(-1) in R. coronifer to 961±43 mOsm kg(-1) in H. crispae. Concentrations of most inorganic ions are largely identical between active and dehydrated groups of R. coronifer, suggesting that this tardigrade does not lose large quantities of inorganic ions during dehydration. The large osmotic and ionic gradients maintained by both limno-terrestrial and marine species are indicative of a powerful ion-retentive mechanism in Tardigrada. Moreover, our data indicate that cryptobiotic tardigrades contain a large fraction of unidentified