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Sample records for macrobenthic animal communities

  1. Macrobenthic community structure response to coastal hypoxia off Southeastern Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Periasamy, R.; De, K.

    The analysis of changes in macrobenthic community using multivariate statistical techniques has been applied to find the structure by the environmental condition. The aim of the study was to evaluate macrofaunal community patterns between natural...

  2. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand

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    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    richness was in the SW monsoon season (light rain, June-August. Polychaetes and molluscs tended to decrease in the NE monsoon season with heavy rain from December-February, while crustaceans increased during this time. The best fitting of the environmental variables to explain the macrobenthic fauna community pattern of the Inner Songkhla Lake was an 8-variable combination of %clay, %silt, %organic carbon, soil pH, depth, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solid and temperature (harmonic rank correlation coefficient, ρw = 0.84.

  3. Can mangrove plantation enhance the functional diversity of macrobenthic community in polluted mangroves?

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    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Cheung, Napo K M

    2017-03-15

    Mangrove plantation is widely applied to re-establish the plant community in degraded mangroves, but its effectiveness to restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community remains poorly known, especially when pollution may overwhelm its potential positive effect. Here, we tested the effect of mangrove plantation on the ecological functions of macrobenthic community in a polluted mangrove by analyzing biological traits of macrobenthos and calculating functional diversity. Mangrove plantation was shown to enhance the functional diversity and restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, depending on seasonality. Given the polluted sediment, however, typical traits of opportunistic species (e.g. small and short-lived) prevailed in all habitats and sampling times. We conclude that mangrove plantation can help diversify the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, but its effectiveness is likely reduced by pollution. From the management perspective, therefore, pollution sources must be stringently regulated and mangrove plantation should be conducted to fully recover degraded mangroves.

  4. Macrobenthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary (Portugal)

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    Amaral, Maria José; Costa, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    A 1-year study on the evolution of benthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary was carried out in order to evaluate its density, biomass and diversity, and to understand its trophic-dynamic structure under harsh environmental conditions. Physical and chemical parameters of the water column and sediments were also studied. Salinity and redox potential fluctuated sharply. Of eighteen taxa observed, a few occurred in significant numbers Chironomus salinarius (99 %) at crystallisation ponds where Artemia is present in the water column at salinities ranging from 23 to 249 g .L -1, Hydrobia (95 %) at evaporation pond (salinities between 29 and 112 g .L -1), while the reservoir, with salinities from 22 to 45 g .L -1, showed higher diversity nevertheless lower than in the estuary itself. It is colonised all year by Abra ovata, Cerastoderma glaucum, Hedistes diversicolor, Capitella sp., Microspio mecznikowianus, Mellina palmata, Polydora ciliata, Capitellidae and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa. The diversity of macrobenthic communities decreases with increasing salinity. Among trophic dynamic groups, surface detritivores burrowers, which are present at 85 % of the samples, are the dominant group at evaporation and crystallisation ponds and appears as an isolated group linked to organic matter of sediments and nutrients.

  5. Separating natural and contaminant related gradients in estuarine macrobenthic community structure

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    Rakocinski, C.; Heard, R.; Walker, W. [Gulf Coast Research Lab., Ocean Springs, MS (United States); Brown, S.; Gaston, G. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Biology Dept.; Summers, J.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Using whole-community macrobenthic responses to assess pollution impacts in estuaries presents a difficult challenge due to dynamic natural conditions that may impose their own physical limitations on the biota. For example, the recognition of bioindicator taxa becomes confounded when correlations exist between gradients in natural environmental variables, such as salinity, and gradients in contaminants, such as trace metals. The authors used partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to separate natural and contaminant related gradients in macrobenthic community structure across 319 EMAP sites dispersed throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico. Residual variation in macrobenthic community structure was examined with respect to gradients in contaminant levels to identify responses by positive and negative bioindicator taxa. Gradients in concentrations of trace metals do not coincide completely with those in other chemical contaminants, and responses by characteristic bioindicator taxa reveal information regarding effects of specific contaminants. Several indigenous taxa serve as good negative bioindicators, whereas other opportunistic taxa serve as positive bioindicators of estuarine contamination.

  6. Influence of halophytes and metal contamination on salt marsh macro-benthic communities

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    Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Caçador, I.

    2008-03-01

    Since an important fraction of the organic matter produced by salt marshes is decomposed in situ, macro-benthic communities are particularly exposed to the trace metals retained by these systems. Yet, few studies have investigated the macro-benthic communities using the between-root sediment habitat of the salt marsh halophytes (salt-tolerant plants), or the effect of trace metal pollution on its population dynamics. In the present study, samples were collected in vegetated and unvegetated sediment, in three salt marshes in the Tagus estuary, for trace metal concentration determination in the sediment and in the halophytes roots, grain size determination and macro-benthic organism identification. Data analysis revealed that the distribution of macro-benthic organisms is mainly determined by metal contamination, metal type and by the presence/absence of halophytes, not by the halophyte species. Five different associations were identified: resistant organisms were associated with the highest concentrations of lead (sediment); tolerant organisms with zinc, copper (sediment and roots) and lead (roots); cadmium in the sediment with a lack of macro-benthic life; sensitive organisms with low levels of metals except for cadmium in the roots; and macro-benthos typical of intertidal mudflats with unvegetated areas with low metal contamination.

  7. Impact of flood events on macrobenthic community structure on an intertidal flat developing in the Ohta River Estuary.

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    Nishijima, Wataru; Nakano, Yoichi; Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2013-09-15

    We investigated the effects of river floods on the macrobenthic community of the intertidal flat in the Ohta River Estuary, Japan, from 2005 to 2010. Sediment erosion by flood events ranged from about 2-3 cm to 12 cm, and the salinity dropped to 0‰ even during low-intensity flood events. Cluster analysis of the macrobenthic population showed that the community structure was controlled by the physical disturbance, decreased salinity, or both. The opportunistic polychaete Capitella sp. was the most dominant species in all clusters, and populations of the long-lived polychaete Ceratonereis erythraeensis increased in years with stable flow and almost disappeared in years with intense flooding. The bivalve Musculista senhousia was also an important opportunistic species that formed mats in summer of the stable years and influenced the structure of the macrobenthic community. Our results demonstrate the substantial effects of flood events on the macrobenthic community structure.

  8. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

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    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Zhichun Niu,; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  9. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

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    Yun-Hwan Jung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in January, April and September 2008. Polluted sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill showed that biological index consistently decreased for 9 months limited to breeding and recruitment of organisms by spilled oil. Macrobenthic community was subdivided into 3 groups by species elimination and differences between density of major dominant species: enriched biota community under a relatively stable environment, the second with relatively low ecological index and the last with poor community. In this study, species number did not clearly reflect the effect of oil on the rare and mobile species. However, mean density, biomass and community structure showed the effect of oil by considering breeding activity, decline in recruitment and variation pattern with time.

  10. Variations in macrobenthic community structures in relation to environmental variables in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Wataru; Umehara, Akira; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi

    2015-03-15

    A data set of 425 sites investigated by the Ministry of the Environment in 2001-2005 was used to evaluate the current sediment situation and its effect on macrobenthic community structure in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Cluster analysis and principle component analysis of sediments using physico-chemical parameters revealed that total organic carbon, mud, sulfide contents, and oxidation-reduction potential were important parameters influencing macrobenthic population size and biodiversity. A total organic carbon of 1 mg g(-1) interval was highly negatively correlated with two biodiversity indices in the range of 1-20 mg g(-1). Overall, 42% of total sites were organically enriched with much lower macrobenthic population sizes and biodiversity, while 26% were characterized by sandy sediment with a high population size and high proportion of Arthropoda. Nemertea sp., Glycera sp., Notomastus sp. and Ophiophragmus japonicus were common macrobenthos, while Theora fragilis and Ptychoderidae were typical macrobenthos in organically enriched sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

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    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  12. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    in the northern shallow shelf of Chile and Peru affected by sewage discharge (Carrasco, 1997). Crustaceans were the second dominant group and the community was represented by a total of 16 species (Table 1). The most dominant was the amphipod Ampelisca sp..., 76, 89–131. 8. Carrasco, F. D. (1997). Sublittoral macrobenthic fauna off Punta Coloso, Antofagasta, northern Chile: high persistence of the polychaete assemblages. Bulletin of Marine Science, 60, 443-459. 9. Clarke, K.R. & Warwick, R.M. (1994...

  13. Macrobenthic Communities of the Norfolk Disposal Site. II.

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    1985-02-01

    reliable estimate of the macrofaunal community. Calculations were based on the following formula : 3 6- -) N ts) 2i’ Dx • where: s standard deviation of...were determined using the formulae of Folk (1974). The epibenthic community was described from 10 minute trawl * samples taken at the North, South...Benedict Drilonereis app. Eteone heteropoda Hartman Eteone lactea Claparede ~Eeone log (FabriCiUs) Eumida sanguinea (Oersted) Exogene hebes (Webster

  14. Feeding guild composition of a macrobenthic subtidal community along a depth gradient

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    Marina Dolbeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The feeding guild composition of a macrobenthic community from southern Portugal was studied along a depth gradient (1.3 to 32 m. This gradient comprised shallow areas with severe physical stress and deeper areas with no significant hydrodynamic impact at the seafloor. The main goal was to determine the influence of the spatial and temporal differences of the hydrodynamic impact at the seafloor on the feeding guild composition of the macrobenthic community. The feeding guild composition changed gradually with depth, which reflects the differences in the hydrodynamics impact at the seafloor. Herbivores and sand-lickers dominated at the shallowest depths with fine sands, which correlated with higher levels of primary production. Scavengers were also distributed in the shallow areas, which was associated with the lower predation impact. Suspension feeders, in accordance with their physiological requirements, were distributed in coarser sands subjected to a physical impact. Carnivores, surface deposit feeders and sub-surface deposit feeders were distributed mainly below 8 m depth, where there was no significant impact from the wave climate. Carnivores were associated with coarser sands and were mainly small polychaetes and nemerteans. Sub-surface and surface deposit feeders were more abundant in the deepest areas of the depth gradient with fine sands and mud deposits with higher organic content. However, surface deposit feeders also occurred at shallower depths. Some seasonal differences related to disturbance impacts were found in the numerical dominance of the feeding guilds.

  15. Macrobenthic Communities of the Norfolk Disposal Site. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Calculations were based upon the following = ° formula : \\Dx ) where: s = standard deviation of the prelimianry sample, t = the tabulated t value at the 0.05...were determined graphically using the formulae of Folk (1974). The epibenthic community was described from 10 minute trawl samples taken at the North...Hartman Eteone lactea Claparede Eteone longa (Fabricius) Eu-mida -sane uinea (Oersted) Exogene he bes (Webster and Benedict) Glycera ameiTcana Leidy

  16. Horizontal distribution patterns in Arctic deep-sea macrobenthic communities

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    Budaeva, Nataliya E.; Mokievsky, Vadim O.; Soltwedel, Thomas; Gebruk, Andrey V.

    2008-09-01

    Horizontal distribution patterns of macrobenthos were studied based on the material collected at the deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN in Fram Strait, west of Spitsbergen (79°N), during the R.V. Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3c in July-August 2003. Macrofauna was obtained with a giant box corer at water depths of about 2500-2600 m. Samples were arranged using a hierarchical approach to analyze benthic fauna distribution at different scales. Three stations were distributed along the 26 km transect. Three cores (0.25 m 2) were taken at each station. Five subcores (156.25 cm 2) were taken from each core. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of statistical analysis showed that all samples belong to one benthic community dominated by three species, Tetractinomorpha gen.sp. A, Myriochele heeri, and Galathowenia fragilis. Total biomasses varied from 2.31 to 6.41 g ww m -2 and densities ranged from 1976 to 3254 ind. m -2. Multivariate analysis showed the division of all samples into two distinct groups (species assemblages) on the core and subcore levels. These assemblages occupied an area several kilometers across, and differed from each other. The second level of heterogeneity occurs between cores and subcores of assemblage B and reflects variations in the abundance of sponge species Tetractinomorpha gen. sp. A. The size of these small patches appears to be about 150 cm 2. The hierarchical organization of benthic macrofauna on the continental slope off Spitsbergen includes at least three levels: communities, which replace each other along the depth gradient, species assemblages, which make up the orthogonal inner mosaics in each vertical zone, and patches of certain species, which form the lowest level of the hierarchy.

  17. Evaluating the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on a river macrobenthic community by a combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach.

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    Rusconi, Marianna; Marziali, Laura; Stefani, Fabrizio; Valsecchi, Sara; Bettinetti, Roberta; Mazzoni, Michela; Rosignoli, Federica; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Effect-based monitoring is a recommended approach suggested in European Guidelines to assess the response of ecosystem affected by a pollution source, considering the effects at community, population, individual but also at suborganism level. A combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach was applied in order to assess the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on the macrobenthic community of the Northern Italian river Bormida (Piedmont region). The macrobenthic community living downstream of the industrial discharge was chronically exposed to a mixture of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), with perfluorooctanoic acid as the main compound, at concentrations up to several μgL(-1). Ecological assessment proved that the downstream community was not substantially different from that living upstream of the pollution source. The impact on community is not quantifiable with the traditional monitoring methods used for ecological classification under European regulation because macrobenthic communities showed only slight differences in their structure. In order to highlight effects on genetic variability of the native population, a subcellular analysis by using the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) genetic technique was applied to genotype of individuals of a selected species (Hydropsyche modesta, Trichoptera) collected in the two sampling sites. Percentage of variation between the two populations was 6.8%, a threshold compatible with a genetic drift induced in the downstream population. The genetic study carried out in field identified a significant divergence between exposed and non-exposed populations, but at present it is not possible to associate this divergence to a specific effect induced by PFAS.

  18. Drought and flood effects on macrobenthic communities in the estuary of Australia's largest river system

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    Dittmann, Sabine; Baring, Ryan; Baggalley, Stephanie; Cantin, Agnes; Earl, Jason; Gannon, Ruan; Keuning, Justine; Mayo, Angela; Navong, Nathavong; Nelson, Matt; Noble, Warwick; Ramsdale, Tanith

    2015-11-01

    Estuaries are prone to drought and flood events, which can vary in frequency and intensity depending on water management and climate change. We investigated effects of two different drought and flow situations, including a four year long drought (referred to as Millennium drought) and a major flood event, on the macrobenthic community in the estuary and coastal lagoon of the Murray Mouth and Coorong, where freshwater inflows are strictly regulated. The analysis is based on ten years of annual monitoring of benthic communities and environmental conditions in sediment and water. The objectives were to identify changes in diversity, abundance, biomass and distribution, as well as community shifts and environmental drivers for the respective responses. The Millennium drought led to decreased taxonomic richness, abundance and biomass of macrobenthos as hypersaline conditions developed and water levels dropped. More taxa were found under very high salinities than predicted from the Remane diagram. When a flood event broke the Millennium drought, recovery took longer than from a shorter drought followed by small flows. A flow index was developed to assess the biological response subject to the duration of the preceding drought and flow volumes. The index showed higher taxonomic richness, abundance and biomass at intermediate and more continuous flow conditions. Abundance increased quickly after flows were restored, but the benthic community was initially composed of small bodied organisms and biomass increased only after several years once larger organisms became more abundant. Individual densities and constancy of distribution dropped during the drought for almost all macrobenthic taxa, but recoveries after the flood were taxon specific. Distinct benthic communities were detected over time before and after the drought and flood events, and spatially, as the benthic community in the hypersaline Coorong was split off with a salinity threshold of 64 identified by LINKTREE

  19. Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India

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    Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.

    2013-03-01

    The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

  20. Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom

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    Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

  1. Macrobenthic Community in the Xiaoqing River Estuary in Laizhou Bay, China

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    LUO Xianxiang; ZHANG Shanshan; YANG Jianqiang; PAN Jinfen; TIAN Lin; ZHANG Longjun

    2013-01-01

    The macrobenthic community of the Xiaoqing River Estuary and the adjacent sea waters was investigated in May and November 2008,August 2009,and May and September 2010,respectively.A total of 95 species of macrobenthos were identified in the five cruises and most of them were polychaetes (46.39%),mollusks (28.86%) and crustaceans (20.62%).The Shannon-Wiener index of macrobenthos was lower than 2 in 67% sites.Along the stream channel,estuary and the coastal waters,the species of polychaetes reduced gradually,while the abundance increased at first and then decreased.The abundance was the biggest at regions with salinity of 5-20 in the estuary.The species and abundance of mollusks and crustaceans increased gradually.As for seasonal distribution,the species,abundance and biomass were higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn.Contemporaneously compared with Laizhou Bay and Yellow River Estuary,the species of macrobenthos appeared in the Xiaoqing River Estuary were much less,while the percentage of polychaetes was higher.Abundance and biomass were higher in Xiaoqing River estuary,then consequently followed by Laizhou Bay and Yellow River Estuary.The dominant species in Xiaoqing River Estuary was polychaete,and Layzhou Bay mollusk.The community structure characteristics of macrobenthos in the Xiaoqing River Estuary revealed a significant pollution status in this region.

  2. Habitat heterogeneity affects ecological functions of macrobenthic communities in a mangrove: Implication for the impact of restoration and afforestation

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    Jonathan Y.S. Leung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have been dwindling rapidly in the last few decades due to human activities, and thus restoration is commonly conducted to recover the ecological functions of degraded mangroves. However, afforestation (i.e. mangrove plantation in mudflats can lead to habitat conversion and hence modify the ecosystem functions by increasing habitat heterogeneity. Mudflats are scarce in mangroves, but provide vital ecological functions by the macrobenthos. As such, the present study investigated how habitat heterogeneity affects the ecological functions of macrobenthic communities in a mangrove by analysing functional diversity, functional redundancy and biological trait patterns. Samples were collected from different habitats with increasing order of habitat heterogeneity (mudflat macrobenthic communities, but negative effect was incurred when the habitat heterogeneity was too high. For the sake of conservation and management of mangroves, restoration should consider plant density and plant species to minimize the impact of dense root structures on macrobenthos. Given the lower functional redundancy and distinct trait pattern in the mudflat, afforestation is not recommended so that the integrity of the ecological functions of mangroves can be maintained.

  3. Species-specific effect of macrobenthic assemblages on meiobenthos and nematode community structure in shallow sandy sediments.

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    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Drgas, Aleksander; Gromisz, Sławomira; Barnes, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Three functionally different macrofaunal species (the filter- and/or surface deposit-feeding polychaete Hediste diversicolor, and the suspension-feeding bivalves Mya arenaria and Cerastoderma glaucum) were introduced as single- and two-species treatments into microcosms containing sandy sediment with a natural meiofaunal community. H. diversicolor is a burrowing species building a system of galleries, C. glaucum lives actively near the sediment surface acting as a biodiffuser and M. arenaria buries deeply and leads a sessile lifestyle. It is shown that H. diversicolor extended the vertical distribution of meiofauna into deeper sediment layers compared to the control and non-Hediste treatments. The response of the nematode community varied significantly among treatments and was dependant on the macrobenthic species composition but not on the species number. Nematode assemblages in all treatments with the polychaete, both in monoculture and with either bivalve, differed significantly from those recorded in other treatments and were more similar than replicates within any other single treatment. H. diversicolor also appeared to have stimulated nematode species diversity. The present study demonstrated that the impact of macrobenthic assemblages on meiofauna is not a simple summation of individual species effects but is species specific.

  4. Structure and dynamics of the macrobenthic communities of Ubatuba Bay, southeastern Brazilian Coast

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    Maria Fernanda Lopes dos Santos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution, density, biomass, diversity and trophic relationships of the macrobenthic communities in Ubatuba Bay, southeastern Brazilian coast, were investigated seasonally from August 1995 to June 1996. Sampling was carried out at 9 stations of between 4 and 13 m depth and taken in duplicate with a 0.1m² van Veen grab. Two hundred and five macrofaunal species were identified, presenting low dominance and frequency. Polychaetes and nematodes dominated, representing 89% of the whole fauna. Spatial variations in the structure of the communities were correlated to sediment type whereas seasonal variations were correlated to the increase in wave size and current disturbance over the substrate during the rainy period. Carnivore and surface deposit-feeder polychaetes were dominant, totalling 81% of the species. Mean grain size, fine sand, very fine sand, silt and clay contents were among the main factors related to the patterns of macrofaunal distribution, density and diversity and to the dominance of trophic groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the area may be divided into two groups of stations each of them characterized, respectively, by the presence of Magelona papillicornis and Mediomastus capensis.A composição, distribuição, densidade, biomassa, diversidade e relações tróficas das comunidades macrobênticas da Enseada de Ubatuba, costa sudeste brasileira, foram estudadas sazonalmente, de agosto de 1995 a junho de 1996. As amostragens foram realizadas em 9 estações de coleta, situadas entre 4 e 13 m de profundidade, e obtidas em duplicata com pegador de fundo van Veen de 0,1 m² de área amostral. Duzentas e cinco espécies macrobênticas foram obtidas, a maioria apresentando baixa dominância e freqüência. Poliquetas e nemátodes dominaram, representando 89% da fauna total. As variações espaciais na estrutura das comunidades foram correlacionadas ao tipo de sedimento, ao passo que as varia

  5. Analysis Of Macrobenthic Community Structure In Relation To Different Environmental Conditions In Three Harbours In The North Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy. Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on benthic communities are being widely used in monitoring pollution effects, using both the methodologies provided from the national laws in various countries and experimental innovative methodologies of research. We have carried out a preliminary study on macrobenthic communities (zoobenthos and phytobenthos in three harbours, one of which (Piombino receives wastewater from industry and is also subject to heavy shipping traffic. The other two (Porto Santo Stefano and Portoferraio enjoy great tourist traffic but no industrial waste, and they have been selected in order to find possible differences between populations of animals present in unpolluted and polluted areas. The results show that there are no outstanding differences in the sessile and sedentary bentological population parameters of the studied harbours. We probably do not have an adequate historical data set of the species living in the study areas to detect the effects of pollution, and the sessile living animal species we found may have adapted to the current situation, since living species typical of very clean waters were found.

  6. Analysis Of Macrobenthic Community Structure In Relation To Different Environmental Conditions In Three Harbours In The North Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy. Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on benthic communities are being widely used in monitoring pollution effects, using both the methodologies provided from the national laws in various countries and experimental innovative methodologies of research. We have carried out a preliminary study on macrobenthic communities (zoobenthos and phytobenthos in three harbours, one of which (Piombino receives wastewater from industry and is also subject to heavy shipping traffic. The other two (Porto Santo Stefano and Portoferraio enjoy great tourist traffic but no industrial waste, and they have been selected in order to find possible differences between populations of animals present in unpolluted and polluted areas. The results show that there are no outstanding differences in the sessile and sedentary bentological population parameters of the studied harbours. We probably do not have an adequate historical data set of the species living in the study areas to detect the effects of pollution, and the sessile living animal species we found may have adapted to the current situation, since living species typical of very clean waters were found.

  7. Influence of Spartina alterniflora invasion stages on macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ming Ge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal habitats in eastern China are being substantially altered by the invasion of Spartina alterniflora. The species richness, density, Margalef's diversity index (R and Shannon's diversity index (H' of macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China, were analyzed with the factors of invasion stage and season, in 2007. A significant effect of invasion stage, season, and the interaction between them on communities was detected. The macrobenthic community was more complex in the patch of initial S. alterniflora invasion than in the patches of some other invasion stages. Macrobenthic communities were classified by cluster and ordination in accordance with the habitat character of the S. alterniflora invasion stage. Our research demonstrated that the S. alterniflora invasion stage affected the macrobenthic communities significantly. The results indicated that biodiversity increased in the initial stage of invasion (invasion age 1-2 years and then decreased in the stage of invasion underway (invasion age 3-4 years and in the stage of invasion completed (invasion age 5-6 years; this phenomenon was related to the change in the S. alterniflora canopy which accompanied the invasion stages.Muitos habitats costeiros vêm sendo alterados substancialmente pela invasão de Spartina alterniflora no leste da China. Em 2007, em uma planície de maré situada em Wenzhou Bay, foram analisadas riqueza de espécies, densidade e diversidade da macrofauna bêntica em relação a diferentes estágios da invasão da gramínea e à estação do ano. Para as medidas de diversidade foram usados os índices de Margalef (R e de Shannon (H'. Foram detectados efeitos significativos do estágio de invasão e época do ano sobre a macrofauna. As comunidades macrofaunais foram mais complexas nas manchas onde a invasão de S. alterniflora estava no seu início, quando considerados os locais onde as manchas estavam em estágios mais avançados. Através das

  8. Structure and Secondary Production of a Soft Bottom Macrobenthic Community in a Brackish Lagoon (Sacca di Goro, north-eastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistri, M.; Rossi, R.; Fano, E. A.

    2001-05-01

    The composition and distribution of the macrobenthic community in a lagoon in the Po River delta was investigated by taking monthly samples at three sites during 1994. A total of 38 macroinvertebrate taxa, representing five phyla, were identified. Gastropods, amphipods, and chironomid larvae dominated the macrofauna in term of abundance, while in terms of biomass bivalves were the dominant taxon. Monthly total invertebrate abundance showed considerable fluctuations, depending on the season and on the presence of the red macroalgae Gracilaria verrucosa. In the central area of the lagoon, a significant relationship was demonstrated between macrobenthic community parameters and amount of macroalgal cover. Taking the most important species, i.e. those that contributed most to similarity within sites, only Cerastoderma glaucum was found to be negatively related to the amount of macroalgal biomass. Mean annual secondary production varied between 50 and 75 g AFDW m -2yr -1depending on the site, yielding P/B ratios between 1·02 and 1·08. Confinement and moderate disturbance due to the presence of algal cover are hypothesized to determine structure, composition, and production of the macrobenthic community in the Sacca di Goro.

  9. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadickal V. Joydas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature, and human (i.e., from oil-related activities sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world's largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill. However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE species richness (S of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′ of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI's Marine Biotic Index, AMBI conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2 show relatively higher S, H' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2. In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  10. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal V.

    2017-08-03

    The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature), and human (i.e., from oil-related activities) sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world\\'s largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill). However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE) species richness (S) of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′) of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI\\'s Marine Biotic Index, AMBI) conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI) ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE) values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2) show relatively higher S, H\\' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2). In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) and the impact on macrobenthic community structure in Lagos lagoon, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, V F; Otitoloju, A A

    2016-10-01

    The widespread distribution of petroleum products arising from the rapid growth of the petroleum industry in Nigeria has resulted in the pollution of the environment through oil spills involving leakages from tankers, pipelines, tank farms, and dumping of waste petroleum products. The impacts and distribution of major toxic components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)) of petroleum products in water and sediment samples collected from sampling stations in the Lagos lagoon was investigated over a 2-year period (February 2009-July 2010). The distribution of benthic communities in the different sampling stations of the Lagos lagoon was assessed. The determination of hydrocarbon levels in the samples showed that the levels of total hydrocarbon content (THC) in the water samples around the Atlas Cove and Apapa were high with values ranging from 2.03 to 31.38 mg/l and 4.04 to 22.89 mg/l, respectively. The highest value of total BTEX in the lagoon sediment was also recorded in the Apapa station (450.53 μg/kg), where oil depots and tank farm facilities are located. The study of the macrobenthic community structure showed that the species richness ranged from 1.57 to 2.02 in the reference station, Unilag, while in the Atlas Cove, Iddo, and Apapa stations, it ranged from 1.80 to 2.89, 1.95 to 3.03, and 1.86 to 2.95, respectively. The highest number of organisms (183) was recorded in the reference stations, while the least number (46) was recorded in Apapa. The main hydrocarbon pollution indicator species identified in the impacted aquatic stations were Nais eliguis and Heteromastus filiformis. The levels of hydrocarbon observed in the aquatic environment showed that there is widespread contamination as a result of petroleum product importation, storage, and distribution. The assessment of the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benthic community will therefore provide important tools for early detection, diagnosis, and management of hydrocarbon pollution

  12. Macrobenthic community structure of coastal Arabian Sea during the fall intermonsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Gaonkar, U.V.; Deshmukh, A.; Mukherjee, I.; Sivadas, S.K.; Gophane, A.

    In the Arabian Sea, organic matter produced during the upwelling period reaches the seafloor by the end of the monsoon and during the fall intermonsoon period (FIM) Studies on the benthic community is lacking during this period Therefore, we predict...

  13. Tropical Estuarine Macrobenthic Communities Are Structured by Turnover Rather than Nestedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Carlinda Raílly; Hepp, Luiz Ubiratan; Patrício, Joana; Molozzi, Joseline

    2016-01-01

    Turnover (i.e., species substitution) and nestedness (i.e., subsets of species from more diverse locations), the two main mechanisms used to explain the beta diversity of biological communities, have different implications for biodiversity conservation. To better understand how these mechanisms contribute to beta diversity, we tested the following hypotheses: (i) greater dissimilarity in community composition occurs between estuarine zones than other hierarchical level studied; (ii) beta diversity in these communities develops by turnover in estuaries with a lower degree of anthropogenic impact, but by nestedness in estuaries with a greater degree of anthropogenic impact; and (iii) the structuring mechanism is independent of season. We studied two tropical estuaries (dry and wet seasons) that vary in terms of land-use of the drainage basins. Subtidal benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled along the estuarine gradient in each of the two estuaries. The additive partitioning approach to species diversity was used to determine the hierarchical scale with the greatest dissimilarity in community composition. General beta diversity was measured using the Sorensen dissimilarity index, partitioning the turnover and nestedness components. The greatest dissimilarity in the composition of the communities occurred between the zones along the estuarine gradient in both seasons (dry = 58.6%; wet = 46.3%). In the estuary with a lower degree of anthropogenic influence, benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was generated by turnover regardless of the season. In the estuary with a greater degree of anthropogenic impact, beta diversity was structured by turnover during the dry season and a combination of both mechanisms during the wet season. We conclude that turnover is the principal mechanism responsible for beta diversity in benthic macroinvertebrate communities in tropical estuaries.

  14. Effect of tropical rainfall in structuring the macrobenthic community of Mandovi estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, U.V.; Sivadasa, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    , influenced by rainfall and the estuarine condition during the non-monsoon period resulted in a community dominated by a few species. A low species community in the soft sediments of estuaries is a general trend in the estuaries world over (Giménez et al...,143-153. 10. Giere O. and Pfannkuche O. (1982) Biology and ecology of marine Oligochaeta, a review. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 20, 173-308. 11. Giménez L., Borthagaray A.E., Rodríguez M., Brazeiro A. and Dimitriadis C. (2005) Scale...

  15. Sandy beaches in a coastline vulnerable to erosion in Atlantic Canada: Macrobenthic community structure in relation to backshore and physical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Mitchell R.; Duarte, Cristian; Quijón, Pedro A.

    2017-07-01

    Most literature suggests that sandy beach macrobenthic communities are structured by physical factors. However, an aspect that has not been studied in detail is whether those physical factors change with erosion or the association of beaches to backshore features like sand dunes, till bluffs, and sandstone cliffs. We addressed this question by sampling 14 sandy beaches on the north shore of Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Canada. Two null hypotheses were tested: first, there is no relationship between physical factors and community descriptors across sandy beaches, and second, there is no difference among beaches associated with distinct backshore features both in terms of physical factors and community descriptors. In order to test these hypotheses, samples of macrobenthic organisms and measurements of grain size, slope, beach deposit index and erosion rates were obtained. Our surveys collected a total of 14 taxa numerically dominated by the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata. With regards to the first hypothesis, regression analyses showed that community descriptors were all positively related to erosion rates while unrelated to the variation in grain size, slope and beach deposit index. As for the second hypothesis, erosion rates were significantly different among beaches associated to till bluffs (highest), dunes and sandstone cliffs (lowest). Meanwhile, the other physical factors did not significantly differ among backshore features. Species richness was highest in beaches associated to till bluffs and lowest in those associated to sandstone cliffs. Abundance values were also lowest in beaches associated to sandstone cliffs, and their community composition was significantly different to those associated to dunes and till bluffs. We suggest that the relationship between erosion rates and community descriptors is complex and may be mediated by the availability of nutrients: higher erosion levels might account for higher concentrations of nutrients for

  16. Deep macrobenthic communities from Nazaré Submarine Canyon (NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cúrdia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Macrofauna community structure within Nazaré Submarine Canyon is analysed and used to assess the potential effects of natural enrichment in this area subjected to accumulation of coastal sediments. A transect including three stations (2894, 3514 and 4141 m was carried out in the Nazaré Submarine Canyon (NW Portugal during a cruise of OMEX II programme (Ocean Margin Exchange, in the winter season of 1999. Although data was not collected in order to calculate sedimentation rates, sampling station at 2894 m is located in an area characterised by high levels of sedimentation, thus a high amount of organic matter is expected to be available for the local communities. Faunistic data are discussed in the context of the different features of the stations sampled. Multivariate analysis clearly separates the shallowest station from the other ones, which otherwise appear to be very similar. It also revealed a perceptible gradient along sediment depth at all stations, from shallow to deeper layers. Exceptionally depressed species richness and low evenness values were observed at the 2894 m station. The high number of individuals of a single species, Cossura sp. A, and the atypical diversity, dominance and evenness values obtained for this station support the hypothesis of community disturbance due to organic enrichment.

  17. Macrobenthic communities of the coastal waters of Dabhol, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Rodrigues, N.; Ansari, Z.A.

    's formula as a measurement of specific diversity and its use and misuse, Am Nat, 100 (1966) 463-465. 8 Margalef R, Perspective in ecological theory, (University of Chicago Press, Chicago) 1968, pp.111. 9 Bray J R & Curtis J T, An ordination..., Harkantra S N & Ansari Z A, Benthic pro- duction and demersal fishery resources of the Indian seas. Indian J Mar Sci, 11 (1982) 7-14. 16 Kinney O, Cultivation of animals, in Marine ecology, Vol. 3 (2), edited by O Kinney, (Wiley & Sons, London) 1977...

  18. Interannual variability of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities of the NW Gulf of Mexico in relationship to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Diana L; Soto, Luis A; Estradas-Romero, Alejandro; Botello, Alfonso V

    2017-01-30

    A 3-year research program was undertaken to assess potential environmental disturbance caused by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the soft-bottom macrobenthic communities within Mexican waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Community properties and temporal/spatial variability were analyzed besides toxicant parameters such as hydrocarbons and trace-metals. Overall infaunal density increased, taxa proportion changed, and small-size opportunistic organisms prevailed throughout the study. Annual abundance-biomass comparison (ABC) curves revealed progressive stress scenarios from moderate to severe. Concentrations of vanadium, nickel, cobalt, PAHs and AHs increased gradually over time. However, low correlations between benthic density and biogeochemical variables were determined. Initially, sedimentary properties were the main drivers of benthic community structure; subsequently, nickel, vanadium and PAHs, indicative of anthropogenic effect, were highlighted. Interannual variability in the macroinfauna was attributed to the synergy of several environmental factors. Undoubtedly, compounds derived from fossil fuels had a significant disturbance role, but their source remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution and structure of the upper sublittoral macrobenthic communities of Tróia sand beaches (Setúbal, Portugal) and their relationship with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Maria; Cabral, Henrique; Andrade, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    The present study dealt with the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of the upper sublittoral benthic macrofauna of the Tróia peninsula sand beaches and its relationship with abiotic environmental factors. The existence of a relationship between the data set of macrobenthic species distribution and community structure in the Sado estuary (432 individual samples) and the environmental factors in analysis was investigated. Morpho-sedimentary data analysis revealed an environmental gradient, from the marine margin (exposed marine environment) to the estuarine margin (sheltered estuarine environment). Benthic macrofauna analysis showed a gradient of increasing number of individuals, species richness and diversity from the marine margin (Exposed) to the estuarine margin (Sheltered). Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed the dominant patterns in the community structure to be explained by the environmental factors considered, the most important, of which in influencing the spatial and temporal pattern, being beach slope, organic matter and calcium carbonate contents. The structure of the sandy beach communities studied showed a clear dominance of the spatial patterns over the seasonal ones. Four assemblages were defined-(1) an assemblage dominated by Angulus tenuis, on the marine margin of the peninsula; (2) an assemblage dominated by Euclymene sp. and Apseudes latreillei, on the sea-estuary transition area and related to the presence of a Zostera spp. meadow; (3) an assemblage dominated by Glycera sp. and Scoloplos armiger, on the sea-estuary transition area; (4) an assemblage dominated by Notomastus latericeus, Nassarius reticulatus and Cyathura carinata, on the estuarine margin.

  20. Low biomass of macrobenthic fauna at a tropical mudflat : An effect of latitude?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwoko, Agus; Wolff, Wim J.

    2008-01-01

    The macrobenthic animal biomass of the intertidal area of the Sembilang peninsula of South Sumatra, Indonesia, has been studied in 2004. Each month (March-August) 21 core samples were taken at each of six sampling stations. Macrobenthic fauna were identified at the lowest taxonomical level possible

  1. How functional traits of estuarine macrobenthic assemblages respond to metal contamination?

    KAUST Repository

    Piló, D.

    2016-08-06

    The effects of metal contamination on estuarine macrobenthic communities were investigated using the Biological Traits Analysis (BTA). The study was carried out in the Tagus estuary (western Portugal). Samples of macrobenthic communities and associated environmental variables were taken in four surveys (September 2012, and February, May and October 2013) across the contamination gradient from three main zones: a slightly contaminated, a moderately contaminated and a highly contaminated zone. Functional traits for the most abundant species were assigned using seven categories based on “Feeding mode”, “Life span”, “Body size”, “Motility”, “Position in sediments”, “Larval type” and “AMBI ecological group”. To investigate whether the macroinvertebrate community structure was associated with the environmental parameters and biological traits an integrative multivariate analysis, combining the RLQ analysis and the fourth-corner method, was applied. Within this analysis, human-induced estuarine variables (metals) were rendered independent from natural ones (sediment fine particles) through partial correlations. Following this approach, it was possible to decouple the effects of two typically highly correlated environmental descriptors with different origins. Overall, the study identified significant relationships between sediment environmental descriptors and the functional traits of macrobenthic communities. Further, RLQ/Fourth-corner combined analysis successfully isolated the traits and corresponding species that were most correlated with the measured concentration of trace metals in sediments, supporting the knowledge that benthic organisms exhibit distinct responses to different levels of disturbance. A shift in species dominance occurred along the contamination gradient with epifaunal tolerant species with very small size, long life span, and crawling motility dominating the highest contaminated area. This area was also related with

  2. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2012-02-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate its effect on the native benthic community with focus on the two common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. M. viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly and within 3 years it had spread to about 50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord...

  4. Do physical and chemical factors structure the macrobenthic community at a continental slope in the NE Atlantic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, E.; Thomsen, L.

    1998-01-01

    Macrofauna density, biomass and community structure together with several characteristics of the sediment and flow velocity were estimated in May 1994 and August 1995 at seven stations ranging from 208 m to 4470 m water depth along the OMEX- transect in the Goban Spur area (NE Atlantic). In 1994 fou

  5. 渔山列岛潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构%Community Structure of the Intertidal Macrobenthic Fauna in Yushan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦海峰; 施慧雄; 刘红丹; 尤仲杰; 楼志军; 黄滨; 黄呈炜

    2011-01-01

    于2009年3月的大潮期间对渔山列岛潮间带布设5个断面,进行大型底栖动物调查。结果表明,该海域潮间带采集到大型底栖动物90种,其中腔肠动物3种,多毛类11种,软体动物45种,甲壳类19种,棘皮动物6种,其它6种。潮间带大型底栖动物总平均生物量5307.06g/m2,总平均丰度为2323.20ind/m2。在各类群底栖动物中,软体动物的平均生物量及丰度居首位。渔山列岛潮间带大型底栖动物的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Simpson多样性指数(D)、Mangalef丰富度指数(d)和Piel%Based on macrobenthic samples collected from five intertidal stations in the Yushan Island during March 2009 the macrobenthic community was analysized using PRIMER 5.0,of which CLUSTER,DIVERSE and ABC functions were adopted. Ninety species were found in t

  6. Spatiotemporal distribution of macrobenthic communities and its relationships with environmental factors in Sanmen Bay%三门湾大型底栖动物时空分布及其与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖一波; 寿鹿; 曾江宁; 高爱根

    2011-01-01

    In November 2006 and in January, April, and August 2007, an investigation on the macrobenthic communities was conducted at 18 stations in Sanmen Bay to study the relationships between the macrobenthic communities and environmental factors. A total of 124 taxa were collect-ed , including 44 species of Polychaeta, 34 species of Crustacea, 22 species of Mollusca, 11 spe-cies of Echinodermata, and 13 species of others. The species of Polychaeta and Mollusca accounted for 62. 9% of the total, which constituted the main population of the communities. Aglaophamus di-branchis, Capitella capitata, and Sternaspis scutata were the dominant species in spring, Stemaspis scutaia, Aglaophamus dibranchis, and Spionidae spp. were the dominant species in summer, S. scutata, C. capitata, A. dibranchis and Virgularia gustaviana were the dominant species in au-tumn , and A. dibranchis, S. scutata, C. capitata, and Spionidae spp. were the dominant species in winter. There was a significant difference in the average biomass and average density of the mac-robenthic communities between different seasons. The annual average biomass was 17.36 g ·m-2, and the annual average density was 72 ind · m-2. The diversity indices of the macrobenthic commu-nities also differed significantly between different seasons. The seasonal average Shannon diversity index was from 1.53 to 1.89, seasonal average Margalef species richness index was from 2. 25 to 2. 96, and seasonal average Pielou evenness index was from 0. 83 to 0. 94. Canonical correspon-dence analysis showed that the sea water temperature, salinity, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in surface sediment were the main envi-ronmental factors affecting the macrobenthic communities. Environmental variables could better ex-plain the changes of main macrobenthic species.%2006年11月、2007年1月、4月和8月在三门湾18个采样点对大型底栖动物进行调查,分析了其时空分

  7. Animating Community: Reflexivity and Identity in Indian Animation Production Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Animating Community examines the cultural practices of animators in India, and particularly the role of practitioner testimony in conceiving and negotiating social structures underpinning the nascent Indian animation industry. Recognizing a tendency in practitioner accounts towards theorization of contested industrial discourses, this research takes as its object the reflexive practice of animators in trade texts and interviews. These reveal how local practitioners understand production cultu...

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF MACROBENTHIC FAUNA OF SOFT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of floods on the fauna have also been monitored. ... METHODS. In order to evaluate the estuarine environment of the macrobenthic fauna a number of physical ..... The positive phi quartile skewnesses (Skcp) obtained in most ...... A relatively small number of macrobenthic carnivores was found. None were ...

  9. The influence of white seabream ( Diplodus sargus) production on macrobenthic colonization patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Cúrdia, João; Moura, Ana; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís

    2007-05-01

    The present work evaluates the influence of fish production on macrobenthic colonization over large areas (approximately 700 m 2), where the colonizing populations are not nearby the disturbed area. Sampling was undertaken within newly created aquaculture earthen ponds under two contrasting conditions: white seabream ( Diplodus sargus) production and no production (control). Macrobenthic and geochemical samples were collected 7, 23, 54, 93 and 180 days after filling the earthen ponds with seawater pumped from a water reservoir for the first time. The water reservoir was also sampled, and is used as a reference for the colonizing populations. Macrobenthic colonization rate in the ponds was low, probably due to the isolation of the disturbed habitat, to the large size of the defaunated area, and possibly to geochemical constraints. Initial colonization was by insect larvae (mainly chironomids), the bivalves Cerastoderma spp., the polychaetes Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata and Hydrodoides elegans, and nemerteneans. The number of species was similar in control and production ponds, even though under production higher total abundance values were observed. Although well represented in the water reservoir, the amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa was only observed within the new ponds after 6 months. Preliminary results suggest that macrobenthic colonization patterns were influenced by fish production, as assemblages were significantly different among ponds. Higher food availability due to fish production may explain the results obtained, but ecological reasons, such as predation, may also contribute for shaping the macrobenthic communities.

  10. 芝罘岛污水排放对大型底栖动物群落的影响%Effects of Sewage Discharge on the Macrobenthic Com-munity Offshore Area of Yantai,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘甜甜; 李晓静; 周政权; 陈琳琳; 李宝泉

    2016-01-01

    sewage discharge on the macrobenthic community provides scientific basis for sustain-able development of biodiversity conservation in coastal areas and marine environmental monito-ring.[Methods]A survey was carried out in Sep-tember 2012 on 10 sampling stations at the wa-ter areas near to Zhifu Island,offshore area of Yantai,Shandong province.Community charac-ters,three biodiversity indices,CLUSTER,non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS)ordina-tion analysis,abundance and biomass curves (ABC)analysis were calculated and analyzed by software PRIMER 6.0.[Results]A total of 63 macrobenthic species were identified,including 35 species of Polychaetes,13 species of Mollus-can,1 1 species of Crustacean,3 species of the Echinoderm,one species of other groups,of which the dominant group was Polychaetes.The average biomass and abundance was 8.30 g/m2 and 618.67 ind./m2 ,respectively,of which Molluscan species contributed most to biomass and Pol-ychaetes contributed most to abundance.Three biodiversity indices,Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and Evenness index,were 3.173±0.102,5.469±0.417 and 0.965±0.007,re-spectively.Pearson correlation analysis showed that Evenness index was significantly positive related to salinity.However,the Shannon-Wiener index and Richness index were not signifi-cantly related to the 1 2 environmental variables.CLUSTER and MDS analysis showed that macrobenthic assemblages could be divided into three sub-groups based on 60% similarity and significant difference was found between different sub-groups.The species composition of sta-tion Z2 nearest to the sewage discharge point was dominated by polychaetes and it showed a miniaturization trend.[Conclusion]The environmental variables such as water depth,dissolved oxygen,and TN influenced the spatial distribution of macrobenthos,and they were significantly related to the biomass and abundance.ABC curves showed that the macrobenthic community at some stations had been suffered moderate disturbance from

  11. Macrobenthic assemblages of the Changjiang River estuary (Yangtze River, China) and adjacent continental shelf relative to mild summer hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yibo; Shou, Lu; Tang, Yanbin; Zeng, Jiangning; Gao, Aigen; Chen, Quanzhen; Yan, Xiaojun

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effects of hypoxia, macrobenthic communities along an estuarine gradient of the Changjiang estuary and adjacent continental shelf were analyzed. This revealed spatial variations in the communities and relationships with environmental variables during periods of reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in summer. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in macrobenthic community composition among the three zones: estuarine zone (EZ), mildly hypoxic zone (MHZ) in the continental shelf, and normoxic zone (NZ) in the continental shelf (Global R =0.206, P =0.002). Pairwise tests showed that the macrobenthic community composition of the EZ was significantly different from the MHZ (pairwise test R =0.305, P =0.001) and the NZ (pairwise test R =0.259, P =0.001). There was no significant difference in macrobenthic communities between the MHZ and the NZ (pairwise test R =0.062, P =0.114). The taxa included small and typically opportunistic polychaetes, which made the greatest contribution to the dissimilarity between the zones. The effects of mild hypoxia on the macrobenthic communities are a result not only of reduced DO concentration but also of differences in environmental variables such as temperature, salinity, and nutrient concentrations caused by stratification.

  12. 射阳河口互花米草入侵对大型底栖动物群落的影响%EFFECT OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA INVASION ON THE MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY IN THE SHEYANG ESTUARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯森林; 余晓韵; 鲁长虎

    2012-01-01

    2008年11月至2009年10月,在盐城自然保护区射阳河口滩涂分别于潮间带、潮上带和潮沟中设置互花米草区与非米草区2类对照样地(共6类生境),按月份取样来研究大型底栖动物群落特征的差异,探讨互花米草入侵对底栖动物的影响.共发现大型底栖动物22种,隶属3门4纲17科,其中软体动物13种,节肢动物6种,环节动物3种.米草区和非米草区的物种组成不同,各生境在不同月份大型底栖动物的物种数、密度、生物量和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数均在不断波动,在潮间带上述指标均为In>Ig,潮上带除密度外均为Sn>Sg,潮沟边滩除个别月份外均为Cg>Cn;3类互花米草生境中大型底栖动物群落各项指标月间变动趋势基本一致(仅个别月份例外),均表现为Cg>Sg>Ig,互花米草生境存在共同的优势种,但数量有一定的差异.分别对潮间带、潮上带和湖沟中互花米草区与非米草区2类对照样地的物种数、密度、生物量以及Shannon-Weiner 多样性指数H进行生境-月份间无重复双因素方差分析,结果显示湖间带2类对照样地各项指标在生境间差异均极显著,月份间差异均不显著;潮上带2类对照样地各项指标生境间存在极其显著的差异(除密度外),月份间差异显著(除多样性外);潮沟2类对照样地生境间差异显著(除生物量外),月份间差异均显著.研究结果表明不同生境中的互花米草对底栖动物的影响不甚相同:湖间带互花米草的入侵降低了大型底栖动物的物种数、密度、生物量和多样性;潮沟米草的入侵提高了大型底栖动物的物种数、密度和多样性;而潮上带来草入侵对大型底栖动物的各指标影响不一.%The macrobenthic community from Nov. 2008 to Oct. 2009 was studied monthly in order to know the effect of Spartina alterniflora invasion on them in Sheyang estuary, Yancheng Nature Reserve. Six habitats were

  13. Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

  14. Status of macrobenthic community of Manifa-Tanajib Bay System of Saudi Arabia based on a once-off sampling event

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2011-06-01

    Shallow water bays located in the western Arabian Gulf experience harsh environmental conditions. Some of these bays, including Manifa-Tanajib Bay System (MTBS), were also exposed to the 1991 oil pollution event. This study investigates the status of the macrobenthos in MTBS during 2006. This bay system is characterized by very shallow inner bays with elevated salinity and temperature compared to the rest of the bay area. As a result mainly of the hyper salinity, the inner bay communities are distinct from the outer bay communities. Overall, fairly high species richness with several rare species was observed. High Shannon-Wiener diversity values and ABC plots indicated the healthy status of the polychaete communities, while BOPA index indicated slightly polluted status in 20% of the stations. The oil sensitive amphipods were not completely re-colonized in 20% of the stations, even after 15. years of recovery from the 1991 oil spill. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Status of macrobenthic community of Manifa-Tanajib Bay System of Saudi Arabia based on a once-off sampling event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joydas, T V; Krishnakumar, P K; Qurban, Mohammad A; Ali, Said M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Al-Abdulkader, Khaled

    2011-06-01

    Shallow water bays located in the western Arabian Gulf experience harsh environmental conditions. Some of these bays, including Manifa-Tanajib Bay System (MTBS), were also exposed to the 1991 oil pollution event. This study investigates the status of the macrobenthos in MTBS during 2006. This bay system is characterized by very shallow inner bays with elevated salinity and temperature compared to the rest of the bay area. As a result mainly of the hyper salinity, the inner bay communities are distinct from the outer bay communities. Overall, fairly high species richness with several rare species was observed. High Shannon-Wiener diversity values and ABC plots indicated the healthy status of the polychaete communities, while BOPA index indicated slightly polluted status in 20% of the stations. The oil sensitive amphipods were not completely re-colonized in 20% of the stations, even after 15 years of recovery from the 1991 oil spill.

  16. Abundance and diversity patterns of the sessile macrobenthic community associated with environmental gradients in Vitória Harbor, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rosental Zalmon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Harbor terminals and urban sewage effluents affect the composition and distribution of epibenthic organisms. In this study, we hypothesized that the benthic community structure at the Vitoria Harbor changes spatially in a ~3 km scale, and that these changes are associated with environmental gradients resulting from point-source sewage and differences in the physical and chemical parameters of the water along the harbor access channel. Four sites, internal (PI, intermediate-internal (PMI, intermediate-external (PME and external (PE, varying from 0.5 to 4.0 km off the harbor, were sampled on five quadrats at six sampling dates (N = 30 per site. The epibenthic community on the shallow sublitoral rocky shore was sampled fortnightly from December 2005 to February 2006 by point-intersection method. A total of 27 taxa were registered with higher richness and diversity values at the external sites. The similarity analysis indicated two distinct systems, with the internal sites PI and PMI apart from the external PME and PE, which showed 97% of dissimilarity. While the internal sites presented some estuarine characteristics and a high coverage (> 60% of hydrozoans and bryozoans with silt/clay, the external ones showed coastal water influence and higher amounts of sedimentary material substrate (> 50%. This pattern reflects the estuarine gradient and the suspended sedimentary material at the internal sites, which is carried out to the external parts of the channel. The data showed two distinct benthic communities and support the hypothesis that the community structure varies along the harbor access channel in a gradient from the inner to the outer portion of the estuary.

  17. Distributions of persistent organic contaminants in sediments and their potential impact on macrobenthic faunal community of the Geum River Estuary and Saemangeum Coast, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Joon; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Lee, Chang-Hee; Nam, Jungho; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Geum River Estuary and Saemangeum Coast have been subject to major environmental changes, including dike construction, reclamation, and development of industrial complexes. This study aimed to: 1) investigate the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols (APs), and styrene oligomers (SOs), 2) identify the sources of sedimentary organic matter, and 3) determine key environmental factors controlling the macrozoobenthos community structure. A total of 58 surface sediments were collected from the estuary and coastal area in 2014. Specific persistent organic contaminants (POCs), including 24 PAHs, 6 APs, and 10 SOs were measured. PAHs, APs, and SOs were detected in the sediments at all sites, with concentrations varying among sites. Although POCs concentrations were generally below the Canadian sediment quality guidelines, relatively greater concentrations of POCs were found at some sites adjacent to industrial complexes and the estuarine area. Sediment organic carbon, total nitrogen, and the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) were determined. Some sites near watergate had about 2-3‰ lighter δ(13)C values compared to other areas, indicating that these sites are affected by terrestrial organic matter. The number of species in the macrofaunal community was significantly correlated with δ(13)C values (p organic matter is important for controlling the macrozoobenthos distribution. Overall, this research provides information about the level and sources of sediment pollution, the origins of organic matter, and the relationships with the macrofaunal community.

  18. Macrobenthic Communities of the Lower Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    ECHINODERMATA :ECHINOIDEA Arbacij Runlctulata (Lamarck) Echinarachnius Parma (Larmack) ECHINODERMATA :HOLOTHURO-DEA Holothuroidea spp. Leptosynapta ... inhaerens (Ayres) ECHINODERMATA :OPHIUROIDEA Ophiuroidea spp. * HEMICHORDATA Saccoglossus kowalewskii (Agassiz) CHORDATA :CEPHALOCHORDATA Branchiostoma

  19. Distribution patterns of macrobenthic species in relation to organic enrichment within aquaculture earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Barata, Marisa; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between organic enrichment and macrobenthic colonization patterns was investigated during an 8-month period in Diplodus sargus (white seabream) production ponds. A stratified sampling design was applied and each pond was divided into three zones: water entrance (WE); central (C); and automatic feeder zones (AF). Generally, the number of species and Shannon-Wiener diversity increased from the WE to the AF zone. Abundance did not present a clear trend. The recently developed marine biotic index (AMBI) was applied and showed to be sufficiently robust to discriminate, within a relatively small area, differences in macrobenthic communities due to organic enrichment. Nevertheless, caution is advised when applying this index or others based on ecological group's assignment, as the classification of a certain area may differ when allocating a certain species to an unsuitable group. This is particularly evident when common species are involved.

  20. Indications of low macrobenthic activity in the deep sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Basso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and budget of organic matter from the oligotrophic surface waters of the eastern Mediterranean to the deep waters are poorly known, and little information is available on past and present macrobenthic activity on the sea floor. Evidence of macrobenthic activity can be direct, through recovery of living organisms or their autochthonous skeletal remains, or indirect, through bioturbation and trace fossils. The evidence of biological activity in deep eastern Mediterranean sediments has been evaluated and compared through 210Pb profiles from box-cores and study of dredge samples from sites on Medina Rise (1374 m water depth, the Messina Abyssal Plain (4135 m and several sites along the Mediterranean Ridge, SW and S of Crete (1783 to 3655 m. All these sites are remote from the continental shelves, so the biological benthic activity is expected to depend primarily on primary production from surface waters. The results show that present-day macrobenthos and trace fossils are generally scarce, especially at depths > 2500 m. This observation is supported by surface sediment 210Pb excess distributions that show a surface mixed layer (SML 2500 m. The historical layer of some box-cores and the Pleistocene hardgrounds collected in the Cleft area (Mediterranean Ridge do, however, record a macrobenthic activity that is apparently more intense than at present, which may be related to higher primary production of the Pleistocene glacial intervals. In contrast with most areas of the present-day deep eastern Mediterranean which depend on surface primary production based on photosynthesis, a relatively dense and diversified macrobenthic community based on chemosynthesis has been recognised at depths > 1100 m on the Napoli Dome mud volcano in the Olimpi area, and on the Kazan and other mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountains.

  1. Fun, animal welfare or community development? Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding young tourists' preferences for a wildlife tourism package. ... This paper explores the impact of young travellers' value orientations on their ... to biospheric values; one enhancing the cultural and community development aspect ...

  2. Ecological Characteristics of Macrobenthic Animals and Environmental Quality on the North Shore Intertidal Zone of Beilun Estuary%北仑河口北岸潮间带大型底栖动物生态特征及潮间带环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许铭本; 赖俊翔; 张荣灿; 董德信; 姜发军

    2015-01-01

    调查北仑河口北岸竹山岛沿岸3条潮间带断面大型底栖动物的生态特征,共采集到大型底栖动物63种,其中软体动物29种,甲壳动物18种,多毛类12种,其他类4种。优势种为珠带拟蟹守螺(Cerithidea cingulata)、长腕和尚蟹(Mictyris longicarpus)、智利巢沙蚕(Diopatra chilienis)和艾氏活额寄居蟹(Diogenes penicillatus)。平均生物量为155.06 g/m2,平均栖息密度为343.8 ind/m2。香农-维纳多样性指数平均值为2.27,种类均匀度指数平均值为0.48,丰富度指数平均值为3.53。ABC曲线分析结果表明,3条断面的潮间带大型底栖动物均受到了中等程度的扰动。Ⅰ~Ⅲ断面的大型底栖动物污染指数(MPI值)分别为2.61、0.16和-17.08。该海域的潮间带环境受到了一定程度的人为活动干扰。%In order to understand the current situation of the intertidal macrobenthic animals in Beilun estuary, the survey was carried out in November 2011. Three intertidal sections were set, each contained 3 quadrats in random. 63 species were collected altogether, including 29 species of molluscs, 18 of crustaceans, 12 of polychaetes, and 4 of others. The dominant species were Cerithidea cingulata, Mictyris longicarpus, Diopatra chilienis and Diogenes penicillatus. The average total biomass and average total density of macrobenthic animals were 155.06 g/m2 and 343.8 ind/m2. The average value of Shannon-Wiener index (H') was 2.27, 0.48 of evenness index (J) and 3.53 of species richness index (d). The results of the ABC analysis showed that all of the 3 intertidal sections were disturbed modestly. MPI of theⅠ-Ⅲsections were 2.61, 0.16 and-17.08, respectively. Intertidal environmental quality of the study area was affected in a certain degree. The study suggested that the human activities such as overfishing and herding ducks were the main disturbing factors.

  3. Building social emotional communities through Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    and learning by playing, incorporating emotional intelligence. Currently we have more products and easy access to experience audiovisual productions, thanks to the emerging pop culture of apps and games besides the traditional films. We can use animation as a media to build social emotional companies...... neurosciences and educational fields such as, Richard Davidson (Winsconsin University) Daniel Goleman (Emotional Intelligence) Dan Siegel (Mindfulness Institute-US), show in their studies how effective these attitudes are in order to improve learning, attention and even rewiring our brain for a better self...... in the “flow” as Csikszentmihalyi has defined, finding the joy to play again as children, without pressure, where freedom become the biggest asset to dream and expand our minds, discovering that novelty and keep reinventing ourselves as our environments, from inside to outside, growing together. The results...

  4. Biodiversity of macrobenthic community in the Huanghe estuary during water and sediment discharge regulation in 2011%2011年黄河调水调沙期间黄河口海域大型底栖动物群落多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元进; 吕振波; 李凡; 张焕君; 徐宗法; 徐炳庆

    2012-01-01

    The water and sediment discharge regulation (WSDR) project, which has been performed since 2002 before flood season every year, has become one of the most effective measures to maintain the healthy state of Huanghe River. Macrobenthic community patterns, such as species composition, dominant species, spatial pattern of biomass and abundance were analyzed based on the investigation data of macrobenthos collected in mid-June (before WSDR) , early July (during WSDR) and mid-July (after WSDR) - In the investigated area, 119°05' - 119°27'E, 37°44. 5' -38°00'N, 13 sample stations were set up. A total number of 100 species were identified from the samples, in which 38 species are members of Polychaete, 41 of Mollusca, 15 of Crustacea, 3 of Echinodem and 3 of other groups. Polychaete and Mollusca were dominant both in biomass and abundance in the Huanghe estuary in summer. Dominant species, defined as with index of relative importance (IRI) value more than 500, were Polychaete or Mollusca in all 3 surveys. The distribution of biomass and abundance of macrobenthos had significant difference both in time scale and spatial scale. The diversity index such as Margalef richness index (D) , Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'~ and Pielou' s evenness index (/') were used for studying the diversity of macrobenthic community. The D, H' and J' of community in survey before WSDR were close to that during WSDR. The D was lower in survey after WSDR than that in survey before WSDR and during WSDR. The H' and J' were higher in survey after WSDR than that in survey before WSDR and during WSDR. A higher proportion of Polychaetes and lower proportion of Echinoderms meant that the macrobenthic community might be under serious environmental pollution. The results of diversity classification showed that the Shannon-Wiener diversity index were poor in all 3 surveys. And the Margalef richness index was poor in survey before WSDR. The Margalef richness index was medium in surveys during and

  5. Animer le web 2.0 : Community manager

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The document describes the new job of community manager.; Au début, il y avait le jeu. Tout est là, surtout dans les jeux en ligne MMO : interactivité, réactivité, animation, réseau, communauté. Animer le jeu, créer du trafic, dynamiser le site, générer du chiffre d'affaires... L'évolution du e-commerce et du web 2.0 a vu naître un nouveau métier, la fonction de community manager, à la frontière entre communication, relation clientèle et marketing.

  6. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D.E.; Flemer, D.A.; Bundick, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

  7. Some aspects of animal behavior and community dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Rai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We simulate the dynamical behavior of a few two - dimensional predator - prey systems in two - dimensional parameter spaces to gain insight into how functional responses affect community dynamics. The insight gained helps us design three dimensional systems. We construct models for a few ecosystems with three species and study them using computer simulations. The models have been developed by linking food chains which have both kinds of predators: specialist as well as generalist. The linking functions are weakly non-linear. The three dimensional model ecosystems have sexually reproducing top - predators. We perform extensive simulations to figure out dynamics of dynamical possibilities caused by changes in animal behavior. The animals change the foraging strategies and behave differently in different environments. At the end of the paper, we examine how diseases can govern transitions in meandering of dynamical models in bounded volume of their phase spaces.

  8. Macrobenthic species response surfaces along estuarine gradients: prediction by logistic regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P.; Herman, P.M.J.; Verbeek, H.

    2002-01-01

    This study aims at contributing to the development of statistical models to predict macrobenthic species response to environmental conditions in estuarine ecosystems. Ecological response surfaces are derived for 10 estuarine macrobenthic species. Logistic regression is applied on a large data set, p

  9. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, J Sean; Rhind, David; Green, Brian; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Clulow, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible. Confirming predator recovery requires longer-term study of populations with both baseline and immediate post-invasion densities. Previously, we quantified short-term impacts of invasive cane toads on animal communities over seven years at two sites in tropical Australia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that predators have begun to recover by repeating the study 12 yr after the initial toad invasion. The three predatory lizards that experienced 71-97% declines in the short-term study showed no sign of recovery, and indeed a worse fate: two of the three species were no longer detectable in 630 km of river surveys, suggesting local extirpation. Two mesopredators that had increased markedly in the short term due to these predator losses showed diverse responses in the medium term; a small lizard species increased by ~500%, while populations of a snake species showed little change. Our results indicate a system still in ecological turmoil, having not yet reached a "new equilibrium" more than a decade after the initial invasion; predator losses due to this toxic invasive species, and thus downstream effects, were not transient. Given that cane toads have proven too prolific to eradicate or control, we suggest that recovery of impacted predators must occur unassisted by evolutionary means: dispersal into extinction sites from

  10. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley J. Donham; Steven Wing; David Osterberg; Jan L. Flora; Carol Hodne; Kendall M. Thu; Peter S. Thome

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection...

  11. Macrobenthic Communities of the Dam Neck Disposal Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    PLATYHELMINTHES TURBELLARIA Turbellaria app. NEMERTEA Nemertea app. ANNELIDA : POLYCHAETA Amastigos caperatus Ewing and Dauer Aupharete arctica Malmgren...identified to species level (Oligochaeta, Nemertea and Cirratulidae) were excluded from this analysis. 22 FIGURE1 : Study Area showing Sampling Stations. A

  12. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

    2014-02-01

    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration.

  13. Patterns and trends of macrobenthic abundance, biomass and production in the deep Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Degen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution and dynamics of macrobenthic communities of the deep Arctic Ocean. The few previous studies report low standing stocks and confirm a gradient with declining biomass from the slopes down to the basins, as commonly reported for deep-sea benthos. In this study, we investigated regional differences of faunal abundance and biomass, and made for the first time ever estimates of deep Arctic community production by using a multi-parameter artificial neural network model. The underlying data set combines data from recent field studies with published and unpublished data from the past 20 years, to analyse the influence of water depth, geographical latitude and sea-ice concentration on Arctic benthic communities. We were able to confirm the previously described negative relationship of macrofauna standing stock with water depth in the Arctic deep sea, while also detecting substantial regional differences. Furthermore, abundance, biomass and production decreased significantly with increasing sea-ice extent (towards higher latitudes down to values <200 ind m−2, <65 mg C m−2 and <73 mg C m−2 y−1, respectively. In contrast, stations under the seasonal ice zone regime showed much higher standing stock and production (up to 2500 mg C m−2 y−1, even at depths down to 3700 m. We conclude that particle flux is the key factor structuring benthic communities in the deep Arctic Ocean as it explains both the low values in the ice-covered Arctic basins and the higher values in the seasonal ice zone.

  14. Is interspecific competition a major structuring force in animal communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the view that competition is the dominant ecological interaction was the prevailing one. Interspecific competition was widely regarded as a principal mechanism in determining community structure and organization and thus the distribution and abundance of species. The volume of literature that provides indirect evidence in favour of competition (observational approach greatly exceeds the number of studies that provide direct evidence (experimental approach. In part for this reason the importance of competition in community ecology is questioned by some ecologists. The strongest evidence for competition is derived from controlled field experiments which manipulate the abundancies of putative competitor species. It is stressed that to be able to study competition in the field and to test its theories, interaction coefficients have to be measured. In community studies the question should be asked how important competition, relative to other processes, is. A mechanistic perspective could be a powerful heuristic tool for community ecologists.

  15. Effects of fluvial discharges on meiobenthic and macrobenthic variability in the Vistula River prodelta (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Mazurkiewicz, Mikołaj; Jankowska, Emilia; Kotwicki, Lech; Damrat, Mateusz; Zajączkowski, Marek

    2016-05-01

    The role of environmental variability produced by river discharges in shaping the spatial and seasonal patterns of meiobenthic and macrobenthic communities was studied in the Vistula River (Baltic Sea) prodelta. Seven stations located in the delta front, the plume influence area and the distal zone of the prodelta were visited over the four seasons of 2012. Meiofauna, macrofauna, water (temperature, salinity, and suspended matter) and sediments (grain size, POC, TN, δ15N and δ13C and photosynthetic pigments) were analysed. The seasonal variations in the river discharges (with maximum flows in spring) resulted in a strong temporal variability in the studied environmental characteristics. In the benthic biota, the signals of seasonal variability, if present, were much weaker than spatial zonation. The benthic communities inhabiting the delta front where the main bulk of fluvial materials was deposited were taxonomically impoverished. The richest fauna dwelled within the plume influence area where the physical disturbance ceased and primary marine production was enhanced by river transported nutrients. In the distal zone outside the river influence, the fauna was dominated by deeper dwelling species, and the numbers of individuals and taxa decreased. Factors related to the riverine discharges (i.e., salinity, mineral suspension, POC and δ13C in the water and sediments) were identified as having high correlation with variability in the meiofaunal and macrofaunal community descriptors. Evidently, the interplay of food (i.e., the quantity and quality of organic matter) and disturbance (i.e., the deposition of river transported minerals) constraints shaped the patterns of benthic variability in the prodelta of the second largest river entering the Baltic Sea.

  16. Camera traps as sensor networks for monitoring animal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kays, R.W.; Kranstauber, B.; Jansen, P.A.; Carbone, C.; Rowcliffe, M.; Fountain, T.; Tilak, S.

    2009-01-01

    Studying animal movement and distribution is of critical importance to addressing environmental challenges including invasive species, infectious diseases, climate and land-use change. Motion sensitive camera traps offer a visual sensor to record the presence of a species at a location, recording th

  17. Camera Traps as Sensor Networks for Monitoring Animal Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kays, R.W.; Tilak, S.; Kranstauber, B.; Jansen, P.A.; Carbone, C.; Rowcliff, M.J.; Fountain, T.; Eggert, J.; He, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Studying animal movement and distribution is of critical importance to addressing environmental challenges including invasive species, infectious diseases, climate and land-use change. Motion sensitive camera traps offer a visual sensor to record the presence of a broad range of species providing lo

  18. Camera traps as sensor networks for monitoring animal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kays, R.W.; Kranstauber, B.; Jansen, P.A.; Carbone, C.; Rowcliffe, M.; Fountain, T.; Tilak, S.

    2009-01-01

    Studying animal movement and distribution is of critical importance to addressing environmental challenges including invasive species, infectious diseases, climate and land-use change. Motion sensitive camera traps offer a visual sensor to record the presence of a species at a location, recording th

  19. Species Diversity of Macro-benthic Invertebrates in Mangrove and Seagrass Ecosystems of Eastern Bohol, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marichu C. Libres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive survey method through actual resource assessment was conducted to determine the species diversity of macro-benthic invertebrates in the mangrove forest and seagrass beds of Eastern Bohol, Philippines namely: Anda, Candijay, Mabini, and Ubay. The 4 representative sites were chosen through random sampling. In each municipality, the researcher selected a representative area wherein 3 transects were laid perpendicular to the shoreline. The assessment in each transect covered a strip of 4 m by 50 m. All macro-benthic invertebrates intercepted within 4-meter to the left and right of the transect line were identified, counted and listed in a slate board. The data gathered were subjected to Shannon-Weiner Index and Kruskal Wallis Test. In mangrove forests, results revealed that Anda got the highest species diversity index of 1.66 with 11 species. The lowest value which is 1.15 was recorded in Candijay having only five macro-benthic invertebrate species. In the 4 municipalities, a total of 12 species representing 3 phyla were identified. In seagrass beds, 19 taxa of macro-benthic invertebrates were recorded belonging to three phyla. Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that macro-benthic invertebrates in eastern part of Bohol is diverse both in mangrove forests and seagrass beds. Moreover, there is no significant difference in the species diversity among the four representative sites.

  20. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David E.; Flemer, David A.; Bundrick, Charles M.

    1992-09-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in off-shore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. A series of 15·3 cm diameter cores of the seagrass-invertebrate community was collected from field sites for establishment and sampling of microcosms and in the sampling of field plots over time. Weekly exposures to drilling fluid were conducted in the laboratory microcosms at a mean total suspended matter concentration of 110·7 mg l -1 (± 17·7 SD), and in field plots by usage of acrylic exposure chambers at a mean concentration of 132·8 mg l -1 (±33·3 SD). Standing crop of T. testudinum was not affected by drilling fluid in the laboratory or field when measured after 6 and 12 week exposure periods. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

  1. Combined use of meio- and macrobenthic indices to assess complex chemical impacts on a stream ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne T.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Traunspurger, Walter; Höss, Sebastian; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2016-04-01

    habitats for overall ecosystem health, many biological indices tend only to reflect the ecological quality of surface water, rather than of the sedimentary zones where the accumulation of pollutants is often highest. To address this issue, we monitored meiobenthic (i.e. nematodes) and macrobenthic invertebrate communities along a pollution gradient in order to assess the impact of multiple stressors on a groundwater-fed stream, and thus quantify the link between chemical and ecological status. The studied stressors included point source pollutants originating from contaminated groundwater and aquaculture, and diffuse source pollutants originating from conventional agriculture and urban areas. The use of macrofauna is now well-accepted for assessing ecological integrity in aquatic ecosystems, but less is known about the application of meiofaunal community indicators. High abundance and ubiquitous distribution are two potential advantages for including meiofaunal indicators, and notably - for the case of groundwater-surface water interactions - they are particularly suitable for identifying changes in environmental conditions over smaller spatial scales. The results indicate a change in community composition for both meio- and macrobenthic fauna, pointing towards the presence of a local impact resulting from the discharging contaminated groundwater, which extends downstream along a dilution gradient of the groundwater contaminants. Ecological impacts could be linked to xenobiotic compounds coming from groundwater (both chlorinated solvents and pharmaceuticals), as well as the presence of trace metals of diffuse and/or biogenic origin.

  2. Application of macrobenthic diversity to estimate ecological health of artificial oyster reef in Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Weiwei; Huang, Youhui; Liu, Zhiquan; Yang, Yang; Fan, Bin; Zhao, Yunlong

    2016-02-15

    In this study, several macrobenthic diversity investigations were performed in Yangtze Estuary Oyster Reef, the largest artificial oyster reef in China, from 2012 to 2014. The sampling sites of the south branch showed considerably higher diversity than those of the north branch. The richness measures exhibited a significant increasing trend from low- to high-salinity zone; however, the evenness measures were typically high in the middle-salinity zone. During the past decade, the results were combined with historical data to detect the changes in macrobenthos. The variation in substrate organisms and macrobenthic diversity followed a steady trend after a major fluctuation. Redundancy analysis indicated that the water salinity and substrate factors were the main indicators that influence macrobenthic distribution. All sampling sites in the south branch were protected by a nature reserve. However, the N2 and N6 sites in the north branch were subjected to severe and mild human interventions, respectively.

  3. Participatory evaluation of delivery of animal health care services by community animal health workers in Karamoja region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeza, James; Kankya, Clovice; Muleme, James; Akandinda, Ann; Sserugga, Joseph; Nantima, Noelina; Okori, Edward; Odoch, Terence

    2017-01-01

    An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures. Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO) representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Key messages from interviews and the focus group discussion were recorded in a notebook and reported verbatim. 70% of the farmers revealed that CAHWs are the most readily available animal health care service providers in their respective villages. CAHWs were instrumental in treatment of sick animals, disease surveillance, control of external parasites, animal production, vaccination, reporting, animal identification, and performing minor surgeries. Regarding their overall performance 88.8%(191/215) of the farmers said they were impressed. The main challenges faced by the CAHWs were inadequate facilitation, lack of tools and equipments, unwillingness of government to integrate them into the formal extension system, poor information flow, limited technical capacity to diagnose diseases, unwillingness of farmers to pay for services and sustainability issues. CAHWs remain the main source of animal health care services in Karamoja region and their services are largely satisfactory. The technical deficits identified require continuous capacity building programs, close supervision and technical backstopping. For sustainability of animal health care services in the region continuous training and strategic deployment of paraprofessionals that are formally recognised by the traditional civil

  4. Contrasting macrobenthic activities differentially affect nematode density and diversity in a shallow subtidal marine sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; van Colen, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2011-01-01

    By bioturbating and bio-irrigating the sea floor, macrobenthic organisms transport organic matter and oxygen from the surface to deeper layers, thereby extending the habitat suitable for smaller infauna. Next to these engineering activities, competition, disturbance and predation may also affect the

  5. Detection of Zoonotic Enteropathogens in Children and Domestic Animals in a Semirural Community in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco, Karla; Graham, Jay P.; Trueba, GAbriel

    2016-01-01

    Animals are important reservoirs of zoonotic enteropathogens, and transmission to humans occurs more frequently in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where small-scale livestock production is common. In this study, we investigated the presence of zoonotic enteropathogens in stool samples from 64 asymptomatic children and 203 domestic animals of 62 households in a semirural community in Ecuador between June and August 2014. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess zoonotic t...

  6. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  7. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On

  8. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  9. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  10. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G/hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Sime, Abiot Girma; Deresa, Benti; Tafese, Wubit; Hajito, Kifle Weldemichael; Gemeda, Desta Hiko

    2016-01-01

    Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals. Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  11. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  12. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  13. Animal Research Practices and Doctoral Student Identity Development in a Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Karri

    2009-01-01

    This article examines doctoral student identity development in regard to engagement with research practices. Using animal research as a contextual lens, it considers how students develop an identity congruent to their perception of the community which facilitates their social and cognitive activities. The shared, interpretive understanding among…

  14. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  15. Microbiomes: unifying animal and plant systems through the lens of community ecology theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Natalie; Whitaker, Briana K.; Clay, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The field of microbiome research is arguably one of the fastest growing in biology. Bacteria feature prominently in studies on animal health, but fungi appear to be the more prominent functional symbionts for plants. Despite the similarities in the ecological organization and evolutionary importance of animal-bacterial and plant–fungal microbiomes, there is a general failure across disciplines to integrate the advances made in each system. Researchers studying bacterial symbionts in animals benefit from greater access to efficient sequencing pipelines and taxonomic reference databases, perhaps due to high medical and veterinary interest. However, researchers studying plant–fungal symbionts benefit from the relative tractability of fungi under laboratory conditions and ease of cultivation. Thus each system has strengths to offer, but both suffer from the lack of a common conceptual framework. We argue that community ecology best illuminates complex species interactions across space and time. In this synthesis we compare and contrast the animal-bacterial and plant–fungal microbiomes using six core theories in community ecology (i.e., succession, community assembly, metacommunities, multi-trophic interactions, disturbance, restoration). The examples and questions raised are meant to spark discussion amongst biologists and lead to the integration of these two systems, as well as more informative, manipulatory experiments on microbiomes research. PMID:26441846

  16. Microbiomes: unifying animal and plant systems through the lens of community ecology theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Natalie; Whitaker, Briana K; Clay, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The field of microbiome research is arguably one of the fastest growing in biology. Bacteria feature prominently in studies on animal health, but fungi appear to be the more prominent functional symbionts for plants. Despite the similarities in the ecological organization and evolutionary importance of animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes, there is a general failure across disciplines to integrate the advances made in each system. Researchers studying bacterial symbionts in animals benefit from greater access to efficient sequencing pipelines and taxonomic reference databases, perhaps due to high medical and veterinary interest. However, researchers studying plant-fungal symbionts benefit from the relative tractability of fungi under laboratory conditions and ease of cultivation. Thus each system has strengths to offer, but both suffer from the lack of a common conceptual framework. We argue that community ecology best illuminates complex species interactions across space and time. In this synthesis we compare and contrast the animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes using six core theories in community ecology (i.e., succession, community assembly, metacommunities, multi-trophic interactions, disturbance, restoration). The examples and questions raised are meant to spark discussion amongst biologists and lead to the integration of these two systems, as well as more informative, manipulatory experiments on microbiomes research.

  17. Microbiomes: unifying animal and plant systems through the lens of community ecology theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eChristian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of microbiome research is arguably one of the fastest growing in biology. Bacteria feature prominently in studies on animal health, but fungi appear to be the more prominent functional symbionts for plants. Despite the similarities in the ecological organization and evolutionary importance of animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes, there is a general failure across disciplines to integrate the advances made in each system. Researchers studying bacterial symbionts in animals benefit from greater access to efficient sequencing pipelines and taxonomic reference databases, perhaps due to high medical and veterinary interest. However, researchers studying plant-fungal symbionts benefit from the relative tractability of fungi under laboratory conditions and ease of cultivation. Thus each system has strengths to offer, but both suffer from the lack of a common conceptual framework. We argue that community ecology best illuminates complex species interactions across space and time. In this synthesis we compare and contrast the animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes using six core theories in community ecology (i.e., succession, community assembly, metacommunities, multi-trophic interactions, disturbance, restoration. The examples and questions raised are meant to spark discussion amongst biologists and lead to the integration of these two systems, as well as more informative, manipulatory experiments on microbiomes research.

  18. Attitudes toward companion animals among Hispanic residents of a Texas border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Jane E; Bader, Julia O

    2007-01-01

    The researchers surveyed 206 residents of a Hispanic community on the Texas-Mexico border about their behaviors and attitudes toward companion animals. Selected members of the community administered a telephone survey to a systematic random sample of 206 individuals. The majority of participants believed that free-roaming dogs were a problem in their community, and nearly 81% responded that these dogs sometimes prevented them from walking outdoors. About 24% of dog guardians sometimes let their nonhuman animals roam free in the streets. Most study participants believed it was a good idea to sterilize both male and female dogs and cats, but only 11% of respondents' dogs and 27% of cats were sterilized. About 62% of households chained dogs outdoors; persons with an elementary-level education were 7 times more likely to chain their dogs than those who had completed some high school. The Hispanic population of the United States is growing rapidly; to guide officials charged with protecting animal welfare and the public health, it will become increasingly important to understand Hispanics' attitudes and behaviors toward companion animals.

  19. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  20. Local community knowledge and participation for animal diversity conservation in SSWP IV Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Oktafitria, Dwi; Wirawan, Indra; Muttaqin, Zainul; Alfarisy, M. Ulya; Azis, Abdul; Argiyanti, Sherly Eka; Fadilah, Via Nur

    2017-06-01

    Key to animal biodiversity conservation are the local communities that live in and around these sites as their livelihoods depend on the natural resources these sites provide. SSWP (Sub Satuan Wilayah Pembangunan) IV Sidoarjo covers Krian, Balongbendo, Tarik, Prambon, and Wonoayu subdistrict with the main function as technical agricultural, industrial zones supported by the low density of settlement activity. Development in this region which tend not balanced between technical agricultural and industrial activities, it is necessary to study in depth so that rapid industrial development can still pay attention to the environment because there is a trend change in agricultural land use and settlements for industrial activities. Take a look at the projections of potential future threats and potential huge biodiversity in SSWP IV is necessary to do a program with a strategic approach to community support efforts to efficiently manage potential biodiversity. As well as the development and diversification of food security program in the region is an abundant source of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo and knowing how the knowledge and participation of local communities on biodiversity of animals in the region. The study was conducted in August-September 2016 through direct field surveys for collecting animal biodiversity primary data. It also conducted a structured interview to determine how much knowledge and participation of local communities towards the conservation of biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo. The results of field studies obtained 28 Aves species, 48 species of Insect, 14 species of Pisces, 4 species of Reptiles, 6 species of Mammals. It was known that there were a bird species with protected status in accordance with UU No. 5 1990 and least concern status in accordance with IUCN. While the results of the interview obtained 63% of 19 respondents did not know about the definition of

  1. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  2. Assessment of suitability of macrobenthic mollusc diversity to monitor water quality and shallow sediment quality in a tropical rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated wetland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Six sampling sites were selected to represent different land use types in the rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated areas of a recreational wetland in Sri Lanka to study the suitability of macrobenthic mollusc diversity to monitor spatial and temporal variation in physico-chemical parameters of water and shallow sediments. Individuals belonging to six families and eight species were recorded during the study. The significantly highest mean abundance (individuals of Bithynia tentaculata and Pila globosa were recorded in sites from the rehabilitated area and there was no significant temporal variation of mollusc abundance during the study.  The abundance and diversity of mollusc community showed significant spatial variations and this study identified that B. tentaculata and P. globosa can be used as possible bioindicators to detect changes in water and shallow sediment quality in tropical wetland ecosystems

  3. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musale, Amar S; Desai, Dattesh V

    2011-07-01

    Macrobenthic polychaetes play a significant role in marine benthic food chain. A study was carried out to observe the abundance and diversity of soft bottom macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast, along with observations on sediment characteristics. The present study indicated an increase in the polychaete diversity as compared to earlier reports. Sixty-three different forms of polychaetes were identified along the coast, which constitute the bulk of the macrobenthic fauna. Thirty-eight species of polychaetes showed higher abundance along the west coast, whereas 25 species showed higher abundance along the east coast. Seabed composition showed a spatial variation in its composition along the coast. Occurrence of Prionospio pinnata and Capitella capitata the deposit feeders and indicators of organic pollution suggesting the sampled area is organically rich. Polychaete abundance was found to be higher along the west coast and was attributed to loose texture of sediment due to high sand and sandy-silt resulting in higher interstitial space for organisms to harbor. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that majority of polychaete species preferred low organic carbon, sandy silt, or sandy-clay substratum. The lower polychaete abundance at high organic carbon and high silt and clay areas can be attributed to avoidance of organisms to rich organic matter and suboxic levels, being a possible indication that these characteristics adversely affects the polychaete abundance and distribution.

  4. Training in the laboratory animal science community: strategies to support adult learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Jackie; Stevens, James; Medina, Leticia V

    2007-01-01

    The essence of learning is change; learning is the process by which learners customize new information to make it personally meaningful and relevant. Training is the process of helping students make those changes. Research indicates that adults learn differently than children or adolescents and that adults consistently use the following six learning strategies: prior experiences; conversations; metacognition; reflection; authentic experiences; and images, pictures, or other types of visuals. Each of these learning strategies can be combined with the other strategies and often build upon each other. A recent study on how health care professionals learn indicated that the learning strategy they used most often was reflection, which supports learning before, during, and after training. Numerous examples are provided in this article describing how to integrate each of the six adult learning strategies into laboratory animal science training. While lectures and other types of direct instruction are appropriate, they are inadequate and ineffective unless they are integrated with and support adult learning strategies. Both the US Department of Agriculture regulations and the Public Health Service Policy mandate that research institutions must ensure that all personnel involved in animal care, treatment, or use are qualified to perform their duties. Applying adult learning strategies to training for the laboratory animal science community will enhance learning and improve both the science and the humane care of the animals, which is a goal our community must continuously strive to achieve.

  5. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of microbial community shifts in leachate from animal carcass burial lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Bomi; Cha, Seok Mun; Yu, Seungho

    2017-02-26

    This study examined the use of microbial community structure as a bio-indicator of decomposition levels. High-throughput pyrosequencing technology was used to assess the shift in microbial community of leachate from animal carcass lysimeter. The leachate samples were collected monthly for one year and a total of 164,639 pyrosequencing reads were obtained and used in the taxonomic classification and operational taxonomy units (OTUs) distribution analysis based on sequence similarity. Our results show considerable changes in the phylum-level bacterial composition, suggesting that the microbial community is a sensitive parameter affected by the burial environment. The phylum classification results showed that Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) were the most influential taxa in earlier decomposition stage whereas Firmicutes (Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, and Peptostreptococcus) were dominant in later stage under anaerobic conditions. The result of this study can provide useful information on a time series of leachate profiles of microbial community structures and suggest patterns of microbial diversity in livestock burial sites. In addition, this result can be applicable to predict the decomposition stages under clay loam based soil conditions of animal livestock.

  6. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sean Doody

    Full Text Available In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2, for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25 for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general.

  7. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  8. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna).

  9. Perceptions of zoonotic and animal diseases in the Van Gujjar community of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alice; Thrusfield, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Humans living in and around forest areas are at increased risk of zoonotic disease transmission. The transhumant Van Gujjars of North India are one such population, but there is an absence of health data, including evidence of zoonotic diseases, in this community. Pastoral communities can have a wide breadth of knowledge of livestock diseases, but not necessarily of human diseases. This study investigated the perceptions that the Van Gujjars have specifically of zoonotic diseases, using participatory epidemiological methods, including semi-structured interviews, ranking, proportional piling, transect walks and direct observation, triangulated by informal interviews with local veterinarians. The community did not have a wide appreciation of zoonotic diseases, apart from rabies and potentially zoonotic skin diseases. In contrast, animal diseases were of much greater concern to the community; the locally-named surra (trypanosomiasis), ajar, khuriya (foot-and-mouth disease), dakhutra, gheru, taku, and 'blood in urine' (possibly babesiosis), being of most concern. A participatory epidemiological approach was found to be an effective method of data collection and analysis; and the findings suggest that access to health services, particularly veterinary health services, should be improved for Van Gujjars.

  10. Temporal variability in the Abra alba community determined by global and local events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoey, V.H.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Macrobenthic communities in temperate, shallow coastal waters are characterised by strong seasonal and year-to-year variations in community characteristics. These temporal variations were investigated in the Abra alba community on the Belgian Continental Shelf over a period of nine years (1995 – 200

  11. How do macrobenthic resources concentrate foraging waders in large megatidal sandflats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsero, Alain; Sturbois, Anthony; Desroy, Nicolas; Le Mao, Patrick; Jones, Auriane; Fournier, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between foraging shorebirds, macrobenthos and sedimentary parameters has been widely studied across Western Europe. Megatidal areas have large zones uncovered when the water retreats. Consequently, in such cases, the tide also influences foraging activities. This paper examines the use of an intertidal space by waders to define how macrobenthic resource concentrates foraging activity of birds in a large megatidal sandflat. This approach combines accurate spatial distribution of waders (Oystercatcher, Eurasian curlew, Bar-tailed Godwit and Redknot) according to their activity with ecological/biological parameters. A differential exploitation of the flat is clearly shown, with macrobenthic biomass appearing as one of the main explanatory factor for the four species considered on the western part of the bay and altitude (shore elevation) in the eastern part. The novelty of this study relates to the large area, also presumed to be a functional unit, while considering at the same time the singularities of the different parts of the flat. This multi-scale approach identifies important factors influencing the differential distribution patterns observed. The different selected parameters present an important variability in their contribution, underlining the complexity of explaining the distribution of foraging birds. Consequently, the study of such complex phenomena needs to consider additional variables to improve the relevance of explanatory models.

  12. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-06-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  13. Notes on common macrobenthic reef invertebrates of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Beth S. Jontila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic reef invertebrates are important reef health indicators and fishery resources but are not very well documented in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park. To provide notes on the species composition and the abundance and size of commonly encountered macrobenthic reef invertebrates, belt transects survey in intertidal, shallow, and deep subtidal reef habitats were conducted. In total, 18 species were recorded, six of which were echinoderms and 12 were mollusks, which include the rare giant clam Hippopusporcellanus. Only the giant clam Tridacna crocea and the top shell Trochus niloticus occurred in all seven permanent monitoring sites but the two species varied in densities across depths. There was also an outbreak of crown-of-thorns (COTs sea stars in some sites. The large variation in the density of each species across sites and depths suggests niche differences, overharvesting, or their recovery fromhaving been overly exploited. Separate monitoring areas for each commercially important species are suggested to determine how their populations respond to poaching and their implications on the park’s long term management.

  14. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies.

  15. Applying a nutribusiness approach to increase animal source food consumption in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretzki, Audrey N; Mills, Edward W

    2003-11-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) in the diets of schoolchildren are beneficial for supporting optimal physical and cognitive development. Nevertheless, behavioral change and economic development are needed to increase and sustain adequate meat product consumption by schoolchildren in developing countries. A NutriBusiness enterprise may be one way for local communities to promote economic development while increasing the availability of meat for children. This work evaluates the feasibility of a NutriBusiness enterprise involving the production of rabbits and the manufacture of solar dried snack food. Some rabbits would be kept for home use, whereas others would be used in the manufacture of a rabbit-sweet potato dried snack food that could be fed to children or sold for income. The NutriBusiness enterprise would be composed of participants from the community contributing to a cooperative effort for setting up a manufacturing facility and organizing production, manufacturing and marketing functions. A unit operation for rabbit-sweet potato Chiparoos, based on full-capacity operation of a single solar drier would involve up to 110 shareholder families, each producing 240 rabbits/y with 120 used at home and 120 sold for Chiparoos manufacture. Participation in the enterprise would increase the availability to children of iron, zinc and vitamin B-12, and other nutrients, and provide approximately 350 dollars/y additional income for the family.

  16. Characterisation of the wildlife reservoir community for human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study was to characterise the nature of the reservoir community for trypanosomiasis in the absence of influence from domesticated hosts.A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley from 2005 to 2007. Samples were collected from 418 animals and were examined for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax using molecular diagnostic techniques. The overall prevalence of infection in all species was 13.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.71-17.57%. Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus (Odds ratio [OR]=10.5, 95% CI: 2.36-46.71, lion (Panthera leo (OR=5.3, 95% CI: 1.40-19.69, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros (OR=4.7, 95% CI: 1.41-15.41 and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.51-13.56. Bushbucks are important hosts for T. brucei s.l. while the Bovidae appear the most important for T. congolense. The epidemiology of T. vivax was less clear, but parasites were detected most frequently in waterbuck. Human infective T. b. rhodesiense were identified for the first time in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer and T. brucei s.l. in leopard (Panthera pardus. Variation in infection rates was demonstrated at species level rather than at family or sub-family level. A number of significant risk factors interact to influence infection rates in wildlife including taxonomy, habitat and blood meal preference.Trypanosoma parasites circulate within a wide and diverse host community in this bio

  17. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  18. Technical specifications for monitoring Community trends in zoonotic agents in foodstuffs and animal populations on request from EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Chriél, Mariann; Korsgaard, Helle

    Technical specifications are proposed for the monitoring of temporal trends in zoonotic agents in animal and food populations at Community or Member State group level in the framework of Directive 2003/99/EC. Two types of trend monitoring are identified: trend watching, which covers general obser...

  19. Soil-foraging animals alter the composition and co-occurrence of microbial communities in a desert shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, David J; Woodhouse, Jason N; Curlevski, Nathalie J A; Hayward, Matthew; Brown, Mark V; Neilan, Brett A

    2015-12-01

    Animals that modify their physical environment by foraging in the soil can have dramatic effects on ecosystem functions and processes. We compared bacterial and fungal communities in the foraging pits created by bilbies and burrowing bettongs with undisturbed surface soils dominated by biocrusts. Bacterial communities were characterized by Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and fungal communities by Lecanoromycetes and Archaeosporomycetes. The composition of bacterial or fungal communities was not observed to vary between loamy or sandy soils. There were no differences in richness of either bacterial or fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the soil of young or old foraging pits, or undisturbed soils. Although the bacterial assemblage did not vary among the three microsites, the composition of fungi in undisturbed soils was significantly different from that in old or young foraging pits. Network analysis indicated that a greater number of correlations between bacterial OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils and old pits, whereas a greater number of correlations between fungal OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils. Our study suggests that digging by soil-disturbing animals is likely to create successional shifts in soil microbial and fungal communities, leading to functional shifts associated with the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Given the primacy of organic matter decomposition in arid and semi-arid environments, the loss of native soil-foraging animals is likely to impair the ability of these systems to maintain key ecosystem processes such as the mineralization of nitrogen and the breakdown of organic matter, and to recover from disturbance.

  20. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf.

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites....../148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study...

  2. Impacts by heavy-oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka on intertidal ecosystems: recovery of animal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Kawai, Hiroshi; Ohwada, Kouichi

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a heavy-oil spill from the Nakhodka on an intertidal animal community, and the recovery process of animals from the damage were surveyed from the autumn of 1997 to the spring of 2001. The field study was carried out in the rocky coast of Imago-Ura Cove, located along the Sea of Japan, where clean-up operations for oil pollution had been conducted less intensely than in other polluted areas. We have examined individual number of each animal taxon by continuously placing a quadrat of 5 m width along the entire intertidal zone of the cove. A total of 76 invertebrate taxa including 57 species of mollusks, 10 species of crustaceans were observed during the survey. The number of taxa increased from 1998 to 1999 in areas where the initial oil pollution was intense. Total individual number of benthic animals continued to increase from 1998 to 2000 in the polluted areas. The impact of oil on benthic animals was different from species to species. Some species such as Cellana toreuma and Monodonta labio confusa increased rapidly after the oil spill, whereas other species such as Patelloida saccharina lanx and Septifer virgatus did not show any apparent temporal tendencies. Population size structure of P. saccharina lanx varied greatly among years, however that of M. labio confusa did not. For P. saccharina lanx, recruitment was unsuccessful in 1997, possibly due to the effect of oil pollution. These differences in responses to oil pollution among benthic animals are considered to be caused by the differences in habitat use, susceptibility to heavy-oil, life history and migration ability. The findings suggest that it took at least 2-3 years for the intertidal animal community to recover to its original level after the oil spill.

  3. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing biological invasions, we investigated the invasion of the non-native polychaete Marenzelleria viridis in a shallow Danish estuary, Odense Fjord. Three datasets with different spatial and temporal resolution were examined to describe the invasion of M. viridis and to i...

  4. Infaunal macrobenthic community of soft bottom sediment in a tropical shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaraj, K.A.; Jacob, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    * Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Depth 30–50 m 75–100 m H11022 100m Mean density (ind./m 2 ) 2021 396 257 SD 1739 334 263 Prionospio pinnata p. pinn 478 30 23 P. cirrifera p. cirr 57 0 0 P. sexoculata p. sex 52 0 0 P. polybranchiata p. poly 31 0 0 P. ehlersi...

  5. Environmental gradient favours functionally diverse macrobenthic community in a placer rich tropical bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.; Fernandes, C.E.G.

    (GR), omnivore (O), and carnivore (C). Mobility categories included: mobile (M), discretely mobile (D), and sessile (S). Five categories of habit type were classified free living, that is, living on surface or actively burrowing (F), tubiculous (T... Polychaeta Ancistrosyllis sp. 0–25 C M F Microphthalmus sp. 0–1,100 GR M F Hesione sp. 0–50 O M F Exogone sp. 25–75 GR M F Odontosyllis sp. 0–50 C M F Nereis sp. 25–75 O D T Perinereis sp. 0–25 O D T Eteone sp. 50–1,025 O M F Phyllodoce sp. 50–650 O M F...

  6. Potential impact of sand mining on macrobenthic community at Kalbadevi Beach, Ratnagiri, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Sautye, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    removal of sediment. However, the macro faunal parameters returned to the pre-disturbances values within a period of two months after disturbances, suggesting short-term impact of physical disturbances....

  7. Impact of maintenance dredging on macrobenthic community structure of a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rehitha, T.V.; Ullas, N.; Vineetha, G.; Benny, P.Y.; Madhu, N.V.; Revichandran, C.

    quality showed relatively higher values (>0.24), which indicates the prevalence of poor environmental conditions in the dredging locations. The present study reveals the extent of impacts associated with maintenance dredging activities in a tropical...

  8. SAMPLING ADAPTIVE STRATEGY AND SPATIAL ORGANISATION ESTIMATION OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AT VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF URBANISED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljuk J.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In work the algorithm of adaptive strategy of optimum spatial sampling for studying of the spatial organisation of communities of soil animals in the conditions of an urbanization have been presented. As operating variables the principal components obtained as a result of the analysis of the field data on soil penetration resistance, soils electrical conductivity and density of a forest stand, collected on a quasiregular grid have been used. The locations of experimental polygons have been stated by means of program ESAP. The sampling has been made on a regular grid within experimental polygons. The biogeocoenological estimation of experimental polygons have been made on a basis of A.L.Belgard's ecomorphic analysis. The spatial configuration of biogeocoenosis types has been established on the basis of the data of earth remote sensing and the analysis of digital elevation model. The algorithm was suggested which allows to reveal the spatial organisation of soil animal communities at investigated point, biogeocoenosis, and landscape.

  9. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  10. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  11. Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations in the southern Chilean glacial fjord complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ríos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic associations were investigated at 29 sampling stations with a semi-quantitative Agassiz trawl, ranging from the South Patagonian Icefield to the Straits of Magellan in the South Chilean fjord system. A total of 1,895 individuals belonging to 131 species were collected. 19 species belong to colonial organisms, mainly Bryozoa (17 species and Octocorallia (2 species. The phylum Echinodermata was the most diverse in species number (47 species, with asteroids (25 species and ophiuroids (13 species being the best represented within this taxon. Polychaeta was the second dominant group in terms of species richness (46 species. Multidimensional scaling ordination (MDS separated two station groups, one related to fjords and channels off the South Patagonian Icefield and the second one to stations surrounding the Straits of Magellan. 45 species account for 90% of the dissimilarity between these two groups. These differences can mainly be explained by the influence of local environmental conditions determined by processes closely related to the presence/absence of glaciers. Abiotic parameters such as water depth, type of sediment and chemical features of the superficial sediment were not correlated with the numbers of individuals caught by the Agassiz trawl in each group of sampling stations.

  12. The consequences of reservoir host eradication on disease epidemiology in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shorbaji, Farah; Roche, Benjamin; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Britton, Robert; Andreou, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    Non-native species have often been linked with introduction of novel pathogens that spill over into native communities, and the amplification of the prevalence of native parasites. In the case of introduced generalist pathogens, their disease epidemiology in the extant communities remains poorly understood. Here, Sphaerothecum destruens, a generalist fungal-like fish pathogen with bi-modal transmission (direct and environmental) was used to characterise the biological drivers responsible for disease emergence in temperate fish communities. A range of biotic factors relating to both the pathogen and the surrounding host communities were used in a novel susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model to test how these factors affected disease epidemiology. These included: (i) pathogen prevalence in an introduced reservoir host (Pseudorasbora parva); (ii) the impact of reservoir host eradication and its timing and (iii) the density of potential hosts in surrounding communities and their connectedness. These were modelled across 23 combinations and indicated that the spill-over of pathogen propagules via environmental transmission resulted in rapid establishment in adjacent fish communities (<1 year). Although disease dynamics were initially driven by environmental transmission in these communities, once sufficient numbers of native hosts were infected, the disease dynamics were driven by intra-species transmission. Subsequent eradication of the introduced host, irrespective of its timing (after one, two or three years), had limited impact on the long-term disease dynamics among local fish communities. These outputs reinforced the importance of rapid detection and eradication of non-native species, in particular when such species are identified as healthy reservoirs of a generalist pathogen. PMID:27165562

  13. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  14. Abundance and energy requirements of eiders (Somateria spp.) suggest high predation pressure on macrobenthic fauna in a key wintering habitat in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Martin Emil; Rasmussen, Lars Maltha; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2011-01-01

    , remains unstudied. In this study, we describe prey availability and assess the trophic coupling between eiders and their macrobenthic prey in a shallow inlet, Nipisat Sound; a key wintering habitat in the southwest Greenland Open Water Area. Macrobenthic species abundance and biomass were studied...... on physiological costs of different activities in combination with the observed behavioural pattern, we obtained an estimate of the energy required for eiders to balance their costs of living, which amounted to 58% of the estimated total annual production of macrobenthos in Nipisat Sound. This result suggests...

  15. Animal Rights and Human Growth: Intellectual Courage and Extending the Moral Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Bradley D.

    2009-01-01

    While the ethical dimension of human-animal relationships has become a legitimate, rich subject for contemporary moral philosophers, scholars of moral education, and to a large extent, philosophers of education, have remained surprisingly silent on this subject. The primary purpose of this essay is to illustrate the relationship between the moral…

  16. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  17. Natural mixing of species: novel plant–animal communities on Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; T.A. Carlo; Jr. Wunderle

    2012-01-01

    Global anthropogenic activities are responsible for the modification of landscapes, creation of novel environments and movement of species across biogeographic regions. A consequence of this activity is the mixing of native and introduced species and the formation of novel biotic communities. We review the ecological consequences of the mixing of native and introduced...

  18. Hemiparasitic plant impacts animal and plant communities across four trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, S E; Green, P; Massey, F P; Press, M C P; Stewart, J A; John, E A

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the impact of species on community structure is a fundamental question in ecology. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that both subdominant species and parasites can have disproportionately large effects on other organisms. Here we report those impacts for a species that is both subdominant and parasitic, the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor. While the impact of parasitic angiosperms on their hosts and, to a lesser degree, coexisting plant species, has been well characterized, much less is known about their effects on higher trophic levels: We experimentally manipulated field densities of the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor in a species-rich grassland, comparing the plant and invertebrate communities in plots where it was removed, present at natural densities, or present at enhanced densities. Plots with natural and enhanced densities of R. minor had lower plant biomass than plots without the hemiparasite, but enhanced densities almost doubled the abundance of invertebrates within the plots across all trophic levels, with effects evident in herbivores, predators, and detritivores. The hemiparasite R. minor, despite being a subdominant and transient component within plant communities that it inhabits, has profound effects on four different trophic levels. These effects persist beyond the life of the hemiparasite, emphasizing its role as a keystone species in grassland communities.

  19. Effects of habitat complexity on the structure of macrobenthic association in a Spartina altemiflora marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurea Nicoletti Flynn

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and seasonal variability of macrobenthic associations in four different patches on a Sportillo alterniflora bed at Arrozal Point, Cananéia, São Paulo State are described and compared. In the local intertidal marsh, densities of S. oltemifloro plants appear in sparsely or denscly arranged patches, both in tall and short forms. The infaunal polychaetes Copitella copitata, Isolda pulchella, Laconereis acuta accounted for 44.0% of the total individuals while epifaunal forms such as Helcobia australis, Littorina ollngulifera, Tholozidium rhombofrotalis and Sphoeromopsis mourei were the second most abundant components with 39.5%. Classilication analyses of sampling time in the same sampling patch indicated that species groups were formed basically by spatial similarity and peak densities of macrofauna and secondarily by temporal patterns. Temporal variations were evident with higher number of species in eolder months (winter and spring. Species diversity and evenness did not show clear seasonal pattcrns, although they were sigmlicantly different in sampling patchcs and time. Heleobia australis, Littorina agulifera and Anomalocardia brasilienses were dominant in tall sparse S. alterniflora with density pcaks occurring in winter/spring pcriods. Tholozodium rhombofrontalis and Sphoeromopsis mourei; were dominant in short sparse S. olterniflora with density peaks in summer. In tall, densely distributed S. altemiflora plants the higher densities occurred in winter and the dominant spccies were Nereis oligohoalina, Isolda pulchella and Copitella capitata. The species H. australis, L ongulifera and A. brasiliensis predominated in the short S. alterniflora plants denscly distributed, with faunistic peaks recorded in spring. The results suggcst that differenccs in form and aggregation of S. alternifloraimpart changes in the structure of macrobenthic fauna associated to this vegetation.A estrutura e variação temporal de associações macrobent

  20. Monitoring wild animal communities with arrays of motion sensitive camera traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kays, Roland; Kranstauber, Bart; Jansen, Patrick A; Carbone, Chris; Rowcliffe, Marcus J; Fountain, Tony; Eggert, Jay; He, Zhihai

    2010-01-01

    Studying animal movement and distribution is of critical importance to addressing environmental challenges including invasive species, infectious diseases, climate and land-use change. Motion sensitive camera traps offer a visual sensor to record the presence of a broad range of species providing location -specific information on movement and behavior. Modern digital camera traps that record video present new analytical opportunities, but also new data management challenges. This paper describes our experience with a terrestrial animal monitoring system at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Our camera network captured the spatio-temporal dynamics of terrestrial bird and mammal activity at the site - data relevant to immediate science questions, and long-term conservation issues. We believe that the experience gained and lessons learned during our year long deployment and testing of the camera traps as well as the developed solutions are applicable to broader sensor network applications and are valuable for the ad...

  1. Bottom dwelling animals: Benthos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stress or aquatic pollution and some of the macrobenthic invertebrates are widely used in 'biomonitoring programmes' both as surveillance and compliance in order to assess the health of environment....

  2. Emerging technologies in education and training: applications for the laboratory animal science community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Niemi, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several new and exciting communication technologies. Many of the technologies were developed by the entertainment industry; however, other industries are adopting and modifying them for their own needs. These new technologies allow people to collaborate across distance and time and to learn in simulated work contexts. The article explores the potential utility of these technologies for advancing laboratory animal care and use through better education and training. Descriptions include emerging technologies such as augmented reality and multi-user virtual environments, which offer new approaches with different capabilities. Augmented reality interfaces, characterized by the use of handheld computers to infuse the virtual world into the real one, result in deeply immersive simulations. In these simulations, users can access virtual resources and communicate with real and virtual participants. Multi-user virtual environments enable multiple participants to simultaneously access computer-based three-dimensional virtual spaces, called "worlds," and to interact with digital tools. They allow for authentic experiences that promote collaboration, mentoring, and communication. Because individuals may learn or train differently, it is advantageous to combine the capabilities of these technologies and applications with more traditional methods to increase the number of students who are served by using current methods alone. The use of these technologies in animal care and use programs can create detailed training and education environments that allow students to learn the procedures more effectively, teachers to assess their progress more objectively, and researchers to gain insights into animal care.

  3. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel J. Awosanya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5% were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70% who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7% engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42 had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%; ectoparasites (81% and vaccination against diseases (73.8%. Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1% have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3% was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%, the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04 with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. Conclusion: The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza.

  4. Land use imperils plant and animal community stability through changes in asynchrony rather than diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüthgen, Nico; Simons, Nadja K; Jung, Kirsten; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C; Boch, Steffen; Fischer, Markus; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Tschapka, Marco; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Human land use may detrimentally affect biodiversity, yet long-term stability of species communities is vital for maintaining ecosystem functioning. Community stability can be achieved by higher species diversity (portfolio effect), higher asynchrony across species (insurance hypothesis) and higher abundance of populations. However, the relative importance of these stabilizing pathways and whether they interact with land use in real-world ecosystems is unknown. We monitored inter-annual fluctuations of 2,671 plant, arthropod, bird and bat species in 300 sites from three regions. Arthropods show 2.0-fold and birds 3.7-fold higher community fluctuations in grasslands than in forests, suggesting a negative impact of forest conversion. Land-use intensity in forests has a negative net impact on stability of bats and in grasslands on birds. Our findings demonstrate that asynchrony across species--much more than species diversity alone--is the main driver of variation in stability across sites and requires more attention in sustainable management.

  5. Land use imperils plant and animal community stability through changes in asynchrony rather than diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüthgen, Nico; Simons, Nadja K.; Jung, Kirsten; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C.; Boch, Steffen; Fischer, Markus; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H.; Kleinebecker, Till; Tschapka, Marco; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Gossner, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Human land use may detrimentally affect biodiversity, yet long-term stability of species communities is vital for maintaining ecosystem functioning. Community stability can be achieved by higher species diversity (portfolio effect), higher asynchrony across species (insurance hypothesis) and higher abundance of populations. However, the relative importance of these stabilizing pathways and whether they interact with land use in real-world ecosystems is unknown. We monitored inter-annual fluctuations of 2,671 plant, arthropod, bird and bat species in 300 sites from three regions. Arthropods show 2.0-fold and birds 3.7-fold higher community fluctuations in grasslands than in forests, suggesting a negative impact of forest conversion. Land-use intensity in forests has a negative net impact on stability of bats and in grasslands on birds. Our findings demonstrate that asynchrony across species—much more than species diversity alone—is the main driver of variation in stability across sites and requires more attention in sustainable management. PMID:26869180

  6. Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; McKinnon, Jessica; Wyrsch, Ethan; Hammond, Jeffrey M; Charles, Ian G; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a "Golden Age" in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. Now, however, we face the worldwide threat of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all existing major classes of antibiotic, reflecting the possibility of an end to the antibiotic era. The seriousness of the threat is underscored by the severely limited production of new classes of antibiotics. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of multiple drug resistant genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health, aquaculture and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how lateral gene transfer (LGT), driven by the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry, has likely played a significant role in the evolution of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria and has complicated molecular surveillance strategies adopted for predicting imminent resistance threats.

  7. Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piklu eRoy Chowdhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a ‘Golden Age’ in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. While the ‘Golden Age’ featured the rapid discovery of a series of new classes of antibiotics, the current discovery/development pipeline has been less productive. We are now faced with the threat of diseases mediated by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all major classes of antibiotic. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Multiple drug resistant (MDR bacteria are found worldwide and are possibly signalling the end of the antibiotic era. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of MDR genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how surveillance strategies are important for our understanding of the possible relationship between the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry and evolution of MDR in Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Disturbance regimes, resilience, and recovery of animal communities and habitats in lotic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reice, Seth R.; Wissmar, Robert C.; Naiman, Robert J.

    1990-09-01

    Disturbance regime is a critical organizing feature of stream communities and ecosystems. The position of a given reach in the river basin and the sediment type within that reach are two key determinants of the frequency and intensity of flow-induced disturbances. We distinguish between predictable and unpredictable events and suggest that predictable discharge events are not disturbances. We relate the dynamics of recovery from disturbance (i.e., resilience) to disturbance regime (i.e., the disturbance history of the site). The most frequently and predictably disturbed sites can be expected to demonstrate the highest resilience. Spatial scale is an important dimension of community structure, dynamics, and recovery from disturbance. We compare the effects on small patches (⩽1 m2) to the effects of large reaches at the river basin level. At small scales, sediment movements and scour are major factors affecting the distribution of populations of aquatic insects or algae. At larger scales, we must deal with channel formation, bank erosion, and interactions with the riparian zone that will affect all taxa and processes. Our understanding of stream ecosystem recovery rests on our grasp of the historical, spatial, and temporal background of contemporary disturbance events.

  9. Molecular survey of Blastocystis sp. from humans and associated animals in an Indonesian community with poor hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Tokoro, Masaharu; Nagamoto, Takehiro; Arayama, Shunsuke; Asih, Puji B S; Rozi, Ismail E; Syafruddin, Din

    2016-12-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common parasite found in human and animal fecal samples. Currently, human Blastocystis isolates are classified into nine subtypes (STs) based on the phylogeny of their small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNAs). Since eight of the nine STs, except for ST9, have been reported in both humans and animals, these parasites are considered to be potentially zoonotic STs. To evaluate whether zoonotic transmissions play a main role in the lifecycle of Blastocystis, STs derived from humans, domestic pigs, domestic chickens, and wild rodents in a community with poor hygiene in Sumba Island, Indonesia were surveyed. Although fecal cross-contaminations between humans and animals were likely common at the investigation site, the confirmed major Blastocystis STs, which were detected as intense bands on gels following PCR targeting of the SSU rDNA, were different in each host species. STs 1-3 were found in resident children, while ST5, ST7, and ST4 were found in domestic pigs and chickens, and in wild rodents, respectively. Faint bands of STs 1, 2, and 7 were detected in samples from pigs, while no minor STs were observed in samples from the other host species. The distinct distributions of the major STs among the host animals examined, including humans, indicate host specificity in the lifecycle of Blastocystis. Considering the coprophagous nature of pigs, the presence of minor STs observed only in pigs could be explained by the mechanical passage of contaminated fecal materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A bio-engineered soft-bottom environment: The impact of Lanice conchilega on the benthic species-specific densities and community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaut, M.; Guilini, K.; Van Hoey, V.H.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of the tube-building, habitat structuring polychaete Lanice conchilega on the macrobenthic community and sediment characteristics of its habitat. To investigate which factors make species occur in a well-known bio-engineered habitat, macrofaunal and sedimentological d

  11. Oxygen limitations on marine animal distributions and the collapse of epibenthic community structure during shoaling hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jackson W F; Tunnicliffe, Verena

    2015-08-01

    Deoxygenation in the global ocean is predicted to induce ecosystem-wide changes. Analysis of multidecadal oxygen time-series projects the northeast Pacific to be a current and future hot spot of oxygen loss. However, the response of marine communities to deoxygenation is unresolved due to the lack of applicable data on component species. We repeated the same benthic transect (n = 10, between 45 and 190 m depths) over 8 years in a seasonally hypoxic fjord using remotely operated vehicles equipped with oxygen sensors to establish the lower oxygen levels at which 26 common epibenthic species can occur in the wild. By timing our surveys to shoaling hypoxia events, we show that fish and crustacean populations persist even in severe hypoxia (deoxygenation on marine biodiversity.

  12. The association between proximity to animal feeding operations and community health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M O'Connor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs and the health of individuals living near AFOs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.

  13. 我国海洋大型底栖生物多样性研究及展望:以黄海为例%An overview of studies on marine macrobenthic biodiversity from Chinese waters: principally from the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新正

    2011-01-01

    The progress on the studies of marine macrobenthic biodiversity from Chinese waters with a focus on the Yellow Sea is summarized in the present paper, with discussions of achievements in the fields of species composition, individual consistency, biomass, biodiversity, secondary productivity, macrobenthic community energy levels, and the introductions of research methods, impacts of environmental change and pollution. To date, Jiaozhou Bay, Changjiang Estuary, and the Fujian and Zhejiang coastal zones are the most intensively studied regions. The seminal research projects on macrobenthic ecology and biodiversity within the study region are also listed. In conclusion of the studies of macrobenthic ecology and biodiversity in China seas, the macrobenthic fauna from the Bohai Bay is the most simple. A total of 413 macrobenthic species have been found in this gulf, the common or dominant species are usually the hypothermal, euryhalinous warm water species; the annual mean biomass is 19.83 g/m2, the Mollusca is the main contributing group to the biomass; the annual mean density is 474 inds./m2, the Polychaeta and Mollusca are the two main contributing groups to the density. In the Yellow Sea, 853 macrobenthic species have been found. The common or dominant species are stenohaline warm water species; the annual mean biomass from the northern Yellow Sea is 99.66 g/m2, the Echinodermata is the main contributing group to the biomass, the annual mean biomass from the southern Yellow Sea is 27.69 g/m2, which is much lower than that from the northern Yellow Sea, the Polychaeta is the main contributor; the annual mean density from the northern Yellow Sea is 2,017.40 inds./m2, that from the southern Yellow Sea is only 88.67 inds./m2. In fact, the mean density and biomass from the northern Yellow Sea is much higher than those from other areas in China seas; the annual mean secondary productivity from the southern Yellow Sea is 4.98 g(APDW)/m2, the two high areas of secondary

  14. Compound ion salt, a novel low-sodium salt substitute: from animal study to community-based population trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jun-Xiang; Shi, Rui; Yang, Ning; Song, Dong-Lin; Pang, Wei; Li, Yu-Ming

    2009-09-01

    Salt restriction, an important approach for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension, is undermined by unsatisfactory adherence. A salt-restriction study tested the efficacy and safety of a compound ion salt (CISalt) with low sodium content in an animal model and in a community-based population. In part 1, 8-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were fed 1% CISalt in the study group and 8% or 1% normal salt (NSalt) in controls (n = 10 each) for 12 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and urinary electrolytes were measured every 3 weeks. After 12 weeks, collagen deposition in the heart and kidney and the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and renal cortex were measured. In part 2, a single-blind, randomized, 6-month controlled trial with CISalt was conducted in 248 persons (age >or=65 years) in 10 rural communities. Plasma renin activity and Ang II were included in blood and urinary measures at baseline and 6 months. Reduced BP urinary protein excretion and reduced collagen in the heart and kidneys were significantly different in animals fed CISalt compared to controls. In human studies, at 6 months, mean systolic BP (SBP) was decreased by 9.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.1 to 6.1, P < 0.001) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 7.9 to 2.6, P < 0.001), respectively, compared to controls; urinary sodium excretion also decreased by 67.4 mmol/24 h (95% CI: 84.8 to 50.0, P < 0.001), and plasma renin activity was slightly increased by 0.19 ng/ml/h (95% CI: 0.04-0.33, P = 0.013). No adverse cardiovascular events were reported. In these studies, CISalt lowered BP and showed end-organ protection in hypertensive animals and BP reduction in humans. CISalt appears to be a safe and acceptable strategy to reduce BP.

  15. Soil animal communities at five succession stages in the litter of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lan; You Wenhui; Song Yongchang

    2006-01-01

    Soil animals are abundant in forest litter layer,but little attention has been Paid to the vertical distribution of community structure of soil animals in the layers at different plant community succession stages.The forest litter layer can be divided into fresh litter layer(L),fermentation layer(F)and humus layer(H),which may represent different litter decomposition stages.The aim of the study is to ascertain the vertical distribution features of soil animal communities among the three litter layers and the change in the succession process of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF)in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,China.Soil animal communities in the five plant communities at different succession stages were investigated during the 2003 winter.Soil animals,which were collected by using Tullgren funnels,amounted to a total of 13381 individuals falling into 2 phyla,8 classes and 20 orders.The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola,accounting for 94.24% of the total individuals,with the number of Acarina individuals 7.66 times than that of Collembola.The common group was Diptera.The results indicated that there was a distinctive vertical distribution of the soil animal communities in the forest litter laver,but it differed from that in soil below the litter layer.In contrast to those in the soil,the soil animals in the litter layer generally tended to increase in both group abundance and density from the top fresh litter layer to the bottom humus layer.Altogether 19 groups and 59.03% of total individuals were found in the bottom layer,while only 8 groups and 5.35% of the total individuals in the top.Moreover,there were some variations in the distribution of the soil animals at different plant succession stages.85.19% of Homoptera and 100% of Symphyla were found in the litter layer at the climax succession stage.while 75.61% of Thysanoptera at the intermediate succession stage.Therefore,these groups might be seen as indicative groups.The total numbers of soil animal

  16. Loss and self-restoration of macrobenthic diversity in reclamation habitats of estuarine islands in Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Weiwei; Liu, Zhiquan; Yang, Yang; Huang, Youhui; Fan, Bin; Jiang, Qichen; Zhao, Yunlong

    2016-02-15

    In this study, macrobenthic diversity data were collected from intertidal habitats of island wetlands in Yangtze Estuary before and after reclamation. Three survey regions based on habitat features were investigated: protected region, normal region, and self-restored region. The pattern of diversity variation showed a sharp decrease in reclamation sites and an obvious increase in vegetated sites of the self-restored region before and after reclamation. A declining trend in habitat health was observed in reclamation sites, but the degree of perturbation was relatively weaker in protected region than in normal region. The vegetated site showed a better self-restoration of biodiversity than the bald site. These results suggest that reclamation may have a negative influence on biodiversity and habitat health status in the intertidal wetland. Also, there is a possibility of self-restoration in tidal flats disturbed by reclamation and the resistance effect in nature reserve may reduce the disturbances resulting from reclamation.

  17. Temporal variability of biodiversity patterns and trophic structure of estuarine macrobenthic assemblages along a gradient of metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piló, D.; Pereira, F.; Carriço, A.; Cúrdia, J.; Pereira, P.; Gaspar, M. B.; Carvalho, S.

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of macrobenthic assemblages along a gradient of metal contamination using a combination of uni- and multivariate methods focusing on their composition, structure and function. A total of six sites were established based on a preliminary survey, which identified three areas with different levels of contamination. These areas were defined as slightly contaminated (SC), moderately contaminated (MC) and highly contaminated (HC). Each area comprised two sites, sampled in four sampling surveys (September 2012, February, May and October of 2013). To investigate the response of the macrobenthic assemblages the number of individuals (N), number of taxa (S), Shannon-Weaver diversity (H‧), Pielou's equitability (J‧) and different distance-based multivariate measures of β-diversity (complementarity) were analysed. β-diversity as turnover was also analysed together with spatial and temporal changes in the trophic structure. A clear gradient of increasing contamination was consistently detected, but comparisons with available sediment quality guidelines indicated that adverse biological effects may be expected in all areas. This result suggests measuring concentrations of contaminants in the sediment per se may be insufficient to establish a clear link between ecological patterns and the contamination of the system. Also it highlights the difficulty of identifying reference areas in highly urbanized and industrialized estuaries. Only multivariate analysis (dbRDA; both using the taxonomic and trophic composition) and β-diversity as turnover showed a consistent response to metal contamination. Higher heterogeneity, mainly due to contribution of rare species (i.e. species present in a single sampling period), was observed in the least contaminated area (SC), decreasing towards the HC. In terms of the trophic function, a shift from a dominance of carnivores in the SC to the dominance of deposit-feeding organisms (and

  18. Temporal variability of biodiversity patterns and trophic structure of estuarine macrobenthic assemblages along a gradient of metal contamination

    KAUST Repository

    Piló, D.

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of macrobenthic assemblages along a gradient of metal contamination using a combination of uni- and multivariate methods focusing on their composition, structure and function. A total of six sites were established based on a preliminary survey, which identified three areas with different levels of contamination. These areas were defined as slightly contaminated (SC), moderately contaminated (MC) and highly contaminated (HC). Each area comprised two sites, sampled in four sampling surveys (September 2012, February, May and October of 2013). To investigate the response of the macrobenthic assemblages the number of individuals (N), number of taxa (S), Shannon-Weaver diversity (H\\'), Pielou\\'s equitability (J\\') and different distance-based multivariate measures of β-diversity (complementarity) were analysed. β-diversity as turnover was also analysed together with spatial and temporal changes in the trophic structure. A clear gradient of increasing contamination was consistently detected, but comparisons with available sediment quality guidelines indicated that adverse biological effects may be expected in all areas. This result suggests measuring concentrations of contaminants in the sediment per se may be insufficient to establish a clear link between ecological patterns and the contamination of the system. Also it highlights the difficulty of identifying reference areas in highly urbanized and industrialized estuaries. Only multivariate analysis (dbRDA; both using the taxonomic and trophic composition) and β-diversity as turnover showed a consistent response to metal contamination. Higher heterogeneity, mainly due to contribution of rare species (i.e. species present in a single sampling period), was observed in the least contaminated area (SC), decreasing towards the HC. In terms of the trophic function, a shift from a dominance of carnivores in the SC to the dominance of deposit-feeding organisms (and

  19. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E. G .W.; Smit, L. A. M.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2015-01-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) wi

  20. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-01-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) wi

  1. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

  2. Relationships between the diversity of animal communities and the lighting environment and content of heavy metals in soils in Guizhou Zhijin Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxiang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the community diversity of cave animals in different light zones of the Guizhou Zhijin Cave in August, 2011. We used principal components analysis (PCA to examine the relationships between animal community diversity and environment factors. We assessed the potential ecological risk degree of heavy metals in the cave based on the Hakanson potential ecological risk index. We identified 1,080 specimens, which belong to three phyla, five classes, 26 families and 41 species or groups of species, which could be divided into five communities. The highest community diversity, richness index, evenness index, and dominance index were light zone of exit (2.7996, light zone of entrance (4.5399, light zone of exit(0.9196 and weak-light zone of exit (0.1868, respectively. Index of similarity between light zone of entrance and light zone of exit (0.6248 was highest. The richness and dominance indices of the communities were low, but community diversity and richness tended to decrease based on the order of the light intensity (i.e., light zone>weak-light zone>dark zone. Dominant species included Hemiphaedusa pluviatilis and H.moellendorffiana. Organic matter of soil, content of CO2 in the air, cave humidity, cave temperature, and heavy metal contamination of soil were the dominant factors to affect animal community diversity in the cave. Although Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, As in soils were at ecologically low levels, Hg pollution was relatively high inthe whole cave and at especially severe level of ecological risk (Eri=256.000 in the light zone of cave entrance. As far as the average potential ecological risk level (RI=192.714 of six heavy metals were concerned, the cave was contaminated at a certain degree with heavy metals.

  3. Comment: Caring for Captive Communities by Looking for Love and Loneliness, or Against an Overly Individualist Liberal Animal Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Animal ethics in its liberal, analytic style of academic writing can suffer from a form of excessive individualism that lacks a full view of life as experienced by many animals. A range of arguments against using and enclosing animals, or in favour of certain (pre)conditions of captivity, can be

  4. Using stable isotope compositions of animal tissues to infer trophic interactions in Gulf of Mexico lower slope seep communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Becker

    Full Text Available We analyzed the tissue carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope contents of macrofaunal communities associated with vestimentiferan tubeworms and bathymodiolin mussels from the Gulf of Mexico lower continental slope (970-2800 m. Shrimp in the genus Alvinocaris associated with vestimentiferans from shallow (530 m and deep (1400-2800 m sites were used to test the hypothesis that seep animals derive a greater proportion of their nutrition from seeps (i.e. a lower proportion from the surface at greater depths. To account for spatial variability in the inorganic source pool, we used the differences between the mean tissue δ(13C and δ(15N of the shrimp in each collection and the mean δ (13C and δ(15N values of the vestimentiferans from the same collection, since vestimentiferans are functionally autotrophic and serve as a baseline for environmental isotopic variation. There was a significant negative relationship between this difference and depth for both δ(13C and δ(15N (p=0.02 and 0.007, respectively, which supports the hypothesis of higher dependence on seep nutrition with depth. The small polychaete worm Protomystides sp. was hypothesized to be a blood parasite of the vestimentiferan Escarpialaminata. There was a highly significant linear relationship between the δ(13C values of Protomystides sp. and the E. laminata individuals to which they were attached across all collections (p < 0.001 and within a single collection (p = 0.01, although this relationship was not significant for δ(15N and δ(34S. We made several other qualitative inferences with respect to the feeding biology of the taxa occurring in these lower slope seeps, some of which have not been described prior to this study.

  5. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale.

  6. MACROBENTHIC DIVERSITY DURING PRE AND POST DROUGHT PERIOD OF A FLOODPLAIN WETLAND IN VAISHALI DISTRICT OF BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Patial

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative estimation of macrobenthic fauna was done during pre and post drought period. A total of 18 species of macrobenthos were recorded during pre drought and 17 in post drought period. Maximum number of species was reported in Mollusca followed by Diptera and Oligochaeta. The average contribution of Mollusca was 94.72%, Dipetra 2.98% and Oligochaeta 2.30% to total benthic species of the Chaur. Bellamya bengalensis, Gabbia orcula, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Lymnaea acuminata and Lymnaea auricularia were the molluccs which were found in all the monthly samples. Number wise Gyraulus convexiusculus was most abundant followed by Gabbia orcula while Lamellidens marginalis and Pila glabosa were the least abundant. In pre drought period average number of macrobenthos was 3176/m2 while in post drought period, it was 2676/m2. Analysis of the various index showed that diversity of benthic fauna was higher in WIN season followed by RMON, PRM and MON season. Winter seems to be a favourable season for benthic organisms. Availability of different species of mollusks indicated the good cultural and unpolluted condition of Chaur.

  7. Impact of a subsidized spay neuter clinic on impoundments and euthanasia in a community shelter and on service and complaint calls to animal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Janet; Johnston, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the number of homeless, nonhuman animals entering and being euthanatized in community shelters is the principal motivation for most spay/neuter (S/N) programs in the United States. This study evaluated the impact of a subsidized S/N clinic opened in 2005 in Transylvania County, North Carolina, on the numbers of impoundments (and euthanasia) of dogs and cats and on the number of animal-related service and complaint calls at the community's only animal shelter. Before opening the local S/N clinic, a significant linear decline in the shelter's dog-intake rate per 1,000 human population was evident. This decline did not accelerate after the S/N clinic opened in 2005. The rate of decline in euthanasia did level off after the clinic opened, but the proportion of impounded dogs euthanatized did not change significantly. The median number of cats impounded and euthanatized yearly in the Transylvania County Animal Services shelter decreased significantly after the S/N clinic opened; the proportion of cats euthanatized did not change. The median annual number of service calls and complaints decreased or leveled off. Unfortunately, data regarding many factors essential for conclusively interpreting these results were not available.

  8. Macrobenthic assemblage in the soft sediment of Marmugao Harbour, Goa (central west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A; Kanti, A; Gracias, E.S.

    were identified. The communities were not discrete and there was some overlap in the occurrence of the families. Influence of anthropogenic disturbances and environmental factors such as sediment type and availability of food were responsible...

  9. The macrofaunal communities in the shallow subtidal areas for the first 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Young; Kim, Moonkoo; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-05-15

    In order to detect the early impact of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the shallow subtidal macrozoobenthic communities, macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally for 3 years. The alkylated PAHs concentrations within sediments near Mallipo beach remained as high as 129 ng g(-)(1) DW one month after the oil spill, but the concentration decreased below the background level thereafter. The number of species and density decreased in 4 months compared to those before the oil spill. An opportunistic polychaete, Prionospio paradisea, occurred as a dominant species at subtidal area near Mallipo beach in 10 months after the oil spill. Any mass mortality of amphipods and any clear dominance of opportunistic species were not detected except for the stations near Mallipo and Hagampo beaches. The macrobenthic communities at the shallow subtidal stations seemed to have a relatively stable faunal composition, even not fully recovered, in 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

  10. Changes in the soft-bottom macrobenthic diversity and community structure from the ports of Mumbai, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Harkantra, S.N.

    samples were transported to the laboratory and identified to species level using a microscope with the help of available taxonomic literature (Satyamurti 1952, 1956; Fauvel 1953; Day 1967; Hartman 1974a, 1974b; Srikrishnadhas et al. 1987; Subba Rao et al..., west coast of India. Current Science, 85(10), 1458-1464. Hartman, O. (1974a). Polychaetous annelids of the Indian Ocean including an account of species collected by members of the International Indian Ocean Expeditions, 1963-64 and a catalogue...

  11. Impact of 'Chitra' oil spill on tidal pool macrobenthic communities of a tropical rocky shore (Mumbai, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; Mulik, J.; Rokade, M.A.; Kamble, A.

    A collision between the ships MSC Chitra and MV Khalijia 3 in the mouth region of Mumbai Harbour led to a leakage of around 800 t of fuel oil in August 2010, affecting the rocky intertidal region of Colaba. To evaluate the impact...

  12. Role of environmental heterogeneity in structuring the macrobenthic community in a tropical sandy beach, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Ganesan, P.; Sautya, S.; Nanajkar, M.

    the best correlation with OC, phaeopigment and grain size. High abundance of macrofauna in the north and south was due to food availability, influenced by the creek. The low abundance during monsoon and subsequent increase in the post-monsoon can...

  13. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  14. Page 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DANIEL

    Department of Animal & Environmental Biology, Faculty of life Sciences, University of Benin ... Key words: Dredging, macrobenthic invertebrates, water quality, biotopes, tropics ...... the Ikpoba River, using the fish communities as bioindicators.

  15. Colonization, succession, and nutrition of macrobenthic assemblages in a restored wetland at Tijuana Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman, Serena M.; Levin, Lisa A.; Currin, Carolyn; Forder, Charlotte

    2004-08-01

    Modes of colonization, the successional trajectory, and trophic recovery of a macrofaunal community were analyzed over 19 months in the Friendship marsh, a 20-acre restored wetland in Tijuana Estuary, California. Traditional techniques for quantifying macrofaunal communities were combined with emerging stable isotopic approaches for evaluation of trophic recovery, making comparisons with a nearby natural Spartina foliosa habitat. Life history-based predictions successfully identified major colonization modes, although most taxa employed a variety of tactics for colonizing the restored marsh. The presence of S. foliosa did not seem to affect macrofaunal colonization or succession at the scale of this study. However, soil organic matter content in the restored marsh was positively correlated with insect densities, and high initial salinities may have limited the success of early colonists. Total macrofaunal densities recovered to natural marsh levels after 14 months and diversity, measured as species richness and the Shannon index ( H'), was comparable to the natural marsh by 19 months. Some compositional disparities between the natural and created communities persisted after 19 months, including lower percentages of surface-feeding polychaetes ( Polydora spp.) and higher percentages of dipteran insects and turbellarians in the Friendship marsh. As surficial structural similarity of infaunal communities between the Friendship and natural habitat was achieved, isotopic analyses revealed a simultaneous trajectory towards recovery of trophic structure. Enriched δ 13C signatures of benthic microalgae and infauna, observed in the restored marsh shortly after establishment compared to natural Spartina habitat, recovered after 19 months. However, the depletion in δ 15N signatures of macrofauna in the Friendship marsh indicated consumption of microalgae, particularly nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, while macroalgae and Spartina made a larger contribution to macrofaunal

  16. The impact of organic pollution on the macrobenthic fauna of Dubai Creek (UAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James E; Al Zahed, Khalid Mohammed; Paterson, David M

    2007-11-01

    Dubai Creek is a tidal marine intrusion bisecting Dubai within the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The creek extends 14km inland from its opening into the Arabian Gulf, with a narrow lower creek channel leading to a lagoon section in the upper creek. The creek contains numerous sources of organic pollution including sewage outlet flows and boat waste. A survey of the creek was performed, assessing organic pollution, water properties, and the benthic macrofaunal community. The upper creek was heavily polluted with macrofauna communities commonly associated with organic pollution and eutrophication, while the lower creek contained low pollution and relatively healthy macrofauna communities. There is little net tidal flow of water within the creek and residence time in the lagoon is high, which may account for the high organic pollution levels. However, some evidence of the pollution effect moving into the lower creek was found. The results are considered in light of current and historic organic loading within the creek and future developments in the area.

  17. Effects of using visualization and animation in presentations to communities about forest succession and fire behavior potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith; Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Garrett O' Keefe

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource managers use a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to the public. We explored the effects of using the Stand Visualization System to visualize and animate predictions from the Forest Vegetation Simulator-Fire and Fuels Extension in presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change...

  18. Communicating forest management science and practices through visualized and animated media approaches to community presentations: An exploration and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Jane Kapler Smith; Garrett J. O' Keefe

    2006-01-01

    Natural-resource managers have used a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to diverse publics. We explored the effects of visualizing and animating predictions from mathematical models in computerized presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change through time), fire behavior, and management options...

  19. Individual animal variability in ruminal bacterial communities and ruminal acidosis in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variability among individual cows for their susceptibility to ruminal acidosis (RA) pre- and postpartum, and determine whether this variability was related to differences in their ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC). Variability in susceptibilit...

  20. Study of the Intertidal Macrobenthic Fauna in Dayushan Island, Zhejiang%浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀琴

    2012-01-01

    The community structures of the intertidal macrobenthic fauna in Dayushan island,Zhejiang,including species composition,quantity distribution and biodiversity,were analyzed in the study.The investigation in the study found 35 species,including 1 species of Annelida,2 species of Chordata,2 species of coelenterate,9 species of Arthropoda and 21 species of Mollusca.The average biomass and density in all stations were 1027.33 g/m2 and 1404 ind.m-2,respectively.The mollusca were the first in biomass and density among all macrobenthic fauna.The value of Shannon-Weaner index,Margalef's species richness index and Pielou's evenness index were 0.193~2.101,0.268~1.744 and 0.073~2.007,and their averages were 1.140±1.084,1.080±0.696 and 0.780±0.886,respectively.There was significant difference between the results in the study and in the similar experiments.The Abundance/Biomass curves of the intertidal zone of Dayushan island had part of the cross.%文章通过分析浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的物种组成、数量分布和生物多样性等群落结构特征来了解周围海域的水质状况。本次大渔山岛海域潮间带调查采获的大型底栖动物标本共有35种,其中软体动物21种,节肢动物9种,脊索动物与腔肠动物各2种,环节动物仅1种。且该海域潮间带大型底栖动物的平均生物量为1027.33 g/m2,平均丰度为1404 ind./m2。在各类群底栖动物中,软体动物的平均生物量及丰富都为第一。大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的多样性指数、丰富度指数和均匀度指数的分布范围分别在0.193~2.101、0.268~1.744和0.073~2.007,平均值分别为1.140±1.084、1.080±0.696和0.780±0.886。

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in an Indian Rural Community: A 'One-Health' Observational Study on Commensal Coliform from Humans, Animals, and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Manju Raj; Chandran, Salesh; Shah, Harshada; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2017-04-06

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an escalating grim menace to global public health. Our aim is to phenotype and genotype antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) from humans, animals, and water from the same community with a 'one-health' approach. The samples were collected from a village belonging to demographic surveillance site of Ruxmaniben Deepchand (R.D.) Gardi Medical College Ujjain, Central India. Commensal coliforms from stool samples from children aged 1-3 years and their environment (animals, drinking water from children's households, common source- and waste-water) were studied for antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid-encoded resistance genes. E. coli isolates from human (n = 127), animal (n = 21), waste- (n = 12), source- (n = 10), and household drinking water (n = 122) carried 70%, 29%, 41%, 30%, and 30% multi-drug resistance, respectively. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were 57% in human and 23% in environmental isolates. Co-resistance was frequent in penicillin, cephalosporin, and quinolone. Antibiotic-resistance genes blaCTX-M-9 and qnrS were most frequent. Group D-type isolates with resistance genes were mainly from humans and wastewater. Colistin resistance, or the mcr-1 gene, was not detected. The frequency of resistance, co-resistance, and resistant genes are high and similar in coliforms from humans and their environment. This emphasizes the need to mitigate antibiotic resistance with a 'one-health' approach.

  2. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Farm and personal characteristics of the clientele of a community-based animal-health service programme in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttner, K; Leidl, K; Pfeiffer, D U; Jere, F B; Kasambara, D

    2001-05-01

    The social background, farm characteristics, indicators of income and self-evaluation returns of 96 randomly selected users of a Basic Animal Health Service (BAHS) programme in northern Malawi were compared with those of 96 matched past-users and 96 non-users, respectively. All 288 farms were visited between July and October 1997. Data analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate techniques. The results showed that, on average, BAHS users had larger cattle herds (16.3) than part-users (14.7) or non-users (12.4). Similarly, the annual yields of crops were higher for users compared to either of the other groups. Users occupied better houses and owned a larger number of farm and household items than did part-users or non-users. A third of all farmers were engaged in additional income generation to lessen the risk of poverty. However, analysis of the livestock management and the educational background of the farmers suggested that usage of the BAHS programme was not only determined by already existing 'wealth'. Improved livestock husbandry and management measures, which do not require capital investment, were more frequently applied by users compared to either of the other groups. Non-users and part-users had attained a lower level of education, were less open towards improved farming methods and felt less knowledgeable than BAHS users. The average straight-line distances from farms using BAHS to their respective village animal health worker (2.2 km) or veterinary assistant (2.9 km) were similar but varied according to ecological zone. Intensified extension and awareness meetings in villages will be required to get more non-users involved in BAHS.

  4. Community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary during water and sediment discharge regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhonghua; LI Fan; WEI Jiali; LI Shaowen; LV Zhenbo; GAO Yanjie; CONG Xuri

    2016-01-01

    The community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary is influenced by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. Here, we investigated short-term changes (1-month) in macrobenthic community structure in response to water and sediment discharge regulation (WSDR) in 2011. Specifically, we sampled the macrobenthos at 18 sampling stations situated at four distances (5, 10, 20, and 40 km) from the mouth of the Huanghe Estuary before (mid-June), during (early-July), and after (mid-July) WSDR. The results showed that a total of 73, 72, and 85 species were collected before, during, and after WSDR, respectively. Then, 13, 1, and 16 dominant species were detected at this three periods. Four phyla were primarily detected at all three periods (Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata). However, while Mollusca and Annelida were the most important phyla in our study, Echinodermata and Annelida were the most important phyla in 1982, demonstrating major changes to community structure over a 3-decadal period. All stations were of high quality BOPA index before WSDR, whereas two and three stations were of reduced quality BOPA index during and after WSDR, respectively. The results of ABC curves showed that had incurred disturbed conditions after human activities WSDR. Most important of all, multivariate analyses and RDA analysis indicated that the structure of the macrobenthic community was closely linked to environment factors, including that organic content factor caused the distribution of macrobenthic community mostly during WSDR, while water depth after WSDR affected the macro benthos community structure seriously, and during WSDR, the environment factor influencing it was not single, including organic content, sulfide content, Hg and As. These differences may have been due to changes in water transparency negatively impacting the growth and development of macrobenthos, due to specific life-history requirements. Our results

  5. Oil spill effects on macrofaunal communities and bioturbation of pristine marine sediments (Caleta Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina): experimental evidence of low resistance capacities of benthic systems without history of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Agustina; Gonzalez, Emilia; Franco, Marcos; Commendatore, Marta; Nievas, Marina; Militon, Cécile; Stora, Georges; Gilbert, Franck; Esteves, José Luis; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The Patagonian coast is characterized by the existence of pristine ecosystems which may be particularly sensitive to oil contamination. In this study, a simulated oil spill at acute and chronic input levels was carried out to assess the effects of contamination on the macrobenthic community structure and the bioturbation activity of sediments sampled in Caleta Valdés creek. Superficial sediments were either noncontaminated or contaminated by Escalante crude oil and incubated in the laboratory for 30 days. Oil contamination induced adverse effects on macrobenthic community at both concentrations with, for the highest concentration, a marked decrease of approximately 40 and 55 % of density and specific richness, respectively. Besides the disappearance of sensitive species, some other species like Oligochaeta sp. 1, Paranebalia sp., and Ostracoda sp. 2 species have a higher resistance to oil contamination. Sediment reworking activity was also affected by oil addition. At the highest level of contamination, nearly no activity was observed due to the high mortality of macroorganisms. The results strongly suggest that an oil spill in this protected marine area with no previous history of contamination would have a deep impact on the non-adapted macrobenthic community.

  6. Advances in Soil Animal Community at Urban Green Space in China%我国城市绿地土壤动物群落的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛宝明; 张华彬

    2012-01-01

    The development status of the study on soil animal community at urban green space in China is introduced,and the factors that affect the biodiversity and community structure of soil animal community at urban green space are discussed, which include vegetation condition, soil characters and human disturbances of green space. The paper also put forward that statistical method is the important way for soil animal community research,and the relationship between soil animal community succession and urbanization process will be the important research direction in the future.%该文介绍了我国城市绿地土壤动物群落研究发展现状,探讨了影响城市绿地中土壤动物群落的生物多样性与群落结构的因素,包括绿地中的植被条件、土壤性质和人为干扰等.该文还提出统计学手段是研究城市绿地土壤动物群落的重要手段,土壤群落演替与城市化过程的关系将是未来重要的研究方向.

  7. Estrutura da comunidade de invertebrados bentônicos em dois cursos d'água do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Community structure of benthic invertebrates in two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. P. Bueno

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The benthic fauna has an important role in the trophic chain of limnic environments, serving as food for fishes and crustaceans. This work aimed to identify and compare, quantitative and qualitatively, the macrobenthic communities from two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Samplings were done with a Surber sampler, monthly, from September 1999 to August 2000, in one of the creeks forming Tainhas River(29º15'30,2"S, 50º13'12,5"W, around São Francisco de Paula city and in Mineiro Creek (29º30'0,2"S, 50º46'50"W, around Taquara city. At each sampling point, physical and chemical variables of the waters were registered. In the laboratory, the samples were sorted out and the animals identified and quantified. Dissolved oxigen, pH and stream speed were very similar for both environments, whilst conductivity had extreme values. Insects, crustaceans, acari and molluscs dominated in the samples. Abundance, richness and diversity indexes in Tainhas subsidiary had relatively higher average values than Mineiro Creek. Similarity matrix groupings between sampling units indicate three groups. Our research revealed important characteristics of the ecology and distribution of benthic invertebrates, information that can subsidise future environmental monitoring in the region of São Francisco de Paula and Taquara.

  8. 辽宁獐子岛马牙滩潮间带及近岸海区大型底栖动物群落特征%Macrobenthic fauna in the intertidal and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全超; 韩庆喜; 李宝泉

    2013-01-01

    为摸清辽宁獐子岛潮间带及近岸海区的大型底栖动物的分布现状和群落受扰动情况,作者于2011年11月中旬在马牙滩潮间带和近岸海区采集大型底栖动物,采用优势度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Margalef丰富度指数、Pielou均匀度指数,Bray-Curtis相似性聚类分析、MDS标序和ABC曲线等方法,分析该区域内大型底栖动物群落的生态学特点.结果表明,在潮间带共鉴定大型底栖动物39种,优势类群为多毛类、甲壳类和软体类;优势种均为多毛类,即小头虫(Capitella capitata)、多美沙蚕(Lycastopsis augenari)、仙居虫(Naineris laevigata)和短叶索沙蚕(Lumbrineris latreilli);平均生物量为25.76±41.08 g/m2,以软体动物占优势;平均栖息密度为315.11±160.73个/m2,以多毛类占优势;丰富度指数、均匀度指数与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数的平均值分别为1.17±0.89,0.74±0.17和1.80±1.09.近岸海区共鉴定大型底栖动物40种,优势类群为多毛类、甲壳动物、软体动物和棘皮动物.优势种包括4种棘皮动物和1种多毛类,即紫蛇尾(Ophiopholis mirabilis)、日本倍棘蛇尾(Amphioplus japonicus)、短叶索沙蚕、心形海胆(Echinocardium cordatum)和浅水萨氏真蛇尾(Ophiura sarsiivadicola).近岸海区的平均生物量和平均栖息密度分别为218.86±152.24g/m2和700.00±471.51个/m2,均以棘皮动物占优势.丰富度指数、均匀度指数与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数的平均值分别为1.40±0.60,0.64±0.19和2.04±0.78.聚类分析结果表明,潮间带不同潮区间和近岸海区不同断面间群落差异显著.ABC曲线分析显示,獐子岛潮间带底质环境受到中度扰动,大型底栖动物群落结构处于不稳定状态;近岸海区受到轻度干扰,群落结构未发生明显变化.%We completed a quantitative investigation of the macrobenthic community in the intertidal zone and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island in November 2011 to

  9. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  10. 长春南湖底栖动物群落特征及其与环境因子的关系%Community characteristics of benthonic animals and its relationship to environmental factors in the Nanhu Lake, Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚; 盛连喜; 李明全

    2001-01-01

    There are only 21 species of benthonic animals in the Nanhu Lake, Changchtm. The dominant species in the banthos community axe obvious, and the individual quantity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Tendipus plumosus accounts for 87 % of the total individual quantity of all benthonic animals. It indicates that the water in the Nanhu Lake is suffering serious organic pollution, and belongs to an eutrophic lake. The peak values of benthos biomaas and energy axe found in July(48.23gWW· m- 2 and 241.16kJ· m- 2 spectively), while the maximum individual qttantry is appeared in May(401ind· m-2). The distribution of ligochaeta and aquatic insects has a significant positive cor relation to organic content in the sediment(a< 0.05 ). The community structure of benthonic animals reflects adequately the feature of the Nanhu Lake as an eutrophic lake in temperate zone.

  11. Discordant Temporal Turnovers of Sediment Bacterial and Eukaryotic Communities in Response to Dredging: Nonresilience and Functional Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Xiao, Xian; Pei, Meng; Liu, Xiang; Liang, Yuting

    2017-01-01

    To study the stability and succession of sediment microbial and macrobenthic communities in response to anthropogenic disturbance, a time-series sampling was conducted before, during, and 1 year after dredging in the Guan River in Changzhou, China, which was performed with cutter suction dredgers from 10 April to 20 May 2014. The microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA and eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene amplicons with Illumina MiSeq, and the macrobenthic community was identified using a morphological approach simultaneously. The results indicated that dredging disturbance significantly altered the composition and structures of sediment communities. The succession rates of communities were estimated by comparing the slopes of time-decay relationships. The temporal turnover of microeukaryotes (w = 0.3251, P species turnover) across log(time)]) was the highest, followed by that of bacteria (w = 0.2450, P turnovers and nonresilience of sediment communities under dredging resulted in functional changes, which are important for predicting sediment ecosystem functions under anthropogenic disturbances.

  12. The Roles of Macrobenthic Mollusks as Bioindicator in Response to Environmental Disturbance : Cumulative k-dominance curves and bubble plots ordination approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Sapto P.; Muhammad, Fuad; Aininnur, Amalia; Widowati; Suhartana

    2017-02-01

    Floating net cage is one of the aquaculture practice operated in Indonesian coastal areas that has been growing rapidly over the last two decades. This study is aimed to assess the roles of macrobenthic mollusks as bioindicator in response to environmental disturbance caused by fish farming activities, and compare the samples within the locations using graphical methods. The research was done at the floating net cage fish farming area in the Awerange Gulf, South Sulawesi, Indonesia at the coordinates between 79°0500‧- 79°1500‧ LS and 953°1500‧- 953°2000‧ BT, at the polyculture and reference areas, which was located 1 km away from farming area. Sampling period was conducted between October 2014 to June 2015. The sediment samples were taken from the two locations with two sampling time and three replicates using Van Veen Grab for biotic and abiotic assessment. Mollusks as biotic parameter were fixed using 4% formalin solution and were preserved using 70% ethanol solution after 1mm mesh size. The macrobenthic mollusks were found as many as 15 species consisting of 14 families and 2 classes (gastropods and bivalves). Based on cumulative k-dominance analysis projected on each station, the line of station K3T1 (reference area; first sampling time) and KJAB P3T2 (polyculture area; second sampling time) are located below others curves, indicating the highest evenness and diversity compared to the other stations, whereas station K2T1 (reference area; first sampling time) and K3T2 (polyculture area, second sampling time) are located on the top, indicate the lowest value of evenness and diversity. Based on the bubble plots NMDS ordination, the four dominant taxa/species did not clearly show involvement in driving/shifting the ordinate position of station on the graph, except T. agilis. However, the two species showed involvement in driving/shifting the ordinate position of two stations of the reference areas from the first sampling time by Rynoclavis sordidula

  13. The effect of water quality on the distribution of macro-benthic fauna in Western Lagoon and Timsah Lake, Egypt.I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Ahmed M. Belal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Macro-benthic fauna are considered the good bio-indicators for the environmental changes of any aquatic ecosystems. Samples of macro-benthos, sediments and surface water were collected from 13 stations representing different conditions in the Western Lagoon (10 stations and Timsah Lake (3 stations from autumn 2014 to summer 2015. Macro-benthic density and diversity in Timsah Lake were higher than those in the Western Lagoon; the density at Timsah Lake encompassed 167,649 individual/m2 representing 42 species from the total of 46 species recorded in the investigated area. While species density in the Western Lagoon constituted 12,008 individual/m2 presenting only 16 species. Winter recorded the highest density (74,854 individual/m2; the highest dominance (CDI = 0.858 and the lowest Equitability (0.293 due to the dominance of the opportunistic species. Spring harvested both the highest diversity (28 species and species richness (SR = 2.917. While autumn and summer procured both the lowest density and diversity (34,021 and 29,544 individual/m2 and 23 and 25 species respectively. The equitability index (E′ showed its highest values within the Western Lagoon (>0.90 owing to the species poorness relative to Timsah Lake. The water quality data showed that the Western Lagoon and Timsah Lake had significant high oxygen influx in spring (11.00 and 9.35 mg/l, respectively and oxygen depletion in summer (1.00 and 3.00 mg/l, respectively. Reactive phosphorus and ammonia in the Western Lagoon exceeded the world averages. Timsah Lake sediments were highly affected by the sediment drifts from the Western Lagoon. The highest influx of the fine sediment group (FSG was estimated during spring with an average of 62.77% and 61.18% in Timsah Lake and Western Lagoon, respectively. Total organic matter (TOM in Western Lagoon recorded the highest average of 17.05% in spring accompanied with the high biological productivities.

  14. 小兴安岭红松阔叶混交林土壤动物群落研究%Study on Soil Animals Community of Pinus koraiensis Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest in Xiaoxing' an Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗雅杰; 殷秀琴

    2005-01-01

    Soil animal communities of Pinus koraiensis broad-leaved mixed forest were studied. The purpose was to discuss the dynamic characteristic of soil animals and relationship with environmental factors. The ecosystem geography distribution law of soil animals, soil animals' role and function in ecological system were revealed. In June, August, October each year, three plots were selected. In each plot, four layers were sampled( litter layer,0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm & 20 - 30 cm), adding up to 72 soil sample. The area for large-sized soil animals was 50 cm × 50 cm, and the area for middle-small-sized soil animals was 10 cm × 10 cm. Separated soil animals through adopting hand-picking method and Tullgren method respectively. Sampled the soil animals in two continuing years. Shannon-Wiener index was adopted to analyze the diversity of soil animals. Monad liner regression was used to search the relationship between soil animals and environmental factors. The dominant groups were Oribatida, Isotomidae. There were relatively great changes in groups and individual numbers of dominant groups and rare groups when the reason changed. The individual numbers of dominant groups and the groups of rare groups changed. The number of individual and group was the most in August. Obviously it correlated with climatic factors in middle temperate zone. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was not most. Among the annual fluctuating there was a increasing trend. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was low. It conformed with the law of reason change. The correlation between soil animals and atmospheric temperature, rainfall, ground temperature and sunlight showed the correlation with rainfall and soil temperature was the most significant.

  15. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  16. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  17. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  18. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  19. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  20. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  1. Identificación de peligros químicos-tóxicos para la salud animal en comunidades de San José de las Lajas en territorio Habanero (Identification of chemical hazards to animal health in communities of San José de las Lajas in Havana territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez-Fernández Yolanda E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenA partir del inventario de fuentes y presuntas fuentes de peligro químico – tóxico a la salud y producción animal, con la aplicación de la metodología de análisis de riesgos químicos – tóxicos para la sanidad animal de Suárez (1999 y Suárez et al., (2007 y como contribución a la gestión y reducción territorial de riesgos de desastres, se identificaron 20 fuentes de peligro de este tipo y sus elementos en riesgo en San José de Las Lajas, perteneciente a la provincia de La Habana. Estas fuentes se distribuyen fundamentalmenteen cinco comunidades e involucran a sectores como Industria, Agricultura, Investigación y Servicios. El 30% de estas fuentes poseen antecedentes de episodios químico - tóxicos o se reconocen como causa de contaminación ambiental. Fueron detectadas 167 situaciones críticas y 155 factores de riesgo. Se detectó además 47 elementos en riesgo, así como una población de 59173 animales amenazados por dichas fuentes de peligro. Se concluye acerca de la necesidad de elaboración e implementación de planes para la reducción de desastres tecnológicos que puedan afectar a la salud animal.SummaryThe methodology to analyze chemical risks to animal health designed bySuárez (1999 and Suárez et al., (2007 was applied in communities of San José de Las Lajas from Havana in order to contribute in the territorial reduction and management of disasters risks that affected animal production and health. Before that, some researchers were out the inventory of sources and presumptive sources of chemical hazards in these communities. 20 sources of chemical hazards to animal health were identified because chemicals. The chemical hazards belong to 5 communities and involve industry, agriculture, research and services. 30% of the chemical hazards are recognized as a cause of environmental contamination or had reports about former cases of chemical accidents. We detect 167 critical issues and155 risks factors that

  2. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  3. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  4. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Summertime community structure of intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao Archipelago, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaochen; LI Xinzheng; LI Baoquan; WANG Hongfa

    2009-01-01

    The community structure of intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao Archipelago (north of Shandong Peninsula, between Bohai Bay and the northern Yellow Sea) was examined based on samples collected from 14 stations in five transects in June 2007. Three stations corresponding to high, medium and low tidal areas were set up for each transect. A total of 68 macrobenthic species were found in the research region, most of which belonged to Mollusca and Crustacea. The average abundance and biomass of the macrobenthos was 1 383 ind./m2 and 372.41 g/m2, respectively. The use of an arbitrary similarity level of 20% resulted in identification of five groups among the 14 stations in the research region. There were remarkable differences in the biomass, abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index of the different sediments. Specifically, the order of biomass was rocky shores > gravel > mud-sand > coarse sand > stiff mud, while the order of abundance was rocky shores > coarse sand > mud-sand > gravel > stiff mud, and that of the diversity index was mud-sand > gravel > stiff mud > rocky shores > coarse sand. The above results revealed that the sediment type was the most important factor affecting the structure of the macrobenthic community of the intertidal zone.

  7. Assessing the effects of salmon farming seabed enrichment using bacterial community diversity and high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, Eddy; Pochon, Xavier; Keeley, Nigel; Wood, Susanna A

    2015-08-01

    Aquaculture is an extremely valuable and rapidly expanding sector of the seafood industry. The sediment below active aquaculture farms receives inputs of organic matter from uneaten food and faecal material and this has led to concerns related to environmental sustainability. The impacts of organic enrichment on macrobenthic infauna are well characterized; however, much less is known about effect on bacterial communities. In this study, sediment, macrobenthic infauna samples and environmental data were collected along an enrichment gradient radiating out from a Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) farm (Marlborough Sounds; New Zealand). DNA and RNA were extracted and 16S rRNA metabarcodes from bacterial communities characterized using high-throughput sequencing. Desulfobacterales dominated at the cage (DNA and RNA), and at sites 50 m (DNA and RNA) and 150 m (RNA) from the farm. In contrast, unclassified bacteria from the class Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxa at control sites (625 and 4000 m). Pronounced differences among DNA and RNA samples occurred at the cage site where Desulfobacterales abundance was markedly higher in RNA samples. There were strong correlations between shifts in bacterial communities and total organic matter and redox. This suggests that bacterial composition is strongly influenced by organic enrichment, a trait that may make them useful for assessing impacts associated with aquaculture farms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  9. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  10. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  11. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Canal Vergés, Paula

    2012-01-01

    with focus on the 2 common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. Marenzelleria viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly, and within 3 yr it had spread to ~50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord followed the ‘boom-bust’ pattern that is typical...

  12. Intertidal Macrobenthic Community Structural Features in Huiquan Bay%汇泉湾潮间带大型底栖动物群落结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪原

    2011-01-01

    文章根据2009-2010年四个季度在汇泉湾潮间带开展的大型底栖动物调查,对不同季节不同断面的大型底栖动物的种类组成、群落结构作了分析.经鉴定汇泉湾潮间带大型底栖动物共有92种,包括软体类39种,多毛类29种,甲壳类15种,鱼类4种,棘皮类3种,还有腔肠和纽虫各1种.优势种是短滨螺Littorina(L) brevicula(Philippi).均匀度跟总个体数具有一定的负相关关系.MDS排序结果与群落分布聚类分析结果基本一致.

  13. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  14. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  15. Animal Rights Groups Target High School Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Two groups leading the charge against dissection are People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Student Action Corps for Animals (SACA). Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon. (MLF)

  16. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  17. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  18. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  19. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  20. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  1. Experimental manipulation of sponge/bacterial symbiont community composition with antibiotics: sponge cell aggregates as a unique tool to study animal/microorganism symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Crystal; Hill, Malcolm; Marks, Carolyn; Runyen-Janecky, Laura; Hill, April

    2012-08-01

    Marine sponges can harbor dense and diverse bacterial communities, yet we have a limited understanding of important aspects of this symbiosis. We developed an experimental methodology that permits manipulating the composition of the microbial community. Specifically, we evaluated sponge cell aggregates (SCA) from Clathria prolifera that had been treated with different classes of antibiotics to determine whether this system might offer novel experimental approaches to the study of sponge/bacterial symbioses. Microscopic analysis of the SCA demonstrated that two distinct morphological types of microbiota existed on the external surface vs. the internal regions of the SCA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that we were unable to create entirely aposymbiotic SCA but that different classes of antibiotics produced distinctive shifts in the SCA-associated bacterial community. After exposure to antibiotics, some bacterial species were 'revealed', thus uncovering novel components of the sponge-associated community. The antibiotic treatments used here had little discernible effect on the formation of SCA or subsequent development of the adult. The experimental approach we describe offers empirical options for studying the role symbionts play in sponge growth and development and for ascertaining relationships among bacterial species in communities residing in sponges.

  2. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  3. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  4. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  5. Animal Flicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érik Bullot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leafing a book quickly creates metamorphoses of its images and illustrations. Cinema as a medium is based on such visual discontinuity.  Both Paolo Gioli, the Italian filmmaker, and Stan Brakhage in America,  made very interesting flicker films with and about insects and butterflies : Farfallìo (1993 and Mothlight (1963. Is the buttefly miming the filmic device? To what extent has a film to disguise its mechanism? What is the relation between animation and the animal? I intend to scrutinize the link between flicker film and animality in regard of camouflage and mimicry.

  6. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  7. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  8. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  9. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  10. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Conceptualizaciones acerca de los animales en niños de la sociedad mayoritaria y de la comunidad indígena Uitoto en Colombia Conceptualizations about animals in children from the majority society and Uitoto Colombian native community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Páramo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se orientó a identificar los vínculos que desarrollan niños de diferentes contextos culturales y regionales de Colombia (de la sociedad mayoritaria e indígena sobre los animales a través de sus constructos personales. Las clasificaciones realizadas por los niños de la sociedad mayoritaria e indígenas siguieron un sistema centrado en constructos ecológicos-científicos; aunque difieren en que los primeros siguen esquemas académicos o científicos y los indígenas fundamentan su sistema de constructos en la experiencia directa con los animales. También se observaron diferencias en la relación de temor que los animales infunden a niños y niñas, siendo las niñas quienes presentan un mayor temor, además se vio un desconocimiento generalizado de la ubicación geográfica de varias de las especies que se presentaron a los participantes del primer estudio que no está presente en la población indígena. Los hallazgos se discuten desde la Biofília y se dan recomendaciones acerca de la importancia de diseñar programas de educación ambiental, que incorporen el conocimiento y protección de la fauna, a partir de los ecosistemas en los que se encuentren ubicadas las escuelas del país, y algunas de las experiencias de las comunidades indígenas.This study was oriented to identify the bonds that children from different cultural contexts and regions from the majority Colombian society and an indigenous community from the Colombian Amazon develop toward animals through their personal constructs. Children form the majority society differ from the indigenous children in that the first group follow a conceptual structure based on ecological-scientific criteria while the indigenous sample follow their experiences with animals. There are also differences in the number of animals that girls are afraid of in comparison to boys in the first group. Children from Uitoto community were able to differentiate foreign animals easily than the

  12. Predicting species diversity of benthic communities within turbid nearshore using full-waveform bathymetric LiDAR and machine learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Collin

    Full Text Available Epi-macrobenthic species richness, abundance and composition are linked with type, assemblage and structural complexity of seabed habitat within coastal ecosystems. However, the evaluation of these habitats is highly hindered by limitations related to both waterborne surveys (slow acquisition, shallow water and low reactivity and water clarity (turbid for most coastal areas. Substratum type/diversity and bathymetric features were elucidated using a supervised method applied to airborne bathymetric LiDAR waveforms over Saint-Siméon-Bonaventure's nearshore area (Gulf of Saint-Lawrence, Québec, Canada. High-resolution underwater photographs were taken at three hundred stations across an 8-km(2 study area. Seven models based upon state-of-the-art machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes, Regression Tree, Classification Tree, C 4.5, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and CN2 learners were tested for predicting eight epi-macrobenthic species diversity metrics as a function of the class number. The Random Forest outperformed other models with a three-discretized Simpson index applied to epi-macrobenthic communities, explaining 69% (Classification Accuracy of its variability by mean bathymetry, time range and skewness derived from the LiDAR waveform. Corroborating marine ecological theory, areas with low Simpson epi-macrobenthic diversity responded to low water depths, high skewness and time range, whereas higher Simpson diversity relied upon deeper bottoms (correlated with stronger hydrodynamics and low skewness and time range. The degree of species heterogeneity was therefore positively linked with the degree of the structural complexity of the benthic cover. This work underpins that fully exploited bathymetric LiDAR (not only bathymetrically derived by-products, coupled with proficient machine learner, is able to rapidly predict habitat characteristics at a spatial resolution relevant to epi-macrobenthos diversity, ranging from clear to

  13. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  14. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  15. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 recovered from domestic farm animals in rural communities in Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca A. Amézquita-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of STEC O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic farm animals in the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Northwestern Mexico. Findings All of the examined STEC strains showed susceptibility to five antimicrobials, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. However, resistance to the four antimicrobials, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was commonly observed. Interestingly, non-susceptibility to cephalothin was predominant among the examined STEC strains, corresponding to 85 % (22/26 of the O157:H7 from cattle, sheep and chicken and 73 % (24/33 of the non-O157 strains from cattle and sheep. Statistical analyses revealed that resistance to ampicillin was significantly correlated to 38 % (10/26 of STEC O157:H7 strains from multiple animal sources. Another significant correlation was found between serotype, source, and antimicrobial resistance; all of the O20:H4 strains, recovered from sheep, were highly resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug resistance profiles were identified in 42 % (22/53 of the non-susceptible STEC strains with clinically-relevant serotypes O8:H9, O75:H8, O146:H21, and O157:H7. Conclusions STEC O157 and non-O157 strains, recovered from domestic farm animals in the Culiacan Valley, exhibited resistance to classes of antimicrobials commonly used in Mexico, such as aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins and penicillin but were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, quinolones, and sulfonamides. These findings provide fundamental information that would aid in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in an important agricultural region in Northwestern Mexico.

  16. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  17. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  18. Companion animals symposium: humanized animal models of the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gootenberg, D B; Turnbaugh, P J

    2011-05-01

    Humans and other mammals are colonized by trillions of microorganisms, most of which reside in the gastrointestinal tract, that provide key metabolic capabilities, such as the biosynthesis of vitamins and AA, the degradation of dietary plant polysaccharides, and the metabolism of orally administered therapeutics. Although much progress has been made by studying the human microbiome directly, comparing the human microbiome with that of other animals, and constructing in vitro models of the human gut, there remains a need to develop in vivo models where host, microbial, and environmental parameters can be manipulated. Here, we discuss some of the initial results from a promising method that enables the direct manipulation of microbial community structure, environmental exposures, host genotype, and other factors: the colonization of germ-free animals with complex microbial communities, including those from humans or other animal donors. Analyses of these resulting "humanized" gut microbiomes have begun to reveal 1) that key microbial activities can be transferred from the donor to the recipient animal (e.g., microbial reduction of cholesterol and production of equol), 2) that dietary shifts can affect the composition, gene abundance, and gene expression of the gut microbiome, 3) the succession of the microbial community in infants and ex-germ-free adult animals, and 4) the biogeography of these microbes across the length of gastrointestinal tract. Continued studies of humanized and other intentionally colonized animal models stand to provide new insight into not only the human microbiome, but also the microbiomes of our animal companions.

  19. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  20. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  1. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  2. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  3. Curriculum Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  4. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  5. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...

  6. A questionnaire survey of perceptions and preventive measures related to animal health amongst cattle owners of rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.W. Hesterberg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey of 315 cattle owners from the rural districts of KwaZulu-Natal was carried out. The aim of the survey was to improve our understanding of local farmers' perceptions and practices of animal disease prevention and control and to establish the extent of their relationship with veterinary services. The survey showed that many owners practice preventive measures such as deworming, tick control and vaccination. Traditional medicines were in use by over half the respondents (58.9 %. Diseases are regarded as an important management problem (56.1 %; ticks, worms and diarrhoea dominated the mentioned health problems in cattle. Veterinary services still play an important role and are a frequent source of advice to owners. The findings of the survey and their context are discussed.

  7. First report in South America of companion animal colonization by the USA1100 clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ST30) and by the European clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (ST71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitoco, Isidório Mebinda Zuco; Ramundo, Mariana Severo; Silva-Carvalho, Maria Cícera; Souza, Raquel Rodrigues; Beltrame, Cristiana Ossaille; de Oliveira, Táya Figueiredo; Araújo, Rodrigo; Del Peloso, Pedro Fernandez; Coelho, Leonardo Rocchetto; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá

    2013-08-27

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci can colonize and cause diseases in companion animals. Unfortunately, few molecular studies have been carried out in Brazil and other countries with the aim of characterizing these isolates. Consequently, little is known about the potential role of companion animals in transmitting these resistant bacteria to humans. In this work we searched for mecA gene among Staphylococcus isolates obtained from nasal microbiota of 130 healthy dogs and cats attended in a veterinary clinic located in the west region of Rio de Janeiro. The isolates recovered were identified to the species level and characterized using molecular tools. A community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolate related to USA1100 (Southwest Pacific clone) and susceptible to all non-β-lactams was detected in a cat (1.7%, 1/60). Another coagulase-positive isolate harboring mecA was recovered from a dog (1.4%, 1/70) and identified as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) related to the European clone (ST71). The two isolates of Staphylococcus conhii subsp. urealyticus (1.4%, 1/70 dogs and 1.7%, 1/60 cats), similarly to the MRSP isolate, also presented high-level multiresistance. The majority of the methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%, 4/70 dogs and 6.7%, 4/60 cats) and all clustered into the same PFGE type. This work demonstrates that mecA-harboring Staphylococcus isolates are common members of the nasal microbiota of the healthy companion animals studied (9.2%, 12/130 animals), including some high-level multiresistant isolates of S. pseudintermedius and S. conhii subsp. urealyticus. The detection, for the first time in South America, of USA1100-related CA-MRSA and of ST71 MRSP (European clone), colonizing companion animals, is of concern. Both S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus are important agents of infections for animals. The USA1100 CA-MRSA is a causative of severe and

  8. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  9. Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  10. Complex, Dynamic Combination of Physical, Chemical and Nutritional Variables Controls Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sandy Beach Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J.; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  11. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  12. Animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Animal communication is first and foremost about signal transmission and aims to understand how communication occurs. It is a field that has contributed to and been inspired by other fields, from information technology to neuroscience, in finding ever better methods to eavesdrop on the actual 'message' that forms the basis of communication. Much of this review deals with vocal communication as an example of the questions that research on communication has tried to answer and it provides an historical overview of the theoretical arguments proposed. Topics covered include signal transmission in different environments and different species, referential signaling, and intentionality. The contention is that animal communication may reveal significant thought processes that enable some individuals in a small number of species so far investigated to anticipate what conspecifics might do, although some researchers think of such behavior as adaptive or worth dismissing as anthropomorphizing. The review further points out that some species are more likely than others to develop more complex communication patterns. It is a matter of asking how animals categorize their world and which concepts require cognitive processes and which are adaptive. The review concludes with questions of life history, social learning, and decision making, all criteria that have remained relatively unexplored in communication research. Long-lived, cooperative social animals have so far offered especially exciting prospects for investigation. There are ample opportunities and now very advanced technologies as well to tap further into expressions of memory of signals, be they vocal or expressed in other modalities. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:661-677. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1321 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Impacts of urbanization on the water quality and macrobenthos community structure of the tributaries in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Yan; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Hu, Zun-Ying; Yu, Jian; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2012-05-01

    The 59 1st-3rd order tributaries in the middle reach of Qiantang River are negatively affected by different intensities of urbanization. In April 2010, an investigation was conducted on the water bodies' physical and chemical properties and macrobenthos communities of the tributaries, with the relationships between the tributaries' water quality and biological communities and the percentage of ground surface impervious area (PIA), an indicator of urbanization intensity. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that the water bodies' NH(4+)-N, PO4(3-)-P, TP, COD(Mn), conductivity, width, depth, and fine sand/silt ratio were positively correlated with PIA, and negatively correlated with forest land area. The fitted nonlinear regression equations revealed that all the test macro-benthic invertebrate's parameters had significant relationships with PIA, of which, the total number of taxa, Shannon diversity index, richness index, EPT (%), predators (%), shredders (%), filterers (%) and scrapers (%) were negatively correlated to PIA but positively correlated to forest land area, and the BI, collectors (%), tolerance taxa (%) and oligochaeta (%) were positively correlated to the PIA. Our study indicated that under the impact of urbanization, these tributaries presented the common features of degradation, i. e., high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, degradation of physical habitat, disappearance of pollution-sensitive macro-benthic invertebrate species, and dramatic increase of pollution-tolerant species individuals.

  14. Consistent Richness-Biomass Relationship across Environmental Gradients in a Marine Macroalgal-Dominated Subtidal Community on the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Nelson; Díaz, María José; Garrido, Ignacio; Gómez, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity loss has spurred the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research over a range of ecosystems. In Antarctica, however, the relationship of taxonomic and functional diversity with ecosystem properties (e.g., community biomass) has received less attention, despite the presence of sharp and dynamic environmental stress gradients that might modulate these properties. Here, we investigated whether the richness-biomass relationship in macrobenthic subtidal communities is still apparent after accounting for environmental stress gradients in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Measurements of biomass of mobile and sessile macrobenthic taxa were conducted in the austral summer 2013/4 across two environmental stress gradients: distance from nearest glaciers and subtidal depth (from 5 to 30 m). In general, community biomass increased with distance from glaciers and water depth. However, generalised additive models showed that distance from glaciers and depth accounted for negligible proportions of variation in the number of functional groups (i.e., functional richness) and community biomass when compared to taxonomic richness. Functional richness and community biomass were positive and saturating functions of taxonomic richness. Large endemic, canopy-forming brown algae of the order Desmarestiales dominated the community biomass across both gradients. Accordingly, differences in the composition of taxa accounted for a significant and large proportion (51%) of variation in community biomass in comparison with functional richness (10%). Our results suggest that the environmental factors here analysed may be less important than biodiversity in shaping mesoscale (several km) biomass patterns in this Antarctic system. We suggest that further manipulative, hypothesis-driven research should address the role of biodiversity and species’ functional traits in the responses of Antarctic subtidal communities to environmental variation. PMID:26381149

  15. Consistent Richness-Biomass Relationship across Environmental Gradients in a Marine Macroalgal-Dominated Subtidal Community on the Western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Nelson; Díaz, María José; Garrido, Ignacio; Gómez, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity loss has spurred the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research over a range of ecosystems. In Antarctica, however, the relationship of taxonomic and functional diversity with ecosystem properties (e.g., community biomass) has received less attention, despite the presence of sharp and dynamic environmental stress gradients that might modulate these properties. Here, we investigated whether the richness-biomass relationship in macrobenthic subtidal communities is still apparent after accounting for environmental stress gradients in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Measurements of biomass of mobile and sessile macrobenthic taxa were conducted in the austral summer 2013/4 across two environmental stress gradients: distance from nearest glaciers and subtidal depth (from 5 to 30 m). In general, community biomass increased with distance from glaciers and water depth. However, generalised additive models showed that distance from glaciers and depth accounted for negligible proportions of variation in the number of functional groups (i.e., functional richness) and community biomass when compared to taxonomic richness. Functional richness and community biomass were positive and saturating functions of taxonomic richness. Large endemic, canopy-forming brown algae of the order Desmarestiales dominated the community biomass across both gradients. Accordingly, differences in the composition of taxa accounted for a significant and large proportion (51%) of variation in community biomass in comparison with functional richness (10%). Our results suggest that the environmental factors here analysed may be less important than biodiversity in shaping mesoscale (several km) biomass patterns in this Antarctic system. We suggest that further manipulative, hypothesis-driven research should address the role of biodiversity and species' functional traits in the responses of Antarctic subtidal communities to environmental variation.

  16. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  17. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  18. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  20. Animal papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seagrass burial by dredged sediments: benthic community alteration, secondary production loss, biotic index reaction and recovery possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu Do, V; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Lavesque, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    In 2005, dredging activities in Arcachon Bay (France) led in burying 320,000 m(2) of Zostera noltii intertidal seagrass. Recovery by macrobenthos and seagrass was monitored. Six months after works, seagrass was absent and macrobenthos drastically different from surrounding vegetated stations. Rapidly and due to sediment dispersal, disposal area was divided into a sandflat with a specific benthic community which maintained its difference until the end of the survey (2010), and a mudflat where associated fauna became similar to those in adjacent seagrass. Macrobenthic community needs 3 years to recover while seagrass needs 5 years to recover in the station impacted by mud. The secondary production loss due to works was low. In this naturally carbon enriched system, univariate biotic indices did not perform well to detect seagrass destruction and recovery. Multivariate index MISS gave more relevant conclusions and a simplified version was tested with success, at this local scale.

  2. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  3. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  4. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  5. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  6. Assessment on the Macrozoobenthos Community Health in Xiamen Bay Using Macrozoobenthos Community In-dex%基于 MCI 的厦门湾大型底栖动物群落健康状况评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱延忠; 周娟; 林岿璇; 刘静; 蔡文倩; 刘录三

    2015-01-01

    【目的】对厦门湾的底栖动物群落健康状况进行调查分析,初步构建合适的评价方法,并据此判断厦门湾的底栖生态质量状况。【方法】以2011年3月、6月调查数据为基础,采用 Shannon-Wiener 生物多样性指数、Mar-galef 丰富度指数以及 M-AMBI(Multivariate-AZTI’s Marine Biotic Index)作为构建大型底栖动物群落指数(macrozoobenthos community index,MCI)的指标,在等权重加和的基础上获得 MCI 值。【结果】3月份厦门湾大型底栖动物群落质量差于6月份,且以同安湾的质量最差,东部和西部海域的则最好;九龙江口河口区的群落质量状况呈现明显的空间梯度,沿河口向外、向北部逐渐变好。【结论】厦门湾底栖动物群落之间的时空差异与多种环境因素的联合作用有关,而 MCI 能够较为敏感地响应这种时空变化,适用于评价厦门湾大型底栖动物群落质量状况。%[Objective]The benthic animal community health in Xiamen bay was investigated,and a suitable evaluation method was preliminarily built,by which the quality condition of benthic ecology in Xiamen bay was estimated.[Methods]Based on the materials collected from Xiamen Bay in March and June 2011,the Shannon-Weiner diversity index,Margalef richness index and M-AMBI were selected to set macrozoobenthos community index (MCI)to assess the macrozo-obenthos community health status.Furthermore,each index was given a suitable score and weighted average to count the MCI value.[Results]The macrozoobenthos community health in March was worse than that in June in Xiamen Bay.And,Tong’an Bay was presented as the worst health of macrozoobenthos community,while the eastern and western areas were presen-ted as the best in our studied areas of Xiamen Bay.A clear spatial gradient of changing commu-nity quality was found along the Jiulongjiang estuary to off shore and northern-wards areas,in-dicating that the quality

  7. Identifying key odorants from animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor emissions from animal agriculutre negatively impact air qualitly in surrounding communities. Current analytical practices are biased against agriculutral odorants and thus inadequate for odor quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different techniques ability to identify ...

  8. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  9. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  12. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  13. Characteristics of Soil Animal Community in Lhalu Wetlands during the Summer%拉萨拉鲁湿地夏季土壤动物的群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德来; 马正学; 普布; 巴桑

    2011-01-01

    Macro- and mid- soil animal was sampled from five quadrates (20 m ×20 m each) to presented the soil community of Lhalu Wetlands in June and July 2010 of the study area. Total of 18 446 species, belonging to 3 phyla,7 classes, 14 orders,32 families and 17 genera were recorded. Individuals belonged to Enchytraeidae was dominant and accounted for 10. 95% of the total sampled specimen. About 84. 63% of the total individuals were the component of 27 groups (family or genus) which are considered common groups. Among those common group, A can and Collembola accounted for 32. 5% and 31. 43% of sampled individuals. The soil animals mainly distributed in the soil surface layer in the sampled quadrates. The value of diversity index H' in each samples from highest to lowest was in the order 3# >5# >4# > 1# >2#. The species similarity among the 5 samples were either medium or extreme dissimilarity (S was 0.10S -0.400) .respectively.%摘要:2010年6~7月,对拉鲁湿地5个生境的土壤动物进行了调查,共捕获大型和中小型干生土壤动物41类,18 446只,隶属于3门7纲14目32科17属。土壤动物的优势类群为线蚓科,占总捕获量的10. 95%。常见类群有27类,占总捕获量的84. 63%,其中螨类占总捕获量的32.5%,弹尾类占总捕获量的31.43%。各生境的土壤动物数量和种类在土壤各层的垂直分布具有明显的表聚性。5个生境分布的土壤动物Shannon-Weiner多样性指数(H′)从大到小依次为3#>5#>4#>1#>2#。5个生境间土壤动物的相似程度由极不相似到中等不相似(S值为0. 105 ~0.400)。

  14. Up, Down, and All Around: Scale-Dependent Spatial Variation in Rocky-Shore Communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Nelson; Díaz, María J.; Holtheuer, Jorge; Garrido, Ignacio; Huovinen, Pirjo; Gómez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the variation of biodiversity along environmental gradients and multiple spatial scales is relevant for theoretical and management purposes. Hereby, we analysed the spatial variability in diversity and structure of intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic Antarctic communities along vertical environmental stress gradients and across multiple horizontal spatial scales. Since biotic interactions and local topographic features are likely major factors for coastal assemblages, we tested the hypothesis that fine-scale processes influence the effects of the vertical environmental stress gradients on the macrobenthic diversity and structure. We used nested sampling designs in the intertidal and subtidal habitats, including horizontal spatial scales ranging from few centimetres to 1000s of metres along the rocky shore of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. In both intertidal and subtidal habitats, univariate and multivariate analyses showed a marked vertical zonation in taxon richness and community structure. These patterns depended on the horizontal spatial scale of observation, as all analyses showed a significant interaction between height (or depth) and the finer spatial scale analysed. Variance and pseudo-variance components supported our prediction for taxon richness, community structure, and the abundance of dominant species such as the filamentous green alga Urospora penicilliformis (intertidal), the herbivore Nacella concinna (intertidal), the large kelp-like Himantothallus grandifolius (subtidal), and the red crustose red alga Lithothamnion spp. (subtidal). We suggest that in coastal ecosystems strongly governed by physical factors, fine-scale processes (e.g. biotic interactions and refugia availability) are still relevant for the structuring and maintenance of the local communities. The spatial patterns found in this study serve as a necessary benchmark to understand the dynamics and adaptation of natural assemblages in response to observed and

  15. Up, down, and all around: scale-dependent spatial variation in rocky-shore communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Valdivia

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation of biodiversity along environmental gradients and multiple spatial scales is relevant for theoretical and management purposes. Hereby, we analysed the spatial variability in diversity and structure of intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic Antarctic communities along vertical environmental stress gradients and across multiple horizontal spatial scales. Since biotic interactions and local topographic features are likely major factors for coastal assemblages, we tested the hypothesis that fine-scale processes influence the effects of the vertical environmental stress gradients on the macrobenthic diversity and structure. We used nested sampling designs in the intertidal and subtidal habitats, including horizontal spatial scales ranging from few centimetres to 1000s of metres along the rocky shore of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. In both intertidal and subtidal habitats, univariate and multivariate analyses showed a marked vertical zonation in taxon richness and community structure. These patterns depended on the horizontal spatial scale of observation, as all analyses showed a significant interaction between height (or depth and the finer spatial scale analysed. Variance and pseudo-variance components supported our prediction for taxon richness, community structure, and the abundance of dominant species such as the filamentous green alga Urospora penicilliformis (intertidal, the herbivore Nacella concinna (intertidal, the large kelp-like Himantothallus grandifolius (subtidal, and the red crustose red alga Lithothamnion spp. (subtidal. We suggest that in coastal ecosystems strongly governed by physical factors, fine-scale processes (e.g. biotic interactions and refugia availability are still relevant for the structuring and maintenance of the local communities. The spatial patterns found in this study serve as a necessary benchmark to understand the dynamics and adaptation of natural assemblages in response to

  16. Up, down, and all around: scale-dependent spatial variation in rocky-shore communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Nelson; Díaz, María J; Holtheuer, Jorge; Garrido, Ignacio; Huovinen, Pirjo; Gómez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the variation of biodiversity along environmental gradients and multiple spatial scales is relevant for theoretical and management purposes. Hereby, we analysed the spatial variability in diversity and structure of intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic Antarctic communities along vertical environmental stress gradients and across multiple horizontal spatial scales. Since biotic interactions and local topographic features are likely major factors for coastal assemblages, we tested the hypothesis that fine-scale processes influence the effects of the vertical environmental stress gradients on the macrobenthic diversity and structure. We used nested sampling designs in the intertidal and subtidal habitats, including horizontal spatial scales ranging from few centimetres to 1000s of metres along the rocky shore of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. In both intertidal and subtidal habitats, univariate and multivariate analyses showed a marked vertical zonation in taxon richness and community structure. These patterns depended on the horizontal spatial scale of observation, as all analyses showed a significant interaction between height (or depth) and the finer spatial scale analysed. Variance and pseudo-variance components supported our prediction for taxon richness, community structure, and the abundance of dominant species such as the filamentous green alga Urospora penicilliformis (intertidal), the herbivore Nacella concinna (intertidal), the large kelp-like Himantothallus grandifolius (subtidal), and the red crustose red alga Lithothamnion spp. (subtidal). We suggest that in coastal ecosystems strongly governed by physical factors, fine-scale processes (e.g. biotic interactions and refugia availability) are still relevant for the structuring and maintenance of the local communities. The spatial patterns found in this study serve as a necessary benchmark to understand the dynamics and adaptation of natural assemblages in response to observed and

  17. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  18. Community structure and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in the shelf area of the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianjun; HE Xuebao; LIN Heshan; LIN Junhui; HUANG Yaqin; ZHENG Chengxing; ZHENG Fengwu; LI Rongguan; JIANG Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Field investigations of marine macrobenthos were conducted at ten sites in the Bering Sea in July 2010. Alto-gether 90 species of macrobenthos belonging to 59 families and 78 genera were identified. Among them, 41 polychaetes, 16 mollusks, 23 crustaceans, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, one nemertean, one priapu-lid, two sipunculids, and one echiuran were identified. The average density and biomass of total macrob-enthos were 984 ind./m2 and 1 207.1 g/m2 of wet weight, respectively. The predominant species in the study area were Scoloplos armiger, Eudorella pacifica, Ophiura sarsii, Heteromastus filiformis, Ennucula tenuis, and Harpiniopsis vadiculus by abundance, while the predominant species in this area was Echinarachnius parma by biomass. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis similarity measure) revealed that two impor-tant benthic assemblages in the study area were Community A and Community B. Community A was stable and Community B was unstable, as shown by the Abundance/Biomass Comparisons (ABC) approach. The macrobenthic community structure in the shelf of the Bering Sea was characterized by its high abundance and biomass, high productivity but great heterogeneity.

  19. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  20. Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Klaus; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Akamatsu, Tomonari; André, Michel; Branstetter, Brian K; Lammers, Marc; Radford, Craig A; Stansbury, Amanda L; Aran Mooney, T

    2016-06-01

    A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking effects of man-made sounds on the detection of biologically important sounds; the question how internal state, motivation, context, and previous experience affect their behavioral responses; and the long-term and cumulative effects of sound exposure. If we are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound we must concentrate research on these questions. In order to assess population level and ecological community impacts new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  4. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  5. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  6. Animals in Medical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developed and tested in animals, for treatment and management of both human and animal ailments. Medical research ... Animal model experimental is one approach among .... comparative study of male reproductive problems. These and ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  8. Wildlife and forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Trani Griep; Beverly Collins

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of plant and animal communities in the South ranges from high elevation forests to coastal wetlands, barrier islands, and arid regions of west Texas. Factors contributing to the diversity of these communities include regional gradients in climate, geologic and edaphic site conditions, topographic variation, and natural disturbance processes (Boyce and...

  9. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  10. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  12. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  13. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  14. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  15. Characterization and cartography of some Mediterranean soft-bottom benthic communities (Ligurian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somaschini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom benthic communities were studied along the Western coast of the Ligurian Sea with a new approach using both videocamera surveys and collected samples. The preliminary distribution of soft-bottoms and the definition of the limits and status of seagrass beds were carried out in September 1991, using an underwater vehicle provided with a videocamera and towed by a boat. Moreover, 90 benthic samples were collected at 5-40 m depth in order to characterize the macrobenthic soft-bottom communities. Six soft-bottom benthic assemblages and two sea grass biotopes (Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica were revealed by means of underwater images and multivariate analysis (TWINSPAN on samples collected. The communities inhabiting the infralittoral sandy and coarse sediments corresponded to those previously described in the Mediterranean Sea, whereas a large complex transition between sandy and muddy communities was recognized on circalittoral soft-bottoms. Information obtained with this approach was used to draw a map of the investigated areas at 1:10,000 scale. The employment of the two techniques was cost effective for both time and research effort.

  16. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  18. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  19. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  20. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  2. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  3. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  4. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  5. [Disposal of animal byproducts, dead and slaughtered animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilemann, M

    2002-08-01

    The current state of epidemiological knowledge about BSE clearly indicates that certain practices in carcass rendering had a significant impact on maintenance and spreading of BSE in the cattle population. This awareness did not come up spontaneously. As a reflection community legislation continuously developed and still does. The decisive move was done in the year 2000 by eliminating ruminant tissues with a high infectious potential with regard to BSE (specified risk material--SRM) from the human and animal feed chains. This step as well as the subsequent feed ban for all farm animals dramatically changed the logistical as well as the economical preconditions of the rendering industry. In fact the basic treatment (pressure cooking) remained almost unchanged. But instead of physically recycling the products they are nowadays predominantly used as an energy source in industry. In case of products that originate from the treatment of SRM burning is mandatory. These changes require a well adapted and intensified official supervision.

  6. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu,Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to ana...

  7. The animal scientist in a changing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S

    1999-10-01

    Despite the lack of any credible scientific evidence to oppose the use of animal performance-enhancing agents, acceptance of performance enhancers seems no closer than it was a decade ago--at least among the European Community and its major trading partners. Consumers are suspicious of new technologies, and politicians are wary of legalizing growth promoters when the relative price of animal products has never been cheaper. Among the factors that have recently re-fuelled consumer concerns over farming methods are: bovine spongiform encephalopathy, cloning of farm animals, and genetic manipulation of crops. Meanwhile, politicians try to balance the interests of the environmentalist, farming, and welfare lobbies with the politico-economic realities of an expanding European Community and the demands of the GATT agreement. In the United States, where corporate influence over political actions is more overtly established than in Europe, some new technologies have been introduced. This has further antagonized many consumers. As scientists with a direct interest in animal performance enhancers, we need to re-assess our positions--if for no other reason than to protect our research (and personal) incomes. We could probably better protect our own interests--and those of the farming community--if we raised our eyes from the microscope to look at the wider view. There are two challenges for animal production scientists: to identify truly acceptable ways of enhancing animal performance and to be highly active in bringing scientific consensus to the attention of both the public and the political establishments.

  8. CONTEMPORARY LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Brigita Perše; Martina Perše

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThe experiments on animals remain to play an important and yet unreplaceble role in the progress of biomedicine. Therefore, under certain legal conditions, it is morally acceptable to use animals for scientific purposes. Directive 86/609/EEC adopted in 1986 has started to regulate the legislation on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes in Europe and in Slovenia. In 2010, after a public consultation involving scientific community and animal protectionist association...

  9. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  10. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  13. ANIMAL MODELS IN SURGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSEMBLED BY

    the development of medicine and surgery. Animals have .... from cinemas and television except if for humane .... museums, exhibitions, films, and education as well as .... India. 2000. Al-Suhrawardy AM (ed). Animals and duties owed thereto.

  14. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  15. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  17. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  19. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  20. Study Circles and Socio-cultural Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Malečkar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal learning and participating in study circles is a way of applying the ideas of socio-cultural animation. It is based on the assumption that within a society there are mechanisms that institutions don't comprise and therefore don't fulfil various, often urgent needs deriving from everyday life and the community. What is going on here is identifying and solving burning problems; some of them have already become an integral part of the way of living in a community. Study circles as an informal phenomenon in Slovenia create new possibilities of social activities based on common learning and participating in a community.

  1. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  2. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  3. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Peter; Adams, David B; Voracek, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world's zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides 'leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability'. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  4. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Linhart†

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA, the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  5. Characteristics of Macrobenthic Community in Spring in the Coastal Waters of Qingdao%青岛近海春季大型底栖动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗兴; 范士亮; 徐勤增; 王守强; 韦钦胜; 臧家业

    2010-01-01

    分析2007年4月在青岛近海进行的大型底栖动物定量采集样品资料,研究了该海域大型底栖动物群落的优势种组成和物种多样性、生物量、丰度和群落等级聚类分析(CLUSTER)以及群落受污染扰动情况.本次调查中共获得青岛近海大型底栖动物89种,其中多毛类41种,甲壳动物32种,软体动物5种,棘皮动物6种,其它类群动物5种.群落中优势种以日本美人虾(Callianassa japonica)和日本倍棘蛇尾(Amphioplus japonicus)贡献率较高.平均生物量和丰度空间分布高值区均出现在近岸海域.群落结构聚类分析表明,15个取样站的群落结构相似性程度都非常低,为10%~30%,仅有S10站和S13站、S3站和S9站Bray-Curtis相似性系数达到40%.ABC曲线表明,S6,S7,S12,S13站的底栖动物群落已受到中度扰动,其它各站ABC曲线状态正常,表明底栖动物群落基本未受干扰,处于较稳定状态.

  6. Animal diversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian D.; Brose, Ulrich; Rall, Björn C.; Guill, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Species diversity is changing globally and locally, but the complexity of ecological communities hampers a general understanding of the consequences of animal species loss on ecosystem functioning. High animal diversity increases complementarity of herbivores but also increases feeding rates within the consumer guild. Depending on the balance of these counteracting mechanisms, species-rich animal communities may put plants under top-down control or may release them from grazing pressure. Using a dynamic food-web model with body-mass constraints, we simulate ecosystem functions of 20,000 communities of varying animal diversity. We show that diverse animal communities accumulate more biomass and are more exploitative on plants, despite their higher rates of intra-guild predation. However, they do not reduce plant biomass because the communities are composed of larger, and thus energetically more efficient, plant and animal species. This plasticity of community body-size structure reconciles the debate on the consequences of animal species loss for primary productivity.

  7. 贵州屯上洞内动物群落结构与部分环境因子的相关性研究%Study on the correlation of animal community diversity and partial environmental factors in Tunshang cave of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶子郯; 黎道洪

    2011-01-01

    2009年7月对施秉屯上洞内的动物进行了调查,共获动物标本454号,隶属3门9纲16目19科20种(或类群)。该洞内的动物群由3个动物群落组成。经数理统计分析,群落多样性、均匀性、优势度和群落间相似性指数最高的分别是黑暗带群落(1.5545)、有光带群落(0.7790)、弱光带群落(0.5057)以及有光带群落和黑暗带群落(0.6249)。通过对群落多样性与部分环境因子的相关性分析,结果显示物种数(S)与湿度(H)和温度(AT)分别呈极显著的正相关和极显著的负相关(双尾显著性检验≤0.01);群落优势度(%In July 2009, this paper studied on animals in Tunshang cave of Shibing County, Guizhou Province. The collected samples were 454, belonging to 3 phyla, 9 classes, 16 orders, 19 families and 20 groups. There are 3 animal communities in this cave. According to mathematical and statistical analysis, the communities containing the highest indexes of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity were the dark belt community ( 1. 554 5 ) , the light belt community (0. 779 0) , the reflection light belt community (0. 505 7) and the light belt community and dark belt community (0. 624 9 ) respec- tively. The results of correlation analysis between community diversity and environmental factors showed that the humidity (H)had the significantly positive correlation with number of species (S), and the air temperature (AT) had the significantly negative correlation with number of species (S), whose 2-tailed significant test is at the ≤0. 01 level. Moreover, the content of Mg in soil had the significantly positive correlation with the richness of species( C), whose 2-tailed significant test is wat the ≤0. 05 level. So these results indicated that humidity (H), air temperature (AT) and Mg were the important factors influencing change of animal community diversity in

  8. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  9. Bored to Death: Community-Wide Effect of Predation on a Foundation Species in a Low-Disturbance Arctic Subtidal System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniy Yakovis

    Full Text Available The strength of top-down control by consumers is predicted to decrease with latitude, but most data confirming this assumption come from latitudes <60°, while empirical studies of predation in sub-arctic and arctic marine habitats are few. A barnacle Balanus crenatus is a native foundation species in the shallow subtidal of the White Sea (65° N, hosting a diverse (250+ species assemblage of macrobenthic organisms. On mixed sediments live barnacles share primary substrates (shells and gravel with numerous empty barnacle tests, 7% of which had drill holes of an unidentified origin. We manipulated the densities of (i adult muricid whelks Boreotrophon clathratus (of previously unknown feeding habits, to check if they prey on barnacles, (ii other predators to reveal their effect on juvenile Boreotrophon, and (iii empty tests to assess the community-wide effect of predation on barnacles. The abundance of drilled empty tests in the field correlated with that of Boreotrophon. A year-long caging experiment clearly confirmed predation, showing the highest barnacle mortality and proportion of drilled tests in whelk enclosures, and the lowest--in predator exclosure treatments. Boreotrophon preferred the barnacles attached to conspecifics to those from primary substrates. Because of its scarcity Boreotrophon had a minor direct effect on barnacle abundance in the field. Yet, initially defaunated empty tests and live barnacles developed markedly different macrobenthic assemblages, suggesting a strong indirect effect of the predation. Juvenile Boreotrophon were 5-6 times less abundant in open and partial cages than in exclosures and enclosures, which indicates that the recruitment and, consequently, the abundance of Boreotrophon and its predation on Balanus are top-down controlled by apex predators. In contrast, in tropical and temperate intertidal the predation on barnacles is stronger and primarily limited by environmental stress and prey availability.

  10. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  11. [Transgenic animals bioreactors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; An, Xiao-Rong; Tian, Jian-Hui; Chen, Yong-Fu

    2002-01-01

    The production of human recombinant proteins in milk of transgenic farm animals offers a safe, very cost-effective source of commercially important proteins that cannot be produced as efficiently in adequate quantities by other methods. This review has summarized the current status of gene selection, vector construct, transgenic methods, economics, and obvious potential in transgenic animals bioreactors. Recently, a more powerful approach was adopted in the transgenic animals founded on the application of nuclear transfer. As we will illustrate, this strategy presents a breakthrough in the overall efficiency of generating transgenic farm animals, product consistency, and time of product development. The successful adaptation of Cre-/lox P-mediated site-specific DNA recombination systems in farm animals will offer unprecedented possibilities for generating transgenic animals.

  12. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  13. Algorithm Animation with Galant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F

    2017-01-01

    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  14. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  15. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  16. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J M

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  17. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Linhart†; David B Adams; Thomas Voracek

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transp...

  18. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...

  19. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  20. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  1. Exploring the immediate and long-term impact on bacterial communities in soil amended with animal and urban organic waste fertilizers using pyrosequencing and screening for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Leise; Poulsen, Pernille H B; Al-Soud, Waleed A; Skov Hansen, Lea B; Bergmark, Lasse; Brejnrod, Asker; Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H; Magid, Jakob; Sørensen, Søren J

    2014-10-01

    We investigated immediate and long-term effects on bacterial populations of soil amended with cattle manure, sewage sludge or municipal solid waste compost in an ongoing agricultural field trial. Soils were sampled in weeks 0, 3, 9 and 29 after fertilizer application. Pseudomonas isolates were enumerated, and the impact on soil bacterial community structure was investigated using 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Bacterial community structure at phylum level remained mostly unaffected. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were the most prevalent phyla significantly responding to sampling time. Seasonal changes seemed to prevail with decreasing bacterial richness in week 9 followed by a significant increase in week 29 (springtime). The Pseudomonas population richness seemed temporarily affected by fertilizer treatments, especially in sludge- and compost-amended soils. To explain these changes, prevalence of antibiotic- and mercury-resistant pseudomonads was investigated. Fertilizer amendment had a transient impact on the resistance profile of the soil community; abundance of resistant isolates decreased with time after fertilizer application, but persistent strains appeared multiresistant, also in unfertilized soil. Finally, the ability of a P. putida strain to take up resistance genes from indigenous soil bacteria by horizontal gene transfer was present only in week 0, indicating a temporary increase in prevalence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes.

  2. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided.

  3. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  4. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  5. Animal Care Use Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the structure, activities, responsibilities, and practices of animal care and use committees established to review classroom activities and student research using animals. Provides six hypothetical situations with suggested solutions to test a committee's decision-making ability. Includes a proposed activity form for teachers. (MDH)

  6. Small Animal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  7. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  8. Political animal voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I develop a theory of political animal voices. The first part of the thesis focuses on non-human animal languages and forming interspecies worlds. I first investigate the relation between viewing language as exclusively human and seeing humans as categorically different from other

  9. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  10. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  11. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  12. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  13. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  14. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  15. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  16. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  17. Dreams of the Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  18. Ways Animals Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kristen; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou; Daniels, Anniece

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a set of upper-elementary activities that focuses on how animals communicate. The activities describe procedures that students working in groups can use to investigate the topic of animal communication. An initial information sheet, resource list, and grading rubric are provided. The lesson plan was field-tested in an…

  19. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  20. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  1. Hazardous marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  2. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  3. Aspects related to animal welfare in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Vieira de Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review aimed to highlight the importance of pig welfare and meat quality, as well as some critical points, solutions to improve the management of these animals for swine production. The animal welfare settings have been widely debated within the international scientific community in recent decades. A conceptual row is the most widely accepted animal welfare within a multidimensional approach, encompassing emotions, biological functioning and natural behavior. However, understood the concepts, another challenge that arises is how to properly measure the animal welfare under field conditions. The subject animal welfare is growing rapidly and gaining greater importance in livestock production, not only pigs, but of all the exploited classes.

  4. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  5. Towards an animated JPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theytaz, Joël.; Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    Recently, short animated image sequences have become very popular in social networks. Most animated images are represented in GIF format. In this paper we propose an animated JPEG format, called aJPEG, which allows the standard JPEG format to be extended in a backward compatible way in order to cope with animated images. After presenting the proposed format, we illustrate it using two prototype applications: the first in form of a GIF-to-aJPEG converter on a personal computer and the second in form of an aJPEG viewer on a smart phone. The paper also reports the performance evaluation of aJPEG when compared to GIF. Experimental results show that aJPEG outperforms animated GIF in both file size overhead and image quality.

  6. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  7. Parenting in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    The study of parenting in animals has allowed us to come to a better understanding of the neural and physiological mechanisms that underlie mammalian parental behavior. The long-term effects of parenting (and parental abuse or neglect) on offspring, and the neurobiological changes that underlie those changes, have also been best studied in animal models. Our greater experimental control and ability to directly manipulate neural and hormonal systems, as well as the environment of the subjects, will ensure that animal models remain important in the study of parenting; while in the future, the great variety of parental caregiving systems displayed by animals should be more thoroughly explored. Most importantly, cross-talk between animal and human subjects research should be promoted.

  8. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    , the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching.......This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead...

  9. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  10. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  11. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Recovered from Humans, Environmental Surfaces, and Companion Animals in Households of Children with Community-Onset Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, John J; Hogan, Patrick G; Sullivan, Melanie L; Muenks, Carol E; Wang, Jeffrey W; Thompson, Ryley M; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from 110 households of children with community-onset methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. Cultures were obtained from household members, household objects, and dogs and cats, yielding 1,633 S. aureus isolates. The S. aureus isolates were heterogeneous, although more than half were methicillin resistant. The highest proportion of MRSA was found in bathrooms. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antibiotics prescribed in outpatient settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Freshwater seepages and ephemeral macroalgae proliferation in an intertidal bay: I Effect on benthic community structure and food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouisse, Vincent; Riera, Pascal; Migné, Aline; Leroux, Cédric; Davoult, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater seepages and ephemeral Enteromorpha spp. proliferation create heterogeneity at small spatial scale in intertidal sediment. Macrobenthic community diversity was compared between these two disturbances and their respective control points throughout the year 2007 at the Roscoff Aber Bay (Western English Channel, France). In March and September 2007, trophic community pathways of characteristic species were additionally studied using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The low salinity recorded at the freshwater seepage induced the exclusion of the main bioturbator and the presence of omnivores which modified the community composition by biotic pressure. Moreover, food web analyses clearly highlighted a separation at small spatial scale between the two trophic pathways of the impacted area and its control. On the contrary, little differences were observed owning to the ephemeral Enteromorpha spp. proliferation. This suggested a progressive and diffusive disturbance which was applied from the algal mat to the nearby area. However, seasonal changes were observed. First, the algal expansion phase increased the macrofauna diversity and foraminifers' abundance (meiofauna) and then acted as a physical barrier decreasing sediment and water column exchanges and decreasing the fauna diversity. This study highlights the need to take into account small spatial heterogeneity to avoid misinterpretations in intertidal ecology studies.

  14. International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janezic, Sandra; Zidaric, Valerija; Pardon, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria...... of one strain (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results: Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates...... animal associated C. difficile strains worldwide. The widespread dissemination of toxigenic C. difficile and the considerable overlap in strain distribution between species furthers concerns about interspecies, including zoonotic, transmission of this critically important pathogen....

  15. CONTEMPORARY LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Perše

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe experiments on animals remain to play an important and yet unreplaceble role in the progress of biomedicine. Therefore, under certain legal conditions, it is morally acceptable to use animals for scientific purposes. Directive 86/609/EEC adopted in 1986 has started to regulate the legislation on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes in Europe and in Slovenia. In 2010, after a public consultation involving scientific community and animal protectionist associations, the European parliament released revised Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. The aim of the paper is to present contemporary legislation from the field of experimental animals and basic ethical principles that are foundation of responsible use of animals in research as well as valid science.   ConclusionThe society`s relationship to the animals varies throughtout history, also thanks to animal experimentation which definitively confirmed that animals are sentient beings that like humans experience pain, suffering, distres or enjoyment. In western developed society the number of people defending animal rights and contradicting the use of animals in experiments is increasing. Therefore, increasing effort and financial stimulation for the development and implementation of the methods to replace animal experimentation takes place in the EU. But as long as this does not occur the revised legislation requires careful and responsible use of animals in accordance with the legislative and contemporary ethical principles.

  16. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Batrićević Ana

    2011-01-01

    Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling an...

  17. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  18. Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

    2013-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (δ34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report δ34S, δ13C and δ15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in δ34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = -2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2σ). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only δ13C and δ15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen δ34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy δ15N values coupled with light δ34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow

  19. Influence of soil salinization on soil animal community in an arid oasis of middle Heihe River basin%黑河中游干旱绿洲土壤盐渍化对大型土壤动物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继亮; 李锋瑞; 牛瑞雪; 刘长安; 刘七军

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the status of soil salinization and the structure of soil animal community across six land use/cover types in an arid oasis of middle Heihe River basin, and the methods of redundancy analysis, regression analysis, and path analysis were adopted to analyze the responses of the soil animal community under different land use/cover types and different management modes to the various status of soil salinization. The six land use/cover types were 21-year old shrub land without irrigation and fertilization, 28-year old poplar and 33-year-old pine plantations with irrigation, 27- and 100-year-old farmlands with irrigation and fertilization, and natural grassland, from which all the other five land use/cover types were converted. The results demonstrated that land cover change in the absence of management practices did not lead to a significant change in the abundance and group richness of the soil animal community, while land cover change in the presence of management practices resulted in a significant change in the soil animal community. The evolvement of the soil animal community structure was co-affected by soil pH, soluble salt content, and Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, and Mg + concentrations, among which, soil soluble salt and Na+ had the greatest contribution, being the key affecting factors. The abundance and group richness of the soil animal community had significant negative exponential correlations with soil soluble salt content and Na+ concentration, and significant quadratic correlations with soil Mg 2+ and HCO3- concentrations. The calculated ecological threshold values of soil Mg2+ and HCO3- concentrations for the abundance and group richness of the soil animal community were 38. 7-39. 4 mg · kg-1 and 324. 9-335. 3 mg · kg-1, at which, the abundance and group richness reached their peaks 40-43 individuals · m-2 and 13-14 families · m-2, respectively. When the Mg2+ and HCO3- concentrations increased further, the abundance and group

  20. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  1. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  2. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  3. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  4. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  5. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  7. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  8. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  9. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to ... and wildlife, minilivestock, livestock farming systems and other disciplines. ... Selenium and tocopherol effects on parasitaemia, organ weights and ...

  10. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...... to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of the ethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access...

  11. Animal models of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  12. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RainerThomm

    2005-01-01

    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  13. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  14. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  15. Historical changes in the structure and functioning of the benthic community in the lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranovi, Fabio; Da Ponte, Filippo; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2008-03-01

    One of the main challenges in environmental management is how to manage the dynamics of natural environments. In this context, having information about historical changes of the structure of the biological communities could represent a useful tool to improve management strategies, contributing to refine the policy objectives, since it gives reference states with which to compare the present. The Venice lagoon represents an interesting case study, since it is a highly dynamic, but sensitive, environment which requires the adoption of prudent management. In its recent history the lagoon ecosystem has been exposed to different kinds of disturbance, from the discharge of pollutants and nutrients, to the invasion of alien species and the exploitation of its biological resources by using highly impacting fishing gears. The analysis of available data about the macro-benthic community, from 1935 to 2004, allows the description of changes of the community structure over almost 70 years, showing a sharp decrease in its diversity. In order to obtain information about its functioning, it is necessary to know how these changes have affected processes at the community and system level. In shallow water ecosystems, as the control is mainly due to the benthic compartment, variations in the structure of the benthic community can induce modifications in processes at different hierarchical levels. The trophic structure analysis has revealed major changes during the period; from a well-assorted structure in 1935, to an herbivore-detritivore dominated one in the 1990s, and finally to a filter feeder dominated structure during the last decade. This has produced variations in the secondary production and it has induced modifications in the type of the ecosystem control. These changes are discussed in the light of the dynamics of the main driving forces.

  16. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Animal Bites - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Library of Medicine Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  17. Cytogenetics in animal production

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy), lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities) or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities). Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biolo...

  18. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  19. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  1. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  2. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡凡

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  3. Sequencing technologies for animal cell culture research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremkow, Benjamin G; Lee, Kelvin H

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, 2nd and 3rd generation sequencing technologies have made the use of genomic sequencing within the animal cell culture community increasingly commonplace. Each technology's defining characteristics are unique, including the cost, time, sequence read length, daily throughput, and occurrence of sequence errors. Given each sequencing technology's intrinsic advantages and disadvantages, the optimal technology for a given experiment depends on the particular experiment's objective. This review discusses the current characteristics of six next-generation sequencing technologies, compares the differences between them, and characterizes their relevance to the animal cell culture community. These technologies are continually improving, as evidenced by the recent achievement of the field's benchmark goal: sequencing a human genome for less than $1,000.

  4. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  5. Protecting animals and enabling research in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Pinto da Silva, Sandra; Townend, David

    2016-01-01

    European playing field. Starting in 2002, a process of revising European animal experimentation legislation was undertaken, with one of its key aims being to ensure high standards of welfare for laboratory animals across Europe. This resulted in Directive 2010/63/EU, which has regulated this activity......In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level...... objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3...

  6. A New Method of 3D Facial Expression Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animating expressive facial animation is a very challenging topic within the graphics community. In this paper, we introduce a novel ERI (expression ratio image driving framework based on SVR and MPEG-4 for automatic 3D facial expression animation. Through using the method of support vector regression (SVR, the framework can learn and forecast the regression relationship between the facial animation parameters (FAPs and the parameters of expression ratio image. Firstly, we build a 3D face animation system driven by FAP. Secondly, through using the method of principle component analysis (PCA, we generate the parameter sets of eigen-ERI space, which will rebuild reasonable expression ratio image. Then we learn a model with the support vector regression mapping, and facial animation parameters can be synthesized quickly with the parameters of eigen-ERI. Finally, we implement our 3D face animation system driving by the result of FAP and it works effectively.

  7. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a we...... support the written account – together with graphic figurations of the many human and non-human actors playing a part of the mattering of “Becoming Sheep”, with an equal intention of performing multiple positions within and through the text......., for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  8. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  9. Animal models for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  10. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live-animal official test, an official genotype test, the culling and postmortem examination and testing of genetically susceptible animals in the flock that cannot be evaluated by a live animal test... designation from an animal that tested positive on a live-animal screening test based on an epidemiologic...

  11. Animated GIFs as vernacular graphic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül Akyapi

    2016-01-01

    Online television audiences create a variety of digital content on the internet. Fans of television production design produce and share such content to express themselves and engage with the objects of their interest. These digital expressions, which exist in the form of graphics, text, videos...... and often a mix of some of these modes, seem to enable participatory conversations by the audience communities that continue over a period of time. One example of such multimodal digital content is the graphic format called the animated GIF (graphics interchange format). This article focuses on content...... creation by online audiences who use the blogging service Tumblr and analyses the animated GIF – a web image format that is able to display a succession of frames – from a multimodal and social semiotic viewpoint. The author analyzes animated GIFs as digital content, and frames digital content creation...

  12. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  13. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... makes the life manifestations of the users in context visible. We present and discuss how animation- based sketching can support the elaboration and examination of different ethical stances towards the user in the product and service development process. Finally we present a framework for creating...

  15. Video animation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareda, J.

    1985-01-01

    A video animation system is being used at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque to record computer generated images directly onto 3/4'' videocassettes. The system serves as a quick turn around process for previewing sequences prior to sending them to a Dicomed film recorder. It is also used when videocassette is appropriate for final output. The video animation system in place at Sandia is described. The system consists of a medium resolution graphics display system, a 3/4'' professional quality videocassette recorder, and a controller that allows single frame recording of computer generated images to be performed under program control. Examples of output produced using this system are presented which will include animated sequences of scientific data produced by DISSPLA programs.

  16. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  17. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  18. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  19. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  20. Adjuvants for Animal Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, Yulia; Madera, Rachel; McVey, Scott; Schlup, John R; Shi, Jishu

    2017-06-15

    Vaccines are essential tools for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. One of the most important steps in vaccine development is the selection of a suitable adjuvant. The focus of this review is the adjuvants used in vaccines for animals. We will discuss current commercial adjuvants and experimental formulations with attention to mineral salts, emulsions, bacterial-derived components, saponins, and several other immunoactive compounds. In addition, we will also examine the mechanisms of action for different adjuvants, examples of adjuvant combinations in one vaccine formulation, and challenges in the research and development of veterinary vaccine adjuvants.

  1. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Sessile Animals on an Artificial Fish Reef with Pine Tree

    OpenAIRE

    吉永, 圭輔; ヨシナガ, ケイスケ; YOSHINAGA, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the sessile animals attached to a pine tree reef. The artificial reef was placed off the coast of Ibusuki City in Kagoshima Bay on 21 December 1995. A piece of pine log was recovered from this reef on 30 October 1998, and animal community attached to the pine log was examined. Abundant ship-worms, Teredo navalis japonica, burrowed their ways from the cut end to the core. Sessile animals clung to the bark. There were also observed many other animals within ...

  3. Animal Care in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses housing facilities for living animals in the classroom or laboratory. The construction of animal cages from materials obtained locally is described. Space recommendations for laboratory animals and cages are also included. (HM)

  4. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  5. Transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, L M

    2000-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins is one of the major successes of biotechnology. Animal cells are required to synthesize proteins with the appropriate post-translational modifications. Transgenic animals are being used for this purpose. Milk, egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma and silk worm cocoon from transgenic animals are candidates to be the source of recombinant proteins at an industrial scale. Although the first recombinant protein produced by transgenic animals is expected to be in the market in 2000, a certain number of technical problems remain to be solved before the various systems are optimized. Although the generation of transgenic farm animals has become recently easier mainly with the technique of animal cloning using transfected somatic cells as nuclear donor, this point remains a limitation as far as cost is concerned. Numerous experiments carried out for the last 15 years have shown that the expression of the transgene is predictable only to a limited extent. This is clearly due to the fact that the expression vectors are not constructed in an appropriate manner. This undoubtedly comes from the fact that all the signals contained in genes have not yet been identified. Gene constructions thus result sometime in poorly functional expression vectors. One possibility consists in using long genomic DNA fragments contained in YAC or BAC vectors. The other relies on the identification of the major important elements required to obtain a satisfactory transgene expression. These elements include essentially gene insulators, chromatin openers, matrix attached regions, enhancers and introns. A certain number of proteins having complex structures (formed by several subunits, being glycosylated, cleaved, carboxylated...) have been obtained at levels sufficient for an industrial exploitation. In other cases, the mammary cellular machinery seems insufficient to promote all the post-translational modifications. The addition of genes coding for enzymes

  6. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  7. Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) is a comprehensive resource for scientists performing animal-based research to gain a better understanding of cancer,...

  8. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶扬志

    2000-01-01

    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  9. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  10. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  11. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ...

  13. Simple Animations with Excels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickensderfer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the use of animated drawings for teaching physics. The benefits to the students are obvious. Rather than looking at still pictures in a textbook, they can observe a physical event and see how it plays out over time.

  14. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  15. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a

  16. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  17. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  18. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  19. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a mista

  20. In and Out (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation links two images taken by the front hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover is stowing and unstowing its robotic arm, or instrument deployment device. The device is designed to hold and maneuver the various instruments on board that will help scientists get up-close and personal with martian rocks and soil.

  1. Animal and Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  2. The Animal Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Charl Anne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a project for students in Art 1 and Art 2 courses in which they created small, clay, animal pots. Describes the process of creating the pots beginning with student research, the project planning stage, and the production of the pot project. (CMK)

  3. An animated virtual drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragtwijk, M.; Giagourta, V.; Nijholt, Antinus; Strintzis, M.G.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes. Fro

  4. An animated virtual drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragtwijk, M.; Giagourta, V.; Nijholt, Antinus; Strintzis, M.G.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes.

  5. In and Out (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation links two images taken by the front hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover is stowing and unstowing its robotic arm, or instrument deployment device. The device is designed to hold and maneuver the various instruments on board that will help scientists get up-close and personal with martian rocks and soil.

  6. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  7. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  8. Wizards of Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    At the South Burlington (Vermont) High School Imaging Lab, students are learning to manipulate the animation technology that NASA uses to design rockets, Hollywood uses to make movies, and architects use to design buildings. Assisted by grants, an English teacher parlayed a single unused computer into a nationally recognized program that helps…

  9. Can Animals Think?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    For centuries, philosophers argued that thinking and language sepa-rate humans from other species. The lesser creatures, Rene Descartes con-tended in I637, are little more than automatons, sleepwalking through lifewithout a mote of self-awareness. Later, scientists had reason to be skep-tical of claims concerning animal intelligence. At the turn of the century,

  10. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  11. The use of genetically-engineered animals in science: perspectives of Canadian Animal Care Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Dale, Julie; Griffin, Gilly

    2013-05-01

    The genetic engineering of animals for their use in science challenges the implementation of refinement and reduction in several areas, including the invasiveness of the procedures involved, unanticipated welfare concerns, and the numbers of animals required. Additionally, the creation of genetically-engineered animals raises problems with the Canadian system of reporting animal numbers per Category of Invasiveness, as well as raising issues of whether ethical limits can, or should, be placed on genetic engineering. A workshop was held with the aim of bringing together Canadian animal care committee members to discuss these issues, to reflect on progress that has been made in addressing them, and to propose ways of overcoming any challenges. Although previous literature has made recommendations with regard to refinement and reduction when creating new genetically-engineered animals, the perception of the workshop participants was that some key opportunities are being missed. The participants identified the main roadblocks to the implementation of refinement and reduction alternatives as confidentiality, cost and competition. If the scientific community is to make progress concerning the implementation of refinement and reduction, particularly in the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals, addressing these roadblocks needs to be a priority.

  12. 三组耐低温厌氧菌群的种群结构分析%Microbial Communities of Three Low-temperature Resistant Microflora from Animal Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; 聂毅磊; 罗立津; 贾纬; 陈星伟

    2016-01-01

    为解决低温环境下厌氧沼气发酵效率低的问题,构建选育耐低温厌氧发酵产沼气菌群。采集农家的干牛粪,经低温继代富集培养,获得1组耐低温厌氧发酵产沼气菌群5#,并将其用养猪场污水处理工程的厌氧污水驯化,获得可在15℃产沼气的菌群Y5S ,采用高通量测序技术,分析比较菌群5#、Y5S以及厌氧污水中原始菌群YJ的原核微生物群落结构。结果显示3个菌群均含有厚壁菌门 Firmicutes、拟杆菌门 Bacteroidetes、互养菌门 Synergistetes、变形菌门 Proteobacteria、螺旋体门Spirochaetes和疣微菌门 Verrucomicrobia。其中覆盖100%样品的微生物组核心种群Core microbiome有85个,属厚壁菌门Firmicutes的梭菌纲clostridia。在属分类水平上3菌群共有的原核微生物为:醋酸杆菌属 A cetobacterium、柠檬酸杆菌属 Citrobacter、梭菌属Clostridium、脱硫叶菌属 Desulfobulbus、脱硫微菌 Desulfomicrobium、噬氢菌属 Hydrogenophaga、颤螺旋菌属 Oscillospira、 Parabacteroides、瘤胃球菌属 Ruminococcus、 Sedimentibacter、鞘脂单胞菌属 Sphingomonas、硫磺单胞菌属 Sulfurospirillum、互营单胞菌属 Syntrophomonas、明串珠菌属 Trichococcus和Devosia等。互养菌门 Synergistetes在菌群Y5S中丰度占比较高,可能对沼气产生有较大作用。%To improve the efficiency of anaerobic , low‐temperature bioconversion of waste materials to methane ,3 groups of psychrophilic microflora were studied .Dried cow manure was collected from local cattle farms for an enrichment culture at 15℃ .From the culture ,Group #5 microflora was identified as a potential source for further investigation .The microbes of the group were inoculated in the waste water effluent from a pig farm to obtaine the low‐temperature resistant Group Y5S . The microbial communities of Y5S , # 5 , and YJ (a microflora group originated from pig farm sewer ) were compared .In all 3

  13. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  14. The effect of a natural water-movement related disturbance on the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities in the intertidal sand flat of Rocas Atoll (NE, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Attrill, M. J.; Warwick, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    Rocas, the only atoll in the South Atlantic, is located 266 km off the northeast Brazilian coast. Spatial patterns in community structure of meiofauna, particularly nematodes, and macrofauna were examined along a transect through the sediment path from windward to leeward of the Rocas Atoll sand flat. Differences in benthic community structure between four zones of the sand flat were found to be significant and related to the major local processes of carbonate-grain transport and sedimentation. Both meiobenthic and macrobenthic assemblages were significantly more diverse and abundant within the sediment inflow zone (the initial part of the detrital path of Rocas sand flat) than in the other zones, where a clear impoverishment of benthic invertebrates occurred. This first study of the benthos of an intertidal sand flat over a reef island in the Atlantic showed that the meiofauna is numerically dominated by the nematodes Metoncholainus sp. 1 (Oncholaimidae) and Epsilonema sp. 1 (Epsilonematidade), whilst the macrofauna is largely dominated by oligochaetes and large Oncholaimidae nematodes. Analysis of the species composition, trophic structure and abundance of both the meiobenthos and the macrobenthos revealed an impoverished community subjected to an intense water-movement disturbance.

  15. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  16. Microbes are trophic analogs of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan, Shawn A; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Currie, Cameron R; Horn, Heidi; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Pauli, Jonathan N; Zalapa, Juan E; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-12-01

    In most ecosystems, microbes are the dominant consumers, commandeering much of the heterotrophic biomass circulating through food webs. Characterizing functional diversity within the microbiome, therefore, is critical to understanding ecosystem functioning, particularly in an era of global biodiversity loss. Using isotopic fingerprinting, we investigated the trophic positions of a broad diversity of heterotrophic organisms. Specifically, we examined the naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen ((15)N:(14)N) within amino acids extracted from proteobacteria, actinomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes, as well as from vertebrate and invertebrate macrofauna (crustaceans, fish, insects, and mammals). Here, we report that patterns of intertrophic (15)N-discrimination were remarkably similar among bacteria, fungi, and animals, which permitted unambiguous measurement of consumer trophic position, independent of phylogeny or ecosystem type. The observed similarities among bacterial, fungal, and animal consumers suggest that within a trophic hierarchy, microbiota are equivalent to, and can be interdigitated with, macrobiota. To further test the universality of this finding, we examined Neotropical fungus gardens, communities in which bacteria, fungi, and animals are entwined in an ancient, quadripartite symbiosis. We reveal that this symbiosis is a discrete four-level food chain, wherein bacteria function as the apex carnivores, animals and fungi are meso-consumers, and the sole herbivores are fungi. Together, our findings demonstrate that bacteria, fungi, and animals can be integrated within a food chain, effectively uniting the macro- and microbiome in food web ecology and facilitating greater inclusion of the microbiome in studies of functional diversity.

  17. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  18. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  19. Advances in Animal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  20. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Animals:Country symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明

    2005-01-01

    A nim als have always been used to represent cer-tain hum an characteristics.Countries also use anim alsas sym bols.From eagles to lions,m any countries usean anim al to show its national spirit and character.1.U S:T he bald eagleThe im age of an eagle is on the U SPresident’s flag,and on the one-dollarbill.The bald eagle is a large,pow erful,brow n bird with a white head and tail.The term“bald”does not m ean that thisbird lacks feathers.Instead,it com es fromthe old word piebald,that m eans,“m arked w ith ...

  3. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  4. Animals, Humans and Sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Tedeschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses animal studies from the point of view of sociability as an “inter-subjective field of action” and as an agent and builder of society (“doing society”. In sociology, the zoological connection has availed of the theory of borders and critical realism, but, above all, of constructionism, in its interactionist and ethno-methodological sense and both focused on social micro-interaction. The construction of the identity of social actors (both human and animal is especially evident in interaction regarding play, games, sport, daily life and work. In these spheres, analyses shed light on ambivalent and contradictory human experiences that clash with the dominant culture, while highlighting practical resistance against speciesism, which it is well worth to bring to the attention of future research, using open, mixed methodologies.

  5. Professional perspectives on animal hoarding.

    OpenAIRE

    Burniston, Francesca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although theoretical conceptualisations of animal hoarding have been published, few empirical studies have been conducted. The current study investigated animal hoarding from the perspectives of professionals who come into contact with people who hoard animals through their employment in various capacities, primarily in animal welfare. Design A qualitative research design was employed using inductive thematic analysis. Methods Twelve professionals who had experienc...

  6. Analysis of Animal Metaphorical Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晴川

    2016-01-01

    Animal metaphor, as a kind of metaphor, refers to a cognitive process in which some aspects of human beings are understood or experienced through the aspects of animals. The meanings of animal metaphor are based on people's experience, cultural background, custom and the ways of thinking. Animal metaphorical expression is an important part of human's language expressions and communication.

  7. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  8. Pain in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  9. Animating the Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  10. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  11. Instant Silverlight 5 animation

    CERN Document Server

    Polyak, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations. If you are a developer looking forward to create great user experience for your Silverlight applications with cool animations or create Silverlight banner ads, then this is the guide for you. It is assumed that the readers have some previous exposure to Silverlight or WPF.

  12. Animal Models of Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic sy...

  13. Animal Models of Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Denise E.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B). Unless prophylactic treatment is provided, patients with severe disease (less than 1% clotting activity) typically experience frequent spontaneous bleeds. Current treatment is largely based on intravenous infusion of recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrate. More effective factor products are being developed. Moreover, gene therapies for sustained correction of hemophilia are showing much promise in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. These advances in molecular medicine heavily depend on availability of well-characterized small and large animal models of hemophilia, primarily hemophilia mice and dogs. Experiments in these animals represent important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia, such a protein and gene therapies or immune tolerance protocols. While murine models are excellent for studies of large groups of animals using genetically defined strains, canine models are important for testing scale-up and for longer-term follow-up as well as for studies that require larger blood volumes. PMID:22137432

  14. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  15. [Animal health and primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, M

    1983-01-01

    As part of the primary care strategy, the Governments of the Americas have included the agricultural and animal health sectors among the public health activities of the Plan of Action. This means that both sectors--agricultural and veterinary--must be guided in their work by a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach, with full community participation. Hence, it is certain that both the study of veterinary medicine and the practice of the profession in the Region will have to be reoriented so that they may be more fully integrated with the primary care strategy. The reorientation of animal health activities is the subject of this paper. There can be no doubt that animal health has a vital part to play in improving the quality of human life and that veterinary practice itself offers excellent opportunities for building a sense of personal and community responsibility for the promotion, care, and restoration of health. Through their contact with the rural population while caring for their livestock (an integral part of the rural socioeconomic structures), the veterinarian and animal health assistant establish close bonds of trust not only with farmers, but with their families and the entire community as well; they are thus well placed to enlist community participation in a variety of veterinary public health activities such as zoonoses control, hygiene programs, and so forth. While the goal of the Plan of action is to extend primary care to the entire population, the lack of material and human resources requires that priority attention be given to the needs of the more vulnerable groups, including the extremely poor living in rural and urban areas. These are the groups at greatest risk from the zoonoses still present in the Americas. In the face of these facts, it is clear that primary care in the animal health field should be based on the application in each country of proven, effective, appropriate technology by personnel who, whether new or retrained, are well

  16. Rapid change with depth in megabenthic structure-forming communities of the Makapu'u deep-sea coral bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dustin J.; Baco, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Seamounts are largely unexplored undersea mountains rising abruptly from the ocean floor, which can support an increased abundance and diversity of organisms. Deep-sea corals are important benthic structure-formers on current-swept hard substrates in these habitats. While depth is emerging as a factor structuring the fauna of seamounts on a large spatial scale, most work addressing deep-sea coral and seamount community structure has not considered the role of small-scale variation in species distributions. Video from six ROV dives over a depth range of ~320-530 m were analyzed to assess the diversity and density of benthic megafaunal invertebrates across the Makapu'u deep-sea coral bed, offshore of Oahu, Hawaii. At the same time, the physical environment along the dive track was surveyed to relate biotic patterns with abiotic variables including depth, aspect, rugosity, substrate, slope and relief to test the factors structuring community assemblages. Despite the narrow range examined, depth was found to be the strongest structuring gradient, and six unique macrobenthic communities were found, with a 93% faunal dissimilarity over the depth surveyed. Relief, rugosity and slope were also factors in the final model. Alcyonacean octocorals were the dominant macrofaunal invertebrates at all but the deepest depth zone. The commercially harvested precious coral C. secundum was the dominant species at depths 370-470 m, with a distribution that is on average deeper than similar areas. This may be artificial due to the past harvesting of this species on the shallower portion of its range. Primnoid octocorals were the most abundant octocoral family overall. This work yields new insight on the spatial ecology of seamounts, pointing out that community changes can occur over narrow depth ranges and that communities can be structured by small-scale physiography.

  17. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  18. The Sharing Experimental Animal Resources, Coordinating Holdings (SEARCH) Framework: Encouraging Reduction, Replacement, and Refinement in Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Bethny; Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    While significant medical breakthroughs have been achieved through using animal models, our experience shows that often there is surplus material remaining that is frequently never revisited but could be put to good use by other scientists. Recognising that most scientists are willing to share this material on a collaborative basis, it makes economic, ethical, and academic sense to explore the option to utilise this precious resource before generating new/additional animal models and associated samples. To bring together those requiring animal tissue and those holding this type of archival material, we have devised a framework called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources, Coordinating Holdings (SEARCH) with the aim of making remaining material derived from animal studies in biomedical research more visible and accessible to the scientific community. We encourage journals, funding bodies, and scientists to unite in promoting a new way of approaching animal research by adopting the SEARCH framework. PMID:28081116

  19. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  20. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  1. Community psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en intriduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning......Kapitlet giver en intriduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning...

  2. Animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  3. Brand Community.

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Albert M, Jr; O'Guinn, Thomas C

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces the idea of brand community. A brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. Grounded in both classic and contemporary sociology and consumer behavior, this article uses ethnographic and computer mediated environment data to explore the characteristics, processes, and particularities of three brand communities (those centered on Ford Bronco, Macintosh, and Saab). These bran...

  4. Metacognition in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Foote, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition is thinking about thinking. There is considerable interest in developing animal models of metacognition to provide insight about the evolution of mind and a basis for investigating neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in people. Formal modeling of low-level (i.e., alternative) mechanisms has recently demonstrated that prevailing standards for documenting metacognition are inadequate. Indeed, low-level mechanisms are sufficient to explain data from existing methods. Consequently, an assessment of what is ‘lost’ (in terms of existing methods and data) necessitates the development of new, innovative methods for metacognition. Development of new methods may prompt the establishment of new standards for documenting metacognition. PMID:26516391

  5. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  6. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  9. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohani Usha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  11. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  12. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals.

  13. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  14. [Dermatophytes from animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A

    2000-01-01

    Dermatophytes from animal dermatophytoses were investigated, especially for their teleomorphs and molecular characteristics. Microsporum canis, M. equinum, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes complex, T. rubrum and T. verrucosum were isolated as the etiological agents of animal ringworm in Japan. They were morphologically and biochemically identified and their perfect states were examined. The teleomorph of M. canis was first obtained and reported as Nanizzia otae in 1975. The isolates of M. canis of which the teleomorph was confirmed were all "-" excepted two Japanese isolates. Mating experiments indicated that the isolates of M. gypseum were "+" or "-" of A. gypseum and A. incurvatum, respectively. Most of the isolates of T. mentagrophytes complex of which a perfect state was detected were A. vanbreuseghemii. One isolate from a monkey was A. simii and one from a rabbit was A. benhamiae. However, the teleomorph remained unknown in many isolates. Molecular characteristics in random amplification of polymorphic DNA and Southern hybridization analyses were found to be effective to differentiate the species of Microsporum. Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes were also analyzed for their phylogenetic relatedness. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: the first cluster consisted of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. violaceum; the second of A. fulvum, A. gypseum and A. incurvatum; the third of A. grubyi and A. otae; and the fourth of Epidermaphyton floccosum, providing useful information for the classification and understanding of their evolution.

  15. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  16. Open- and Closed-Formula Laboratory Animal Diets and Their Importance to Research

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Dennis E; Lewis, Sherry M.; Teter, Beverly B; Thigpen, Julius E

    2009-01-01

    Almost 40 y ago the scientific community was taking actions to control environmental factors that contribute to variation in the responses of laboratory animals to scientific manipulation. Laboratory animal diet was recognized as an important variable. During the 1970s, the American Institute of Nutrition, National Academy of Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and Laboratory Animals Centre Diets Advisory Committee supported the use of ‘standard reference diets’ in biomedical r...

  17. Effects of shoreline discharge of iron mine tailings on a marine soft-bottom community in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, D A; Stotz, W B

    2004-02-01

    This study evaluates the magnitude and extension of the impact produced by the discharge of inert allochthonous materials, including clays and particulate iron, on macrobenthic soft-bottom assemblages in the subtidal zone of a coastal bay in north-central Chile. An average of 118 Ton h(-1) of finely divided solids were discharged into the rocky intertidal zone of the bay for a period of over 16 years, producing continuous turbidity in the water column and sedimentation in the subtidal zone. Data obtained four months before cessation of the discharge showed that the macrofauna present at 20 and 50 m depth in the bay suffered an important decrease in abundance and species richness, low diversity/high dominance, and deep changes in community structure related to the discharge. The faunal assemblages present at 110 m depth did not show effects from the discharge, suggesting that the impact was limited to the inner part of the bay. The impoverished faunal aggregates at 20 and 50 m depth showed exclusive domination by the Lumbrineris bifilaris (polychaete)-Diastylis tongoyensis (cumacean) association, representing a simple trophic guild of deposit feeders. The complete absence of opportunistic species such as capitellid, spionid, and/or cirratulid polychaetes may be associated with the turbidity and sedimentation levels in the bay.

  18. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rimondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  19. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (previously the Tropical Journal of Animal Science) is an international, scholarly and peer-reviewed journal published ... The Journal publishes original research works in basic and applied livestock ...

  20. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...