WorldWideScience

Sample records for macro security strategy

  1. Strategy of Increasing Food Security based on Macro and Micro Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Widayaningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary studies that have been conducted show that the food availability in 27 districts in Banyumas Regency on average is still low. The purpose of this research is to formulate of a strategy to improve the food security by synergizing the macro and micro aspects. The method used is the tabulation analysis, IFE and EFE Matrix, and also IE Matrix. The IE matrix shows the food security based on the macro and micro aspects that are in the first cell, which means that the food security conditions are experiencing the growing and buliding. The strategies of improving the food security from the micro and macro aspects are first, to develop the food production in accordance with the potential and comodities of the excellent food in accordance with the specializations of regions (districts. Second, it requires a partnership and a cooperation of distributing the excellent food production. Third, the investment is required to improve the diversification of food. Fourth, it requires the cooperation between the farmers and the government agencies concerned with the development, supply and service of excellent means of agricultural production with supervision and increased credit services. Fifth, the off-farm activities should be developed by forming the cooperatives or the small and household businesses on the basis of farming activities. Besides, in order to meet the consumption of food that is safe, qualified, and nutritious, it is necessary to increase the knowledge and awareness about the food security at the household level by empowering the cooperatives or small and household businesses by utilizing Dasa Wisma group, PKK, Majelis Ta'lim, and other non-governmental groups.

  2. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  3. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    outcomes.Three cases are presented, each of them with a particular bearing on how materials participate in the making of emerging strategic identities and outcomes:The first case account for strategies transforming plans into anti-plans. This is a case of how a strategic plan is betrayed (or rejected......The aim of this article is to inquire into the possible significance of materials in the production of emerging strategic outcomes. The article first sets out to discuss the different ways contemporary strategy research define the identity of strategic actors. It is argued that the various schools...... of strategy research, although different in important respects, operate with a common human centered assumption: Humanity is treated as given - the strategic actor or subject is assumed to be an individual human or a collective of humans.By adding the possible significance of materials and other non...

  4. Port Security Strategy 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Robert Harney Professor Wayne Hughes CAPT (Ret) Jeffrey Kline Professor Daniel Nussbaum Professor Bard Mansager Professor Doyle Daughtry...will use a mathematical model based on Mr. Robert Anthony’s analysis of the deterrence against the 9/11 terrorists was used [67]. For control access...Evaluating IT Security Investments. Communications of the ACM, 47(7), 87-92. [69] Jones, D.A., Davis, C.E., Turnquist, M.A., Nozick , L.K. (2006

  5. Employment strategies and labor market policies: interlinkages with macro and sectoral policies

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the critical linkages between macro, sectoral and labour market policies and employment in the context of Pakistan's Medium-Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 and the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP-1).

  6. Kanttekeningen bij de Europese cyber security strategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Smulders, A.C.M.; Kamphuis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In februari presenteerde de Europese Unie de Europese cyber security strategie en begeleidende concept richtlijn. The Hague Security Delta (HSD) is verheugd dat de Nederlandse Nationale Cyber Security Strategie nu ook op Europees niveau navolging krijgt. Toch plaatsen we een paar kantekeningen.

  7. Kanttekeningen bij de Europese cyber security strategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Smulders, A.C.M.; Kamphuis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In februari presenteerde de Europese Unie de Europese cyber security strategie en begeleidende concept richtlijn. The Hague Security Delta (HSD) is verheugd dat de Nederlandse Nationale Cyber Security Strategie nu ook op Europees niveau navolging krijgt. Toch plaatsen we een paar kantekeningen.

  8. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-01-01

    Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control...

  9. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control strategy, when the issue of marketing and business strategy is very important. The results of this study also demonstrated the relationship between reward and food security strategies. Interview analysis showed that the attitude of senior management in the hotel's food security policy, the company's ability to significantly dependent on the corporate image.

  10. Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    a strategic plan to enhance the security of the international supply chain , including protocols for the expeditious resumption of the flow of trade...following a transportation disruption or transportation security incident. The Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security exists within a...extensive risk analysis specific to the risk area they cover in the supply chain . Assessments are used to identify the highest risk areas and resources

  11. Energy scope of handoff strategies in macro-femtocell environments

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Energy consumption in downlink mode is becoming an important topic as cellular communications grow into a large scale enterprise. The search for high rates keeping energy constraints low has put forward the idea that cells with smaller size may improve not only the capacity of the network, but also reduce the amount of energy that is needed to achieve such capacities. When using heterogeneous networks, users can be encouraged to handoff to a femtocell, that offers better capacity per unit energy spent, by means of different handoff strategies. These strategies may also improve the energy use of the network if the handoff priority is given to both, capacity, and energy use. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Ten national cyber security strategies: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Besseling, K. van; Spoelstra, M.; Graaf, P. de

    2013-01-01

    A number of nations developed and published a national cyber security strategy (NCSS). Most of them were published in the period 2009 - 2011. Despite the fact that each of these NCSS intends to address the cyber security threat, large differences exist between the NCSS approaches. This paper analyse

  13. Security Problems of Communicative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Perelygina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of safety formation in communication strategies are connected with their adaptation to the conditions of social and psychological variability. Building up a communicative strategy is a versatile process, in which it is necessary to consider a wide spectrum of social and psychological parameters, especially topical in the modern period of social development. Forms of social interactions in schematic formats of contemporary social and economic revolution are reduced, social and functional potentials are depleted, mass society is further differentiating, the pace of historic changes is growing, all this determines the necessity to prepare changes in personality structures to the dynamics of social and fluidity.

  14. Austrian Security Strategy: Need For Reformulation Due To Security Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-14

    migration from Africa and the Middle East, and reality has overtaken the security strategy. The terrorist attacks in Paris and the sexual assaults on women...militia system and compulsory military service.5 Before describing the ASS, it is important to clarify some definitions as a starting point for...engagement for the purpose of the war.”10 Of particular importance is the fact that the strategist defined a clear political objective of war.11 The term

  15. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented.

  16. Strategies for safeguarding security of mobile computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Hays

    2013-02-01

    An effective mobile health strategy should comprise, in the very least, six key steps: Conduct a mobile security risk assessment. Establish policies and procedures. Develop a training program. Implement measures to prevent unauthorized access. Perform a clinical workflow analysis. Establish the organization's approach for responding to a breach.

  17. Impact of water scarcity on food security at macro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  18. Impact of water scarcity on food security at macro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  19. Cyberspace security: How to develop a security strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Raggad, Bel G

    2007-01-01

    Despite all visible dividers, the Internet is getting us closer and closer, but with a great price. Our security is the price. The internatl. community is fully aware of the urgent need to secure the cyberspace as you see the multiplication of security standards and national schemes interpreting them beyond borders: ISO 15408, ISO 17799, and ISO 27001. Even though some countries, incl. the Security Big Six (SB6), are equipped with their security books and may feel relatively safe; this remains a wrong sense of security as long as they share their networks with entities of less security. The standards impose security best practices and system specifications for the development of information security management systems. Partners beyond borders have to be secure as this is only possible if all entities connected to the partnership remain secure. Unfortunately, there is no way to verify the continuous security of partners without periodic security auditing and certification, and members who do not comply should ...

  20. Threat Prioritization Process for the Czech Security Strategy Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milos Balaban; Oldrich Krulik; Vladimir Krulik; Jan Ludvik; Ludek Moravec; Antonin Rasek; Libor Stejskal

    2012-01-01

    This article offers systematic view of a process of identification of security threats and, subsequently, their use in the making of strategic documents, notably the Security Strategy of the Czech Republic...

  1. Using Common Sense to Effectively Integrate Security Technologies within a School's Security Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gree, M.W.

    1998-11-03

    Security technologies are not the answer to all school security problems. However, they can be an excellent tool for school administrators and security personnel when incorporated into a total security strategy involving personnel, procedures, and facility layout. Unfortunately, very few of the tougher security problems in schools have solutions that are affordable, effective, and acceptable. Like any other type of facility, a school's security staff must understand the strengths and limitations of the security measures they are csecurity practices, which will rarely increase new building costs if included in the initial planning.

  2. Assessing Information Security Strategies, Tactics, Logic and Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Andrew; Michajlowski, Andriej

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with the philosophy, strategy and tactics of soliciting, managing and conducting information security audits of all flavours. It will give readers the founding principles around information security assessments and why they are important, whilst providing a fluid framework for developing an astute 'information security mind' capable of rapid adaptation to evolving technologies, markets, regulations, and laws.

  3. Drie nationale cyber security strategieën vergeleken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Onafhankelijk van elkaar brachten Frankrijk, Duitsland en Nederland hun nationale cyber security strategieën vrijwel tegelijk uit. De strategieën hebben overeenkomsten, maar tonen ook grote verschillen. De drie landen onderkennen een urgente noodzaak om cyber security aan te pakken, maar hebben ande

  4. Drie nationale cyber security strategieën vergeleken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Onafhankelijk van elkaar brachten Frankrijk, Duitsland en Nederland hun nationale cyber security strategieën vrijwel tegelijk uit. De strategieën hebben overeenkomsten, maar tonen ook grote verschillen. De drie landen onderkennen een urgente noodzaak om cyber security aan te pakken, maar hebben

  5. Observations on Japan's New Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jiping

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 10, 2004, Japan's Security Council (also called Defense Council before 1986, which is composed of Prime Minister and several important Cabinet members) and Cabinet approved and published a new National Defense Program Guideline ("Defense Guideline" in short), which elaborated not only Japan's defense force construction objectives and its detailed development program in the coming 10 years, but also great changes in its basic defense principles, concept of security threats, security objectives and their corresponding measure.

  6. Some security strategies for smart cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, F [Gemalto, St Cyr en Val, BP 6021, 45060 Orlans Cedex (France); Harba, R [LESI, Polytech' Orlans-LESI, 12 rue de Blois, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-07-15

    This paper details current developments at Gemalto in the field of security. It focuses on two different security processes for ID cards. The first one consists in adding observable security features in the ID image to allow quick visual verification and serves mainly to detect counterfeit attempts. The second consists in watermarking ID images during the pre personalization step by a secret key stored in the chip. The interest of the different approaches is demonstrated with several real ID images.

  7. Security Strategy of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    for whom DS has a security responsibility (U.S. Department of State 2011b). Real -time threat assessments are provided to support operational and...Mexican border cities ( Ciudad Juarez, Matamoros, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo and Tijuana). FACT is also mandatory for all personnel who will...ILE media awareness training includes real and mock 52 interviews by journalists and mandatory media/public engagements, such as public speaking

  8. Agricultural innovations strategies for sustainable food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural innovations strategies for sustainable food security in Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  9. The United States National Security Strategy: Grand Strategy or Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Hegel was right when he said that we learn from history that man can never learn anything from history.” George Bernard Shaw 58 July 26th, 2007...nation more challenging.124 As Taylor and Snider explain, “With the global diffusion of power, national policy also becomes less fungible, less...124 William J. Taylor and Don M Snider, “U.S. National Security Agenda and U.S. National Security Policy: Realities and Dilemmas,” The

  10. Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    possible strategy by examining it for suitability, acceptability, and feasibility. Those three adverbs test each of the three components of strategy...see Karl Deutsch , The Analysis of International Relations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1968), pp. 21-39. 38 Robert Jervis, Perceptions and

  11. National Security Strategy: What About the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-27

    and South Korea, to seabed mining and drilling rights in countries surrounding the Caspian Sea. According to Ambassador Jan Kubis , Secretary General of...national economy, distribute wealth, and provide basic goods and services. Kubis notes, “Such environmental pressures 8 could make social polarization...the U.S. interest (Washington, D.C.: Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, 2001), x. 21 7 Ibid. 8 Jan Kubis , “Initiative For Change,” Our

  12. Verslag Nationale Cyber Security Strategie 2 : Van bewust naar bekwaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Op 28 oktober 2013 werd de tweede Nationale Cyber Security Strategie (NCSS 2) uitgebracht, twee en een half jaar na de eerste. De strategische focus verschuift van publiek-private samenwerking naar publiek-private participatie en strategische samenwerking. De nieuwe strategie beoogt dat, Nederland

  13. Security Isolation Strategy Mechanism for Lightweight Virtualization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For cloud service providers, lightweight virtualization is a more economical way of virtualization. While the user is worried about the safety of applications and data of the container, due to the container sharing the underlying interface and the kernel, therefore the security and trusted degree of lightweight virtualization container isolation mechanism is critical for the promotion of lightweight virtualization service. Because the user cannot directly participate in the process of the construction and management of container isolation mechanism, it is difficult for them to establish confidence in the security and trusted degree of container isolation mechanism. Based on the research and analysis of system credible and virtualization isolation mechanism, this paper puts forward a set of lightweight virtualization security isolation strategy mechanism, divides lightweight virtualization container storage address space into several parts, puts forward the definition of lightweight virtualization security isolation, gives the formal description and proof of container security isolation strategy, and combines with related technology to verify the feasibility of lightweight virtualization security isolation strategy mechanism. The mechanism has important guiding significance for cloud services providers to deploy container security isolation.

  14. Physical-enhanced secure strategy in an OFDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Bo; Yu, Jianjun

    2012-01-30

    The physical layer of optical access network is vulnerable to various attacks. As the dramatic increase of users and network capacity, the issue of physical-layer security becomes more and more important. This paper proposes a physical-enhanced secure strategy for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) by employing frequency domain chaos scrambling. The Logistic map is adopted for the chaos mapping. The chaos scrambling strategy can dynamically allocate the scrambling matrices for different OFDM frames according to the initial condition, which enhance the confidentiality of the physical layer. A mathematical model of this secure system is derived firstly, which achieves a secure transmission at physical layer in OFDM-PON. The results from experimental implementation using Logistic mapped chaos scrambling are also given to further demonstrate the efficiency of this secure strategy. An 10.125 Gb/s 64QAM-OFDM data with Logistic mapped chaos scrambling are successfully transmitted over 25-km single mode fiber (SMF), and the experimental results show that proposed security scheme can protect the system from eavesdropper and attacker, while keep a good performance for the legal ONU.

  15. Computing security strategies in finite horizon repeated Bayesian games

    KAUST Repository

    Lichun Li

    2017-07-10

    This paper studies security strategies in two-player zero-sum repeated Bayesian games with finite horizon. In such games, each player has a private type which is independently chosen according to a publicly known a priori probability. Players\\' types are fixed all through the game. The game is played for finite stages. At every stage, players simultaneously choose their actions which are observed by the public. The one-stage payoff of player 1 (or penalty to player 2) depends on both players types and actions, and is not directly observed by any player. While player 1 aims to maximize the total payoff over the game, player 2 wants to minimize it. This paper provides each player two ways to compute the security strategy, i.e. the optimal strategy in the worst case. First, a security strategy that directly depends on both players\\' history actions is derived by refining the sequence form. Noticing that history action space grows exponentially with respect to the time horizon, this paper further presents a security strategy that depends on player\\'s fixed sized sufficient statistics. The sufficient statistics is shown to consist of the belief on one\\'s own type, the regret on the other player\\'s type, and the stage, and is independent of the other player\\'s strategy.

  16. China's Energy Security Strategy for Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, soaring energy consumption is posing a huge potential threat to China's energy security. China has rich coal resources, but most of the coal is mainly burned directly with low efficiency. Thus oil and gas plays a comparatively important role in national economic development. However domestic oil and gas cannot meet the need of economic development. To solve this problem, China would continue to import oil and gas from petroleum producing countries, especially from the Middle East. The dependence on oil import increases year after year and the sources of supply are concentrated in a few countries, which results in the insecurity of energy supply. Therefore, China should optimize its energy structure, improve energy efficiency, increase the geographic diversity of oil supply, build oil reserve bases, and develop new energies actively.

  17. CHINA’S STRATEGY OF ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U.S.recently launched strategy of rebalancing to Asia worsens the atmosphere forChina’s energy security and increases the risks for energy transportation from Africa and theMiddle East. The diversification of energy sources is a reasonable strategic choice, so the importance of the Eurasian continent forChinaincreases. Central Asia does not play anymore a supporting role in the agenda ofChina’s energy security strategy. It is rather becoming a region of major strategic importance.

  18. A Detailed Strategy for Managing Corporation Cyber War Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern corporations depend heavily on information and communication technologies and are becoming increasingly interconnected locally and internationally. This interconnectedness and dependency on information technology make corporations vulnerable to cyber attacks. Corporate managers therefore need to understand the growing cyber war threats and implement appropriate strategies to mitigate the risks. This research work is an attempt to develop a generic and detailed strategy to assist corporations in managing the cyber war security. The implementation of such a strategy will definitely lead to a more secure business environment and as a result will attract foreign investments to the Arab countries in the Middle East. Such a strategy can be considered as a first step toward protecting corporations from cyber war threats in an effective manner.

  19. European Strategies for Energy Security in the Natural Gas Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Stefanova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the European Union's (EU approach to energy security on the example of its natural gas imports from Russia, the largest supplier of gas to European markets. Two major projects, Nord Stream in the Northern and Western part of the EU, and Nabucco in South-Central Europe, demonstrate opposing energy security strategies, seemingly at odds with the EU objective of achieving energy independence from Russia. The question arises: Are these strategies sustainable? How can they be reconciled and pursued under a common policy? The main argument is that such conflicting sub-regional policy initiatives are amenable to progressive realignment and serve common security objectives. The article examines the Nord Stream and Nabucco pipelines in the context of the Third Energy Package, a set of policy instruments for the creation of an EU-wide internal energy market. It demonstrates that the energy security strategies pursued through Nord Stream and Nabucco fit well with the logic of the internal market reflected in premises of flexibility and efficiency. The article concludes that the security of the EU's energy market may be pursued in practice by applying different formulas relying on a variable mix of networks, partnerships, and market integration with non-members.

  20. Medical Diplomacy: A Tool for Enabling National Security Strategy Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    Biosurveillance Coordinating Unit CDC Oversees the National Biosurveillance Strategy. Outlined in Homeland Security Presidential Directive-21...addresses global disease outbreaks National Biosurveillance System DHS National Biosurveillance Information Center Around-the-clock domestic... biosurveillance Medical countermeasures National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH Conduct and support research aimed at developing

  1. Strategy and Management of Network Security at KEK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KiyoharuHashimoto; TeijiNakamura; 等

    2001-01-01

    Recently the troubles related to the network security have often occurred attacks.It consists of two fundamental thinge;the monitoring and the access control.To monitor the network,we have installed the intrusion detectioin system and have managed it since 1998,For the second thing,we arranged three categories to classify all hosts (about 5000 hosts) at KEK according to their security level.To realize these three categories,we filter the incoming packet from outside KEK whether it has a SYN flag or not.The network monitoring and the access control produced good effects in keeping our security level high.Since 2000 we have started the transiton of LAN from shared-media network to switched network.Now almost part of LAN was re-configured and in this new LAN 10Mbps/100Mbps/1Gbps Ethernet are supported.Currently we are planning further speedup(10Gbps)and redundancy of network.Not only LAN but also WAN,network speed will be upgraded to 10 Gbps thanks to the strong promotion of IT by Japanese government,In this very high speed network,our current strategy will be affected and again the network security becomes a big issue,This paper describes our experiences in practice of the current strategy and management know-how together with the discussion on the new strategy.

  2. 大审计平台上信息安全实验课程建设%Construction of Information Security Experimental Course on the Macro Audit Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志耕; 陈耿

    2012-01-01

    信息安全实验教学是改善信息安全教学效果的有效方法。然而现有高校在该课程建设上呈现出忽略院校特色的羊群效应。本文探索了我校大审计平台上以审计实务为主线的信息安全实验课程建设模式。该模式对于缓解信息安全实验教学中专业特色缺失的现象具有重要的参考价值。%Experimental teaching of information security is an effective method to improve the teaching effective- ness. however, the course building in many university show the herd effect as a result of neglecting characteristics of each institution. This paper study the construction of information security experimental course in the main line to the audit practice within the macro-audit platform in our university. The model presented in this paper has an im- portant reference value to alleviate the phenomenon that professional characteristics being neglected in existing ex- perimental teaching of information security.

  3. Per-energy capacity and handoff strategies in macro-femto cells environment

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    The effect of smaller cells being placed in a heterogenous network can improve the way energy is spent in a system. Handoff strategies, bandwidth allocation and path loss calculations in different scenarios show how this is possible as the size of the cell is decreased. As a result, users can experience the same or better capacities while maximising the capacity per unit energy spent. The per-energy capacity metric is introduced as a suitable handoff strategy that considers the energy spent as an important criterion. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. REASSESSING THE EUROPEAN SECURITY STRATEGY IN AN AGE OF AUSTERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Laura BOSILCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current European Security Strategy was drafted in the strategic context of 2003 and (unsubstantially revised in 2008. More than a decade later, the dramatic changes in the international context have important implications for EU`s strategic position and cast doubt on the relevance of the existing conceptual framework. Despite the efforts of some member states and various scholars, think-tanks and policy-makers advocating for a new strategic document, the much anticipated European Council of December 2013 - a body which could have provided a genuine impetus for such a change - remained silent on the issue. The author herein argues that a reassessment of the Security Strategy is more needed than ever if the EU is to remain a major global actor in times of crisis.

  5. 75 FR 18819 - Second DRAFT NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Grid Cyber Security Strategy and Requirements; Request for Comments AGENCY: National Institute of..., Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and Requirements. This second draft has been updated to address the... logical interface diagrams, and the cyber security strategy sections have all been updated and...

  6. Overcoming the Illusion of Security: Creating a New Spacefaring Security Strategy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Iridium and COSMOS satellites in 2009. The Iridium and COSMOS satellite collision marked the “first accidental hypervelocity collision of two intact...necessary, to defeat attacks against its space capabilities, it does little to support that claim. This strategy failure is concerning given the...systems from attack given the U.S. reliance on space capabilities. These failures indicate major shortfalls in the current U.S. National Security Space

  7. An RNA-Seq strategy to detect the complete coding and non-coding transcriptome including full-length imprinted macro ncRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Huang

    Full Text Available Imprinted macro non-protein-coding (nc RNAs are cis-repressor transcripts that silence multiple genes in at least three imprinted gene clusters in the mouse genome. Similar macro or long ncRNAs are abundant in the mammalian genome. Here we present the full coding and non-coding transcriptome of two mouse tissues: differentiated ES cells and fetal head using an optimized RNA-Seq strategy. The data produced is highly reproducible in different sequencing locations and is able to detect the full length of imprinted macro ncRNAs such as Airn and Kcnq1ot1, whose length ranges between 80-118 kb. Transcripts show a more uniform read coverage when RNA is fragmented with RNA hydrolysis compared with cDNA fragmentation by shearing. Irrespective of the fragmentation method, all coding and non-coding transcripts longer than 8 kb show a gradual loss of sequencing tags towards the 3' end. Comparisons to published RNA-Seq datasets show that the strategy presented here is more efficient in detecting known functional imprinted macro ncRNAs and also indicate that standardization of RNA preparation protocols would increase the comparability of the transcriptome between different RNA-Seq datasets.

  8. Analysis of handoff strategies in macro-femto cells environment based on per-energy capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Placing smaller cells in a heterogeneous network can be beneficial in terms of energy because better capacities can be obtained for a given energy constraint. These type of deployments not only highlight the need for appropriate metrics to evaluate how well energy is being spent, but also raise important issues that need to be taken into account when analysing the overall use of energy. In this study, handoff strategies, bandwidth allocation and path loss calculations in different scenarios, illustrate how energy can be consumed in a more efficient way when cell size is decreased. As a result, users can experience higher capacities while spending less energy, depending whether they handoff or not, increasing the overall performance of the network. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  9. A Macro Study on Logistics Park Security Measures%物流园区宏观安检研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余烈锋

    2011-01-01

    针对安检与物流园区规划作出概念性研究,从物流园区主动协调模型看安检,藉五因素模型作为分析基础,探索适当的安检程度,还利用S-曲线来显示安检影响用户进人园区的意向概念.%Nowadays, freight forecasting mechanisms arid security inspection procedures are adopted by all the major areas around the globe, the American C-TPAT, European ENS, and Asian AEO being good examples. Logistics parks are places, usually on the fringe of urban areas but with geographical and transportation advantages, where logistics facilities and practitioners congregate and which play an important role in anti-terrorism. The paoer carries out a conceptual study on security inspection and logistics park planning and, viewing it as a pro-active party in the process, investigates the proper level of security strictness, concluding by suggesting an additional advantage of the method to the effect that the corollary S-curve obtained could reflect the impact of the security measures on a customer's intention in entering the park.

  10. Threat prioritization process For the Czech Security Strategy making/Proces prioritizace hrozeb pro tvorbu bezpecnostni Strategie Ceske Republiky

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balaban, Milos; Krulik, Oldrich; Krulik, Vladimir; Ludvik, Jan; Moravec, Ludek; Rasek, Antonin; Stejskal, Libor

    2012-01-01

    This article offers systematic view of a process of identification of security threats and, subsequently, their use in the making of strategic documents, notably the Security Strategy of the Czech Republic...

  11. Cyber Security Test Strategy for Non-safety Display System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Eun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Cyber security has been a big issue since the instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plant (NPP) is digitalized. A cyber-attack on NPP should be dealt with seriously because it might cause not only economic loss but also the radioactive material release. Researches on the consequences of cyber-attack onto NPP from a safety point of view have been conducted. A previous study shows the risk effect brought by initiation of event and deterioration of mitigation function by cyber terror. Although this study made conservative assumptions and simplifications, it gives an insight on the effect of cyber-attack. Another study shows that the error on a non-safety display system could cause wrong actions of operators. According to this previous study, the failure of the operator action caused by a cyber-attack on a display system might threaten the safety of the NPP by limiting appropriate mitigation actions. This study suggests a test strategy focusing on the cyber-attack on the information and display system, which might cause the failure of operator. The test strategy can be suggested to evaluate and complement security measures. Identifying whether a cyber-attack on the information and display system can affect the mitigation actions of operator, the strategy to obtain test scenarios is suggested. The failure of mitigation scenario is identified first. Then, for the test target in the scenario, software failure modes are applied to identify realistic failure scenarios. Testing should be performed for those scenarios to confirm the integrity of data and to assure effectiveness of security measures.

  12. Maternal Strategies to Access Food Differ by Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen S; McCurdy, Karen; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Household food insecurity is associated with health and behavior risk. Much less is known about how food insecurity is related to strategies that adults use in accessing food: how and where they shop, use of alternative food sources, and their ability to manage resources. To examine how maternal behaviors, including shopping, accessing alternative sources of food, and managing resources, are related to household food security status (HHFSS). Cross-sectional study collecting survey data on HHFSS, shopping behaviors, use of alternative food sources, and managing resources obtained from low-income mothers of preschool-aged children. One hundred sixty-four low-income mothers of young children (55% Hispanic) from two communities in Rhode Island. HHFSS was measured using 10 items from the 18-item Core Food Security Module to assess adult food security. Mothers were surveyed about where, when, and how often they shopped; the strategies they use when shopping; their use of alternative sources of food, including federal, state, and local assistance; and their ability to manage their resources. Analysis of variance and χ(2) analyses assessed the associations between demographic variables, shopping, accessing alternative food sources, and managing resources, and HHFSS. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the associations between HHFSS and maternal demographic variables, food shopping, strategies, alternative sources of food, and ability to manage resources. Maternal age and language spoken at home were significantly associated with HHFSS; food insecurity was 10% more likely among older mothers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17) and 2.5 times more likely among Spanish-speaking households (compared with non-Spanish speaking [aOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 10.18]). Food insecurity was more likely among mothers reporting more informal strategies (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.01; Pstrategies to feed their families and that the strategies they use vary by HHFSS

  13. Assessing information security strategies, tactics, logic and framewortk

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Andrew; Gavrilenko, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Build a strategic response to cyber attacks The activities of the cyber criminal are both deliberate and hostile, and they can be compared to military operations. Many people in business understand that the insights from the classics of military strategy are as relevant to modern commerce as they are to war. It is clear that organisations need to develop a view of cybersecurity that goes beyond technology: all staff in the organisation have a role to play, and it is the senior managers who must ensure, like generals marshalling their forces, that all staff know the cyber security policies that

  14. Financial Strategies Moderate Weather Impacts on Food Security Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Niles, M.

    2016-12-01

    Global food security relies on local agricultural capacity as well as the financial ability to import food from elsewhere. Climate change is likely to affect the ability to grow sufficient food to meet the needs of a growing population in low income countries where population expansion is the greatest. This paper presents an analysis of 2095 household surveys from 12 food insecure countries in West Africa, East Africa and Asia from the Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) program conducted from 2010-2012. Using a multi-level hierarchical random effects model, we estimated the number of months a household was food insecure with information on the rainfall anomaly the year prior to the survey, agricultural input use, cash income, and community group membership. We found that when the rainfall was either one standard deviation above or below the mean, the number of months households experience food insecurity increased by 74%. When there is a significant weather anomaly, agricultural credit and cash income, but not agricultural inputs or social capital, are found to be critical factors reducing food insecurity. This highlights the ongoing and critical importance of risk reduction strategies such as crop insurance, government safety nets, and credit for maintaining food security in the face of climate change.

  15. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  16. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  17. Strategies to suppress hydrogen-consuming microorganisms affect macro and micro scale structure and microbiology of granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, A A; Alves, J I; Pereira, M A; Sousa, D Z; Alves, M M

    2011-08-01

    Treatment of anaerobic granules with heat and two chemical treatments, contacting with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and with BES + Chloroform, were applied to suppress hydrogen-consuming microorganisms. Three mesophilic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors-R(Heat), R(BES), and R(BES + Chlo)--were inoculated with the treated sludges and fed with synthetic sugar-based wastewater (5 g(COD) L(-1), HRT 20-12 h). Morphological integrity of granules and bacterial communities were assessed by quantitative image analysis and 16S rRNA gene based techniques, respectively. Hydrogen production in R(Heat) was under 300 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1), with a transient peak of 1,000 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1) after decreasing HRT. In R(BES + Chlo) hydrogen production rate did not exceed 300 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1) and there was granule fragmentation, release of free filaments from aggregates, and decrease of granule density. In R(BES), there was an initial period with unstable hydrogen production, but a pulse of BES triggered its production rate to 700 ± 200 mL H(2) L(-1) day(-1). This strategy did not affect granules structure significantly. Bacteria branching within Clostridiaceae and Ruminococcaceae were present in this sludge. This work demonstrates that, methods applied to suppress H(2)-consuming microorganisms can cause changes in the macro- and microstructure of granular sludge, which can be incompatible with the operation of high-rate reactors.

  18. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-09-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has evaluated the existing waste feed qualification strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) based on experience from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste qualification program. The current waste qualification programs for each of the sites are discussed in the report to provide a baseline for comparison. Recommendations on strategies are then provided that could be implemented at Hanford based on the successful Macrobatch qualification strategy utilized at SRS to reduce the risk of processing upsets or the production of a staged waste campaign that does not meet the processing requirements of the WTP. Considerations included the baseline WTP process, as well as options involving Direct High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) processing, and the potential use of a Tank Waste Characterization and Staging Facility (TWCSF). The main objectives of the Hanford waste feed qualification program are to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), determine waste processability, and demonstrate unit operations at a laboratory scale. Risks to acceptability and successful implementation of this program, as compared to the DWPF Macro-Batch qualification strategy, include: Limitations of mixing/blending capability of the Hanford Tank Farm; The complexity of unit operations (i.e., multiple chemical and mechanical separations processes) involved in the WTP pretreatment qualification process; The need to account for effects of blending of LAW and HLW streams, as well as a recycle stream, within the PT unit operations; and The reliance on only a single set of unit operations demonstrations with the radioactive qualification sample. This later limitation is further complicated because of the 180-day completion requirement for all of the necessary waste feed qualification steps. The primary recommendations/changes include the

  19. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  20. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  1. A New Fuzzy MCDM Framework to Evaluate E-Government Security Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Syamsuddin, Irfan

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring security of e-government applications and infrastructures is crucial to maintain trust among stakeholders to store, process and exchange information over the e-government systems. Due to dynamic and continuous threats on e-government information security, policy makers need to perform evaluation on existing information security strategy as to deliver trusted e-government services. This paper presents an information security evaluation framework based on new fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) to help policy makers conduct comprehensive assessment of e-government security strategy.

  2. What Type of State Homeland Security Strategy Should the State of New Jersey Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Rosell, Richard, “2007 Troop “C” Strategic Plan”. Hamilton: NJSP, 2007. Schwarzenegger , Arnold . California State Homeland Security Strategy...Strategy’s CMA do not contain goals. Arnold Schwartzenegger, The California Homeland Security Strategy. (Sacramento: Office of the Governor, 2005

  3. The research of computer network security and protection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian

    2017-05-01

    With the widespread popularity of computer network applications, its security is also received a high degree of attention. Factors affecting the safety of network is complex, for to do a good job of network security is a systematic work, has the high challenge. For safety and reliability problems of computer network system, this paper combined with practical work experience, from the threat of network security, security technology, network some Suggestions and measures for the system design principle, in order to make the masses of users in computer networks to enhance safety awareness and master certain network security technology.

  4. Information Services and Retail Sales: Strategies, particularly Methods, Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Dudin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years there have been thousands of studies on the development of the Internet, especially as a medium for business development. Articles, monographs, reviews have been written on the basis of the obtained results. They not only set changes in various social processes and social institutions, but could influence their transformation, creation of new technologies, and formation of social and professional relations, particularly in the economic area. Undoubtedly, today there are certain trends in the world that determine the development of the Internet as a medium and a tool for business. However, are they implemented similarly in practice? Of course, not. It is easy to make this conclusion by just reading the latest issues of the Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce. For example, in India, Vietnam, Colombia, despite of the fact that there are many common things in these countries, there are some peculiarities of the Internet banking development. That’s why I think it is quite logical that a special issue of Information Services and Retail Sales: Strategies, Particularly, Methods, Security has appeared. I will explain in a few words how we see the mission of this issue and why it will be of particular interest to researchers who specialize in the area of information technology and retail sales.

  5. Accounting and information support of enterprise economic security strategy formation and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.І. Oliynychuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with accounting and information resources of enterprise economic security strategy development and realization. The aim of the article is to ground the role of accounting system in generating of information resources of enterprise economic security strategy with definition of accounting and information providing. The methodology of research was based on the dialectical method, complex system approach of processes studying, the analysis and synthesis methods, the induction and deduction methods and the modeling method. The results of the research describe the allocation of interrelated operating, tactical and strategic management subsystems in company management system. The relations between management and accounting subsystems were demonstrated. The model of formation and implementation of the enterprise economic security strategy was developed. The tasks of the accounting subsystems in the process of development and realization of the enterprise economic security strategy were defined. The accounting and information support of the enterprise economic security strategy generated by each of the accounting subsystems were identified. The ordinary of the research is reasoning of the tasks and definition of accounting subsystems information providing of each enterprise economic security strategy stage according to the developed model. The practical value of the research is the identified accounting and information support of the enterprise economic security strategy provides improvement of strategic planning information base of achievement of high level economic security.

  6. Security leader insights for information protection lessons and strategies from leading security professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, Bob

    2014-01-01

    How do you, as a busy security executive or manager, stay current with evolving issues, familiarize yourself with the successful practices of your peers, and transfer this information to build a knowledgeable, skilled workforce the times now demand? With Security Leader Insights for Information Protection, a collection of timeless leadership best practices featuring insights from some of the nation's most successful security practitioners, you can. This book can be used as a quick and effective resource to bring your security staff up to speed on security's role in information protection. I

  7. A New Secure Strategy for Small-Scale IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigang Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As the main secret-key encryption techniques of the wireless local area network (WLAN have been proven to be unsafe, wireless network security is faced with serious challenges. It is unpractical for home users and small companies to buy expansive network equipments to improve the network security. Therefore, the secure strategy of wireless network needs to be changed. In this paper, we first introduce secure issues of the main secret-key encryption techniques currently adopted by the most popular commercial wireless routers. Then we propose a new strategy for small-scale IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network which can strengthen the network security. The new secure strategy is based on web authentication with unshared key and virtual local area network (VLAN in wireless network. It can provide protection against practical attacks which are popular nowadays. Moreover, it is simple, wieldy and low-cost.

  8. Qualitative Characterization of the Facebook Information Security Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOPES, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperconnectivity due to online social networks exposed security issues on data stored in these systems. This article presents an analysis on how online social networks designers have been communicating information security aspects through these systems’ interfaces. This analysis was made using the Semiotic Inspection Method on Facebook since it is largely used in Brazil and all over the world. Results showed that there is major concern with security information properties. Nevertheless it was possible to identify interface problems that could compromise use and understanding of such security properties

  9. ASPECTS OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES FOR CYBER SECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina ARMENCHEVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Freedom and prosperity of mankind greatly depend on an innovative, safe and reliable Internet that, of course, will keep evolving. Cyber space must be protected from incidents, misuse and abuse. Handling the increasing number of threats to cyber security is a challenge that national security and the trend in the international environment face. This makes taking fast and adequate measures at national, European and international level a must. Changing national security strategies and adopting new cyber security strategies are a part of these measures.

  10. Sustainable Phosphorus Measures: Strategies and Technologies for Achieving Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.

  11. Private Military and Security Companies - Counterinsurgency and Nation Building Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    120. 37 James J. Carafano, 115. 38 James J. Carafano, 117. 39 Peter Aps, “As Iraq, Afghan wars end, private security firms adapt,” Reuters , October...Bibliography Aps, Peter. “As Iraq, Afghan wars end, private security firms adapt,” Reuters ...International Peace Research Institute, The private military services industry, Online. Thomson , Janice E. Mercenaries, Pirates, and

  12. Securing Cyberspace: Approaches to Developing an Effective Cyber-Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-15

    attackers, cyber-criminals or even teenage hackers. Protecting cyberspace is a national security priority. President Obama’s National Security...and communications, and with robust security to protect the digital infrastructure that powers critical national functions. The NSS articulates the...such as interruptions to commerce, creation of opportunities for crime, public outcry and reduced investment. For example, cyber-attacks to the power

  13. Solar Secure Schools: Strategies and Guidelines; October 2004--April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, G. W.; Varadi, P. F.

    2006-01-01

    This report explores the technical and economic aspects of installing solar power (photovoltaic aka PV) systems on schools to improve the schools' energy security and provide power during disasters.

  14. The National Security Strategy of the Republic of Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    applied consequently in a democratic system . 33. Vital interests guaranteeing, such as: exercise of sovereignty, protection of independence and...balance of security in favor of political means, of the institutions of security and diplomacy, and the dimension and human dignity in a democratic ... system . The use of military force will be executed only to guarantee the constitutional right to protect the vital interests of the country by all

  15. Suggestions on China's Petroleum Security Strategy and Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xuchao

    2001-01-01

    @@ Petroleum is an important strategic goods for national economy and political security. With the national economy growing rapidly, China's shortage in petroleum supply is on an annual rise,enabling the country more and more dependent on overseas resources. One of the major issues facing China in the future is how to ensure a long-term and stable petroleum supply for the country's economic security.

  16. GAMES AND STRATEGIES IN ANALYSIS OF SECURITY PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Information security problems typically involve decision makers who choose and adjust their behaviors in the interaction with each other in order to achieve their goals. Consequently, game theoretic models can potentially be a suitable tool for better understanding the challenges that the interaction of participants in information security scenarios bring about. In this dissertation, we employ models and concepts of game theory to study a number of subjects in the field of information secu...

  17. How Should Municipal Police Agencies Participate in America’s Homeland Security Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    from a decidedly federal approach to a municipal orientation. After all, Thomas Ridge, former director of the department of Homeland Security, said...policy or operating procedures is 82 Remarks By Homeland Security Director Thomas Ridge to...R. Mauborgne. Blue Ocean Strategy. Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 2005. Laqueur , Walter. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms

  18. [Strategy of molecular design of drugs: the unification of macro-properties and micro-structures of a molecule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zong-Ru

    2008-03-01

    The interaction of a drug with the organism involves both the disposition of a drug by the organism and the action of a drug on the organism. The disposition of various exogenous substances, including drugs, complies with general rules. The underlying physical and chemical changes to different drugs in view of time and space, i. e. pharmacokinetics, share common characteristics, that is the tout ensemble of a molecule and its macroscopic properties convey direct effect on the pharmacokinetic behavior as the tendency and consequence of biological evolution. The action of a drug on the organism, on the other hand, implicates the physico-chemical binding of a drug molecule to the target protein, which induces pharmacological and toxicological effects. The biological reactions, no matter beneficial or adverse, are all specific and individual manifestation of the drug molecule and determined by the interactive binding between definitive atoms or groups of the drug molecule and the macromolecular target in three-dimension. Such critical atoms, groups, or fragments responsible for the interaction reflect the microscopic structures of drug molecules and are called pharmacophore. In this context, a drug molecule is presumed as an assembly of macroscopic property and microscopic structure, with the macroscopic properties determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs and the microscopic structure coining pharmacological action. The knowledge of the internal relationship between macroscopy/microscopy and PK/PD conduces to comprehension of drug action and guides molecular drug design, because this conception facilitates the identification of structural features necessary for biological response, and the determination of factors modulating the physico-chemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The factors determining macro-properties include molecular weight, solubility, charge, lipophilicity (partition), and polar surface area, etc., which are

  19. Building an information security strategy for EHR: guidelines for assessing the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Yara; Stergioulas, Lampros

    2010-01-01

    This paper is looking at electronic health record (EHR) systems and their information security strategy. It focuses on the first step of building an information security strategy which is analysing the current situation of an EHR system. This research is based on different research methods applied to different EHR systems. In this paper we define eight elements that can be used as guidelines for how best to assess the current situation of any EHR system.

  20. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  1. Security or armageddon: Israel's nuclear strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beres, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book closely examines Israel's strategic choices and the probable impact of those choices on American and Soviet foreign policy. The contributors of this debate both Israeli and American, represent a very distinguished group of scholars, all well-known specialists on international security affairs. The author addresses such critical issues as Israel's dilemma of either continuing with its ''bomb in the basement'' policy or disclosing its nuclear capabilities; the long-term prospects for security through conventional deterrence; the probability of nuclear and other highly destructive forms of terrorism; the creation of a regional non-proliferation treaty for the Middle East; the role of international law; the effect of superpower relations on regional stability; the relevance of Jewish history; and the problem of regional proliferation.

  2. The 2015 National Security Strategy: Authorities, Changes, Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    diplomacy and potential military operations during the remainder of the Obama Administration. The section devoted to international security in the...challenges, and opportunities the United States faces; international, regional, transnational, hybrid, terrorist, cyber , asymmetric, and weapons of mass...to realize, and the role that the U.S. intends to play on the world stage. 53 Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR) In 2010, the

  3. USCYBERCOM and Cyber Security: Is a Comprehensive Strategy Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    command and control over its constituent units.26 Two recent articles by COL David Hollis in 2010 and one by Major M. Bodine Birdwell just recently...collection. Research also shows that there is an opposing viewpoint, which questions whether cyber is a true national strategic security risk. Jean ...12 April 2011). 25 Ibid., 2. 26 Keith B. Alexander, “United States Cyber Command,” in, Cyber Defense. 27 Bodine M. Birdwell and Robert

  4. Proces prioritizace hrozeb pro tvorbu Bezpecnostní strategie Ceské republiky/Threat Prioritization Process for the Czech Security Strategy Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milos Balabán; Oldrich Krulík; Vladimír Krulík; Jan Ludvík; Ludek Moravec; Antonín Rasek; Libor Stejskal

    2012-01-01

    This article offers systematic view of a process of identification of security threats and, subsequently, their use in the making of strategic documents, notably the Security Strategy of the Czech Republic...

  5. 教育信息化的宏观政策与战略研究%Research on Macro Policies and Strategies of Educational Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦建利; 贾义敏; 任改梅

    2014-01-01

    教育信息化是伴随着信息与通讯技术的迅猛发展,全球化进程中教育实践的深化发展以及信息与通讯技术在教育领域中的渗透与应用,而逐渐受到世界各国广泛关注的全球性热点问题之一。在过去的几十年间,世界上许多地区、国家以及国际组织都纷纷制定了各自的教育信息化宏观政策与战略,并积极推动这些宏观政策与战略的落实与实施。通过系统分析教育信息化的内涵与外延,对我国教育信息化事业的发展进行简要的回顾和对“教育信息化宏观政策与战略研究”系列文章的目的、研究对象、研究方法与过程进行介绍,进而深入分析了此项研究对于推进我国教育信息化与学习型社会的建设的理论与实践工作的重要意义与价值。%With the development of ICT, the practice of global education and the application of ICT in education, great attentions have been paid on educational informatization by many countries in the world. In the past several decades, many regional, national, and international organizations made their own macro polices and strategies of educational informatization, and promoted the implementation of them actively. On the basis of the connotation of educational informatization and the review of development of educational informatization in China, the research purpose, research object, research method and research process of a series of articles on "macro polices and strategies of educational informatization " are introduced in the paper. Finally, the significance and value of this research in the promotion of our country's educational informatization theory and practice and the construction of a learning society are analyzed.

  6. A security framework for nationwide health information exchange based on telehealth strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, B B; Haiqi, Ahmed; Zaidan, A A; Abdulnabi, Mohamed; Kiah, M L Mat; Muzamel, Hussaen

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the situation of health information exchange (HIE) in the context of a nationwide network. It aims to create a security framework that can be implemented to ensure the safe transmission of health information across the boundaries of care providers in Malaysia and other countries. First, a critique of the major elements of nationwide health information networks is presented from the perspective of security, along with such topics as the importance of HIE, issues, and main approaches. Second, a systematic evaluation is conducted on the security solutions that can be utilized in the proposed nationwide network. Finally, a secure framework for health information transmission is proposed within a central cloud-based model, which is compatible with the Malaysian telehealth strategy. The outcome of this analysis indicates that a complete security framework for a global structure of HIE is yet to be defined and implemented. Our proposed framework represents such an endeavor and suggests specific techniques to achieve this goal.

  7. Formal And Informal Macro-Regional Transport Clusters As A Primary Step In The Design And Implementation Of Cluster-Based Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežerenko Olga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the identification of a formal macro-regional transport and logistics cluster and its development trends on a macro-regional level in 2007-2011 by means of the hierarchical cluster analysis. The central approach of the study is based on two concepts: 1 the concept of formal and informal macro-regions, and 2 the concept of clustering which is based on the similarities shared by the countries of a macro-region and tightly related to the concept of macro-region. The authors seek to answer the question whether the formation of a formal transport cluster could provide the BSR a stable competitive position in the global transportation and logistics market.

  8. Fruit Production Distribution and Adjustment Strategies under the Constraint of Grain Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingbing MEI

    2016-01-01

    Grain security is the foundation of national security,and guaranteeing the grain security by every possible means is a development priority for the whole country.Rapid development of the fruit industry satisfies increasing demands of people for fruits,but also presents certain competition for grain production.From the perspective of limited resources and comparative income,this paper analyzed potential threats of fruit production distribution to grain production in farmland and labor resources,and came up with pertinent adjustment strategies.

  9. Adaptation strategies to climate change to sustain food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Dam, van J.C.; Hoogeveen, J.; Loeve, R.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the impact of climate change on food and water issues. An overview of global issues and trends is followed by a more in-depth analysis of field-scale impact and adaptation strategies for the seven basins in the ADAPT context

  10. The Path to a Culturally Relevant National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Theory This section discusses the key theory linking self and society. Henri Tajfel , the father of social identity theory, developed this theory as...32 John C. Turner, “An Introduction,” in Social Groups and Identities – Developing the Legacy of Henri Tajfel , ed...in Social Groups and Identities – Developing the Legacy of Henri Tajfel , 17. 13 strategies for achieving or maintaining intergroup comparisons that

  11. How Nation-States Craft National Security Strategy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    the NSS should not be lim- ited to accommodate anti-Iraq policy isolationism, economic trade protectionism , and anti-immigration desires, but rather...also be directed at other actors in the international system, such as other nation-states or entities that are potential threats that are considered...any constraints or restraints, such as resource considerations like money or time for the strategy, what threats and opportunities were established

  12. America Promises to Come Back: Our New National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-23

    the fact that the strategy still lacks a formal name, is that the interno debate and discussion within the Administration has not ended.00 Rather than...Government could regulate the decline but appears prepared to allow the market to determine survivors. This position appears to have also been echoed by...have the customer providing capital for spe- cialized facilities and equipment. This is not normal procedure in the commercial market . In the defense

  13. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  14. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  15. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  16. Children's perceptions of emotion regulation strategy effectiveness: links with attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sara F; Thompson, Ross A

    2016-08-01

    Six- and nine-year-old children (N = 97) heard illustrated stories evoking anger in a story character and provided evaluations of the effectiveness of eight anger regulation strategies. Half the stories involved the child's mother as social partner and the other half involved a peer. Attachment security was assessed via the Security Scale. Children reported greater effectiveness for seeking support from adults and peers in the peer context than the mother context, but perceived venting as more effective with mothers. Children with higher security scores were more likely to endorse problem solving and less likely to endorse aggression in both social contexts than those with lower security scores. Early evidence for gender differences was found in that boys endorsed the effectiveness of distraction while girls endorsed venting their emotion.

  17. Strategies for School Security: Seventh Annual Conference (Knoxville, Jackson, and Nashville, Tennessee, January 21-23, 1976). A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    This report consists of six papers prepared for the Seventh Annual Conference on Strategies for School Security, which was held January 21-23, 1976 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The papers include "School Security--A Growing Problem," by Charles Trotter, Jr.; "School Violence and Vandalism," by Joseph Grealy; "Identifying Security Problems and Needs,"…

  18. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  19. Home garden: a potential strategy for food and nutrition security in HIV households : a case study in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Home garden, HIV and AIDS, dietary diversity, plant species diversity, coping strategy index, food security, Ghana. The aim of this thesis was to explore how rural households with HIV and AIDS in Ghana are employing home garden management strategies to enhance food and nutrition security

  20. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  1. HIPAA and information security risk: implementing an enterprise-wide risk management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Christopher J.; Dorofee, Audrey

    2001-08-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 effectively establishes a standard of due care for healthcare information security. One of the challenges of implementing policies, procedures, and practices consistent with HIPAA requirements in the Department of Defense Military Health System is the need for a method that can tailor the requirements to a variety of organizational contexts. This paper will describe a self- directed information security risk evaluation that will enable military healthcare providers to assess their risks and to develop mitigation strategies consistent with HIPAA guidelines.

  2. Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Timothy D.; Jei-Fu Shaw; Liang Zheng; Chun-Lan Huang; YiLung Chang; ChuanWei Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils, reports a new discovery of well preserved three dimensional macro body fossils of the Ediacaran Period in central YunNan province in the People's Republic of China. These body fossils will enable more detailed and in-depth exploration of the evolution of multi-cellular macro organisms on this planet, whereas in the past, researches could only rely on cast or imprint fossils.

  3. National Security Strategy 2015 – a Step towards the New Phase of Russia’s Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Aleksandrovich Ilyin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available December 31, 2015, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the new National Security Strategy. Having analysed the key provisions of this document, we conclude that this event can be regarded as a new and historically significant step toward the strengthening of the Russian statehood and transition to a new stage of development. The National Security Strategy–2015 stipulates that “the implementation of the government policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of national security is carried out through the concerted actions of all the elements of its system under the supervision of the President of the Russian Federation and with the coordinating role of the Security Cou ncil of the Russian Federation”. Thus, the President takes on personal responsibility for ensuring the implementation of priority directions of state policy in the sphere of national security, and this is not only a timely step, it also demonstrates Vladimir Putin’s ability to assume the historical role of leader when Russia experiences hard times

  4. Why Macro Practice Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article asserts that macro practice is increasingly important in today's rapidly changing and complex practice environment. It briefly explores the history of macro practice in U.S. social work, summarizes its major contributions to the profession and to U.S. society, and provides some suggestions for how social work programs can expand…

  5. Macros for Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of two macros written in the programming language of Microsoft's EXCEL for educational research applications. The first macro determines the frequency of responses to a Likert-type questionnaire or multiple-choice test; the second performs a one-way analysis of variance test. (Author/LRW)

  6. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  7. What is strategy? The concept and model for its application in the Czech security strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ludvík

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article conceptually explains the notion of strategy. Drawing on its understanding by well-established authorities like Carl von Clausewitz, Basil Liddel Hart, André Beaufre, or Colin Gray, the authors discuss strengths and weaknesses of various views. Furthermore, the article employs Arthur Lykke’s definition of strategy to demonstrate various conceptual requirements. Strategy is thus perceived as the relationship among means, ends, and ways. Crucial implications for a development of the Czech strategic documents are further examined. The article argues that, the vital importance of coherent interconnection of all the afore-mentioned parts of the strategy has been so far neglected in this process. It is suggested that particular attention should be paid to the clear formulation of a goal, which is the prerequisite for any meaningful strategy. However, any goals must be developed with the close relation to the available or potentially attainable resources, and purposeful ways how to employ them. The whole process is best described as the hermeneutic circle.

  8. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  9. Construction Strategies of Social Security System for Wan-jiang Urban Belt’s Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.

  10. Mitigating Malicious Attacks Using Trust Based Secure-BEFORE Routing Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANET, being infrastructureless and dynamic in nature, are predominantly susceptible to attacks such as black hole, worm hole, cunning gray hole attack at source or destination. Various solutions have been put forth so far in literature in order to mitigate the effects of these attacks on the network performance and to improve the reliability of the network. However, these attacks are still prominently a serious threat in MANET. Hence, a trust based routing strategy termed Secure-BEFORE routing (Best FOrwarding Route Estimation is proposed to ensure optimal route estimation in computing the trust value and hop counts using the dummy packets inside the network at 1-hop level. It is observed that the overall performance of the network is improved in providing one-hop level security by maintaining the packet equivalence ratio. Malicious and suspicious nodes are isolated and eliminated from the network, based on their behavior.

  11. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  12. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  13. National security risks? Uncertainty, austerity and other logics of risk in the UK government’s National Security Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerstad, A.; Boas, I.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Risk scholars within Security Studies have argued that the concept of security has gone through a fundamental transformation away from a threat-based conceptualisation of defence, urgency
    and exceptionality to one of preparedness, precautions and prevention of future risks, some of which are cal

  14. Interpersonal Strategy, Attachment Security and Social Status among Chinese Children in the Initial Period of Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influences of peer interpersonal strategy and secure attachment on social status in peer contexts in the initial period of secondary school in China. Two hundred and thirty-one new students in secondary schools (grade 6) were recruited in the first semester to complete measures of interpersonal strategies in the peer group,…

  15. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  17. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  18. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  19. Where macro meets micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R Stephen; Smirnov, Boris M

    2014-06-01

    Reconciling or somehow linking the macroscopic and microscopic approaches to chemical and physical processes has been a challenge unaddressed for many years. One approach, presented here, treats the issue by examining individual phenomena well described by a macro approach that fails when applied to small systems. The key to the approach is determining the approximate system size below which the breakdown of the macro description is observable. The most developed example is the failure of the Gibbs phase rule for sufficiently small atomic clusters. Other examples, such as the onset, at sufficient size, of the insulator-to-metal transition, are discussed, as are some still more challenging phenomena.

  20. Securitatea statelor europene: anomie vs asimetrie in strategii (The security of the European states: anomy versus asymmetry in strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titel Iulian IOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The summary analysis of the security programmatic documents reveals the presence of some new elements of the security environment called asymmetric risks, unconventional risks or new type risks. All these don’t offers clues about the their nature and impact on the stability of states. The only common opinion relates to their novelty. In the same time, asymmetric risks are seen as a number of studies, even military ones, which are not developed in detail. I thought, in the same measure, that should be interesting and useful an approach which aim is to offer a deep explanation about this phenomenon. The utility is given by the possibility of using our study’s conclusions in the design and development of the security strategies, including a sectoral vision that takes into consideration the real changes in the security environment and which ensures a coherent working mode of the security system in front of these new types of risks.

  1. Macro Intentions, Micro Realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Muller (Allan); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe current understanding of Regional Integration is largely macro-economic and political in orientation and has tended to neglect, even ex post, the significance of the Single European Market (SEM) for the spatial restructuring of individual firms. The problem stems largely from a lopsi

  2. Between Hype and Understatement: Reassessing Cyber Risks as a Security Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Guinchard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the actions that fall under the trilogy of cyber crime, terrorism,and war exploit pre-existing weaknesses in the underlying technology.Because these vulnerabilities that exist in the network are not themselvesillegal, they tend to be overlooked in the debate on cyber security. A UKreport on the cost of cyber crime illustrates this approach. Its authors chose to exclude from their analysis the costs in anticipation of cyber crime, such as insurance costs and the costs of purchasing anti-virus software on the basis that "these are likely to be factored into normal day-to-day expenditures for the Government, businesses, and individuals. This article contends if these costs had been quantified and integrated into the cost of cyber crime, then the analysis would have revealed that what matters is not so much cyber crime, but the fertile terrain of vulnerabilities that unleash a range of possibilities to whomever wishes to exploit them. By downplaying the vulnerabilities, the threats represented by cyber war, cyber terrorism, and cyber crime are conversely inflated. Therefore, reassessing risk as a strategy for security in cyberspace must include acknowledgment of understated vulnerabilities, as well as a better distributed knowledge about the nature and character of the overhyped threats of cyber crime, cyber terrorism, and cyber war.

  3. 云计算数据安全策略研究%Study of Data Security Strategy of Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆成新; 张长伦

    2013-01-01

      云计算作为当前流行的信息技术,已受到了学术和企业界的广泛关注。从云计算的特点入手,分析了其所面临的数据安全问题,提出了基于公共密钥基础设施PKI和授权管理基础设施PMI的安全身份认证和访问控制策略。%As the current popular technology, cloud computing is drawing great attention from both industry and academia fields. This paper reviews the main characters of cloud computing, and then analyzes the security of the data security. Finally, security strategy of authentication and access control based on PKI and PMI are proposed to enhance the data security of cloud computing.

  4. Macro-Control Malady

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An undeniable fact is that China practices macro-control more frequently than countries with a developed market economy. Since the country began to adopt the policy of reform and opening up in 1978, the Central Government has launched five adjustments to cool down the economy. Professor Li Yiping at the School of Economics, the Renmin University of China, attributes the frequent control practices to the immature economic system.

  5. Security an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Purpura, Philip P

    2011-01-01

    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur

  6. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Volume 2. National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    repudiation.33 More to the point was the work of Ken Booth, a British political scientist. Booth warned, in his 1979 book Strategy and Ethnocentrism ...of how ethnocentrism distorted the theory and practice of strategy. As he pointed out, understanding cultural distortions, like any perceptual...how ethnocentrism can warp an understanding of international politics, affirmed the concept of strategic culture and declared categorically that

  7. Understanding of the U.S. Asia-Pacific Security Strategy:From the “Convergent Security” Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Lianhe

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Asia-Pacific policy is at a turning point. The "rebalancing" strategy,structured and implemented during Obama’s first term has produced extensive and sustained impacts, but still needs further adjustment in the evolving situation of the Asia-Pacific region.During the second term, based on re-evaluation of U.S. national security interests and U.S.relationship with countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the Obama Administration carefully modifies its "Asia-Pacific rebalancing" strategy, gives it the obvious character of "convergent security". Under the guidance of "convergent security" strategy, the United States will continue to maintain its bilateral security commitments, and play the leading role through more planning or participating in regional multilateral mechanisms and multilateral initiatives.Shifting from the traditional position of prioritizing bilateralism to equal emphasis on bilateralism and multilateralism in strategic arrangements is considered to be the most realistic option for the United States to safeguard its interests in the Asia-Pacific region under the current domestic political and economic conditions.

  8. Indigenous food security revival strategies at the village level: The gender factor implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Lunga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an evaluation concerning the practice of the Zunde raMambo concept (commonly referred to as Zunde in four of Zimbabwe’s 52 districts; (Mangwe, Lupane, Guruve and Hwedza. Zunde is a social security system providing protection against food shortages to vulnerable families and is coordinated by chiefs. The Zunde concept identifies with Ndebele and Shona rural communities in Zimbabwe. Thus, this evaluation sought to determine the relevance and fulfilment of the Zunde project objectives, namely: efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. The revived Zunde practice extends a long way in reducing food insecurity in vulnerable communities. Although the concept may be as old as the Zimbabwean culture, it had been abandoned as communities became urbanised. The Chief’s Council of Zimbabwe, in collaboration with the Nutrition Unit of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare have rekindled it. However, to revive this indigenous knowledge practice, there is need to assess the nature of existing social and economic structures, leadership, gender roles and the availability of resources such as land, inputs and implements. This article, which is based on both qualitative and quantitative data, collected between September 2013 and March 2014, goes on to reflect on policy issues surrounding disaster risk reduction (DRR and survival strategies used by vulnerable communities in rural areas of Zimbabwe. It recommends that the gender factor approach offers the best means possible to understand peoples’ needs and challenges as well as how these can be satisfied and resolved respectively.

  9. Macro-FF: Improving AI Planning with Automatically Learned Macro-Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Botea, A; Mueller, M; Schaeffer, J; 10.1613/jair.1696

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress in AI planning, many benchmarks remain challenging for current planners. In many domains, the performance of a planner can greatly be improved by discovering and exploiting information about the domain structure that is not explicitly encoded in the initial PDDL formulation. In this paper we present and compare two automated methods that learn relevant information from previous experience in a domain and use it to solve new problem instances. Our methods share a common four-step strategy. First, a domain is analyzed and structural information is extracted, then macro-operators are generated based on the previously discovered structure. A filtering and ranking procedure selects the most useful macro-operators. Finally, the selected macros are used to speed up future searches. We have successfully used such an approach in the fourth international planning competition IPC-4. Our system, Macro-FF, extends Hoffmanns state-of-the-art planner FF 2.3 with support for two kinds of macro-operato...

  10. Climate technology strategies. Vol. 2. The macro-economic cost and benefit or reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capros, P.; Georgakopoulos, P. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Regemorter, D. van; Proost, S. [Catholic Univ., Leuven (Belgium). Center for Economic Studies; Schmidt, T.F.N.; Koschel, H. [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Mannheim Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre und Statistik; Vouyoukas, E.L.

    1999-07-01

    Climate technology becomes more and more relevant in international environmental policy negotiations. At the Kyoto conference binding emission reduction targets have been established for several regions of the world. The major challenge is how to realize these reduction goals with minimum costs without generating new distributional and social difficulties. The book analyses the macroeconomic structural and distributional impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies for the EU and the member states. (orig.)

  11. Access数据库的安全性分析与策略%Access Database Security Analysis and Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文小林

    2013-01-01

    Access是Microsoft公司在1994年发布的数据库管理系统,是一种功能强大的MIS系统开放工具。它具有界面友好、操作简单等优点,在中小型数据库应用系统开发方面应用比较广泛。随着Access数据库的广泛应用,其安全性非常重要,数据库安全性问题成为了信息安全的最大挑战。在网络环境下,Access数据库存在许多的安全漏洞,修补安全漏洞保证Access数据库系统的安全性成为了数据库安全研究的重要课题之一。该文对Access数据库进行了简介,描述了数据库安全定义及安全体系,主要针对Access数据库存在的安全性问题进行分析,提出了Access数据库安全性问题的解决策略,寄希望于对提高Access数据库的安全性有所裨益。%Access is Microsoft Corporation in the 1994 release of the database management system, is a powerful tool for MIS sys-tems open. It has a friendly interface, simple operation, etc., in the development of small and medium sized database applications used widely. With the extensive application of the Access database, its security is very important, database security issues of infor-mation security has become the biggest challenge. In the network environment, Access database there are many security vulnera-bilities, security patches Access database system to ensure the security of database security has become one of the important issues. In this paper, a brief introduction Access database, describing the definition of database security and safety systems, mainly for the Access database security issues exist to analyze proposed Access database security problems solving strategies, hopes to improve the security of Access database benefit.

  12. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  13. Going "Macro": Exploring the Careers of Macro Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Applewhite, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    Important benefits accrue to the profession and to its vulnerable clientele when social workers hold positions with substantial community or policy influence. However, fewer social workers are holding these positions than in the past, and student preferences to pursue macro-specific training have declined. To improve the social work profession's ability to recruit and educate students interested in competing for leadership positions in human services organizations, this article analyzes data from a survey of MSW graduates of a public school of social work located in the southwestern United States and currently working as macro practitioners. Findings indicate that macro social workers can successfully compete for mid-level and top-level administrative and policy positions, and provide evidence contrary to many of the concerns students express when deciding whether to pursue a macro concentration or career. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for supporting and educating social work students interested in pursuing a macro practice career.

  14. Strategies to enable the adoption of animal biotechnology to sustainably improve global food safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizard, Mark; Hallerman, Eric; Fahrenkrug, Scott; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina; Gibson, John; de Loos, Frans; Wagner, Stefan; Laible, Götz; Han, Jae Yong; D'Occhio, Michael; Kelly, Lisa; Lowenthal, John; Gobius, Kari; Silva, Primal; Cooper, Caitlin; Doran, Tim

    2016-10-01

    The ability to generate transgenic animals has existed for over 30 years, and from those early days many predicted that the technology would have beneficial applications in agriculture. Numerous transgenic agricultural animals now exist, however to date only one product from a transgenic animal has been approved for the food chain, due in part to cumbersome regulations. Recently, new techniques such as precision breeding have emerged, which enables the introduction of desired traits without the use of transgenes. The rapidly growing human population, environmental degradation, and concerns related to zoonotic and pandemic diseases have increased pressure on the animal agriculture sector to provide a safe, secure and sustainable food supply. There is a clear need to adopt transgenic technologies as well as new methods such as gene editing and precision breeding to meet these challenges and the rising demand for animal products. To achieve this goal, cooperation, education, and communication between multiple stakeholders-including scientists, industry, farmers, governments, trade organizations, NGOs and the public-is necessary. This report is the culmination of concepts first discussed at an OECD sponsored conference and aims to identify the main barriers to the adoption of animal biotechnology, tactics for navigating those barriers, strategies to improve public perception and trust, as well as industry engagement, and actions for governments and trade organizations including the OECD to harmonize regulations and trade agreements. Specifically, the report focuses on animal biotechnologies that are intended to improve breeding and genetics and currently are not routinely used in commercial animal agriculture. We put forward recommendations on how scientists, regulators, and trade organizations can work together to ensure that the potential benefits of animal biotechnology can be realized to meet the future needs of agriculture to feed the world.

  15. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, Amy S; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today.

  16. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Groesbeck

    Full Text Available Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today.

  17. Is the U.S. National Security Strategy Balanced? An Assessment of the Role of Domestic Issues as Part of the National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-10

    Budget Office, 82. 16Nye, 220-222. 17 Edward M. Earle, " Adam Smith , Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List: The Economic Foundations of Military Power...34 Adam Smith , Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List: the Economic Foundations of Military Power." Makers of Modern Strategy. Princeton; NJ: Princeton

  18. International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    incompatible with effective law enforcement, anonymity, the protection of children and secure infrastructure In reality, good cybersecurity can...international partners We will expand these capabilities through international collaboration to enhance overall resil - ience The United States will

  19. Analysis of cloud security strategy%云安全策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王象刚

    2014-01-01

    With therapid development of information technology,cloud computing has become an important part of the new generation of information industry,is a major change in the information field,cloud security is the key factor that restricts the further development of the cloud,the cloud security problem has become the focus of attention.This paperfirst introduces the cloud security,analysis of the security problems existing in current cloud computing in the cloud security technology,access to the encryption technology,control,virtual security technology analysis.%随着信息技术的飞速发展,云计算成为新一代信息产业的重要部分,是信息领域中的重大变革,云安全是制约云进一步发展的关键因素,目前云安全问题倍受人们的关注。本文首先介绍了云安全,分析目前云计算中存在的安全问题,对云安全技术中的加密技术、访问控制、虚拟化安全技术等关键技术进行分析。

  20. 专网安全保护策略研究%The Security Strategy of Private Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦加宁; 王珏; 李涛

    2016-01-01

    专网作为公安基础信息化的重要组成部分,在维护稳定、打击犯罪、治安防控、服务群众等方面发挥了巨大作用,有力推动了公安工作发展进步,其自身安全也变得也来越重要。近年来发生的一些安全事件表明,专网缺乏有效保护策略,亟需开展安全保护顶层设计。文章通过制定分层防御策略,从数据交换与安全、业务安全与保障、终端管控与审计和网络接入与防护四个方面入手,建立一套整体的防护体系。整合各技术层面的信息进行挖掘分析,融合成宏观的安全态势。不断改进安全管理框架,配合技术系建设进行安全可视化管理,最终实现安全管理工作“看得见、管得住”的目标,同时该防护策略也适用于其他行业物理隔离网络。%Private network as an important part of the basis of police information technology play in maintaining stability, the ifght against crime, public security prevention and control, and other aspects of serving the people a great role, a strong impetus to the development and progress of police work, but also their own security has become increasingly important. Some security incidents in recent years show that the lack of effective protection of private network strategy, a strong need for security top-level design. By developing a layered defense strategy, data exchange and security, business security and safety, the terminal control and audit network access and protection four aspects, the establishment of an overall protection system. Continuously improve safety management framework, with the construction of the security technology department visual management, and ultimately the safety management "visible, keep things under control," the goal, but the protection policy is also applicable to other industries physically isolated network.

  1. (REBUILDING THE EUROPEAN UNION`S INTERNATIONAL ROLE THROUGH HUMAN SECURITY STRATEGY IN THE AFTREMATHS OF THE EUROPEAN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, characterized by profound shifts in the dynamics of global power and by diverse threats to peace and security, the European Union should be an active and peace-promoter actor, according to its founding principles. Thus, the European crisis left hard to heal scars within the European Union internal coherence and for its international role and image. The European crisis determined a cleavage in foreign and defence policy between the EU`s member states, creating dissonances in its internal processes. Therefore, this incongruence determined flawed reactions to international events. In order to determine the impact of the European crisis on the EU`s international role, it is briefly analysed the EU`s and its member states reactions to the conflicts from Libya and Syria. The main hypothesis of this article is that in order to overcome the effects of the economic crisis and to rebuild its international trust, the EU should reaffirm its core principles through a coherent external policy, which should be embedded in a bottom-up legitimized paradigm. This analysis demonstrates that human security strategy and the responsibility to protect principle can become the new European meta-narrative, the fact that they have the potential to overcome the current gap between rhetoric and practice in foreign and defence European policies. Therefore, this article advocates that the human security strategy and the responsibility to protect principle represent an impetus to transform the EU in an important global actor.

  2. an analysis of yam storage strategy to promote food security in asa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    faced in marketing yam produce. ... The Food and Agriculture Organisation ... strategy, iii. investigate the quantity of yam stored, iv. investigate marketing of the .... Table 2 Distribution of respondents based on effectiveness of strategy, how the ...

  3. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Nanning Wuxiang New District Planning Under Macro-level Development Strategies%宏观战略背景下的南宁市五象新区规划探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣海山; 梁立东

    2012-01-01

    新区的空间选择和职能定位是城市总体规划中用地发展方向选择和城市功能定位的核心内容,其抉择过程受到宏观发展背景的影响,尤其是国家宏观发展战略的影响.南宁市五象新区是新一轮南宁市城市总体规划确定的城市重点发展地区,研究从空间选择、职能定位、产业发展及空间规划等方面对其规划进行分析,探讨宏观战略背景下城市总体规划阶段新区规划的方法路径,以期为我国其他类似的城市新区规划提供借鉴和启示.%New district location choice and functional orientation is crucial to city growth and urban function in urban master plan. The choice is influenced by macro factors such as national development strategies. Wuxiang new district is the emphatic development zone in the new Nanning urban master plan. The paper analyzes spatial choice, functional orientation, industrial development, and spatial planning in the master plan, and studies new approaches for new district planning. It is a reference for other new districts planning.

  5. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  6. Cooperation between social security and employment services: Evaluation of a reform strategy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client–oriented. In these centres

  7. Strategies for Improving Housing Security System in China:A Case Study on Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Since China’s transformation to a market economy, residential segregation has become increasingly serious in Beijing. This paper analyses the problems of "affordable housing" and "low-rent housing" schemes of Beijing and makes suggestions on diminishing the residential segregation of the city by improving the Housing Security System.

  8. Deterring Cybertrespass and Securing Cyberspace: Lessons from United States Border Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    literature about border controls. Drawing on a rich literature, including case studies of successful and un- successful attempts at securing the Southern...ndupress.ndu.edu/ Media /News/NewsArticleView/tabid/7849/ Article/581864/jfq-77-rethinking-the-cyber-domain-and-deterrence. aspx, accessed August 11, 2015. 21

  9. Cooperation between social security and employment services: Evaluation of a reform strategy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client–oriented. In these

  10. A 21st Century Science, Technology, and Innovation Strategy for Americas National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    areas. Advanced Computing and Communications The exponential growth of the digital economy, driven by ubiquitous computing and communication...technologies, holds tremendous potential for innovation, economic competitiveness , and national security. New and rapidly evolving technological...weapons- focused R&D, many of the capabilities being developed have significant dual-use potential. Digital connectivity, for instance, brings

  11. The EU Maritime Security Strategy : Promoting or Absorbing European Defence Cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the maritime domain has been a pillar of European livelihoods and prosperity through fishing and global trade. In modern times, we have come to depend on maritime transport to keep our economy going. Recently, however, old and new threats have challenged the security of the European

  12. The U.S. Coast Guard Strategy for Maritime Safety, Security, and Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-19

    Nations, The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture . (Rome, Italy: United Nations 2002), 23. 31 National Marine Fisheries Service, Annual Report to... marinas . For a “cop on the beat,” this is an enormous area in which to monitor the safety of mariners, secure national borders and the global supply

  13. Building Future Security: Strategies for Restructuring the Defense Technology and Industrial Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    engineers in a specialized project shop. Although this approach initially sparked resistance, it promoted greater manufactura - bility by forcing...69, p. 760. 106 • Building Future Security video and animation at each employee workstation. Construction, however, remains primarily a hands- on

  14. The EU Maritime Security Strategy : Promoting or Absorbing European Defence Cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the maritime domain has been a pillar of European livelihoods and prosperity through fishing and global trade. In modern times, we have come to depend on maritime transport to keep our economy going. Recently, however, old and new threats have challenged the security of the European U

  15. The Caribbean Basin: U.S. Strategy and Security Challenges in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Maingot , The United States and the Caribbean,(Colorado: Westview Press, 1994) p. 228 2 Jorge Beruff and Humberto Muniz, Ed.,Security Problems and...Century. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1989. Maingot , Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean. Boulder: Westview. 1994. National

  16. Escaping America’s Future: A Clarion Call for a National Energy Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    departments are implementing various efforts to overcome this oil addiction , but are not coordinating these efforts so as to avoid unintended consequences... addiction , but are not coordinating these efforts so as to avoid unintended consequences. This essay proposes the development of a National Energy Security...10 In 2007, for instance, Brazil discovered the Carioca- Sugar Loaf Oil field off of the coast of Rio de Janeiro and it is believed to hold up to

  17. International Food Assistance: A U.S. Governmentwide Strategy Could Accelerate Progress Toward Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    Organization ( FAO ). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of food insecurity , with 1 out of every 3 people undernourished. Global... food security.1 This problem is especially severe in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where food insecurity is most prevalent with 1 out of every 3...estimates of the United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ). As the largest international donor, contributing over half of all food aid

  18. Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime: Addressing Converging Threats to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    counterdrug successes in recent years, particu- larly against the cocaine trade, illicit drugs remain a serious threat to the health, safety, security, and...criminal organizations to move cocaine to Western Europe and the Middle East. There have also been instances of Afghan DTOs operating with those in West... overdoses from all drugs, but mostly illicit ones, more than tripled from 1992 to 2007, increasing to 38,000. 7★ ★ criminals, fugitives, terrorists, and

  19. QDR 2001: Strategy-Driven Choices for America’s Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    defense planning. Rather than taking a tabula rasa approach, it distills points of consensus, issues of debate, and potential wildcards from more than...the Base Force Review (1991), the Bottom-Up Review (1993), the Com- mission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces (1993), the Qua- drennial...engagement plans. What are the appropriate roles and missions for DOD in support of homeland security? The combination of the unique position of the United

  20. Is History Relevant? Ideas for National Security Strategy in the 1990’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-05

    Lat.n.-i e Johr~st. or~ hlatior~al Wa~ ~ College Noverr ~be~- 5s 19963 NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY SPECIAL COLLECTIONS Report...i i c y a r e a s ~:.’~, as r, atic:r,a.! sec.urity. £’-.-esider, t Carte .~- tried to ’.~’-cus atter, tior~ ,-,r, r, or, t’~’aditior, al ’ti~-eats

  1. The Importance of a U.S. Security Strategy in the Caspian Black Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    passes· through the Druzhba pipeline and another million barrels through the Black Sea.6 Energy security has been especially prominent in shaping...expanding oil and natural gas pipelines running from the Caspian Sea and Caucasus areas to Turkish ports, thereby bypassing Russia altogether. One...such conduit is the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline that was completed in 2005. The BTC transports oil from Baku, Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea

  2. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization.

  3. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  4. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  5. 中国能源安全形势和能源安全战略%China's energy security and energy security strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹

    2015-01-01

    能源是人类文明和进步的物质基础,是现代社会发展不可缺少的必要基本条件。中国能源发展近些年取得了很多成绩,但面临着诸多挑战。能源资源禀赋不高,人均拥有各种能源的数量较低。本文从中国能源安全的发展历程为出发点,指出中国能源资源存在的主要特点,在全球能源格局面临调整中进一步分析具有特色的中国能源外交战略。%The energy is the material basis of human civilization and progress is the indispensable necessary basic conditions for the development of modern society. China's energy development in recent years, a lot of achievements, but is faced with many challenges. Energy resources endowment is not high, with a variety of energy per capita is low. This article from the development of China's energy security as a starting point, points out the main characteristic of energy resources in China, further analysis in the adjustment to the global energy landscape characteristic of Chinese energy diplomacy strategy.

  6. National Security Strategy: Mandates, Execution to Date, and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    defense posture and key trends, defense objectives and strategies, force posture in a constrained resource environment, and the role of arms control ...to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 06...pre-positioning, and other anticipatory deployments necessary under the national defense strategy for conflict deterrence and adequate military

  7. Moving toward security: strategies for reducing California's vulnerability to energy shortages. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    This document includes appendices on: California's energy production and distribution system; energy and security, relative to the Persian Gulf; Federal energy emergency authorities; theory of California's gasoline shortages; Complexities of the gasoline shortage system; a critique of DOE report, Domestic and International Energy Emergency Preparedness; NPC report critique; oil allocation supply test; The International Energy Agency, National Commitments and State Contingency Planning; Testimony of Commissioner Gene Varanini before Assembly Revenue and Taxation Committee; Energy Contingency planning for local governments; and Federal emergency natural gas supply laws. (PSB)

  8. Optimization strategy of communication performance in 2D macro-scale pseudo-particle parallel simulation%二维宏观拟颗粒并行模拟程序通信性能优化策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严历; 郭力

    2009-01-01

    As the application of particle simulation parallel computing becomes more and more widely used, the communication per-formances in the particle simulation parallel programs can significantly affect the simulation performances when the parallel scale increa-ses, which even may become the major performance bottleneck of the simulation. Based on the analysis of the factors that may affect the communication performances in parallel programs, optimization tests on process partitioning and communication protocol for the commu-nication performance in a 2D macro-scale pseudo-particle parallel simulation program, a typical particle simulation parallel program have been done on Gigabit Etheroet. With improved process partitioning and use of user-level communication protocol, communication performance of the testing program has been enhanced. Some communication performance optimization strategies for particle simulation parallel programs are also proposed in the paper.%随着粒子模拟并行计算在相关领域应用的不断深入和并行节点计算能力的不断增强,粒子模拟并行程序中通信耗时对整体性能的影响越来越显著,甚至成为主要性能瓶颈.本文在分析影响并行程序通信性能多种因素的基础上,从进程划分方式选择、通信协议优化的角度,对1个典型粒子模拟并行程序——二维宏观拟颗粒并行模拟程序在千兆以太网环境下的通信性能的优化策略进行了测试研究,通过改进并行进程划分方式,采用用户级通信协议等方法,使测试程序通信性能获得明显提高,进而提出了粒子模拟并行程序通信性能优化的思路和建议.

  9. TRANSACTION BASED SECURITY ISSUES AND PATHWAYS TO EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE: FROM TACTICS TO STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.S.Riaz Ahamed,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce promises to empower consumers and producers alike with the ability to engage in mutually satisfactory interactions, providing fulfillment in real time over the Internet for the exchange of products, services, or information. Fulfillment in real time, offering a complete, self-directing, interactive order processing capability, is the true promise of electronic commerce for business. Electronic Commerce is thus conducting of business communication and transactions over networks and through computers. Most restrictively defined, electronic commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services, and the transfer of funds, through digital communications. Electronic Commerce also includes all inter-company and intracompanyfunctions such as, marketing, finance, manufacturing, selling, and negotiation that enables commerce and utilize file transfer, e-mail, EDI, video conferencing, workflow, or interaction with a remote computer, including the World Wide Web. Transaction security is a major concern for businesses that offer products or services over the Internet. Secures ecommerce has revolutionized the 21st century in a way that few other technologies have. Over the past decade, the phenomenon of ecommerce has developed into a full-blown industry. Once used solely for business-to-business purposes, today nearly everyone has made at least one purchase using an ecommerce platform.

  10. On the Framing of a “Sustainable Security Strategy”: Philosophical Considerations for Security Strategy in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJiangyong

    2005-01-01

    Like economic growth, security also has its “limits.” If these invisible limits are exceeded there will be “security alienation,” that is, ideals, measures and investment aimed at seeking unilateral absolute security, which lead to new insecurities or a worsening of the security situation. Both the PalestinianIsraeli conflict and the Iraq war instigated by the US have yielded a vicious circle of violence for violence. Bloody facts have proved that blindly strengthening or resorting to military might to seek the absolute security of a particular state will provoke more extensive and stronger resistance, making the state more insecure. Even if a state achieves security for the time being through military strength,

  11. [Impact of income strategies on food security in rural Mayan communities in northern Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Fernández, Lucio A; Nahed Toral, José; Parra Vázquez, Manuel R; García Barrios, Luis; Nazar Beutelspacher, Austreberta; Bello Baltazar, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of income strategies on sufficiency of caloric intake in Mayan domestic groups (DG) of Campeche, Mexico. The analysis was based on the sustainable livelihoods approach. Information was obtained through a survey of households (N = 237) in four communities. The results reveal that all of the DG have diversified income strategies with clearly defined orientations. The caloric sufficiency index (CSI) is different (p < 0.05) among conglomerates (C) of DG and increases with the increase of the proportion of agricultural income in relation to total income. The wage labor strategy (37.6%) corresponding to C1 of DG (CSI-C = 0.69) and the agriculture-wage labor strategy (42.6%; CSI-C2 = 0.87) do not cover energy requirements of the DG. Only the agricultural strategy satisfies caloric intake needs (CSI-C3 = 1.09; CSI-C4 = 1.30) of the DG (19.8%). These results are associated with the heterogeneity of resources of the DG's, particularly, with the quality and extent of land, presence of producer organizations, and current rural policies. Implementation of differentiated local policies, interinstitutional coordination, and community participation could contribute to improving effectiveness of policies aimed at eradicating food insecurity.

  12. 101 Ready-To-Use Excel Macros

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Save time and be more productive with this helpful guide to Excel macros! While most books about Excel macros offer only minor examples, usually aimed at illustrating a particular topic, this invaluable resource provides you with the tools needed to efficiently and effectively program Excel macros immediately. Step-by-step instructions show you how to create VBA macros and explain how to customize your applications to look and work exactly as you want them to. By the end of the book, you will understand how each featured macro works, be able to reuse the macros included in the book and online,

  13. 校园网的安全威胁及管理策略%Campus network security threats and management strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俊

    2011-01-01

    本文从校园网存在的安全威胁着手,着重介绍了校园网中存在的3类安全威胁,并针对这些威胁提出了校园网安全管理的防护策略。%Articles from the campus network security threats exist to proceed,highlighting the existing campus network security threats Category 3 and made threats against the campus network security management protection strategy.

  14. 电子商务网络安全性策略研究与设计%Research and Design of Electronic Commerce Network Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白有林

    2014-01-01

    分析了电子商务网络安全现状后,提出了电子商务网络的安全需求,充分阐述了当下几种网络安全策略及方法,提出一种线下与线上有机结合的网络认证策略,即结合生物设别和密码加密技术,为电子商务网络安全提供一种全新的安全策略。%This paper,a comprehensive analysis of the electronic commerce network security,proposes the require-ments for network security of electronic commerce,fully expounds several network security strategies and methods at present,in the face of the electronic commerce network security problem,this paper presents a line network authentica-tion strategy which combines biological equipment and pass word encryption technology and provides a new security strategy for e-commerce network security.

  15. Agroecological urban agriculture - strategy for health promotion and food and nutrition security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To raise considerations about the agroecological urban agriculture, in articulation with movements for promotion of health and food and nutrition security, with participation of local communities. Data synthesis: Documental research carried out through the reading and analysis of report, field activities’ records, participants’ testimonies and interview performed with the project coordinator. The contribution of agroecological urban agriculture was perceivable in regard to the community protagonism, popular participation, and the rising of feeding and environmental awareness among social actors. Conclusion: Relevant aspects in consonance with the principles and fields of action of Health Promotion were identified, especially the strengthening of intersetorial actions, the local community empowerment, individual and collective protagonism, creation of health-friendly environments and community mobilization.

  16. Economic Diplomacy in the Innovation Global Value Chains as the National Security Providing Strategy Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analyzes of economic diplomacy application in the area of innovations. The strategy of economic diplomacy by improving the efficiency in global value chain participation was considered. The main effects of commercial diplomacy using in the innovation area were identified. The world experience using economic diplomacy in the innovation sphere was considered.

  17. Minimalist Medical Diplomacy - Do Engagements Achieve US National Strategy Global Health Security Objectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    34The condition of infrastructure is often a barometer of whether a society will slip further into violence or make a peaceful transition out of the...institutionalization of minimalist stabilization, described as an innovative , low-cost small footprint approach to Phase 0 and IV operations.54 This strategy

  18. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  19. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  20. Strategy of National Cultural Security and Modern Russia «Soft Force»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G J Filimonov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today one of the key factors needed for preservation of the state sovereignty, territorial integrity of the country, consolidation of a society, creation of conditions for the successful decision of internal problems and accordingly occurrence of possibility for conducting by the state of active foreign policy necessity of formation of own strategy of maintenance of national cultural safety and potentials so-called «soft force» appears.

  1. Colombia’s National Security Strategy, A New "COIN" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-07

    power in Latin America .27 These revolutionary achievements validated the applicability of this model in Colombia. As a result, the FARC gave high...relationships for the long term. A New View of Civil-Military Relations and Military Strategy For years Latin America suffered the terrible consequences of...Eduardo Pizarro, Una Democracia Asediada, Balance y Perspectivas del Conflicto Armado en Colombia (Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma, Marzo 2004), 94. 24

  2. Soil erosion, climate change and global food security: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    An overview is presented of the determined degree of global land degradation (principally occurring through soil erosion), with some consideration of its possible impact on global food security. Most determinations of the extent of land degradation (e.g. GLASOD) have been made on the basis of "expert judgement" and perceptions, as opposed to direct measurements of this multifactorial phenomenon. More recently, remote sensing measurements have been made which indicate that while some regions of the Earth are "browning" others are "greening". The latter effect is thought to be due to fertilisation of the growth of biomass by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, and indeed the total amount of global biomass was observed to increase by 3.8% during the years 1981-2003. Nonetheless, 24% of the Earth's surface had occasioned some degree of degradation in the same time period. It appears that while long-term trends in NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index) derivatives are only broad indicators of land degradation, taken as a proxy, the NDVI/NPP (net primary productivity) trend is able to yield a benchmark that is globally consistent and to illuminate regions in which biologically significant changes are occurring. Thus, attention may be directed to where investigation and action at the ground level is required, i.e. to potential "hot spots" of land degradation and/or erosion. The severity of land degradation through soil erosion, and an according catastrophic threat to the survival of humanity may in part have been overstated, although the rising human population will impose inexorable demands for what the soil can provide. However the present system of industrialised agriculture would not be possible without plentiful provisions of cheap crude oil and natural gas to supply fuels, pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers. It is only on the basis of these inputs that it has been possible for the human population to rise above 7 billion. Hence, if the cheap oil and gas

  3. Analysis of Cloud Security Strategy for Medium-sized and Small Enterprises%中小企业云安全策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉平

    2016-01-01

    由于云计算的虚拟化、无边界、流动性等特征,使其面临较多新的安全威胁;同时,云计算使各种资源、数据、应用高度集中,所带来的安全隐患与风险较传统网络应用高出很多。所以,云安全问题是传统网络安全问题和云计算带来的新的安全问题的综合。文章分析了云安全与传统网络安全的区别、云安全现状、中小企业向云的安全迁移的措施,以及中小企业的IaaS安全策略、 PaaS安全策略、 SaaS安全策略,并提出中小企业云安全风险与防护建议。%Due to the characteristics of cloud computing such as virtualization, no boundary, mobility, it faces a lot of new security threats. And cloud computing makes all kinds of re-sources, data, application of a high degree of concentration, it brings more risks than the applications of traditional network. So, the problem of cloud security is the integration of the traditional network security and the new security problem brought by cloud computing. This article gave analysis of the difference between the cloud security and the traditional net-work security, cloud security situation, and gave medium-sized and small enterprises the security transfer measures, IaaS se-curity strategy, PaaS security strategy, SaaS security strategy, and put forward the cloud security risks and protection sug-gestions for medium-sized and small enterprises.

  4. Hygienic Macros for JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Timothy Charles

    2015-01-01

    Languages like Lisp, Scheme, and Racket have shown that powerful and expressive macro systems can give programmers the ability to grow their own language. Unfortunately, in languages with syntax like JavaScript, macros have had less success, due in part to the difficulty of integrating macro expansion and complex grammars.This dissertation describes sweet.js, a hygienic macro system for JavaScript that fixes long standing challenges in lexing JavaScript and provides expressive pattern matchi...

  5. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  6. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  7. Spectroelectrochemistry as a Strategy for Improving Selectivity of Sensors for Security and Defense Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Morris, Laura K.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2012-12-19

    Spectroelectrochemistry provides improved selectivity for sensors by electrochemically modulating the optical signal associated with the analyte. The sensor consists of an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a film that preconcentrates the target analyte. The OTE functions as an optical waveguide for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, which detects the analyte by absorption. Alternatively, the OTE can serve as the excitation light for fluorescence detection, which is generally more sensitive than absorption. The analyte partitions into the film, undergoes an electrochemical redox reaction at the OTE surface, and absorbs or emits light in its oxidized or reduced state. The change in the optical response associated with electrochemical oxidation or reduction at the OTE is used to quantify the analyte. Absorption sensors for metal ion complexes such as [Fe(CN)6]4- and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and fluorescence sensors for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-hydroxypyrene have been developed. The sensor concept has been extended to binding assays for a protein using avidin–biotin and 17β-estradiol–anti-estradiol antibodies. The sensor has been demonstrated to measure metal complexes in complex samples such as nuclear waste and natural water. This sensor has qualities needed for security and defense applications that require a high level of selectivity and good detection limits for target analytes in complex samples. Quickly monitoring and designating intent of a nuclear program by measuring the Ru/Tc fission product ratio is such an application.

  8. Formulating Human Resources Development Strategies for Nuclear R and D, Safety and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. J.; Kim, M. K.; Son, M. Y.

    2010-05-15

    Enforced by the recent launch of the 4th National Power Expansion Plan and the 1st Basic Plan for National Energy Policy with an ambitious goal of achieving 'Low CO2 Emission and Green Growth', a rapid expansion of nuclear technology development has been reemphasized. In addition, the nation, being a potential exporter of nuclear power plants and nuclear technologies strives to explore their exports markets. In response, it is inevitable to set the priority in human resource development (HRD) as nuclear technology development both requires and fosters HRD which in turn, enables to meet the successful implementation of nuclear power expansion. A continuous, consistent and well-managed programme of HRD is crucial to assure continuity over time in the needed capacities, skills and knowledge, and to establish and maintain a cadre of manpower variously trained in different nuclear-related skills and educated in nuclear relevant fields. The objective of the study is to conduct comprehensive quantitative analyses to estimate future human resources requirements, particularly in the field of nuclear R and D, safety and security in order to establish an appropriate long-term nuclear HRD plan

  9. Development Path Choice and Strategy Framework of China' s Energy Security%中国能源安全的路径选择与战略框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈镭; 薛静静

    2011-01-01

    Energy is the base of sustainable development of national economy. Sustainable energy strategy has a great significance for supporting national energy security. Energy security and strategy has become a focus in national security strategy. Based on the actual situation of China, this paper explores the importance of formulating national energy security strategy, puts forward the path choice of energy security, and builds overall scheme of energy security strategy which provides a reference for making long-term energy security strategy in China. Authors consider that national energy security strategy is an important guarantee of sustainable energy supply, social and economic development and coping with sudden events. The paper points out a comprehensive concept for China's energy security, including the security aspects of energy supply, production and use, transport, environment and the early warning system. The authors hold the view that improving energy management system,transmission capability, energy policy, energy market, enery technology, energy environment security and strategic reserves of energy resources are the important contents of energy security strategy. And the paper puts forward following suggestions; establish comprehensive national energy security coordination organization, promote the diversification of energy utilization and increase energy efficiency through market mechanism, promote the technology development of new energy and alternative energy, and strengthen strategic reserves of energy resources.%能源是国民经济可持续发展的基础,可持续能源战略对保障国家能源安全具有重要意义,能源安全与能源战略日益成为当前国际社会和国家安全战略中备受关注的重大问题.本文从中国的现实状况出发,阐述了制定国家能源安全战略的重要性,提出了能源安全的选择路径,构建了全面性能源安全战略框架,为制定我国长期能源安全战略提供参考.论文

  10. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for

  11. Research on Network Security Strategy for Big Data%面向大数据的网络安全策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晨阳

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of the era of Big Data has brought new problems to traditional network security. Based on the analysis of network security risks for Big Data, the paper analyzes the user behavior characteristics, the network traffic characteristics and the advanced persistent threats characteristics. Then it proposes that Big Data should possess the network security strategy which includes the ability to network security awareness, network security integration and network security services, in order to ful y protect the network security of Big Data environments.%大数据时代的到来,给传统的网络安全带来了新的问题。文章在分析面向大数据网络安全隐患的基础上,分析用户行为特征、网络流量特征和高级持续性攻击特征,提出大数据应具备网络安全感知能力、网络安全融合能力和网络安全服务能力的网络安全策略,以全面保障大数据环境下的网络安全。

  12. The choice of disease control strategies to secure international market access for aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinabut, S; Puttinaowarat, S

    2005-01-01

    Since production from capture fisheries cannot meet the demands of exports, aquaculture has subsequently played a major role in securing the raw materials for the world's food industries. Aquaculture has rapidly developed from extensive systems to semi-intensive, intensive and super-intensive systems. This has introduced the use of chemicals and drugs into the systems, which cause residual problems in the products. In the developed world, food safety has become a major issue of concern. The world market now demands healthy aquaculture products from farm to table. To achieve these requirements and to keep their markets, countries involved in aquaculture have implemented control measures such as farm licensing, code of conduct for sustainable aquaculture, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good aquaculture practice. However, infectious diseases in aquaculture are of major concern to the industry and are typically controlled by eradication of the pathogen, treatment with antibiotic or chemotherapeutics, and/or by preventative measures such as the use of probiotics or vaccines. To limit the use of chemicals and antibiotics, good farm management is highly recommended. In terms of treatment, chemicals and antibiotics should be evaluated to establish recommended doses and withdrawal periods, otherwise alternative treatments should be developed. Environmentally-friendly probiotics have been introduced to aquaculture practice in the last decade to replace pathogenic bacteria with beneficial bacteria transient in the gut. Micro-organisms have also been prepared for the purpose of biocontrol and bioremediation. The application of probiotic, biocontrol and bioremediation seem promising; however considerable efforts of further research in terms of food and environmental safety are needed. Vaccination has proved highly effective in controlling diseases in the salmon industry mainly in Europe, America and Japan. In other Asian countries, this practice seem to

  13. The MARKAL-MACRO model and the climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    MARKAL-MACRO and its extensions is a model appropriate to study partial and general equilibrium in the energy markets and the implications of the carbon dioxide mitigation policy. The main advantage of MM is the explicit treatment of energy demand, supply and conversion technologies, including emission control and conservation options, within a general equilibrium framework. The famous gap between top-down and bottom-up models is resolved and the economic implications of environmental and supply policy constraints can be captured either in an aggregated (Macro) or in a sectorial (Micro) level. The multi-regional trade version of the model allows to study questions related to efficient and equitable allocation of cost and benefits associated with the climate change issue. Finally, the stochastic version of the model allows to assess policies related to uncertain and even catastrophic effects and define appropriate hedging strategies. The report is divided in three parts: - the first part gives an overview of the new model structure. It describes its macro economic part and explains its calibration, - the second part refers to the model applications for Switzerland when analyzing the economic implications of curbing CO{sub 2} emissions or policies related to the introduction of a carbon tax, including a hedging strategy, - the last part is organized in form of Appendices and gives a mathematical description and some potential extensions of the model. It describes also a sensitivity analysis done with MARKAL-MACRO in 1992. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  14. The EU internal security strategy, the EU policy cycle and the role of (AFSJ) agencies: promise, perils and pre-requisites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busuioc, M.; Curtin, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present briefing note analyses and reflects on the EU policy cycle (within the broader context of the EU’s internal security strategy), with a focus on the role of European agencies and ongoing initiatives for inter-agency cooperation. It discusses the specific approach adopted, its state of pla

  15. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented.

  16. The Glory of Intelligence: China’s Smart Power and the Implications for Security in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Mikhnevich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the interconnection between the institutional change in the sphere of security and China’s smart power in the Asia-Pacific region. It explores the practical dimension of China’s smart power in the region after the Cold War, and analyzes the multilateral interaction on security issues in the Association of the Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN. The appropriate mechanisms in which all the major actors participate are the basis and essence of the macro regional security architecture. This article identifies the links between China’s smart power and the macro regional security institutionalization. It begins by describing the ideological dimension of Chinese foreign policy since the establishment of the People’s Republic. It considers the main theoretical concept constituting China’s international strategy and its economical methods of spreading soft power in the Asia-Pacific region. It goes on to analyze the process of multilateral interaction in macro regional security after the Cold War, recognizing that despite the promotion of cooperation in non-traditional security issues there are still challenges for China, the United States and ASEAN in the realm of traditional security. Moreover, the effective and efficient use of smart power in the ASEAN mechanisms helps China counteract the efforts of other countries in the region to limit its politics. The article concludes that regional multilateral security institutions have reached their limit of effectiveness due to their design and the politics of the main actors. To sustain an acceptable level of security in the region, all participants need to develop new institutions or radically reorganize the existing ones.

  17. 全球国家网络安全战略的变革%Changes in the national cyber-security strategies in a global perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴关龙; 冯潇洒

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the emergence of the national cyber-security strategy reflects the mentality of"soft law governance".Though there is no internationally concerted definition on cyber-security,all the countries of the world regard it as the foundation of their national stability and economic develop-ment.Around 2010,the emergence of the new-generation cyber-security strategy predicted the new trend of the global cyber-security strategy,whose concepts,principles and strategies have become more flexible and whose achievements and experience can shed much light on China’s current imple-mentation of its own cyber-security strategy.%国家网络安全战略的兴起体现了网络安全“软法治理”的思路。尽管各国对于网络安全的概念尚未达成统一,但无一例外将网络安全作为国家稳定和经济发展的基础。在2010年前后,新一代网络安全战略预示了全球网络安全战略的变革态势,其理念、原则和策略变得更为丰富和弹性。我国目前正在积极部署自己的网络安全战略,全球国家网络安全战略变革中的成果和经验值得我国进行深入研判。

  18. Study of RFID Security Strategy Based on IOT%面向物联网的RFID安全策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婕; 宗平

    2011-01-01

    RFID是一种非接触式的自动识别技术,尤其在物联网中具有广泛的应用.但是,在实际应用环境中,RFID尚存在诸多安全隐患.增强RFID的安全性能够进一步扩大其使用范围,在讨论目前RFID的安全问题以及物理安全机制和加密机制的基础上,重点研究了基于加密机制的几种安全协议的特点,并对这些协议进行了比较分析,提出了新的RFID安全策略,设计了一种混合方式的安全模型-Hybrid-Encryption.经证明,该模型能够有效解决物联网应用环境中的RFID应用系统的安全问题.%RFID is a non-contact automatic identification technology. It has a wide range of applications, especially in IOT. However,in the application environment, there are still many security risks. To enhance the security of RFID can expand its use further. Based on discussing the current problems of RFID security, its physical security mechanism and encryption mechanism, study the features of several security protocols with encryption mechanism and compare these security protocols. Then propose a new RFID security strategy and design a mixed security model as Hybrid-Encryption. The testification shows that this model can solve the security problem of RFID application system in IOT effectively.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors for detection of pathogenic microorganisms: strategies to secure food and environmental safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Aldert A; van Knapen, Frans

    2006-01-01

    This review describes the exploitation of exclusively optical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for the direct and indirect detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food chains and the environment. Direct detection is, in most cases, facilitated by the use of defined monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies raised against (a part of) the target pathogenic microorganisms. The antibodies were immobilized to a solid phase of the sensor to capture the microbe from the sample. Alternatively, antibodies were used in an inhibition-like assay involving incubation with the target organism prior to analysis of nonbound antibodies. The free immunoglobins were screened on a sensor surface coated with either purified antigens or with Fc or Fab binding antibodies. Discussed examples of these approaches are the determination of Escherichia coli O1 57:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Another direct detection strategy involved SPR analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of Shiga toxin-2 genes reporting the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in human stool. Metabolic products have been exploited as biomarkers for the presence of a microbial agent, such as enterotoxin B and a virulence factor for the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis, respectively. Indirect detection, on the other hand, is performed by analysis of a humoral immune response of the infected animal or human. By immobilization of specific antigenic structures, infections with Herpes simplex and human immunodeficiency viruses, Salmonella and Treponema pallidum bacteria, and Schistosoma spp. parasites were revealed using human, avian, and porcine sera and avian eggs. Bound antibodies were easily isotyped using an SPR biosensor to reveal the infection history of the individual. Discussed studies show the recent recognition of the suitability of this type of instrument for (rapid) detection of health-threatening microbes to food and environmental microbial safety.

  20. Citizen Security

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Abizanda

    2011-01-01

    This is a presentation for the Caribbean Regional ConSoc Retreat held on June 16, 2011 in Kingston, Jamaica. This document outlines crime and violence as major roadblocks to development in the Caribbean; citing statistics and providing examples of the economic costs to the region. This presentation then goes on to describe the IDB's strategy with regard to citizen security and highlights IDB Funded security programs in the region. The presentation also identifies Civil Society as a potentiall...

  1. On Providing Downlink Services in Collocated Spectrum-Sharing Macro and Femto Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Xiaoli; López-Pérez, David; Tao, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Femtocells have been considered by the wireless industry as a cost-effective solution not only to improve indoor service providing, but also to unload traffic from already overburdened macro networks. Due to spectrum availability and network infrastructure considerations, a macro network may have to share spectrum with overlaid femtocells. In spectrum-sharing macro and femto networks, inter-cell interference caused by different transmission powers of macrocell base stations (MBS) and femtocell access points (FAP), in conjunction with potentially densely deployed femtocells, may create dead spots where reliable services cannot be guaranteed to either macro or femto users. In this paper, based on a thorough analysis of downlink (DL) outage probabilities (OP) of collocated spectrum-sharing orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based macro and femto networks, we devise a decentralized strategy for an FAP to self-regulate its transmission power level and usage of radio resources depending on its di...

  2. 浅析计算机网络安全建设及安全技术策略%Computer Network Security Construction and Security Technology Strategies Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳慧平; 刘广; 刘建平

    2011-01-01

    With the computer technology and communication technology in all aspects of social life, the extensive application of computer network security issues and more and more prominent.This definition of network security from the start,details the threat to computer network security considerations,and proposed technical and management aspects of the corresponding preventive measures.%随着计算机技术和通信技术在社会生活各方面的广泛应用,计算机网络安全防护问题也愈来愈突出。本文从网络全定义入手,详细阐述了威胁计算机网络安全的因素,并在技术及管理方面提出了相应的防范对策。

  3. Android智能手机安全问题和防护策略研究%Research on the Security Threats and Preventive Strategy of Android Smart Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚培娟; 张志利

    2015-01-01

    随着Android智能手机的普及和人们安全意识的提高,Android智能手机的安全问题越来越受到人们的重视,因此分析其安全问题和防护策略就变得十分重要。在深入分析Android系统安全机制的基础上,结合Android智能手机常见的安全问题,提出Android智能手机的防护策略。%With the popularity of Android smart phone and the improvement of people's security awareness, the security problems on Android smart phones have also attracted more and more attention, therefore, it is necessary to analyse the Android security threats and its preventive strategy. Studies security mechanism of Android system, summarizes the common security threats, gives the brief talk about the preven-tive strategy of Android smart phones.

  4. [Maternal mortality at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Initial results from a reduction intervention strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Hernández-Alemán, Francisco; Anaya-Coeto, Sergio; Pozos-Cavanzo, José Luis; Chavarría-Olarte, María Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the preliminary results of a medical manager intervention to improve the quality of medical care during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium, on the maternal mortality rates in population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). We selected the 14 administrative delegations of IMSS that showed the highest rates and absolute numbers of maternal deaths in the years 1999 to 2001. Within this group, the manager medical staff developed activities for medical training of family physicians and gynecologists, to improve medical resources, to achieve a better coordination among medical services, to adequate reference of obstetrical complications to higher-level hospitals, and for monitoring of maternal mortality committees operation. The other 23 IMSS administrative delegations were used as controls. Maternal mortality rates fell down from 40.7 to 28.2 per 100,000 live births among the delegations included in the strategy (mean reduction 30.7%). Among the control delegations maternal mortality rate fell down 1.5% only (32.3 to 31.8 per 100,000 live births). A similar phenomenon was observed for the absolute number of maternal deaths, with a reduction of 36.7% and 8.4%, respectively. The improving intervention was associated with a noticeable reduction in the maternal mortality rate. It is necessary a long-term observation to confirm a cause-effect relationship.

  5. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Volume 1: Theory of War and Strategy. 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Army War College, 2007, pp. 47-75. 23. Meinhart , p. 44. 24. David Jablonsky, "National Power," in U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security...U.S AmyWar CaUawge Guide to-National Security issues Vnlumn I: Theory of War amd Strategy it 2008 Ed ied hy J. Bo n atolnes’ r U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE...20080709 281 The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Army

  6. Model-based Impact Assessment of an Integrated Water Management Strategy on Ecosystem Services relevant to Food Security in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, R.; Liehr, S.

    2012-04-01

    North-central Namibia is characterized by seasonal alterations of drought and heavy rainfall, mostly saline groundwater resources and a lack of perennial rivers. Water scarcity poses a great challenge for freshwater supply, harvest and food security against the background of high population growth and climate change. CuveWaters project aims at poverty reduction and livelihood improvement on a long term basis by introducing a multi-resource-mix as part of an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach. Herein, creating water buffers by rainwater harvesting (RWH) and subsurface water storage as well as reuse of treated wastewater facilitates micro-scale gardening activities. This link constitutes a major component of a sustainable adaptation strategy by contributing to the conservation and improvement of basic food and freshwater resources in order to reduce drought vulnerability. This paper presents main findings of an impact assessment carried out on the effect of integrated water resources management on ecosystem services (ESS) relevant to food security within the framework of CuveWaters project. North-central Namibia is perceived as a social-ecological system characterized by a strong mutual dependence between natural environment and anthropogenic system. This fundamental reliance on natural resources highlights the key role of ESS in semi-arid environments to sustain human livelihoods. Among other services, food provision was chosen for quantification as one of the most fundamental ESS in north-central Namibia. Different nutritional values were utilized as indicators to adopt a demand-supply approach (Ecosystem Service Profile) to illustrate the ability of the ecosystem to meet people's nutritional requirements. Calculations have been conducted using both Bayesian networks to incorporate uncertainty introduced by the variability of monthly precipitation and the application of plant specific water production functions. Results show that improving the

  7. 个人计算机网络安全防护策略%Personal Computer Network Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付曙光

    2011-01-01

    This article mainly elaborated on the definition of network security and network security against the content of.Discusses the threat of network security factors and how to protect personal computer network security and need to do prevention measures.%本文主要阐述了网络安全的定义及危害网络安全所表现的内容。论述了威胁网络安全的因素及怎样保障个人计算机的网络安全及煎要做的防范措施。

  8. 云计算环境下的网络安全策略%Network security strategy under the cloud computing environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田祥宏

    2015-01-01

    随着计算机信息技术的飞速发展,云计算技术在互联网领域得到了十分广泛的应用,云计算环境下的网络安全问题也到人们的关注。本文根据笔者对网络安全问题的理解,探讨了云计算环境下的网络安全策略。%Along with the rapid development of computer information technology,cloud computing technology has been widely used in the field of Internet,network security issues in cloud computing environment to people's attention.Based on the understanding of the problems of network security,discusses the network security strategy under the cloud computing environment.

  9. 研究计算机网络的信息安全防护策略%Research on Computer Network Information Security Protection Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅

    2015-01-01

    along with the computer network technology application degree deepening, information security is more important. The paper in a hurry the computer network information security threat, combined with its protective factors, and analysis of computer network information security protection strategy.%随着计算机网络技术应用程度进一步深化,信息安全防护也就更为重要。本文拟匆匆计算机网络信息安全存在的威胁入手,结合其保护性因素,从而分析开展计算机网络信息安全的防护策略。

  10. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  11. Spreadsheet macros for coloring sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1993-12-01

    This article describes a set of Microsoft Excel macros designed to color amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments for review and preparation of visual aids. The colored alignments can then be modified to emphasize features of interest. Procedures for importing and coloring sequences are described. The macro file adds a new menu to the menu bar containing sequence-related commands to enable users unfamiliar with Excel to use the macros more readily. The macros were designed for use with Macintosh computers but will also run with the DOS version of Excel.

  12. On the Deliberative Dilemmas between the Government and the Civil Society in Chinese Local Governance——Based on the Chinese Macro-strategy of Democratization%中国地方治理中的政府与社会协商困境分析——基于民主化宏观策略的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守涛

    2012-01-01

    The national macro-strategy of democratization prescribes the fundamental direction and the core principles of democratization.The macro-strategy of democratization in China is positive but manageable,which causes many subjective and objective dilemmas to the deliberative practices between the government and the civil society in Chinese local governance.The local government can not do well in organizing deliberation,and it is difficult for the public to participate effectively.In order to solve these problems,it is necessary to overcome skepticism and build relevant mechanism to guarantee effective deliberation under the precondition of adhering the prudent and pragmatic strategy of democratization mentioned above.%一个国家民主化的宏观策略体现了该国民主化的根本方向与核心原则。中国民主化的宏观策略是一种可管理导向的积极民主化策略,这种策略给中国地方治理中的政府与社会协商实践造成了种种主客观困境,使得地方政府不能很好地举办协商活动,社会力量也不能有效地参与。为走出困境,就必须在坚持审慎而务实策略的同时,不断克服怀疑主义,建立和健全保证协商有效性的管理机制。

  13. National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    threatened by criminal syndicates. Migration surges involving unaccompanied children across our southern border is one major consequence of weak...through empowered citizens, responsible states, and effective regional and international organizations. And it serves as a compass for how this...affected states incubate and spawn infectious disease, illicit weapons and drug smugglers, and destabilizing refugee flows. Too often, failures in

  14. Pure National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Review of Indices Used in Intensive Care‖. In Applied Physiology in Intensive Care Medicine edited by Göran Hedenstierna, Jordi Mancebo, Laurent...Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988. Salehyan, Idean. Rebels Without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World

  15. National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    isolation that denies us the ability to shape outcomes. Indeed, America has never succeeded through isolationism . As the nation that helped to build our...more and spending less; by resisting protectionism and promoting trade that is free and fair; by coordinating our actions with other countries, and

  16. 物联网信息安全策略研究%The Research of IOT Information Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    笪林梅

    2014-01-01

    为了保障物联网信息安全,文章通过技术手段和管理方法,提出了一些物联网信息安全策略。基于射频识别技术和无线传输安全隐患,采用身份认证、访问控制、入侵检测和自我修复等节点安全技术,限制数据包发送速度及传输次数和引入可信匿名认证机制等传输安全技术,加强密钥管理,促进技术研发。基于物联网缺乏安全管理平台和法律保障体系等安全问题,提出加强物联网管理,实施立法保护。%To ensure the safety of IOT (Internet of things) ,article puts forward some safety strategy about IOT information in aspects of the technology and management .On base of the using of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and the detect of wireless transmission ,we can strengthen the management secret key and promote technological development through the following ways :identity authentication、access con-trol、node security technology including intrusion detection and self repairing 、transmission technology such as restricting the packet transmis-sion rate and transmission number and drawing into trusted anonymous identity authentication .Recognizing lack of the safety management platform and legal safeguard ,author presents that we should strengthen the IOT management and implement legislative protection .

  17. Comprehensive country energy assessments using the MARKAL-MACRO model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisman, A.W.

    1997-07-01

    A number of comprehensive country energy assessments were performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s in cooperation with the governments of various countries. The assessments provided a framework for analyzing the impacts of various national strategies for meeting energy requirements. These analyses considered the total energy framework. Economics, energy supply, national resources, energy use, environmental impacts, technologies, energy efficiencies, and sociopolitical impacts were some of the factors addressed. These analyses incorporated the best available data bases and computer models to facilitate the analyses. National policy makers identified the various strategies to examine. The results of the analyses were provided to the national policy makers to support their decision making. Almost 20 years have passed since these assessments were performed. There have been major changes in energy supply and use, technologies, economics, available resources, and environmental concerns. The available tools for performing the assessments have improved drastically. The availability of improved computer modeling, i.e., MARKAL-MACRO, and improved data collection methods and data bases now permit such assessments to be performed in a more sophisticated manner to provide state of the art support to policy makers. The MARKAL-MACRO model was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory over the last 25 years to support strategic energy planning. It is widely used in the international community for integrating analyses of environmental options, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It was used to perform the analyses in the least cost energy strategy study for the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Improvements continue to be made to MARKAL-MACRO and its capabilities extended. A methodology to conduct Country Energy Assessments using MARKAL-MACRO is discussed.

  18. Security Threats on Android Platform and Their Coping Strategies%Android平台安全威胁及其应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志坚; 王春平; 陈融; 陈萍

    2013-01-01

    文中综述了Android平台目前的安全威胁及应对安全威胁的策略。概述了中国移动互联网及Android系统平台的发展现状;剖析了Android现有的安全机制,归纳了Android智能移动终端在移动互联网中所面临的各种安全威胁;全面梳理隐私数据泄露、恶意软件/病毒防护、终端丢失/被盗、网络接口、恶意刷机等各类安全隐患具体的表现形式。文中在给出深入分析各类安全隐患及其具体表现形式的同时,还给出了安全隐患存在的原因,并简要给出如何解决这些安全隐患的建议。%In this paper,summarize the current security threat and strategies respond to security threats in the Android platform. Describe the current status of mobile Internet and Android platform in China,analyze the existing Android security mechanisms,summarize various security threats faced by Android smart mobile in mobile Internet,such as privacy data leakage,malware/virus protection,mobile phone is lost/stolen,network interface,flush ROM,and other types of malicious behavior. In this paper,give the in-depth analysis of various types of security risks and their specific manifestations,also give reasons of security risks,and give recommendations to address these security risks briefly.

  19. 浅谈云计算的安全隐患及防护策略%Briefly on Security Risks and Protection Strategies of Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄明霞; 陈军; 王渭清; 陈伟

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了云计算的安全现状并描述了研究云安全的重要意义。然后对云计算的安全隐患进行了探讨。结合上述问题总结了现有的云安全的防护技术,并详细阐述了运营商在现有技术的基础上对诸多云安全问题做出的应对策略。%This article presents the current safety situation of cloud computing and depicts the chief significance of researching cloud security.After that,it probes into the potential security problems of cloud computing.Next,it summarizes the existing cloud security protection technologies according the problems mentioned above,and elaborates in detail the operators' coping strategies for the cloud security problems on the basis of existing security technologies.

  20. Research on Security Strategy of the Multimedia Computer%多媒体计算机的安全策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云春; 胥良; 赵卿; 李海雁

    2014-01-01

    计算机是多媒体教室系统中的关键设备,如果计算机出现故障,就会导致多媒体教室系统无法正常工作。对多媒体计算机的安全策略研究结果表明,利用硬盘分区策略、硬盘保护策略、病毒防护策略能够实现计算机系统的长期安全运行。同时,具体给出多媒体计算机的硬盘分区策略,并分析了常用硬盘保护工具性能和优缺点。%The computer is a vital device in the multimedia classroom system.If the computer fails,it will lead to disorder of multime-dia system.After the research on the security strategy of the multimedia computer,the results show that the application of the fixed disk partition strategy,HDD protection strategy and virus protection strategy get a long period security operation.Meaning while,we provide the specific fixed disk partition strategy and analyze the advantage and disadvantage of the active fixed disk protection tool performance.

  1. Study on Macro-traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangGe; GuowuZhang; BaojunYuan; KepingLi

    2004-01-01

    Macro-traffic model is an effective tool for supporting traffic programmer to This article is based on the software products VISEM (demand model) and VISUM (supply model) from PTV Company of Germany, and studies macro-traffic model on the basis of considering that traffic system is an interactive system of between a supply system and a demand system.

  2. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  3. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree transduc

  4. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree

  5. Incorporating Charging/Discharging Strategy of Electric Vehicles into Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow to Support High Renewable Penetration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyungsung An; Kyung-Bin Song; Kyeon Hur

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to improve the operational efficiency and security of electric power systems at high renewable penetration by exploiting the envisioned controllability or flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs...

  6. Lecture 2: Software Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Computer security has been an increasing concern for IT professionals for a number of years, yet despite all the efforts, computer systems and networks remain highly vulnerable to attacks of different kinds. Design flaws and security bugs in the underlying software are among the main reasons for this. This lecture addresses the following question: how to create secure software? The lecture starts with a definition of computer security and an explanation of why it is so difficult to achieve. It then introduces the main security principles (like least-privilege, or defense-in-depth) and discusses security in different phases of the software development cycle. The emphasis is put on the implementation part: most common pitfalls and security bugs are listed, followed by advice on best practice for security development, testing and deployment. Sebastian Lopienski is CERN’s deputy Computer Security Officer. He works on security strategy and policies; offers internal consultancy and audit services; develops and ...

  7. Histone macroH2A1.2 promotes metabolic health and leanness by inhibiting adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazienza, Valerio; Panebianco, Concetta; Rappa, Francesca; Memoli, Domenico; Borghesan, Michela; Cannito, Sara; Oji, Asami; Mazza, Giuseppe; Tamburrino, Domenico; Fusai, Giuseppe; Barone, Rosario; Bolasco, Giulia; Villarroya, Francesc; Villarroya, Joan; Hatsuzawa, Kiyotaka; Cappello, Francesco; Tarallo, Roberta; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has tremendous impact on the health systems. Its epigenetic bases are unclear. MacroH2A1 is a variant of histone H2A, present in two alternatively exon-spliced isoforms macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, regulating cell plasticity and proliferation, during pluripotency and tumorigenesis. Their role in adipose tissue plasticity is unknown. Here, we show evidence that macroH2A1.1 protein levels in the visceral adipose tissue of obese humans positively correlate with BMI, while macroH2A1.2 is nearly absent. We thus introduced a constitutive GFP-tagged transgene for macroH2A1.2 in mice, and we characterized their metabolic health upon being fed a standard chow diet or a high fat diet. Despite unchanged food intake, these mice exhibit lower adipose mass and improved glucose metabolism both under a chow and an obesogenic diet. In the latter regimen, transgenic mice display smaller pancreatic islets and significantly less inflammation. MacroH2A1.2 overexpression in the mouse adipose tissue induced dramatic changes in the transcript levels of key adipogenic genes; genomic analyses comparing pre-adipocytes to mature adipocytes uncovered only minor changes in macroH2A1.2 genomic distribution upon adipogenic differentiation and suggested differential cooperation with transcription factors. MacroH2A1.2 overexpression markedly inhibited adipogenesis, while overexpression of macroH2A1.1 had opposite effects. MacroH2A1.2 is an unprecedented chromatin component powerfully promoting metabolic health by modulating anti-adipogenic transcriptional networks in the differentiating adipose tissue. Strategies aiming at enhancing macroH2A1.2 expression might counteract excessive adiposity in humans.

  8. 移动智能终端安全威胁及应对策略%Mobile Smart Terminal Security Threats and Its Coping Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵栋

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of mobile smart terminal industry, security threats such as malicious code lfooding, privacy leakage, malware and unhealthy content diffusing, have being more and more serious. On the basis of analyzing the mobile smart terminal security threats and the relevant technologies, this paper studies the current technology level of security, then proposes systematic coping strategies for mobile smart terminal security threats.%当前,移动智能终端产业迅猛发展,但也带来恶意代码泛滥、用户隐私窃取、不良内容传播等安全威胁。文章在对移动智能终端的安全威胁及其技术根源深入分析的基础上,对安全技术水平进行研究,并提出系统完整的移动智能终端安全应对策略。

  9. DNS security management

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Michael

    2017-01-01

    An advanced Domain Name System (DNS) security resource that explores the operation of DNS, its vulnerabilities, basic security approaches, and mitigation strategies DNS Security Management offers an overall role-based security approach and discusses the various threats to the Domain Name Systems (DNS). This vital resource is filled with proven strategies for detecting and mitigating these all too frequent threats. The authors—noted experts on the topic—offer an introduction to the role of DNS and explore the operation of DNS. They cover a myriad of DNS vulnerabilities and include preventative strategies that can be implemented. Comprehensive in scope, the text shows how to secure DNS resolution with the Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC), DNS firewall, server controls, and much more. In addition, the text includes discussions on security applications facilitated by DNS, such as anti-spam, SFP, and DANE.

  10. 一种云计算中云安全防御策略的设计*%Design of a Strategy of Cloud Security in Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗恩韬

    2013-01-01

      In cloud computing scenarios, cloud security as a new protection mode, application is more and more widely, and the traditional solution based on feature code is no longer adapt to the re-quirement of cloud computing on data security, how to assure the security of cloud computing cloud and terminal for huge amounts of data for effective protection, establish a new security protection strategy of cloud security is particularly important, based on the new and old two comparison of secure protection mode as the breakthrough point, adopts a more optimum era of cloud computing cloud security solution, this method has low complexity, easy to implement, has good security performance. And harmfulness of the largest also has a high ability to prevent unknown threats.%  在云计算场景下,云安全作为一种新兴的防护模式,应用的越来越广泛,而传统的基于特征码的解决方案已经不适应云计算对数据安全的要求,如何从保证云计算的云端和终端的安全,对海量数据进行有效的保护,建立新的云安全的安全防护策略就显得尤为重要。以新旧两种安全防护模式的对比为切入点,采取一种更适云计算时代的云安全解决方案,此方法具有复杂度低,易于实现,具有良好的安全性能,对目前危害性最大的未知威胁也有很高的防范能力。

  11. 宏观政策调整下银企关系与公司现金持有策略%Bank-Enterprise Relationship and Corporate Cash Holding Strategy under Macro Policy Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小平; 罗付岩

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether bank -enterprise relationship and macro policy adjustment can affect the level of corporate cash holding by substituting the degree of difficulty of corporate gaining financial external fund from banks for the level of bank-enterprise relationship .As expected , strong evidence supports that firms with stronger bank -enter-prise relationship tend to hold less cash .Based on the study , it is also found that firms without stronger bank -enterprise relationship hold more cash in the tighter period of monetary policy , owing to excessive costs of external financing .Our findings are in line with both the precautionary motive and pecking order theory of financing for holding cash .%本文用企业获得银行融资贷款的难易程度代替银企关系水平,实证研究银企关系和宏观政策调整是否会影响公司现金持有水平。研究结论显示银企关系密切的公司常常持有更少的现金,反之公司则在货币政策紧缩期间持有更多的现金,这是因为从外部筹集资金的代价过高。这一研究结果符合现金持有的预防性动机理论和融资优序理论。

  12. Financial Imbalances and Macro-prudential Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikarpova Olga S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The credit crisis and its transformation into a sovereign debt crisis have illustrated the limited character of the traditional macro financial politics. The financial crisis has shown that the priority of price stability does not guarantee macroeconomic stability. Revision of the goals and objectives of the monetary and credit policy is being carried out in many countries. In order to ensure macroeconomic stability, central banks have to use new instruments considering financial stability as an additional object. Since 2009 the IMF recommends central banks to use macro-prudential instruments for reducing macro-financial risks and imbalances in the financial system structure. The effectiveness of macro-prudential policy depends on its calibration with the monetary and credit policy. The growth of financial imbalances in the first decade after the adoption of the euro, presence of contradictory fiscal policies, deployment of a spiral of rapid crediting and price inflation have led to apraxia in the monetary and credit policy, and fiscal policy was limited by institutional arrangements. Accumulating funds during the budget surplus the countries-members of the European Monetary System (EMS attempted to reduce asymmetric shocks. The priority of price stability in the EMS had been achieved but the economies of these countries suffered from financial imbalances. Macro-prudential policy is aimed at prevention and mitigation of systemic risk, plays a significant role in reforming the new policy of central banks. That is why European countries are developing new methods and an institutional framework for the implementation of a new macro-prudential policy. Problems of structural arbitration and the possibility of emergence of new financial imbalances in the EMS are becoming increasingly real. The flow of financial capitals and financial institutions to more lenient jurisdictions is connected with the establishment of macro-prudential policy. The macro

  13. Securing the Vista Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "Securing the Vista Environment" takes you on a quick tour of the most significant security features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in almost six years. You'll get background on threats and vulnerabilities that will make you think differently about security. Security is more than just the technology and configurations--it's about how we use the system that makes it secure or not. Then we'll cover Vista's security features, from user privileges to Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker, as well as strategies for protecting your information from unwanted disclo

  14. On the Web Application System Security and Protection Strategy%浅析Web应用系统的安全及防护策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽娟

    2011-01-01

    随着网络技术的发展,Web应用服务的快速普及,各种基于Internet的Web应用系统的攻击事件频发。本文试着分析Web应用系统主要安全问题及威胁Web安全的主要原因,提出Web应用系统的防护策略。%With the development of network technology,and the rapid proliferation of Web applications,Internet-based Web applications are frequently attacked.This paper tried to analyze the Web application security issues and the main reason of the Web security threat.The Web application system proposed protection strategy.

  15. Auditing Organizational Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    large and diverse cyber threats that range from unsophisticated hackers to technically com- petent intruders using state-of-the-art intrusion...targets, and programs • Consistent with the organization’s overall security threat and risk management strategy and the nature and scale of its...the security manage- ment system • Establishing meaningful security met- rics and measures of effectiveness • Ensuring security -related threats , criti

  16. 北极生态安全对中国国家安全的影响及应对策略%The Arctic ecological security impact on national security of China and strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振姣; 崔俊; 韩硕洋; 郭培清; 范洪颖

    2013-01-01

    随着全球气候变暖,北极冰盖正加速融化,北极环境正在酝酿重大变化.北极航道会在不远的将来开通,北极会成为全球新的战略竞技场,环北极国家对北极主权和资源的竞争加剧,全球生态安全面临着重大挑战.北极环境变化对中国国家安全产生的影响是复杂的:北极冰盖融化将使中国生态安全面临着危机;能源的发现为中国提供了机遇;北极航道的开通将使中国的国际航运和国际贸易从中受益.本文在综合分析北极气候变化的基础上,进一步探讨北极生态安全与中国国家安全的关系,并分析了北极生态安全对中国国家安全的影响、原因以及中国的应对策略.这对于我国应对北极环境政治,维护中国国家安全和塑造北极地区整体安全环境有着重要的现实意义和影响.%With global warming,the Arctic ice sheet is accelerated melting,and the Arctic environment is brewing a major change.Arctic waterway will be opened in the near future,the Arctic will become one of the new global strategic arena,Circumpolar nations increased competition on the Arctic sovereignty and resources,global ecological security will face significant challenges.The impact of Arctic environmental change on China's national security is complex:Melting of the Arctic ice cap will enable China ecological security to face a crisis;Arctic energy found provide opportunities for China;What's more,China's international shipping and trade will benefit from the opening of the Arctic waterway.Based on the comprehensive analysis of the Arctic climate change,further explore the relationship between the Arctic ecological security and national security,and to analyse the Arctic ecological security impact on national security of China,accompany with its causes and coping strategies.There is a realistic significance to deal with the Arctic environmental politics,safeguard China's national security and created the Arctic overall

  17. 网络信息安全管理策略分析%Analysis on Network Information Security Management Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蟾膺

    2015-01-01

    In the network of the present,its important role is self-evident. But there are also a lot of loopholes in the network,the existence of these vulnerabilities is a serious threat to the security of information. This paper discusses the technology of network information security and information security, and puts forward some reasonable suggestions.%在网络盛行的今天,其重要作用不言而喻.但网络中也存在着很多的漏洞,这些漏洞的存在严重威胁着信息的安全.文章针对网络信息安全以及保障信息安全的技术进行了详细论述,并提出了合理的建议.

  18. A boundary matching micro/macro decomposition for kinetic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lemou, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new micro/macro decomposition of collisional kinetic equations which naturally incorporates the exact space boundary conditions. The idea is to write the distribution fonction $f$ in all its domain as the sum of a Maxwellian adapted to the boundary (which is not the usual Maxwellian associated with $f$) and a reminder kinetic part. This Maxwellian is defined such that its 'incoming' velocity moments coincide with the 'incoming' velocity moments of the distribution function. Important consequences of this strategy are the following. i) No artificial boundary condition is needed in the micro/macro models and the exact boundary condition on $f$ is naturally transposed to the macro part of the model. ii) It provides a new class of the so-called 'Asymptotic preserving' (AP) numerical schemes: such schemes are consistent with the original kinetic equation for all fixed positive value of the Knudsen number $\\eps$, and if $\\eps \\to 0 $ with fixed numerical parameters then these schemes degenerate into ...

  19. Review of Considerations for Mobile Device based Secure Access to Financial Services and Risk Handling Strategy for CIOs, CISOs and CTOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information technology and security stakeholders like CIOs, CISOs and CTOs in financial services organization are often asked to identify the risks with mobile computing channel for financial services that they support. They are also asked to come up with approaches for handling risks, define risk acceptance level and mitigate them. This requires them to articulate strategy for supporting a huge variety of mobile devices from various vendors with different operating systems and hardware platforms and at the same time stay within the accepted risk level. These articulations should be captured in information security policy document or other suitable document of financial services organization like banks, payment service provider, etc. While risks and mitigation approaches are available from multiple sources, the senior stakeholders may find it challenging to articulate the issues in a comprehensive manner for sharing with business owners and other technology stakeholders. This paper reviews the current research that addresses the issues mentioned above and articulates a strategy that the senior stakeholders may use in their organization. It is assumed that this type of comprehensive strategy guide for senior stakeholders is not readily available and CIOs, CISOs and CTOs would find this paper to be very useful.

  20. Resource Curse: Micro and Macro Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    corporate sub-levels, while at the macro level there are the state and the global ... development and good governance than do countries with fewer resources” ( .... Individuals can contribute to resource curse by acting as corrupt agents of the.

  1. MACRO constraints on violation of Lorentz invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, M

    2007-01-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrino-induced upward-going muons in MACRO has been analysed in terms of relativity principles violating effects, keeping standard mass-induced atmospheric neutrino oscillations as the dominant source of $\

  2. Searching for existential security: a prospective qualitative study on the influence of mindfulness therapy on experienced stress and coping strategies among patients with somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annemette Bondo; Delmar, Charlotte; Nielsen, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to explore how mindfulness group therapy for somatoform disorders influenced the patients' stress experiences, coping strategies and contextual psychosocial processes. A longitudinal pre- and post-treatment design, using 22 semi-structured individual pre- and post-treatment interviews. Data-analysis was based on a thematic methodology. Pre-treatment patients were struggling in an existential crisis, feeling existentially insecure about their social identity, the causes, consequences and management of their illness; experiencing difficulties identifying and expressing stress-related cognitions, emotions and feelings, and low bodily and emotional self-contact; often leading to avoidant coping, making these individuals highly stress-vulnerable. Post-treatment, the overall change was conceptualized as increased existential security, defined by patients being more self-confident; more clarified with their social identity, the nature, management and future prospects of their illness; generally using more flexible coping strategies to reduce their daily stress experiences. Four related subthemes were identified contributing to increased existential security: 1) more secure illness perceptions - feeling existentially recognized as "really" ill, 2) enhanced relaxation ability - using mindfulness techniques, 3) increased awareness - connecting differently to mind and body 4) improved ability to identify and express needs and feelings of distress - more active communicating. Patients suggested that mindfulness therapy could be expanded with more time for group-discussions followed by additional individual therapy. Generally, treatment positively influenced the patients' illness perceptions, stress-experiences, body- and self-awareness, coping strategies, self-image, social identity and social functioning. However, patients identified potentials for treatment improvements, and they needed further treatment to fully recover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Comparing the Security Strategies of the United States and the Republic of the Philippines Regarding Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Reagan Diaries, ed. Douglas Brinkley (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2007), 351. 14Republic of the Philippines, 2011-2016 National Security Policy...Regionalism Analytical Approach.” Issues and Studies 45, no. 1 (March 2009): 163-202. Ryan, Alan . “The Strong Lead-Nation Model in an ad hoc Coalition

  4. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Manne, A.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US); Wene, C.O. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US)]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled {open_quotes}top-down macroeconomic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}bottom-up engineering{close_quotes} perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands? Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources? Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands? An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  5. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Manne, A.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Wene, C.O. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled [open quotes]top-down macroeconomic[close quotes] and [open quotes]bottom-up engineering[close quotes] perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  6. 云计算面临的安全问题及防御策略%Security issues and defense strategies of cloud computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾佳

    2015-01-01

    近年来,云计算技术的应用越来越广泛,如何构建安全的云计算环境已成为当前信息技术学科研究的问题之一。通过深入分析云计算环境下的各种安全问题,从IaaS、PaaS、SaaS 3种业务层面提出了安全防御策略,同时从管理层面提出了完善安全管理制度的建议。%In recent years, the application of cloud computing technology is becoming more and more extensive. How to build a secure cloud computing environment has become one of the problems in the current research of information technology.Through in-depth analysis of various security issues in cloud computing environment,it puts forward a security defense strategy from IaaS, PaaS, SaaS three service levels, and puts forward suggestions for improving the safety management system from the management level.

  7. Information security cost management

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavan, Ioana V

    2006-01-01

    While information security is an ever-present challenge for all types of organizations today, most focus on providing security without addressing the necessities of staff, time, or budget in a practical manner.Information Security Cost Management offers a pragmatic approach to implementing information security, taking budgetary and real-world constraints into consideration. By providing frameworks, step-by-step processes, and project management breakdowns, this book demonstrates how to design the best security strategy with the resources you have available. Organized into five sections, the book-Focuses on setting the right road map so that you can be most effective in your information security implementationsDiscusses cost-effective staffing, the single biggest expense to the security organizationPresents practical ways to build and manage the documentation that details strategy, provides resources for operating annual audits, and illustrates how to advertise accomplishments to senior management effectivelyI...

  8. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Security Strategy: Case Studies on the South China Sea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    initiatives also serve to limit the influence of actors like the US and Japan by reducing their role in the regional security architecture . From an...such as the US, the UK, Germany, France, and Japan currently enjoy a commanding lead over China in soft power terms.2 Consequently, intellectuals...with Japan in the East China Sea (ECS) , territorial disputes along the border with India, the remilitarization of Japan , and instability on the Korean

  9. 运营商大数据安全管理策略研究%Research on Big Data Security Management Strategy for Telecom Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴金栋; 赵旺飞

    2016-01-01

    为确保运营商大数据安全风险的可管可控,分析了运营商大数据的发展趋势及面临的安全问题,提出了一种运营商大数据全生命周期安全管控策略。通过基于运营商大数据系统建设的五个层级,建立数据采集、传输、存储、共享、使用、审计、销毁等七个环节的端到端安全管理体系。针对运营商敏感数据建立统一客户敏感数据管理平台,并从检测、响应、恢复及加固四个环节建立大数据安全事件闭环管控流程,提升大数据安全事件快速分析能力,对增强安全事件发生后的应对处置能力起到有效作用。%In order to guarantee the management and control of big data security risk for operators, the development trend and security problems of big data for operators were analyzed to present a full-life-circle security management strategy of big data for operators. Based on five hierarchies of constructing operators’ big data, an end-to-end security management system with seven links of data acquisition, transmission, storage, sharing, usage, audit and destruction was established. A uniform management platform of customer sensitive data was established in the light of operators’ sensitive data. In addition, a closed-loop control lfow of big data security events was established to effectively enhance the fast analysis and handling capabilities of big data security events from four links of detection, response, recovery and reinforcement.

  10. Micro-processus et macro-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Victor Cicourel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Des approches sociologiques traditionnelles ont défini des macro-structures sociales comme un niveau particulier de la réalité sociale, à distinguer des micro-épisodes de l’action sociale. Cela les a conduits à concevoir ces macro-structures et à mener des recherches sur elles de manière plus ou moins indépendante des pratiques observables de la vie quotidienne. Cicourel soutient que les faits (macro-sociaux ne sont pas simplement donnés, mais émergent de pratiques routinières de la vie de tous les jours. Le macro, au sens de descriptions résumées, hors contexte, normalisées et typifiées, est un produit typique des procédures interactives et organisationnelles qui transforment les micro-événements en structures macro-sociales. Ainsi une précondition pour l’intégration des phénomènes micro- et macro-sociaux dans notre théorie et dans notre méthodologie renvoie à l’identification des processus contribuant à la création de macro-structures par des inférences routinières, des interprétations et des procédure de résumé. Le texte montre aussi que les différences entre approches micro-sociologiques apparaissent parallèles à celles existant entre approches micro et macro. On se centrant sur de petits fragments d’interactions conversationnelles, certains travaux micro-sociologiques tendent à ignorer ce qui informe ces interactions conversationnelles pour les participants eux-mêmes. Les comptes rendus décontextualisés produits par de telles méthodes ressemblent à la décontextualisation résultant des procédures macro-sociologiques d’agrégation. Contre cela, Cicourel défend la constitution de bases de données comparatives n’incluant pas seulement le contexte des interactions de face à face, mais étudiant aussi les phénomènes sociaux de manière systématique à travers différents contextes.Micro-processes and macro-structures. Notes on articulation between different levels of analysis

  11. Strategies for the Data Information Security of SMEs%中小企事业单位数据信息安全策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓宾

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computing technology and widespread application of network technology, the protection of commercial secrets, personal privacy and sensitive data and so on becomes more important. Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises, due to the limited funding and resources, the information data is constantly threatened by internal and external factors. The essence of the data information security is to protect information systems or information in the network information resources from various types of threats, interference and damage, namely guarantee information security. This article analyzes the data information security problems of small and medium-sized enterprises and institutions, and puts forward the corresponding security strategy and technical measures.%随着计算技术的发展,网络技术的普遍应用,保护商业机密、个人隐私、敏感数据等越显重要。尤其是中小企事业单位由于资金有限,资源不多,各种信息数据时时受到内部的以及外部的威胁。数据信息安全的实质就是要保护信息系统或信息网络中的信息资源免受各种类型的威胁、干扰和破坏,即保证信息的安全性。本文将对中小企事业单位的数据信息安全问题进行分析,提出相应的安全策略和技术防范措施。

  12. Securitization of Language and Strategies of National Security%语言问题安全化与国家安全对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建勤

    2011-01-01

    In this article, three issues concerning the securitization of language are discussed ( 1 ) It firstly introduces background of securitization of language : U.S. government started a proce- dure of securitization of language by the" speech-act", i. e. , by launching American "National Se- curity Language Initiative". Its language, therefore, is securitized. Securitization of the closely related to its strategic goals of language, language is and so, the "critical language" strategy is inevitable outcome of securitization of language. (2) It argues that the securitization of language poses poten- tial threats to our national security. The threats come from two aspects: one is from American "criti- cal language" strategy which forms threats to our military, economic and ideology affairs; another is that the lack of national foreign language capability makes our nation face security challenges. (3) The security strategies of our nation under the background of securitization of language is also dis- cussed. It is suggested in this paper that, firstly, the government should strengthen planning of for- eign languages in order to make our own critical safeguard language national interests and security; secondly, the government should strategy according to national strategy coping with international affairs and emergent events by promoting national foreign language capability; thirdly, the government should make national language strategy as soon as possible, in order to cope with American military and political penetration by implementing its "critical language" strategy.%本文围绕语言问题安全化主要探讨三个问题:(1)语言问题安全化的背景。美国政府通过宣布美国“国家安全语言计划”这一“言语一行为”启动了语言安全化程序。语言问题被安全化与美国语言战略目标密切相关,其“关键语言”战略的实施是导致语言问题

  13. Security of Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Security and dependability are crucial for designing trustworthy systems. The approach “security as an add-on” is not satisfactory, yet the integration of security in the development process is still an open problem. Especially, a common framework for specifying dependability and security is very...... much needed. There are many pressing challenges however; here, we address some of them. Firstly, security for dependable systems is a broad concept and traditional view of security, e.g., in terms of confidentiality, integrity and availability, does not suffice. Secondly, a clear definition of security...... in the dependability context is not agreed upon. Thirdly, security attacks cannot be modeled as a stochastic process, because the adversary’s strategy is often carefully planned. In this chapter, we explore these challenges and provide some directions toward their solutions....

  14. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY STATEMENT OF PURPOSE The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T... International Engagement Strategy is intended to establish clear goals and objectives to guide S&T’s international cooperative research, development... International Engagement Strategy, the 2015 White House National Security Strategy, the 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review, and the DHS Fiscal

  15. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  16. Market Analysis & Strategies for the Launch of New Product in the Landscape of Information Security & Assurance by Nexor

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Debraj

    2011-01-01

    Nexor has been an active player in the information assurance market for over two decades. They figured a gap in the information security horizon and subsequently undertook a project Carmen to cash in on the opportunity presented by the situation by bridging the gap. As a SME they have spent considerable resources, efforts and time for this. Now the product is ready to be taken to the market but prior to that it is necessary to evaluate the market scenario and possibilities of Carmen‘s success...

  17. A Common European Security and Defense Policy in the European Union: Greek Policy and Strategy on ESDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    create such an empire, and an army for all of Europe. That leader was Charlemagne , or Charles the Great, King of the Franks and Emperor of the Holy...army responsible for the security and defense of all Europe. Charles, King of the Franks, known as Charlemagne , who became the supreme ruler of...Western Europe when crowned Emperor on Christmas Day in the year 800 AD,3 rose from such a power vacuum and the lack of such an army after the fall of

  18. Determination of variator robustness under macro slip conditions for a push belt CVT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drogen, Mark; van der Laan, Maaike

    2004-01-01

    Developments in clamping force control for the push belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) aim at increased efficiency in combination with improved robustness. Current control strategies attempt to prevent macro slip between elements and pulleys at all times for maximum robustness. In order

  19. An Efficient Method for Performance Evaluation of Femto-Macro Overlay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim; Huang, Qian;

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a two-tier femto-macro overlay network architecture, where groups of femtocells are overlaid by macrocells. The capacity of the femtocells is limited, thus redirection of blocked femto calls to the overlaid macrocell is used as a QoS assurance strategy. Similar overflow appro...

  20. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces.

  1. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  2. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)

    2011-09-15

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  3. Macro-Controls Take the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese economy has maintained a bullish run for decades. But in recent years inflation has become more threatening. Worries therefore grow that the robust economy may slump due to the overwhelming macro-economic controls. How should China rein in inflation and at the same time hedge against economic freefall? What differentiates the country’s macro-economic controls in recent years from those in the past? Liu Shucheng and Zhang Xiaojing, researchers with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, gave their opinions in the following excerpts:

  4. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    "From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions of program......"From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions...

  5. OML macros Web presentation guidelines and source list

    CERN Document Server

    Sheau Hwang, Chang

    1999-01-01

    More than 100 macros have been written and made available on the Web since the debut of PFW in 1996. Evidently, OML has benefited many OCLC system users in automating their jobs. Nevertheless, finding the desired macros takes considerable time and effort because Web sites that provide macros present them in widely varied formats. This article presents the Web sites that currently provide macros for sharing, initiates the discussion on Web macro presentation guidelines, evaluates the presented Web sites based on these guidelines, and provides a source list of useful macros specifically for OCLC subsystem applications. (0 refs).

  6. Study on the Optimization of China’s Macro Tax Burden System%我国宏观税负制度优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞

    2014-01-01

    Macro tax burden is the rational reallocation of social welfare and total resource by the government,and it is an indispensable way to realize national strategy,public goods supply and social welfare. Aiming at the problems such as China's heavy macro tax burden,the real tax burden is higher than nominal burden,tax structure is not in line with the economic structure,and the careless implementation of tax policy,the government should set an overall level of macro tax burden,carry out the reform of the income and distribution system,guarantee structural tax Re-duction policy,implement tax law strictly,improve tax levying and management ability and begin to impose social security tax.%宏观税负是政府对社会财富和总资源的合理再分配,是实现国家战略、公共品供给以及社会福利的必要途径。针对中国宏观税负偏重、实际负担高于名义负担、税收结构与经济结构不匹配、税收政策执行随意性大等问题,政府应设定宏观税负总体水平,实施收入分配体系改革,落实结构性减税政策,严格实行依法治税,提高税收征管水平和开征社会保障税。

  7. A Review of the French National Digital Security Strategy%《法国国家数字安全战略》述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠志斌

    2016-01-01

    The digitalization of French society is accelerating, with relentless growth in digital services, products and jobs. The digital transition favors innovation and growth, yet it simultaneously carries risks for the State, economic stakeholders and citizens. Facing to this challenge,French government issued a new version of the French national digital security strategy in October 2015. The strategy called for a collective, coordinated response based on five strategic objectives. This paper introduces and makes a brief comment on the strategy.%法国社会正在加快数字化进程,数字服务、产品和工作不断发展,数字转型有助于创新和发展,但也给国家、经济利益相关方和公民带来了风险.网络犯罪、间谍活动、宣传、破坏和过度利用个人数据威胁着数字信任和安全.面对这一挑战,2015年10月法国政府发布新版《法国国家数字安全战略》,提出基于五个战略目标进行共同协调应对.本文对该战略进行系统介绍,并做简要评论.

  8. Enhanced secure strategy for electro-optic chaotic systems with delayed dynamics by using fractional Fourier transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mengfan; Deng, Lei; Li, Hao; Liu, Deming

    2014-03-10

    We propose a scheme whereby a time domain fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is used to post process the optical chaotic carrier generated by an electro-optic oscillator. The time delay signature of the delay dynamics is successfully masked by the FRFT when some conditions are satisfied. Meanwhile the dimension space of the physical parameters is increased. Pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) with low bit rate (hundreds of Mbps) is introduced to control the parameters of the FRFT. The chaotic optical carrier, FRFT parameters and the PRBS are covered by each other so that the eavesdropper has to search the whole key space to crack the system. The scheme allows enhancing the security of communication systems based on delay dynamics without modifying the chaotic source. In this way, the design of chaos based communication systems can be implemented in a modular manner.

  9. Agroecological urban agriculture - strategy for health promotion and food and nutrition security - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p381

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To raise considerations about the agroecological urban agriculture, in articulation with movements for promotion of health and food and nutrition security, with participation of local communities. Data synthesis: Documental research carried out through the reading and analysis of report, field activities’ records, participants’ testimonies and interview performed with the project coordinator. The contribution of agroecological urban agriculture was perceivable in regard to the community protagonism, popular participation, and the rising of feeding and environmental awareness among social actors. Conclusion: Relevant aspects in consonance with the principles and fields of action of Health Promotion were identified, especially the strengthening of intersetorial actions, the local community empowerment, individual and collective protagonism, creation of health-friendly environments and community mobilization.

  10. Construction of State Cyberspace Security Strategy Based on Big Data%基于大数据的网络空间安全战略的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李留英

    2014-01-01

    Cyberspace has become an important national competition and bat lefield. According to the analysis of state cyberspace security strategies, the paper analyzes the impact of big data on state security strategy, and proposes to build a cyberspace security strategy based on big data in China and key areas to focus on.%网络空间已成为各国争夺的重要领域和战场。文章在分析各国网络空间安全战略的基础上,分析了大数据对国家安全战略的影响,提出构建基于大数据的网络空间安全战略及需关注的重点领域。

  11. Research on Computer Network Information Security and Protection Strategy%计算机网络信息安全及其防护策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富

    2016-01-01

    计算机网络已经是我们生活中的一部分,网络安全越来越受到关注。在互联网的时代,我们基本上办任何事情,都要通过网络。因此不管是个人信息、企业信息还是国家信息都存在安全隐患和信息泄密的威胁。文章通过分析威胁网络信息安全的因素,结合近几年计算机网络信息安全的案例提出信息安全的防护策略。%computer network has already became a part in our life, and the issue of internet security raise more and more concerns. In the age of internet, we basically do anything go through the internet. Therefore, there are exist troubles and threats to personal information, corporate information and national information. This paper analyzed the reasons of threats to the internet information security, and put forward some safety protection strategies according to the cases happened in recent years.

  12. Security Strategy for Intelligent Substation Operation and Maintenance%智能变电站运行、检修安全策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾皑; 曾平:

    2012-01-01

    分析了智能变电站的技术特点,结合现场运行实践和经验,讨论了智能变电站给传统运行、检修工作带来的影响和变化,并提出了变电站安全策略分析。%The technical characteristics of intelligent substation are analyzed. Then based on the field operation prac- tice and experience, the influences on conventional substation operation and maintenance exerted by intelligent sub- station are discussed, and substation security strategy analysis is suggested. Key words: intelligent substation ; substation operation; substation maintenance

  13. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document; Livret vert sur la securite de l'approvisionnement en energie, document technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  14. Connected Community and Household Food-Based Strategy (CCH-FBS): its importance for health, food safety, sustainability and security in diverse localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Connected Community and Household Food-Based Strategy (CCH-FBS) could contribute to the resolution of outstanding nutritionally-related health problems. The 1995 Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) have been customized in regions and nations, encouraging integrated food systems and culturally-sensitive food-health relationships with economic development. Climate change and diminishing fuel and food affordability have made their role in promoting food security critical. Localities with their eco-systems, communities and households, could apply FBDGs to correct mismatches between food systems, individual health needs, and environmental integrity. Improved infrastructure should allow communities and households to be usefully connected and operate with CCH-FBSs.

  15. SECURITY STRATEGY AND APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF TIANJIN GRAIN & OIL COMMODITY ELECTRONIC TRADING PLATFORM SYSTEM%天津粮油商品电子交易平台系统安全策略及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢智勇; 吴维吉; 赵韫珂; 杜宝峰

    2015-01-01

    The security of the electronic trading platform plays a vital role in the process of the operation of the system.Aiming at improving the security of electronic trading system,the paper expounds on the security strate-gy of Tianjin Grain &Oil Electronic Trading System in the light of the development process of Tianjin Grain &Oil Electronic Trading System from 4 aspects such as system security,server security,network security,applica-tion system security,in order to reduce the security risk of the trading system to the maximum extent.%电子交易平台的安全性在系统运行过程中起着至关重要的作用。以提高电子交易系统安全性为目的,结合天津粮油电子交易系统的开发过程,从系统安全、服务器安全、网络安全、应用系统安全等4方面,阐述了天津粮油电子交易系统所使用的安全策略,最大程度降低了交易系统运行的安全风险。

  16. Macro News, Riskfree Rates, and the Intermediary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, Albert J.; Sarkar, Asani; Wel, van der Michel

    2007-01-01

    Signed customer order flow correlates with permanent price changes in equity and nonequity markets. We exploit macro news events in the 30Y treasury futures market to identify causality from customer flow to riskfree rates. We remove the positive feedback trading part and establish that, in the 15 m

  17. Teaching Macro Principles "after" the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Recent events should force everyone who teaches macroeconomics (or finance, for that matter) to reconsider their curriculums. In this short article, the author shares his thoughts about what should and should not be changed in the way economists teach macro principles to beginning students. Two tradeoffs are paramount and must be faced by every…

  18. Neutrino physics and astrophysics with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Bakari, D; Giorgini, M; Sioli, M

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. The study of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons in the MACRO absorbers yield a distribution in L/E/sub nu / in agreement with nu /sub mu / from or to nu /sub tau / oscillations with the above parameters. (1 refs).

  19. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender –relev

  20. Macros for Educational Research: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of four software packages, or macros, written in the programing language of Microsoft's EXCEL for use on the Macintosh computer for data manipulation and presentation used in educational research. Reordering tabulated data, reversing the scoring of tabulated data, and creating tables and graphs are explained.…

  1. The Mechanics of CSCL Macro Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Hong, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Macro scripts structure collaborative learning and foster the emergence of knowledge-productive interactions such as argumentation, explanations and mutual regulation. We propose a pedagogical model for the designing of scripts and illustrate this model using three scripts. In brief, a script disturbs the natural convergence of a team and in doing…

  2. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender –relev

  3. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  4. Micro-Macro Paradoxes of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i det såkaldte micro-macro paradox fra Aids-Efficiency litteraturen og argumenterer for, at en tilsvarende problemstilling bør inddrages i vurderingen af f.eks. de beskæftigelsesmæssige konsekvenser af entrepreneuriel virksomhed. Den påviser også i en gennemgang af litteraturen...

  5. Improving the Security of the U.S. Aeronautical Domain: Adopting an Intelligence-Led, Risk-Based Strategy and Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Methodology RMAT Risk Management Assessment Tool SIDA Security Identification Display Area SIGINT Signals Intelligence SO18 Aviation Security...aircraft operate (§ 1542.203); • Provide detection and physical security measures for the “Security Identification Display Area” ( SIDA ), i.e., the area

  6. An Efficient Method for Performance Evaluation of Femto-Macro Overlay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim; Huang, Qian

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a two-tier femto-macro overlay network architecture, where groups of femtocells are overlaid by macrocells. The capacity of the femtocells is limited, thus redirection of blocked femto calls to the overlaid macrocell is used as a QoS assurance strategy. Similar overflow...... approaches have been used in telephony; however, extension of this approach to capacity-constrained femto-macro overlay networks poses significant challenges due to the wide variety of bandwidth requirement of Internet services, the large number of femtocells overlaid by a macrocell, and the need for fast...... computations imposed by practical requirements of dynamic real-time resource allocation. We propose a new computationally efficient numerical method for the loss probability approximation in such two-tier femto-macro overlay networks. The accuracy of the method is verified by exact Markov-chain solutions...

  7. MACRO-PUBLIC RELATIONS: CRISIS COMMUNICATION IN THE AGE OF INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxuan Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the crisis communication in the age of Internet, the study takes the battle between two Internet companies, Tencent and Qihoo, as a case study, but focuses more on their huge public audiences, which may be defined as a “macro-public” crowd. The study employs multiple research methods including survey, focus groups interviews and content analysis to explore their “macro-public relations” which may be driven by the spiral of silence and crowd psychology. This dynamic underground power is the reason that two companies employed similar public relations strategies in crisis communication but the results of the crisis were different. The study attempts to contribute to the knowledge base by defining and highlighting the power and function of “macro-public relations” for crisis communication in the age of Internet.

  8. USAF Security Forces Training Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weeks, Joseph L; Garza, Jorge S; Archuleta, Mark A; McDonald, L. B

    2002-01-01

    .... The Air Force Research Laboratory and McDonald Research Associates have launched a research and development project dedicated to exploring affordable strategies for security forces distributed...

  9. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  10. Energy Geopolitics in the Middle East and China's Energy Security Strategy%中东能源地缘政治与中国能源安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 潘光

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the geo-political, geo-economic and social development trends in the Middle East as well as their potential impacts on China's energy security. Recommendations are made regarding China's energy security strategy toward the Middle East. The basic conclusions of this study include three points: (a) China's economy will continue to rely on the Middle East's energy supply in the future, (b) political instability in the Middle East would lead to serious consequences, posing a big risk for the Middle East oil and gas supply; (c) China's energy security strategy in the Middle East should include changing its diplomatic ideology, maintaining a balance between the Middle East energy interests and adhering to the principle of non-interference in other's internal affairs, establishing interdependence with the Middle East energy suppliers, working towards a long-term Sino-US energy cooperation, and building a functional multilateral problem-solving system concerned.%本文研究了中东地缘政治发展趋势以及未来该地区对中国能源安全的潜在影响,并就制定具有针对性的中东能源安全战略提出了建议,并认为,中国经济将继续依赖中东能源;中东政治动荡的危险正在增大,中东油气供应存在极大风险.中国的中东能源安全战略应包括:转变外交理念,平衡在中东的能源利益与不干涉内政原则间的关系,建立与中东能源供应国的相互依存关系,制定中美能源合作的长期目标,建立一个以问题为核心的功能性多边制度.

  11. Photodiode Circuit Macro-model for SPICE Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An accurate photodiode circuit macro-model is proposed for SPICE simulation. The definition and implementation of the macro-model is based on carrier stationary continuity equation. In this macro-model, the photodiode is a device of three pins, one for light intensity input and the other two for photocurrent output, which represent the relationship between photocurrent and incident light. The validity of the proposed macro-model is demonstrated with its PSPICE simulation result compared with reported experimental data.

  12. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic Im

  13. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic

  14. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients...... and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p ...

  15. Macro-Control, Regional Features and Technology Progress Strategy Selection: The Evidences from China Region Aspects%宏观调控、地区特征与技术进步策略选择——基于中国地区层面的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立军; 魏忠; 朱春礼

    2011-01-01

    从中国地区层面的视角出发,通过对企业自主技术创新及政府宏观调控策略的实证分析发现:公共研发、财政补贴、银行贷款及地区间技术外溢效应,不仅可以直接促进和推动各地区技术进步,还可以间接刺激企业加大技术研发规模与效率的提升;同时,中国技术创新地区特征较为明显,对于低技术水平地区,更适宜加大公共研发、政府财政补贴,而对于技术相对发达地区,优化技术创新融资环境、加大政府公共研发投入规模,更有利于该地区的技术进步和企业技术创新水平的提升。%Based on China regional angle, through empirical study on the strategy selection of enterprise technology innovation and government macro-control, the paper find that: public research investment, financial subsidy, bank loan and extra-regional technology spillover, ean promote regions technology progress not only by directly improving technology but also by indirectly way through promoting enterprise technology research investment scale and efficiency. At the same time, China technology innovation owns prominent regional characters, so while increasing public research investment and government financial subside will do more benefit to lower technology level areas technology progress, optimizing investment environment and increasing public research investment can also do more benefit to higher technology level areas.

  16. 西藏高校数字图书馆数据安全现状分析及防护策略%Data security status analysis and protection strategy of Tibet university digital library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝飞; 孙丽芹; 宁沛林; 马凌云

    2011-01-01

    数据安全是图书馆开展各项数字化服务前提和保证,本文通过分析目前西藏高校图书馆数据安全的现状及存在的问题,结合西藏各高校图书馆实际,提出了数据安全的防护策略,希望为西藏高校图书馆数据安全建设抛砖引玉。%Data security is the library to carry out the digital service guarantee and premise,this article through the analysis of the Tibet university library data security situation and the existing problems,combined with the practice of the library of Tibet University,proposed the data security protection strategy,hope for Tibet university library data security construction guide.

  17. Internet+era Securities Company Long Tail Market Development Status, Conditions, Strategies%互联网+时代证券公司长尾市场拓展现状、条件、策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁金宇

    2015-01-01

    互联网的飞速发展使证券公司生存环境发生巨大改变,同时也为证券公司长尾市场拓展准备了充分条件。证券公司调整发展策略,利用互联网便利助推公司拓展长尾市场是证券公司发展的必经之路。%The rapid development of the Internet makes a huge change in the living environment of securities companies, but also for the long tail of the securities companies to expand the market to prepare the full condition. Securities companies to adjust the development strategy, the use of the Internet to facilitate the development of the long tail of the company's long tail market is the development of a securities company.

  18. Communications and information infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Communication and Information Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering strategies for protecting the telecommunications sector, wireless security, advanced web based technology for emergency situations. Science and technology for critical infrastructure consequence mitigation are also discussed.

  19. What community-level strategies are needed to secure women's property rights in Western Kenya? Laying the groundwork for a future structural HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Lu, Tiffany; Grabe, Shelly; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural-level HIV prevention interventions that focus on economic empowerment to reduce women's HIV risks, few science-based programs have focused on securing women's land ownership as a primary or secondary HIV risk reduction strategy. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights model that was implemented in two rural areas of western Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (24-30%) and property rights violations were common. The program was designed to reduce women's HIV risk at the community level by protecting and enhancing women's access to and ownership of land. Through in-depth interviews with 50 program leaders and implementers of this program we sought to identify the strategies that were used to prevent, mediate, and resolve property rights violations. Results included four strategies: (1) rights-based education of both women and men individually and at the community level, (2) funeral committees that intervene to prevent property grabbing and disinheritance, (3) paralegal training of traditional leaders and community members and local adjudication of cases of property rights violations, and (4) referring property rights violations to the formal justice system when these are not resolved at the community level. Study participants underscored that local mediation of cases resulted in a higher success rate than women experienced in the formal court system, underscoring the importance of community-level solutions to property rights violations. The current study assists researchers in understanding the steps needed to prevent and resolve women's property rights violations so as to bolster the literature on potential structural HIV prevention interventions. Future research should rigorously test property rights programs as a structural HIV prevention intervention.

  20. 基于PMAC的MACRO Station 的应用%The Application of MACRO Station Based on PMAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 王斌; 弓清忠; 祁玉宁

    2004-01-01

    介绍了PMAC运动控制器及MACRO Station(宏运动控制站)的概念.阐述MACRO Station的设置及映射的建立,结合轧辊磨床专用数控系统的建立,介绍MACRO Station的应用及其实际意义.

  1. Analysis of the Relationship between Security Strategy, Security Audit, Risk Evaluation of the Secret-involved Formation System%浅析涉密信息系统安全保密策略、安全审计、风险评估之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚兰

    2015-01-01

    安全保密策略是涉密信息系统安全稳定运行的指导依据,安全审计是发现涉密信息系统安全隐患和安全事件的技术手段,风险评估则是涉密信息系统安全建设的起点和基础。文章介绍了涉密信息系统安全保密策略、安全审计、风险评估的概念和内容,分析了三者之间相辅相成的关系。%Security strategy is the guide for running security and stability of the Secret-involved information system, security audit is the technology of discovering security vulnerabilities and event of the Secret-involved information system, Risk evaluation is the starting port and basis of constructing the Secret-involved information system. The paper analyses the relationship between security strategy, security Audit, risk evaluation of the Secret-involved formation system.

  2. Credit with Education: A Promising Title II Microfinance Strategy--Supporting Integrated Food Security and Nutrition Programs To Improve Health and Well-Being of Women and Children). Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Christopher; Denman, Vicki

    This paper introduces the reader to microfinance integrated with health and nutrition education as a promising strategy for Title II practitioners. The paper provides an overview of how microfinance, particularly village banking, can contribute to the food-security objectives of Title II. It describes a variant of village banking, called…

  3. Macro-institutional Complexity in Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, Frederic; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    structure and transactional costs, the concept of environmental complexity is applied to the logistics management perspective. Thereby, the impacts which a given framework on a macro-institutional level might have on the situation and leeway in decision-making at the firm (micro) or the supply chain (meso......In this paper, the interlink between the concept of macro-institutional complexity in logistics and the dynamics in the logistics practice of Eastern Europe will be examined. Referring to the importance of different authors having ascribed to the external environmental uncertainty on organizational......) levels will be analysed. Furthermore, a quantitative modelling approach will be presented and exemplified by using the case of logistics infrastructure in Eastern Europe....

  4. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  5. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Signal Code Power (RSCP) is stronger than femto RSCP. We also conclude that a macro escape carrier is a robust DL interference management solution. In uplink (UL) direction it is shown that a single femto UE close to macro cell potentially can cause a noise rise of 6 dB in the surrounding macro cell...... radius smaller than 5 meter – with realistic power settings. This makes co-channel femto deployment less promising in dense macro environments with good macro RSCP coverage....

  6. Underground Muon Physics with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sioli, M

    2000-01-01

    Underground muon events detected by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso havebeen studied for different purposes. The studies include the vertical muonintensity measurement, multiplicity distribution, lateral and angular muondistribution and searches for substructures inside muon bundles. These analyseshave contributed to bring new insights in cosmic ray physics, in particular inthe framework of primary cosmic ray composition studies. Moreover, thisactivity allows the testing and tuning of Monte Carlo simulations, inparticular for aspects associated with models of hadronic interactions and muonpropagation through the rock.

  7. Introduction to macro-econophysics and finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Closed integrals in physics lead to equations for sources and vortices in fluid mechanics, electrodynamics and thermodynamics. In economics, the Stokes integral of economic circuits leads to new fundamental equations of macro-econophysics. These equations differ significantly from the laws of neoclassical theory. Entropy of markets replaces of the economic Cobb Douglas function and leads to stochastic processes and micro-econophysics of financial markets.

  8. Security Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...... will be of particular interest to students of critical security studies, sociology, science and technology studies, and IR/security studies in general....

  9. The Macro-and Micro-Language Learning Counseling: An Autoethnographic Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Shibata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an example of the counselor’s role in a relatively small Self-Access Center (SAC for language learning in universities in Japan. The author has been involved with establishing and running two SACs in Japanese universities. The study used autoethnography as its research method to look closely at the counselor’s role. This study eventually helped the author to analyze the counseling she has been providing and to realize that the counselor is required to provide not only macro-counseling but also micro-counseling. Micro-counseling consists of short, informal interactions with learners which connect the learner to elements in SACs, such as teaching assistants, other language learners, and language learning materials. These micro-counseling encounters can help to create a secure space which encourages learners to engage in macro-counseling sessions which support their language learning.

  10. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  11. Using intervention mapping for the development of a targeted secure web-based outreach strategy named SafeFriend, for Chlamydia trachomatis testing in young people at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Kevin A T M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Crutzen, Rik; Kara-Zaïtri, Chakib; de Vries, Nanne K; van Bergen, Jan E A M; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M

    2013-10-22

    Many young people at high risk for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are not reached by current sexual health care systems, such as general practitioners and public sexual health care centres (sexually transmitted infection clinics).Ct is the most frequently diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among sexually active people and in particular young heterosexuals. Innovative screening strategies are needed to interrupt the transmission of Ct among young people and connect the hidden cases to care. Intervention Mapping (IM), a systematic approach to develop theory- and evidence-based interventions, was used to develop a strategy to target Ct testing towards young people who are currently hidden to care in The Netherlands. Both clinical users (i.e. sexual health care nurses) and public users (i.e., young people at risk for Ct) were closely involved in the IM process. A needs assessment study was carried out using semi-structured interviews among users (N = 21), a literature search and by taking lessons learned from existing screening programmes. Theoretical methods and practical applications to reach high risk young people and influence testing were selected and translated into specific programme components. The IM approach resulted in the development of a secure and web-based outreach Ct screening strategy, named SafeFriend. It is developed to target groups of high-risk young people who are currently hidden to care. Key methods include web-based Respondent Driven Sampling, starting from young Ct positive sexual health care centre clients, to reach and motivate peers (i.e., sex partners and friends) to get tested for Ct. Testing and the motivation of peers were proposed as the desired behavioural outcomes and the Precaution Adoption Process Model was chosen as theoretical framework. End users, i.e., young people and sexual health care nurses were interviewed and included in the development process to increase the success of implementation. IM proved useful

  12. U.S. Geological Survey natural hazards science strategy: promoting the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10–year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical

  13. Multilanguage function and user-macro function. Multi gengo kinoter dot user-macro kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Yatsuda, Y. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-10

    The multilanguage function and user-macro function of programmable controllers (PCs), FLEX-PC N series, were outlined which have been developed for machine control. The multilanguage function was developed as an effective function for realizing the same familiar operational environments on FLEX-PC N series as those on other manufacturers{prime} PCs or programming tools. In a programming tool, it realized various operational environments with the common base hardware, several keyboards and several system softwares, while in a PC, it efficiently realized such environments with the common base hardware and several executive hardwares for programs. The user-macro function was developed to enhance a programming efficiency, and could be easily operated by programming tools. It included both macros written with the instructions of several PCs and the assembler language of several MPUs. 8 figs.

  14. NATO New Strategy & EU Common Foreign Security Policy%北约新战略与欧盟共同外交与安全政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜湘

    2001-01-01

    冷战结束以后,欧洲面临着严峻的安全挑战。原苏联东欧地区因剧变而引发了民族矛盾、宗教冲突、领土争端等。北约因传统对手的消失面临解散的危险,而欧盟独立处事的能力极其有限。在这种背景之下,美国为了继续利用北约维护其在欧洲的领导地位,借口稳定欧洲,极力倡导北约新战略。法、德、英等欧洲主要国家以“欧洲事务的欧洲化”为口号试图推出欧盟共同外交与安全政策,推动独立防务力量的发展。美国与法、德、英之间因争夺欧洲事务的主导权,提出了关于欧洲安全结构的不同设想。美国、北约因不可逆转的欧洲化趋势,无可奈何地支持欧盟发展欧洲特性,建立欧洲支柱。欧盟因难以在短期内摆脱对美国的依赖,接受在北约的框架内实施欧盟共同外交与安全政策。%With the end of the cold war, Europe was confronted with grim challenges of security. The nation contradictions, the religion conflicts and the border disputes came into being because of the disappearance of the former USSR and the East Europe, and EU was short of the capacity to act independently. Under the background above, the US glamorously advocated the New Strategy of NATO in order to keep her leadership about the European affairs, and France, Germany and the Great Britain tried initiating the Common Foreign and Security Policy of EU. The US, France, Germany and the Great Britain put forward different European security frames for the sake of playing the dominant role of the European affairs. Under the leadership of the US, NATO had to support the development of European Security and Defense Identity, and the UN accepted the viewpoint that the development of the ESDI must be limited within NATO at the same time.

  15. Applying Cognitive Control Modes to Identify Security Fatigue Hotspots

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, S.; Krol, K.; Becker, I; Sasse, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Security tasks can burden the individual, to the extent that security fatigue promotes habits that undermine security. Here we revisit a series of user-centred studies which focus on security mechanisms as part of regular routines, such as two-factor authentication. By examining routine security behaviours, these studies expose perceived contributors and consequences of security fatigue, and the strategies that a person may adopt when feeling overburdened by security. Behaviours and strategie...

  16. Historical Evolution of Russia’s National Security Strategy%俄罗斯国家安全战略的历史演进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆齐华

    2016-01-01

    沙皇俄国扩张政策中所表现出来的地理特征、倾向和观念等都具有历史的延续性,是基于对领土和霸权的攫取,使沙皇俄国能够利用所得领土和霸权来争取更大的优势。从地缘战略角度看,苏联比美国在欧洲占有较大的优势,然而,随着冷战结束、东欧剧变,特别是苏联解体,俄罗斯的这种地缘战略优势不复存在。一如既往,谋求在周边地区建立“缓冲区”仍为俄罗斯的重要战略目标。伴随着国际形势的发展变化,俄罗斯的国家安全战略展示了捍卫主权、独立、国家和领土完整的能力,在解决重大国际问题、调解国家间冲突和危机中发挥着越来越大的作用。毫无疑问,俄罗斯的安全战略走向将对欧洲的安全产生重大而深远的影响。%The geographic features, tendency and concepts presented in the expansion policy of Tsarist Russia all have the historical continuity. Based on the seizure for territory and hegemony, the Tsarist Russia can strive for greater advantages with the territory and hegemony. From the perspective of geostrategy, the Soviet Union has greater advantages in Europe compared to America;however, along with the end of the Cold War and the Fall of Communism, especially after the collapse of Soviet Union, the geostrategic advantages of Russia did not exist anymore. As always, seeking for establishing“buffer area”in the neighboring district is still the important strategic objective of Russia. As the international situations develop and change, the national security strategy of Russia presents its abilities in defending sovereignty, independence, national and territory integrity, and it plays greater and greater role in solving the major international problems and mediating the conflicts and crises among countries. Beyond no doubt, the security strategy of Russia has posed important and far reaching influences on the security of Europe.

  17. The Era of Mobile Internet Mobile Phone Information Security Strategy of Shallow Research%移动互联网时代手机信息安全策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赛

    2015-01-01

    Articles focus on mobile Internet hand on behalf of the smartphone security issues, from the communication network selection strategy, the mobile terminal selection strategy, the use of mobile phones security policy, social information security environment to create four latitude on smartphone security strategy for full range analysis, introduce, strive for ordinary readers fully understand the safety problem of the intelligent mobile phone and application in the reality of life and learning, so that everyone's smartphone safer and more at ease.%文章聚焦于移动互联网手代智能手机安全问题,从通信网络选择策略、手机终端选择策略、手机使用安全策略、社会信息安全环境营造四个纬度对智能手机安全策略进行全方位的分析、介绍,力求让普通读者全面了解掌握智能手机安全问题,并应用于现实生活学习中,从而使大家的智能手机更安全、使用更放心。

  18. 高校物联网建设与安全策略%Building and security strategy of university IoT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏滢; 沙锋

    2014-01-01

    讨论物联网的组网过程和核心技术的基础上,着重分析了RFID、传感器、智能终端、校园云等物联网核心技术在高等学校信息化平台的综合应用,并针对校园中物联网所面临的安全隐患,从感知识别层、网络构建层、管理服务层、综合应用层探讨了各层应采用的安全策略。%The IoT technology, a fusion of computer, communication, microelectronics and automation, is one of the research hotspots in present international academia and industry. The comprehensive application of IoT core technologies such as RFID, sensors, smart terminals and school cloud in university informatization platform are analyzed on basis of discussing the IoT networking process and core technologies. The security strategies which should be used in each layer are discussed from the point of perceptual recognition layer, network building layer, service management layer and comprehensive application layer in view of the potential safety problems faced by campus IoT.

  19. Framework for a Risk-Informed Groundwater Compliance Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, Sam

    2010-09-01

    Note: This document was prepared before the NTS was renamed the Nevada National Security Site (August 23, 2010); thus, all references to the site herein remain NTS. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, Frenchman Flat, at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was the location of ten underground nuclear tests between 1965 and 1971. As a result, radionuclides were released in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. Corrective Action Unit 98 and other CAUs at the NTS and offsite locations are being investigated. The Frenchman Flat CAU is one of five Underground Test Area (UGTA) CAUs at the NTS that are being evaluated as potential sources of local or regional impact to groundwater resources. For UGTA sites, including Frenchman Flat, contamination in and around the test cavities will not be remediated because it is technologically infeasible due to the depth of the test cavities (150 to 2,000 feet [ft] below ground surface) and the volume of contaminated groundwater at widely dispersed locations on the NTS. Instead, the compliance strategy for these sites is to model contaminant flow and transport, estimate the maximum spatial extent and volume of contaminated groundwater (over a period of 1,000 years), maintain institutional controls, and restrict access to potentially contaminated groundwater at areas where contaminants could migrate beyond the NTS boundaries.

  20. Food Security Policy in a Stochastic World

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Irma; Berck, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Food security may be increased by variance-reducing strategies, by food aid, or by development strategies. This paper uses a Korea CGE model, subjected to random fluctuation in world-prices and domestic food productivity, to evaluate these policies. We find that poverty-reducing development strategies are the most effective food-security strategies.

  1. Cyber security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Cyber Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to cyber security metrics and measure  and related technologies that meet security needs. Specific applications to web services, the banking and the finance sector, and industrial process control systems are discussed.

  2. Financial security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  3. Financial security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  4. LTE security

    CERN Document Server

    Forsberg, Dan; Moeller, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the security solutions for LTE, a cellular technology from Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), this book shows how LTE security substantially extends GSM and 3G security. It also encompasses the architectural aspects, known as SAE, to give a comprehensive resource on the topic. Although the security for SAE/LTE evolved from the security for GSM and 3G, due to different architectural and business requirements of fourth generation systems the SAE/LTE security architecture is substantially different from its predecessors. This book presents in detail the security mechanisms em

  5. Energy Security and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc...Necdet Pamir. “Energy in Security and the Most Recent Lesson: The Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara...Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc (accessed May 21, 2008). 53

  6. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  7. Macros y atajos para el traductor

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Heredero

    2007-01-01

    Sin necesidad de recurrir a los productos comerciales de ayuda a la traducción que se han ido generalizando en muchas grandes empresas y organizaciones, el traductor independiente puede ver considerablemente facilitado su trabajo si sabe explotar las muchas posibilidades que brindan Visual Basic y otros lenguajes poco conocidos de dominio público. Se presentan aquí varias macros de Word y pequeñas aplicaciones desarrolladas en los últimos años para acelerar tanto las búsquedas de términos —ba...

  8. The Influence of Micro and Macro Environment Components on Trade Companies in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Pîndiche; Roxana Ionita

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of micro and macro environment components on trade companies in Romania. Trade companies organize and operate under specific environmental conditions impact or both. In the activity of any companies the environment plays a key role in defining its strategies in seizing and using opportunities of development, being practically the support in achieving the objectives of growth, profitability or just survival. Trade companies should have the best possible percept...

  9. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  10. Macro-Integration for Solving Large Data Reconciliation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Mushkudiani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Macro-integration technique is a well established method forreconciliation of large, high-dimensional tables, especially applied to macroeconomic data at national statistical oces (NSO. This technique is mainly used when data obtained from dierent sources should be reconciled on a macro level. New areas of applications for this technique arise as new data sources become available to NSO's. Often these new data sources cannot be combined on a micro level, while macro integration could provide a solution for such problems. Yet, more research should be carried out to investigate if in such situations macro integration could indeed be applied. In this paper we propose two applications of macro-integration techniques in other domains than the traditional macro-economic applications. In particular: reconciliation of tables of a virtual census and reconciliation of monthly series of short term statistics gures with the quarterly gures of structural business statistics.

  11. On the cloud computing security risk factors and coping strategies%浅谈云计算安全风险因素挖掘及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卓雅

    2016-01-01

    云计算是一种新型的服务模式,比常规的网络信息安全面临着的更多的安全风险,并且成为影响云计算进一步发展的核心因素。本文简要介绍云计算面临的安全风险因素,并在此基础上探讨应对的策略。%Cloud computing is a new type of service model,which is facing more security risks than conventional network information security,and become the core factor that affect the further development of cloud computing.This paper briefly introduces the security risk factors faced by cloud computing,and on this basis to explore the strategy to deal with.

  12. Basic Connotations and Adjustment Trend of Abe s Cabinet s National Security Strategy%安倍内阁国家安保战略的基本内涵与调整动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾探

    2016-01-01

    Since his second term of office, Japan�s prime minister Shinzo Abe has promoted the transition of national security strategy at full stretch and a relatively complete new security strategy which has been estab⁃lished in terms of national, regional and global planes. Japan�s new security strategy is aimed at safeguard⁃ing its national security interests more effectively. Specifically speaking, the national security interests are secured by Japan�s self-defense forces and Japan-US military alliance, the regional security interests are sustained by bilateral or multilateral cooperation between Japan and South Korea, Australia, ASEAN and India, and the global security interests are largely maintained by cooperation with international communities and active engagement of international security affairs. Japan�s adjustment to its national security strategy has been made in a systematic way, preluding an all-out transformation of its national defense from the de⁃fensive to the offensive, which means reinforcing the self-defense capacities and Japan-US alliance, build⁃ing up the regional security cooperation networks, and enhancing the involvement of the international secur⁃ity affairs. Thus we must keep a close eye on Japan�s series of moves in the security field and deal with its negative effects appropriately.%安倍二次执政以来,全力推动日本国家安保战略转型,在国家、地区及全球三个层面构建起结构相对完善的新安保战略。日本制定新安保战略旨在更有效地保障本国安全利益,具体而言,国家层面的安全利益依赖日本自身的防卫力量与日美军事同盟来保障;地区层面的安全利益由日本与韩国、澳大利亚、东盟、印度的双边或多边安全合作共同维系;全球层面的安全利益主要通过与国际社会开展合作、积极参与国际安全事务来维护。安倍内阁对国家安保战略的调整具有系统性,它全面拉开了

  13. 美国粮食安全战略对中国的影响及应对之策%Effect of American Food Security Strategy on China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈律

    2012-01-01

    美国为维护自身国家利益,主要采取粮食"和平计划"战略、粮食垄断化战略、粮食能源化战略、粮食金融化战略、粮食转基因化战略等手段来攫取大量经济利益、遏制战略对手。在此背景下,中国应积极采取有效措施来应对美国全球粮食安全战略,维护国家粮食安全。%In order to safeguard national interests,the United States mainly take food "peace plan" strategy,food monopolization strategy,food energy strategy,the financial strategy of grain and food transgenosis strategy to grab much economic interests and contain strategic rivals.China should adopt actively effective measures to resolve American global food security strategy to maintain our country's food security.

  14. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for geochemical background analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A Visual Basic macro entitled BACKGROUND calculates geochemical background values of chemical parameters and estimates threshold values separating background data from anomalies. The macro uses two statistical methods, the iterative 2-sigma technique and the calculated distribution function, and integrates these model-based objective methods into a widely accessible platform (i.e., MS Excel). The macro offers the possibility for automated processing of geochemical data and enables an automated generation of background range and threshold values for chemical parameters.

  15. How is Macro News Transmitted to Exchange Rates? (December 2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D.D. Evans

    2005-01-01

    This paper tests whether macroeconomic news is transmitted to exchange rates via the transactions process and if so, what share occurs via transactions versus the traditional direct channel. We identify the link between order flow and macro news using a heteroskedasticity-based approach, a la Rigobon and Sack (2002). In both daily and intra-daily data, order flow varies considerably with macro news flow. At least half of the effect of macro news on exchange rates is transmitted via order flow.

  16. How is Macro News Transmitted to Exchange Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D.D. Evans; Lyons, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests whether macroeconomic news is transmitted to exchange rates via the transactions process and if so, what share occurs via transactions versus the traditional direct channel. We identify the link between order flow and macro news using a heteroskedasticity-based approach, a la Rigobon and Sack (2002). In both daily and intra-daily data, order flow varies considerably with macro news flow. At least half of the effect of macro news on exchange rates is transmitted via order flow.

  17. New Features of Chinese National Information Security and its Cultural Strategy%中国国家信息安全的新特点与文化发展战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世伟

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of information security and new environment of global information security,covering cyberspace war,new internet social media,cross-border security,network hacker and the threat of individual extremists.It analyzes new features of Chinse national information security,mainly focused on the rapid development of internet in China,emerging social medlia,trend of generalization,global challenges facing with information and refinement required on national security strategy.It also puts forward that China's national information security should implement five cultural strategies,including culture of synergy,culture of ease,culture of moderation,culture of people orientation and culture of integrity.%论述信息安全的定义、当代全球信息安全的新环境,包括网络空间战、互联网社交新媒体、信息安全跨界震荡、黑客和个人极端主义等的威胁;分析中国国家信息安全的新特点,包括互联网的迅速发展、社交新媒体得失并现、信息安全泛化形态并面临全球挑战、信息安全韬略有待细化等;提出中国信息安全的协同、疏导、中庸、人本、诚信五大文化战略。

  18. Search for rare particles with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, M; Rrhioua, A

    2002-01-01

    Massive rare particles have been searched for in the penetrating cosmic radiation using the MACRO detector located at the Gran Sasso laboratory. Liquid scintillators, streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors have been used, in a stand-alone and in combined way to search for GUT magnetic monopoles (MMs) in the velocity range 4 10 /sup -5/ < beta < 1. The search for MMs exploits their energy loss mechanisms in each of the three MACRO subdetectors. No monopole was observed and the global flux upper limit obtained is phi = 6.3 * 10 /sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/ for 5 * 10/sup -3/ < beta < 0.99. This limit is below the extended Parker limit. Scintillator and nuclear track subdetectors are also used to search for nuclearites (strange quark matter). Based on no observation of nuclearites signals, stringent flux upper limits are established, phi < 1.7 * 10 /sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/, beta ~ 10/sup -2/. We compared also the results of different experiments searching for MMs ...

  19. The MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Assiro, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barbarito, E.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P. E-mail: paolo.bernardini@le.infn.it; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bottazzi, E.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Candela, A.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Ceres, A.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; Creti, P.; De Cataldo, G.; Esposti, L.D.L. Degli; Dekhissi, H.; Marzo, C. De; Mitri, I. De; Derkaoui, J.; Vincenzi, M. De; Credico, A. Di; Ferdinando, D. Di; Diotallevi, R.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Gebhard, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Giuliani, R.; Goretti, M.; Grassi, M.; Grau, H.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, J.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Leone, A.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marrelli, V.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mossbarger, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orsini, M.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Ouchrif, M.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W. E-mail: peck@hep.caltech.edu; Pellizzoni, G.; Perchiazzi, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrakis, J.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.; Pinto, C.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Saggese, P.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Sondergaard, S.; Spinelli, P.[and others

    2002-07-01

    MACRO was an experiment that ran in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso from 1988 to 2000. Its principal goal was to observe magnetic monopoles or set significantly lower experimental flux limits than had been previously available in the velocity range from about {beta}=10{sup -4} to unity. In addition it made a variety of other observations. Examples are: setting flux limits on other so far unobserved particles such as nuclei and lightly ionizing particles, searching for WIMP annihilations in the Earth and the Sun and for neutrino bursts from stellar collapses in or near our Galaxy, and making measurements relevant to high energy muon and neutrino astronomy and of the flux of up-going muons as a function of nadir angle showing evidence for neutrino oscillations. The apparatus consisted of three principal types of detectors: liquid scintillator counters, limited streamer tubes, and nuclear track etch detectors. In addition, over part of its area it contained a transition radiation detector. The general design philosophy emphasized redundancy and complementarity. This paper describes the technical aspects of the complete MACRO detector, its operational performance, and the techniques used to calibrate it and verify its proper operation. It supplements a previously published paper which described the first portion of the detector that was built and operated.

  20. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  1. 基于Android系统的手机信息安全分析及策略改进%The Information Security Analysis and Strategy Improvement of AndroidMobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾能

    2016-01-01

    随着移动互联网的发展,Android智能手机在市场上占据着很大的份额。文章首先分析了Android现有的安全机制沙箱模型和数字证书,然后提出Android系统存在的安全问题,最后从系统开发者和用户2个角度设计安全策略来对现有的安全策略进行改进。%With the development of mobile Internet, mobile phones using Androidsystem occupy a large share in the market. First of all, this paper analyzes sandbox model and digital certiifcate which are the existing security mechanisms of Androidsystem. Secondly, security problems in the Androidsystem have been put forward. Finally, security strategies are designed from two angles of system developers and users to improve the existing security strategy.

  2. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  3. 电力二次系统主动安全防御策略及实现%An Active Security Defense Strategy and Its Implementation for the Power Secondary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兆红; 贾铁军

    2015-01-01

    在分析数据安全和业务安全保护侧重点的基础上,结合电力二次系统结构对系统按数密和业密级别高低进行安全分区。针对电力二次系统的业务实际及其运行过程中存在的不安全因素,对内外网之间进行通信安全部署,提出主动安全防御策略,有效地解决了电力二次系统中存在的数据和业务安全保护的矛盾,提高了系统的检测辨识能力及整体防御功效。%On the basis of analyzing the protection sides of data security and business security,the power secondary system is divided into different sections according to the level of data secrecy and business secrecy.Under consideration of actual business of the power secondary system and unsafe factors in its operation,this paper makes a communication security deployment between the internal and external networks and proposes an active security defense strategy,thus effectively resolving the contradiction between data and business security protection in the power secondary system and improving the detection identification ability of the system.

  4. Prioritization strategies for pandemic influenza vaccine in 27 countries of the European Union and the Global Health Security Action Group: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is rapid progress in vaccine research regarding influenza pandemic vaccines it is expected that pandemic influenza vaccine production can only start once the pandemic virus has been recognized. Therefore, pandemic vaccine capacity will be limited at least during the first phase of an influenza pandemic, requiring vaccine prioritization strategies. WHO recommends developing preliminary priorities for pandemic vaccine use. The goal of this review is to provide a thorough overview of pandemic vaccine prioritization concepts in the 27 European Union (EU member states and the four non-EU countries of the Global Health Security Action Group. Methods Between September and December 2006 data was collected for each country through two data sources: (i the national influenza pandemic plan; (ii contacting key persons involved in pandemic planning by email and/or phone and/or fax Results Twenty-six (84% countries had established at least one vaccine priority group. Most common reported vaccine priority groups were health care workers (HCW (100%, essential service providers (ESP (92% and high risk individuals (HRI (92%. Ranking of at least one vaccine priority group was done by 17 (65% of 26 countries. Fifteen (88% of these 17 countries including a ranking strategy, decided that HCW with close contact to influenza patients should be vaccinated first; in most countries followed and/or ranked equally by ESP and subsequently HRI. Rationales for prioritization were provided by 22 (85% of 26 countries that established vaccine priority groups. There was large variation in the phrasing and level of detailed specification of rationales. Seven (32% of 22 countries providing rationales clearly associated each vaccine priority group with the specific rationale. Ten (32% of the 31 countries studied countries have consulted and involved ethical experts to guide decisions related to vaccine prioritization. Conclusion In the majority of

  5. Study on Security Management Strategy for E-commerce Logistics Information System under New Security Value%新安全观下电商物流信息系统安全管理策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振华

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the new security value in the national security domain into the security management of modern e-commerce logistics information system, then on the basis of the categorization of the risks in the e-commerce logistics information system, introduced the concept of the new security value into the analysis of the security management issues in the Chinese e-commerce logistics information system, and at the end presented the corresponding countermeasures.%将国家安全范畴内的“新安全观”引入到现代电商物流信息系统安全管理内。在阐述电商物流信息系统存在着风险类型的基础上,引入新安全观概念并以此概念对我国电商物流信息系统安全管理问题进行分析,最后提出相应的管理策略。

  6. Infrastructure to support trading strategies against the occurrence of extraordinary events: Secure area of the equipment storage; Infraestructura de apoyo a las estrategias de operacion frente a la ocurrencia de sucesos extraordinarios: Area segura de almacenamiento de equipos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas Gordo, A. de; Asensio Vega, J.; Fernandez Morales, E. J.; Font Hadinger, I.

    2013-07-01

    Compliance with the requirements specified in the Technical Instructions ITC and ITC-1-2, issued by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is conducting exhaustive analyzes on coping in Nuclear Power Plants emergencies due to the occurrence extraordinary events. As part of the necessary infrastructure, a secure area for parking and storage of projects teams involved in the development of various operational strategies. The design of it ensures compliance with all regulatory and practical requirements, ensuring minimization strategies and time functionality in the application of the same.

  7. Node security

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that will give you all the information you need to secure your Node applications.If you are a developer who wishes to secure your Node applications, whether you are already using Node Security in production, or are considering using it for your next project, then this book will enable you to ensure security of your applications. An understanding of JavaScript is a prerequisite, and some experience with Node is recommended, though not required.

  8. Being Secure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the world wrestles with challenges from nontraditional security threats, a new concept of security management is emerging Security has traditionally been seen as the means of defending a territory, primarily through the use of military power. However, as the world evolves through the process of globalization, so too does the concept of security. It now incorporates military, political, economic, societal and environmental issues, as well as the many links that bind them. Yet for most people in the wor...

  9. Watermarking security

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  10. 大数据时代的美国信息网络安全新战略分析%Analysis of The U.S. Information Network Security Strategy inThe Era of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明奇; 姜禾; 张娟; 廖方宇

    2012-01-01

      文章从大数据的角度,首先解读了美国政府最近发布的“大数据研究与开发计划”,重点分析了美国XDATA项目的定位、目的和预期成果。随后,文章从各个层面深入分析了大数据时代美国信息安全战略的特点。最后,得出结论:大数据已成为美国国家创新战略、国家安全战略、国家ICT产业发展战略以及国家信息网络安全战略的交叉领域,美国实际上已经确立了基于大数据的信息网络安全战略,目的在于解决当前的大数据核心技术挑战,全面强化未来的信息网络安全战略优势。%  The article firstly overviewed“Big Data Research and Development Initiative”announced recently by the U.S. federal government from a perspective of big data-based information network security development, especially analyzed the positioning , objective and expected results of XDATA program. Subsequently, the article provided in-depth analysis of the features at different levels for U.S. information security strategy in the era of big data. As a conclusion, the article indicates that big data has become a cross-cutting area across national strategies for innovation, security, ICT industry development and information security, and U.S. has created a virtual information network security strategy on the basis of big data which aimed at addressing the core technical challenge and strengthening the predominance of information security strategy as whole in future.

  11. Research on Security Threats and Strategy of Mobile Internet%移动互联网安全威胁及策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇辉; 王晓箴; 贾亦辰

    2013-01-01

    It first summarizes the development trends and characteristics of mobile internet. According to the characteristics of mobile in-ternet, it analyzes the security threats from the aspect of network, application platform and cellphones. Then, it lists several common security techniques for mobile internet. On this basis, it proposes a security model of mobile internet and elaborates the security architecture from security objectives, security levels and security measures.%首先总结了移动互联网的发展趋势和特点,根据移动互联网的特性,分析了移动互联网面临的网络安全威胁、业务平台威胁和终端安全威胁;然后,研究了几种常见的移动互联网安全防护技术,在此基础上,构建移动互联网的安全架构及模型,从安全目标、安全层次与安全措施3个维度具体阐述了安全架构的防护体系。

  12. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  13. Diffusiophoresis at the macro-scale

    CERN Document Server

    Mauger, C; Machicoane, N; Bourgoin, M; Cottin-Bizonne, C; Ybert, C; Raynal, F

    2015-01-01

    Diffusiophoresis, a ubiquitous phenomenon which induces particle transport whenever solute gradients are present, was recently put forward in the context of microsystems and shown to strongly impact colloidal transport (from patterning to mixing) at such scales. In the present work, we show experimentally that this nanoscale-rooted mechanism can actually induce changes in the \\textit{macro-scale mixing} of colloids by chaotic advection. Rather than the usual decay of standard deviation of concentration, which is a global parameter, we use different multi-scale tools available for chaotic flows or intermittent turbulent mixing, like concentration spectra, or second and fourth moments of probability density functions of scalar gradients. Not only those tools can be used in open flows (when the mean concentration is not constant), but also they allow for a scale by scale analysis. Strikingly, diffusiophoresis is shown to affect all scales, although more particularly the smallest one, resulting in a change of sca...

  14. Particle size distribution in ferrofluid macro-clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wah-Keat, E-mail: wklee@bnl.gov [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Under an applied magnetic field, many commercial and concentrated ferrofluids agglomerate and form large micron-sized structures. Although large diameter particles have been implicated in the formation of these macro-clusters, the question of whether the particle size distribution of the macro-clusters are the same as the original fluid remains open. Some studies suggest that these macro-clusters consist of larger particles, while others have shown that there is no difference in the particle size distribution between the macro-clusters and the original fluid. In this study, we use X-ray imaging to aid in a sample (diluted EFH-1 from Ferrotec) separation process and conclusively show that the average particle size in the macro-clusters is significantly larger than those in the original sample. The average particle size in the macro-clusters is 19.6 nm while the average particle size of the original fluid is 11.6 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray imaging was used to isolate ferrofluid macro-clusters under an applied field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine particle size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show that macro-clusters consist of particles that are larger than average.

  15. Estimating Dynamic Equilibrium Models using Macro and Financial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Posch, Olaf; van der Wel, Michel

    We show that including financial market data at daily frequency, along with macro series at standard lower frequency, facilitates statistical inference on structural parameters in dynamic equilibrium models. Our continuous-time formulation conveniently accounts for the difference in observation...... of the estimators and estimate the model using 20 years of U.S. macro and financial data....

  16. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  17. Micro-macro analysis of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a "classic" approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail ("micro") to a different scale level ("macro"), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability.

  18. Department of National Security Affairs [presentation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A slide presentation. The Department of National Security Affairs (NSA) offers fully accredited programs leading to the Master of Arts in Security Studies, as well as a Ph.D. program in Security Studies. In addition to specializing in traditional security domains such as nuclear proliferation, arms control, maritime strategy, interstate wars, insurgency, terrorism and homeland security, the NSA department conducts cutting edge research and education in the areas of cyber warfare, space politi...

  19. Macro-economic impact of loss of health; Macro-economische impact van gezondheidsverlies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchimon, F. [BAM Techniek, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Ament, H.J.A. [Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Knies, J.; Pernot, C.E.E. [Pernot Consulting, Heeze (Netherlands); Van Bronswijk, J.M.H. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    More healthy life years are achievable by dwelling improvements. This article computes the healthy life years that may be gained by increased ventilation rates. It concerns the diseases Asthma, COPD en lung cancer. Increased ventilation removes house dust mites and their allergens, as well as tobacco smoke, which are associated with these diseases. Costs and savings are computes and compared in order to test the macro-economical feasibility of increased ventilation in dwellings. [Dutch] Door verbetering van woningen zijn veel gezonde levensjaren te behalen. In dit artikel worden de gewonnen gezonde levensjaren uitgerekend door meer ventileren voor de ziekten astma, COPD en longkanker. Zowel huisstofmijtallergeen als tabaksrook zijn geassocieerd met astma, COPD en longkanker. De kosten en de opbrengsten van meer ventileren worden met elkaar vergeleken om de macro-economische haalbaarheid te toetsen.

  20. Communication from the commission to the council and the European parliament. Final report on the green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The Green Paper on the security of energy supply, adopted by the Commission more than a year ago, opened up a debate on energy policy unprecedented in 30 years. In most of the Member States this debate revived discussion on national options in the energy field. Looking ahead to the next twenty to thirty years, the Green Paper drew attention to the structural weaknesses and geopolitical, social and environmental shortcomings of the EU energy supply, notably as regards European commitments in the Kyoto Protocol. The European economy, steadily demanding more and more energy, is essentially based on fossil fuels. The Green Paper offers a clear strategy based on demand management. It has the merit of pointing out that the EU has little room for manoeuvre with regard to energy supply notably due to its low, or in certain cases less competitive (e.g. coal), energy resources. Therefore it is appropriate for the Union to concentrate on guiding and steering demand, unlike the United States which, in the energy plan it announced in May 2001, seeks to meet demand by constantly boosting supply. The Green Paper put 13 questions as a framework for the general debate. The conclusion is that there is virtually unanimous agreement on the strategic axis of demand management: energy consumption must be guided and steered. The conclusions of the Barcelona European Council, stressing in particular the need for better energy efficiency by 2010 and rapid adoption of energy taxation proposals, clearly give political backing to this priority. Without waiting for the debate to end, the Commission made some very well received proposals along these lines, involving actual legislation and not just encouraging words or exchange of good practice, some of which have already been adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. One of these proposals in particular was the Directive on electricity production from renewable sources, adopted in 2001. Another was the proposal for a Directive on

  1. New approaches in European governance? Perspectives of stakeholders in the Danube macro-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sielker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro-regional cooperation in the EU are networks that use the horizontal and vertical dimension of the multilevel governance system to influence both strategic decision-making as well as implementation activities. Drawing on an analysis of expert interviews in the Danube Region the paper scrutinizes stakeholders’ shared views towards expectations, challenges and added values, and thereby seeks to explain why a trend towards macro-regions arises and for what reasons stakeholders are getting involved. The analysis of the drivers for stakeholders’ commitment in the EU Danube Region Strategy shows that new governance arrangements need to be adjustable to different contexts, allow for negotiation and new network creation whilst simultaneously offering the political ability to act. The evidence presented suggests that multilevel governance in the EU is becoming increasingly complex, embracing more and different types of cooperation, with soft characteristics as crucial elements.

  2. Research on Evolution of the Next Generation Internet Security Deployment Strategy%下一代互联网安全演进部署策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓箴; 贾亦辰; 唐磊

    2013-01-01

      根据不同阶段网络的特性,对网络过渡阶段和IPv6网络所面临的安全威胁进行了全面分析,构建了IPv6网络演进的安全技术体系框架,从网络、用户、业务3个方面提出了安全解决方案,根据骨干网、城域网和接入网升级后的特点,提出了相应的安全机制,针对IPv6网络中用户和常用业务可能存在的安全问题,提出了安全防护建议。%It analyzes the security threats of the transition network and IPv6 network. According to different specificities in different peri-ods of network, it concludes the security threats. On the basis of the analysis, it then establishes the security technology framework of evolution of IPv6 network. It proposes a security solution in network security, user security and application secu-rity. It also proposes the protection mechanism for upgraded backbone network, MAN and access network. In addition, it gives the security suggestion for users and services in IPv6 network. In this way, operators can develop the IPv6 network services safely.

  3. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  4. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...

  5. SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup.......SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup....

  6. Research on Warning of“PRISM” Event to Financial Information Security and Protection Strategy%“棱镜门”事件对财务信息安全的警示及防护策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵城疆

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, information security becomes an important issue to which researchers have paid much more attention. Based on the "PRISM" event, this paper briefly introduces the PRISM and ana-lyzes its impact on information security of China. Since the security of financial information is becoming more and more impor-tant, after summarizing the warning of PRISM event to financial information security, we put forward the corresponding strate-gies of financial information safety protection.%随着信息技术的飞速发展,信息安全成为当今世界备受关注的一个重大问题。论文以美国"棱镜门"事件为切入点,简要介绍了棱镜计划及对我国信息安全的影响,并总结该事件对信息安全的警示,然后针对财务信息安全的重要性,研究提出了财务信息安全防护的相应策略。

  7. Study on Cultivated Land Resource Security and Strategy in Anhui Province%安徽省耕地资源安全保障与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蓓蓓; 何兵

    2011-01-01

    本文在界定耕地资源安全概念的基础上,对安徽省耕地资源安全现状进行分析,并引入耕地质量折算方法,从耕地资源安全需求与供给两个方面,更为科学地预测2020年全省的耕地资源安全态势.研究结果表明,到2020年质量折算后的耕地供给量约为574.19万hm2,高于预测的耕地安全需求量(551.54万hm2)近26万hm2,理论上尚可保障耕地资源安全,但实际仍面临很大的压力.最后,针对目前存在的问题提出对策建议.%Based on the definition of the concept for cultivated land resources security, the paper research on status of cultivated land resource security in Anhui. From demand and supply, in the research, the paper gives a more scientific prediction for security of cultivate land resources in 2020 by introducing the quality of cultivated land conversion method. The results show that by 2020, the cultivated land security supply is 5741900 hm2, more than forecast demand for cultivated land security (5515400 hm2) nearly 260000hm2. In theory, cultivate land resource security can be protected,but in fact, cultivate land security still faces significant pressure. In the end, the measure is proposed for the present problems in this paper.

  8. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I.

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm×n (S) and 22 cm×n (L), penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S- and five subtypes for L-phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were PVT (portal vein thrombosis) positive, all platelet/AFP levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, INR and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. PMID:24787292

  9. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I

    2014-04-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm x n (S) and 22 cm x n (L), Penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S and five subtypes for L phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were portal vein thrombosis (PVT)-positive, all platelet/alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT-negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, prothrombin time, and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  11. Meteorological Department Computer Network Security Issues and Coping Strategies%气象部门计算机网络安全问题及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高向阳

    2015-01-01

    A good network environment is to ensure that normal meteorological stations, and stable operation of the premise. With the development of computer networks, computer network security has become the focus of attention. According to the meteorological department status quo security computer networks, computer networks of the meteorological department in the possible security threats are analyzed, and recommendations meteorological department of computer network security operation, there is an important guarantee for meteorological network security, improve the quality of observation stations significance.%良好的网络环境是确保气象台站正常、稳定运行的前提。随着计算机网络的发展,计算机网络安全问题已经成为社会关注的焦点。根据气象部门计算机网络安全防护现状,对气象部门中可能存在的计算机网络安全威胁因素进行了分析,并提出了气象部门计算机网络安全运行的建议,对保障气象网络安全、提高台站观测质量有重要意义。

  12. Securing Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Sudheesh

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial filled with practical examples which will focus mainly on the key security tools and implementation techniques of Hadoop security.This book is great for Hadoop practitioners (solution architects, Hadoop administrators, developers, and Hadoop project managers) who are looking to get a good grounding in what Kerberos is all about and who wish to learn how to implement end-to-end Hadoop security within an enterprise setup. It's assumed that you will have some basic understanding of Hadoop as well as be familiar with some basic security concepts.

  13. Security Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    attacks cannot be completely addressed by traditional perimeter security solutions [ Wulf and Jones, 2009], as they have been in the past. A new...the mainstay of the current cyber security solution space [ Wulf and Jones, 2009]. This has enabled the system engineering and security communities...Number: H98230-08-D-0171 DO 002 TO 002 RT 028 Report No. SERC-2012-TR-028 January 31, 2012 UNCLASSIFIED 37 W. A. Wulf and A. K. Jones, Reflections on cyber security, Science Magazine, vol. 326, 2009, pp. 943-944.

  14. Grid Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  15. CATIA V5 macro programming with Visual Basic Script

    CERN Document Server

    Ziethen, Dieter R

    2013-01-01

    CATIA V5 Macro Programming with Visual Basic Script shows you, step by step, how to create your own macros that automate repetitive tasks, accelerate design procedures, and automatically generate complex geometries. Filled with full-color screenshots and illustrations, this practical guide walks you through the entire process of writing, storing, and executing reusable macros for CATIA® V5. Sample Visual Basic Script code accompanies the book’s hands-on exercises and real-world case studies demonstrate key concepts and best practices.

  16. Micro and Macro Causes of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Collins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The dominant emotion in violence-threatening situations is confrontational tension/fear (ct/f, which causes most violence to abort, or to be carried out inaccurately and incompetently. For violence to be successful, there must be a pathway around the barrier of ct/f. These pathways include: attacking the weak; audience-oriented staged and controlled fair fights; confrontation-avoiding remote violence; confrontation-avoiding by deception; confrontation-avoiding by absorption in technique. Successfully violent persons, on both sides of the law, are those who have developed these skilled interactional techniques. Since successful violence involves dominating the emotional attention space, only a small proportion of persons can belong to the elite which does most of each type of violence. Macro-violence, including victory and defeat in war, and in struggles of paramilitaries and social movements, is shaped by both material resources and social/emotional resources for maintaining violent organizations and forcing their opponents into organizational breakdown. Social and emotional destruction generally precedes physical destruction.

  17. Muon astronomy with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlen, S P; Antolini, R; Auriemma, G; Baldini, A; Bam, B B; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, P; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiera, C; Cobis, A; Cormack, R; Corona, A; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Diehl, E; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Ficenec, D; Forti, C; Foti, L; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giubellino, P; Grassi, M; Green, P; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Heinz, R; Hong, J T; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Kearns, E T; Klein, S; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Lee, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Liu, G; Liu, R; Longo, M J; Ludlam, G; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta-Neri, A; Marin, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Martellotti, G; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Matteuzzi, P; Michael, D; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nutter, S L; Okada, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Parlati, S; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Petrakis, J; Petrera, S; Pignatano, N D; Pistilli, P; Predieri, F; Ramello, L; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rosa, G; Satriano, C; Satta, L; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra-Lugaresi, P; Severi, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steele, J V; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarlé, G; Togo, V; Valente, V; Verdone, G R; Walter, C W; Webb, R; Worstell, W

    1993-01-01

    Summary form only given. An all-sky survey for cosmic point sources yielding a DC excess of cosmic ray muons above the expected background has been performed using the single plus double muon events collected between June 1991 and 20 September 2000 by the streamer tube system of MACRO. A total of 45.192 million selected muons, single plus double, were collected in 60775.5 h of effective livetime. No statistically significant DC excess has been found. For selected sources we made a search for DC excesses, and upper flux limits were established; they are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Periodicity (AC) analyses have been performed for Cygnus X-3 and Hercules X-1; the AC limits are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Searches for bursts were made for CygX-3, Mrk 421, Mrk 501 and the Crab. (1 refs).

  18. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  19. Compressed digital holography: from micro towards macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretter, Colas; Bettens, Stijn; Blinder, David; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Cagnazzo, Marco; Dufaux, Frédéric; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-09-01

    signal processing methods from software-driven computer engineering and applied mathematics. The compressed sensing theory in particular established a practical framework for reconstructing the scene content using few linear combinations of complex measurements and a sparse prior for regularizing the solution. Compressed sensing found direct applications in digital holography for microscopy. Indeed, the wave propagation phenomenon in free space mixes in a natural way the spatial distribution of point sources from the 3-dimensional scene. As the 3-dimensional scene is mapped to a 2-dimensional hologram, the hologram samples form a compressed representation of the scene as well. This overview paper discusses contributions in the field of compressed digital holography at the micro scale. Then, an outreach on future extensions towards the real-size macro scale is discussed. Thanks to advances in sensor technologies, increasing computing power and the recent improvements in sparse digital signal processing, holographic modalities are on the verge of practical high-quality visualization at a macroscopic scale where much higher resolution holograms must be acquired and processed on the computer.

  20. MACRO-REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic disparities are disparities between levels of economicdevelopment of the areas or regions within a national economy. If economic literature hasfailed to explain the causes of inequalities in economic development of different regions of theEU, this issue became a priority in EU economic policy, especially after the adhesion ofGreece, Spain and Portugal, countries characterized by a lower level of development fromother EU countries and also marked by significant regional imbalances. European Unionsupports reducing disparities between different regions of Member States so that all regionsand their people to benefit from economic and social advantages of the Union. This paper aimsto highlight disparities between the macro-regions in Romania. Regional demarcation criterionin the NUTS system is the population’s number within a territory. Most pertinent argument isthat the goal of all activities in a society lies in meeting the needs of the individual and of thecommunity. This possibility is ensured by a certain level of economic development in the region.Less developed areas of Romania are located in Northern Moldova and in the South EasternRomanian Plain and the more developed areas include, in addition to Bucharest andConstanta, Transylvania and Banat regions.

  1. macro-regional, local y micro- regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las implicaciones del desarrollo en los niveles macro-regional, local y micro- regional, a partir de la hipótesis central de la teoría del desarrollo que plantea que el desarrollo económico traerá consigo el desarrollo político y social. Después de hacer de un acercamiento conceptual al desarrollo, se repasan brevemente las teorías del desarrollo existentes como herramientas de análisis de la realidad. En la discusión se concluye que los procesos de desarrollo locales y regionales requieren de una transformación sustancial de las relaciones negociadas entre los agentes económicos y los actores políticos. Ante el paulatino retroceso que en las sociedades contemporáneas está teniendo el Estado de bienestar, uno de los principales retos es el empoderamiento de las organizaciones sociales y comunitarias para que desempeñen activamente su rol en los procesos de desarrollo local y regional.

  2. [Macro- and microelements in canned sprats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Usydus, Zygmunt

    2006-01-01

    The content of macro- and microelements and toxic metals in the most popular canned sprat was described in this paper. The research included the following canned sprat: sprat in tomato, smoked and steamed sprat in oil. The following analyses were carried out: content of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, chromium, selenium, fluorine, iodine, cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Fluorine, iodine, selenium, and calcium and phosphorous are provided to customer organism in large amount by canned sprat, however canned sprat cannot be considered as a source of copper, chromium, and manganese. On the base of assessment data one canned sprat (weight 170 g) provides to customer organism more than 50% recommended daily intake of calcium and phosphorus, 85-233% fluorine, 62.5% iodine, 43% recommended selenium, more than 25% zinc, about 15% daily intake of magnesium, potassium and iron. It was found that all of the analyzed canned sprat contained relatively low content of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic, thus confirming the established safety standards.

  3. Study of BGP secure scheme based on divide and conquer strategy%基于分治策略的BGP安全机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨; 安金梁; 吴春明; 兰巨龙

    2012-01-01

    研究了SE-BGP的安全性,通过分析发现该机制存在安全漏洞,无法抵御合法用户发起的主动攻击.为了克服SE-BGP存在的安全漏洞,基于AS联盟的思想,使用基于RSA的聚合签名算法设计了一种新的BGP安全机制:SA-BGP,该机制具有更高的安全性,可以有效地验证AS宣告的网络层可达信息(NLRI)的正确性和AS宣告的路径属性的真实性,还可以大规模地减少网络证书规模和单个节点存储的证书数量,通过仿真实验得到SA-BGP和同级别的安全机制相比对网络的影响较小,收敛速度更快.%A new approach was studied for BGP security: SE-BGP. By analyzing the security of SE-BGP, was found it had some secure leaks which couldn't resist active attack. To solve these secure problems of SE-BGP, an AS-alliance-based secure BGP scheme : SA-BGP was proposed, which used the aggregate signatures algorithm based on RSA. The SA-BGP has strong ability of security that can effectively verify the propriety of IP prefix origination and verifies the validity of an AS to announce network layer reachability information (NLRI). SA-BGP can large-scale reduced the number of the used certificates. Performance evaluation results show that SA-BGP can be implemented efficiently and the incurred overhead, in terms of time and space, is acceptable in practice.

  4. 社区卫生服务机构信息安全策略思考%A Discussion on Information Security Strategy of Community Health Service Institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳琳; 游茂

    2014-01-01

    作为区域卫生信息化建设的重点和难点,我国的社区卫生服务机构信息化建设还处于初级阶段。在信息安全方面,社区卫生服务机构内部信息化建设存在信息系统部署不规范、网络规划不合理和应急体系不健全等安全隐患。同时,社区卫生信息化面临着信息安全漏洞迭出、网络攻击数量增加、攻击者多样化等外部威胁。本文提出了一种社区卫生服务信息安全技术体系、管理体系和防御体系相结合的策略,以增强社区卫生服务机构的信息安全。%As the key point of regional health information construction, community health service information construction is still at its primary stage. In terms of information security, internal information construction of community health service institutes is under security risks for nonstandard deployment of information systems, unreasonable planning of network and imperfection of the emergency system. Meanwhile, community health information construction faces external security threats for the sharp increase of information security vulnerabilities and network attacks. This article suggested combining information security technology system with management system and defense system to strengthen the information security of community health service.

  5. 新时期我国粮食安全战略研究的思考%Thoughts of Chinas Food Security Strategy in the New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭

    2013-01-01

    To ensure food security is Chinas primary goal of the national economic and social development. China has few farmlands and insufficient agricultural resources comparing with its large amount of population,as well as low per-capita quantity of resources comparing with the world average. Therefore,it is very important and urgent to implement the national strategy for food security. Based on the analysis of the new conception of food security and global food security situation,this paper analyzed the food security situation in China,characters of grain production, characteristics and requirement of enhancing comprehensive production capacity. Finally,the paper also proposed some policy recommendations as reinforcing policy support,promoting scientific and technological support,exploring service system and guiding scientific consumption on the background of overall goal and long-term strategic conception of Chinas food security strategy.%  保障粮食安全是我国国民经济与社会发展的首要目标。我国人多地少,农业资源总量不足,人均资源量远低于世界平均水平,实施国家粮食安全战略具有极端的重要性和紧迫性。在分析新的粮食安全观、国际粮食安全形势的基础上,剖析了我国粮食安全状况以及粮食生产特征、粮食综合生产能力提升的特点和要求。围绕国家粮食安全战略的总体目标和长期战略构想,提出了加大政策支持、促进科技支撑、建设服务体系、科学引导消费等政策性建议。

  6. Empirical research on contrarian and momentum investing strategies in Chinese security market%中国证券市场反向及动量投资策略的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高银珠; 任达; 薛辰琳

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of behavioral finance, taking the data of all Share A stocks listed on Shanghai security market and Shenzhen security market from January 2003 to December 2014 as the sample, a total of 25 investment options is constituted based on the formation period and test period being respectively set as 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 36 months, and 60 months.In a wider range research, the applicability of contrarian investing strategy and momentum investing strategy in Chinese security markets is observed with empirical research method.The results show that the evident contrarian and momentum phenomena exist in Chinese stock market, and a significant long-term momentum phenomenon is mainly showed by winner portfolio, while the loser portfolio shows a significant contrarian phenomenon.It is pointed out that Chinese security market is not an efficient market, and using the contrarian and momentum investing strategy in Chinese security market can be profitable.%从行为金融学的角度出发,以中国沪深两市2003年1月至2014年12月所有上市A股数据为样本,并将形成期与持有期分别设定为3个月、6个月、12个月、36个月、60个月,共构成25种投资方案,在更广阔的研究范围内,用实证研究的方法考察反向投资策略和动量投资策略在中国证券市场上是否适用。结果表明,在中国股市中存在明显的反转和动量现象,且赢家组合主要表现为显著的长期动量现象,而输家组合表现为显著的反转现象。指出中国证券市场并不是一个有效的市场,在中国证券市场中采用反向及动量投资策略是可以盈利的。

  7. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, A.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wene, C.O. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ``top-down macroeconomic`` and ``bottom-up engineering`` perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system`s costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  8. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, A.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Wene, C.O. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled top-down macroeconomic'' and bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  9. Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  10. Coping Strategies of Security Asset Management%券商资产管理应对行业变革策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建贤

    2014-01-01

    Since 2012,the whole financial market has been sharply changing.The boundaries of bank,securities,insurance,trust and other related industries have been gradually breaking and fu-sing.Especially in the asset management industry,the new intensive policies of government have been changing the competition situation of financial asset industry.The extensive financial asset man-agement or huge financial asset management is rapidly growing.The influence of integration of new policies and cross-border business is enormous.Especially the relaxation of financial asset manage-ment license leads in more competitors and vitality.In the meanwhile,new policies spread out the new channels and increase the configurable products for the development of financial asset business. The innovation environment of financial products has been optimizing.In this situation,the license monopoly of financial management sub-industry has been gradually disintegrating.The feature of cross industries cooperation and competition has been more obvious.Both of all make each financial asset management institutions through different value activities to occupy the respective ecological position, develop strategic layout in huge financial asset management market and gradually carry out the differ-entiated business strategies.%自2012年以来,整个金融市场发生了急剧变化,银行、证券、基金、保险、信托等相关子行业的边界逐步在突破和融合。尤其是资产管理行业,监管层关于资产管理新政的密集出台改变了资产管理行业的竞争格局,泛资管或者大资管行业快速成长,这些政策的释放和跨界业务的融合,带来的影响是巨大的,特别是资管行业业务牌照的管制放松,吸引了更多的机构竞争者,行业活力显现;同时新政策为资管业务的开展铺设了新的渠道格局,增加了可配置产品,金融产品创新环境得到优化。在这种情况下,资管行业子行业

  11. STRATEGI KOPING OLEH EUMAH TANGGA MISKIN DI KABUPATEN CIREBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparman Suparman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coping Strategy Among Poor Households In Cirebon District.Background: Decision of every household to minimize the effect of food insecurity depend on its capacity to give appropriate response. Poor coping strategy create adverse effect to the households.Objectives: To learn how poor households apply a coping strategy and their related factors when they met insecure situation.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages in Cirebon District, each representing of high, medium, and low in food security village based on macro-sector data. From each village 21 poor househqlds wereselected randomly. There are six variables collected consist of mother education, number of household, number ofchildren under five years, occupation of head of household, perception about food insecurity, how often implementedparticular coping strategies, household expenditure and child nutritional status.Results: Prevalence under weight (weight for age was 50.8% and assosiated with to a type of coping strategy on the reducing of food supply in the household (rs: - 0.255. There were also association between household expenditure and several parameters of coping strategy (income gathering and other parameters related to reducing food intake. The more frequent the hosuehold reducing the amount of food items for consumption, the higher the proportion of undernourished children.Conclusions: Reducing daily food supply as a simple modified to cope food insecurity conducted by households higly correlated to poor nutritional status of under-five years old children. Appropriate coping strategy should be developed by local government and disseminate properly to poor households on anticipating insecurity situation.Keywords: food security, poor households, coping strategies, nutritional status

  12. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2006-01-01

    Access Control Systems and Methodology. Telecommunications and Network Security. Security Management Practices. Application Program Security. Cryptography. Computer, System, and Security Architecture. Operations Security. Business Continuity Planning and Disaster Recovery Planning. Law, Investigation and Ethics. Physical Security.

  13. World Energy Trends, Security and China's Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the heavy dependence of world's growing economy on energy supply, the energy issue again comes into the spotlight throughout the world. How to ensure energy security is a great concern to most countries in the world. In this paper, trends in energy supply, energy security mechanism and new challenges are analyzed. As well as, China's security strategies are also proposed.

  14. Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban Ethiopia: a Micro-simulation approach. ... why incomes and inequality largely remained stable at a time of fundamental changes in macroeconomic policy environment.

  15. Three Macro Controls Over China’s Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The first macro control: to cool overheated real estate investment June 2003: The People’s Bank of China issued the Notice on Further Strengthening Credit and Loan Business Management of Real Estate

  16. The Generalist Model: Where do the Micro and Macro Converge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari E. Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although macro issues are integral to social work, students continue to struggle with the acquisition of knowledge and skills pertaining to larger systems. Educators have developed innovative methods to integrate learning across systems of various sizes however it appears an imbalance persists. This challenge is supported by baccalaureate student responses to a social work program evaluation. Four years of data from 295 undergraduate students revealed that they felt less prepared to practice with larger, macro systems. Changes in curriculum to reflect collaboration and holism, and more research are needed to adequately provide macro learning and macro practice opportunities within the generalist model and in the context of the current socio-economic-political environment.

  17. Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics—A Moderated Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topic "Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics" was held on 19 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  18. Macro-invertebrate and Avian Species Survey : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was a survey effort to determine species diversity and density of macro-invertebrates and avian species inhabiting playa systems located in SW regions of Baca...

  19. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  20. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  1. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  2. A statistical mechanics model of carbon nanotube macro-films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube macro-films are two-dimensional films with micrometer thickness and centimeter by centimeter in-plane dimension.These carbon nanotube macroscopic assemblies have attracted significant attention from the material and mechanics communities recently because they can be easily handled and tailored to meet specific engineering needs.This paper reports the experimental methods on the preparation and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube macro-films,and a statistical mechanics model on ...

  3. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY (CYBER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Ansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Business Organizations and Government unequivocally relies on upon data to deal with their business operations. The most unfavorable impact on association is disappointment of friendship, goodness, trustworthiness, legitimacy and probability of data and administrations. There is an approach to ensure data and to deal with the IT framework's Security inside association. Each time the new innovation is made, it presents some new difficulties for the insurance of information and data. To secure the information and data in association is imperative on the grounds that association nowadays inside and remotely joined with systems of IT frameworks. IT structures are inclined to dissatisfaction and security infringement because of slips and vulnerabilities. These slips and vulnerabilities can be brought on by different variables, for example, quickly creating headway, human slip, poor key particulars, poor movement schedules or censuring the threat. Likewise, framework changes, new deserts and new strikes are a huge piece of the time displayed, which helpers augmented vulnerabilities, disappointments and security infringement all through the IT structure life cycle. The business went to the confirmation that it is essentially difficult to ensure a slip free, risk free and secure IT structure in perspective of the disfigurement of the disavowing security parts, human pass or oversight, and part or supplies frustration. Totally secure IT frameworks don't exist; just those in which the holders may have changing degrees of certainty that security needs of a framework are fulfilled do. The key viewpoints identified with security of data outlining are examined in this paper. From the start, the paper recommends pertinent legitimate structure and their duties including open association obligation, and afterward it returns to present and future time, system limits, structure security in business division. At long last, two key inadequacy markers

  4. Flux de capital et intégration régionale : Une etude économétrique des Principaux déterminants de l'instabilité Macro-économique dans le Cône sud-américain

    OpenAIRE

    Saludjian, Alexis

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The high macro-economic volatility of the Southern-Cone countries since the late 1970s are relevant fields of investigation for economists and the development strategies they promote. Regional economic integration in Mercosur as well as economic and financial openness were said to act as macro-economic stabilisation factors. In order to test these hypothesis in the Mercosur case, we study the origins of macro-economic volatility over the 1976-2001 period and focus on t...

  5. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vicentini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  6. Tutorial: simulating chromatography with Microsoft Excel Macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadjo, Akinde; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2013-04-22

    Chromatography is one of the cornerstones of modern analytical chemistry; developing an instinctive feeling for how chromatography works will be invaluable to future generation of chromatographers. Specialized software programs exist that handle and manipulate chromatographic data; there are also some that simulate chromatograms. However, the algorithm details of such software are not transparent to a beginner. In contrast, how spreadsheet tools like Microsoft Excel™ work is well understood and the software is nearly universally available. We show that the simple repetition of an equilibration process at each plate (a spreadsheet row) followed by discrete movement of the mobile phase down by a row, easily automated by a subroutine (a "Macro" in Excel), readily simulates chromatography. The process is readily understood by a novice. Not only does this permit simulation of isocratic and simple single step gradient elution, linear or multistep gradients are also easily simulated. The versatility of a transparent and easily understandable computational platform further enables the simulation of complex but commonly encountered chromatographic scenarios such as the effects of nonlinear isotherms, active sites, column overloading, on-column analyte degradation, etc. These are not as easily simulated by available software. Views of the separation as it develops on the column and as it is seen by an end-column detector are both available in real time. Excel 2010™ also permits a 16-level (4-bit) color gradation of numerical values in a column/row; this permits visualization of a band migrating down the column, much as Tswett may have originally observed, but in a numerical domain. All parameters of relevance (partition constants, elution conditions, etc.) are readily changed so their effects can be examined. Illustrative Excel spreadsheets are given in the Supporting Information; these are easily modified by the user or the user can write his/her own routine.

  7. Lecture 3: Web Application Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Computer security has been an increasing concern for IT professionals for a number of years, yet despite all the efforts, computer systems and networks remain highly vulnerable to attacks of different kinds. Design flaws and security bugs in the underlying software are among the main reasons for this. This lecture focuses on security aspects of Web application development. Various vulnerabilities typical to web applications (such as Cross-site scripting, SQL injection, cross-site request forgery etc.) are introduced and discussed. Sebastian Lopienski is CERN’s deputy Computer Security Officer. He works on security strategy and policies; offers internal consultancy and audit services; develops and maintains security tools for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection; provides training and awareness raising; and does incident investigation and response. During his work at CERN since 2001, Sebastian has had various assignments, including designing and developing software to manage and support servic...

  8. Secure Objectives for School Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  9. Security Bingo

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Want to check your security awareness and win one of three marvellous books on computer security? Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us by 31 October 2011 at either Computer.Security@cern.ch or P.O. Box G19710.   Winners[1] must show that they fulfil at least five good practices in a continuous vertical, horizontal or diagonal row. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult http://cern.ch/security. I personally…   …am concerned about computer security. …run my computer with an anti-virus software and up-to-date signature files. …lock my computer screen whenever I leave my office. …have chosen a reasonably complex password. …have restricted access to all my files and data. …am aware of the security risks and threats to CERN’s computing facilities. &hell...

  10. Lemons to Lemonade: How Five Challenges in Teaching Macro Practice Helped to Strengthen Our Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Joe; Sellers, Sherril; Gordon-Hempe, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Teaching macro practice can be challenging. While students have some concepts of what macro practice entails, their knowledge may be limited and sometimes inaccurate. Moreover, students may be reluctant to engage in macro change efforts. Given the scarcity of literature regarding teaching macro practice and the growing importance of it in social…

  11. Analysis on the Era of Mobile Internet Information Security Strategy%移动互联网时代的信息安全应对策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉科

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of information and communication technology and Internet technology, 4G network and mobile intelligent terminal has been widely used and widely used. However, information security threats and hidden dangers are also increasing. Based on this, this paper work experience, of the mobile Internet information security issues do preliminary analysis, and for the formulation of some strengthening of the mobile Internet information security management and protection strategy, for reference.%随着信息通信技术和互联网技术的飞速发展,4G网络及移动智能终端等得到了广泛普及与应用,居民在生产生活中获得了诸多便利。然而信息所受安全威胁和隐患也日益增多。基于此,文章结合工作经验,对移动互联网的信息安全问题做初步探讨分析,并有针对性地制定一些加强移动互联网信息安全管理与防护的策略,以供参考。

  12. Junos Security

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Rob; Giecco, Patricio; Eberhard, Timothy; Quinn, James

    2010-01-01

    Junos® Security is the complete and authorized introduction to the new Juniper Networks SRX hardware series. This book not only provides a practical, hands-on field guide to deploying, configuring, and operating SRX, it also serves as a reference to help you prepare for any of the Junos Security Certification examinations offered by Juniper Networks. Network administrators and security professionals will learn how to use SRX Junos services gateways to address an array of enterprise data network requirements -- including IP routing, intrusion detection, attack mitigation, unified threat manag

  13. Computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Gollmann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A completely up-to-date resource on computer security Assuming no previous experience in the field of computer security, this must-have book walks you through the many essential aspects of this vast topic, from the newest advances in software and technology to the most recent information on Web applications security. This new edition includes sections on Windows NT, CORBA, and Java and discusses cross-site scripting and JavaScript hacking as well as SQL injection. Serving as a helpful introduction, this self-study guide is a wonderful starting point for examining the variety of competing sec

  14. Wireless Security

    CERN Document Server

    Osterhage, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the growing use of wireless communications, new types of security risks have evolved. Wireless Security covers the major topic of wireless communications with relevance both to organizations and private users. The technological background of these applications and protocols is laid out and presented in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the IEEE 802.11x-Standards that have been introduced for WLAN technology. Other technologies covered besides WLAN include: mobile phones, bluetooth and infrared. In each chapter a major part is devoted to security risks and provisions includin

  15. The Dialectical Nature of Business Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on a theoretical overview and empirical observations, the paper discusses a variety of concepts of strategy. The main argument is that even though the concepts of strategy mostly reflect the perception of science at the macro-sociological level, the research field of strategy seems keen...

  16. 自主创新与国家安全、大国战略%Indigenous Innovation,National Security and Great Country Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷家骕

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the importance of indigenous innovation to the security of the country.In the first place,this article emphasizes that indigenous innovation has been central to na-tional security;secondly,the second contribution,which this article makes,is to show the indige-nous innovation and national power inter-dependence;finally,this article is valuable in showing the key solutions to indigenous innovation.%本文关注了自主创新对于国家安全的重要性。首先,本文强调了自主创新是国家安全的核心;其次,本文强调了自主创新和国力的相互依赖性;最后,本文的价值在于提出了自主创新的关键解决方案。

  17. The National Military Strategy of the United States of America 2015: The United States Military’s Contribution to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    our security relationship with India and build upon our partnerships with New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, and Bangladesh. Such...Mass Destruction. Nuclear, chemical , and biological agents pose uniquely destructive threats. They can empower a small group of actors with terrible...most innovative companies in the world, to learn their best practices. Further, we are aligning our programmatic efforts to take advantage of

  18. Comparison of the Security Strategies of the United States and the European Union: Is There a Common Approach in Combating Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-26

    transportation . Globalization clearly offers terrorist groups some extraordinary capabilities to communicate and coordinate their efforts. Globalization also...The Information Revolution and Post-Modern Warfare” (Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, April 2000), 6. 9 Christoph Eichborn, “Pro Bono Publico ...Hard Choices: National Security and the War on Terrorism.” Current History (December 2002) : 409-413 Eichborn, Christoph. “Pro Bono Publico – No

  19. Discussion on the Government Network Information Security and Prevention Strategies%浅议政府机关网络信息安全及防范策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊峰鑫; 黄宇明

    2014-01-01

    伴随着全球信息一体化进程的不断加快,信息安全也开始受到多方面的威胁,同样,对于各级政府来说,网络信息化在提高政府工作效率和服务质量的同时,网络与信息安全问题也日益凸显。该文结合自身实际工作经验,针对政府信息安全问题,进行了细致的分析并提出整体安全防护策略。%With the rapid development of modern society, computer network, global information integration process accelerat-ing, information security has received many threats. For all levels of government, the network of information technology in im-proving the government efficiency and the quality of service, network and information security issues are also increasingly promi-nent. Combined with the author's own practical experience, in view of the government information security issues, a detailed analysis and put forward the overall safety recommendations.

  20. 基于云存储技术的数据安全策略研究%Study on Data Security Strategy Based on Cloud Storage Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程代娣

    2015-01-01

    当今,在互联网和云计算技术背景下,企业海量的数据通过网络被放置在云存储系统中,云存储平台服务主要通过网络环境来实现,数据的安全性是用户非常关注的问题。在探讨云存储系统基本概念和优势的基础上,分析了云存储面临的安全隐患,并研究了云存储系统下数据的安全防范措施,以求进一步保证云存储数据的安全。%Nowadays, under the background of application of internet and the technology of cloud computing,the security of enterprises’ data which are stored in the cloud storage system in quantity through internet,which is implemented by means of internet,is the main concern of the clients. In order to further guarantee the security of the stored data,the paper analyses the potential risk in cloud storage and researches into security protection of cloud storage system,on the basis of exploring its basic concepts and advantages.

  1. 依法治国视域下公安决策程序的优化策略%The Optimization Strategy of Public Security Decision-making Procedure from the Perspective of the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹

    2015-01-01

    决策作为行政管理工作的主要环节之一,对公安队伍的建设管理水平及职责履行情况有着重大的影响。随着依法治国基本方略的全面推进,公安部门提高了对决策法制化的重视,在决策过程中增强决策程序的法制性和科学性。本文结合依法治国的理念,简述公安决策程序的法制化内容,分析目前我国公安决策程序中存在的问题,如决策前缺少实地调查及定量分析、决策时缺乏程序评估及公众参与、决策后缺乏权力监督和人权保障等,并结合我国公安机关的法制化趋向,提出转变领导决策作风、借鉴先进决策理论、完善决策监督体系、增强程序法制意识等建议,提高公安机关决策程序的法制化程度。%As one of the main part of the administrative management, decision has a significant impact on the public security troop construction management level and duty performance. With the comprehensive advancement of the basic strategy of ruling the country by law, public security departments improve the emphasis on Legalization of decision-making, enhance decision procedure of legal and scientific nature in the decision-making process. According to the idea of the rule of law, the legal content of the public security decision procedures are described in this paper, analyzed existing problems in China's public security decision procedures, such as missing field survey and quantitative analysis before making a decision, lack of program evaluation and public participation when making a decision, and lack of supervision of the power and protection of human rights after decision, combined with the legalization trend of China’s public security organs, propose changes in leadership decision-making style, referenced advanced decision theory, improve the supervision and decision-making system and procedural law consciousness enhancement, improve the degree of legalization of decision

  2. Study on Security Strategy of IaaS in the Cloud Library%云图书馆中“基础设施即服务”模式的安全研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关庆娟; 杨燕梅; 刘浩

    2014-01-01

    Digital library under the cloud computing environments has many features,such as resource sharing and powerful com-puting capabilities.However,because of sharing resources for many users, the security problems such as data tempering 、privacy leaking bring to the users.The“Infrastructure as a Service”(IaaS) model, which using the virtualization technology as the key tech-nology, also has the security problems. Becouse of this reason, this paper discusses the security problem of the IaaS model in the cloud library architecture, thinking in terms of The service provider、rental user、relationship betwee n the service provider and rental user. Lastly, this paper presents the corresponding security strategies.%云计算环境下的数字图书馆具有支持大量资源共享、具备强大计算能力等特点,但同时也因其支持多用户共享资源而带来了诸如存储数据被还原篡改、信息隐私泄露、通信数据被窃听等等安全问题。其中,以虚拟化技术为关键技术的“基础设施即服务”(IaaS)模式亦如此。鉴于此,论文从服务提供商、租赁用户、服务提供商和租赁用户间供求关系的角度出发,探讨了云图书馆服务架构中IaaS模式的资源共享安全问题,并提出了相应的安全策略。

  3. Secure portal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing

  4. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  5. Security Studies

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Security Studies has firmly established itself as a leading journal on international security issues. The journal publishes theoretical, historical and policy-oriented articles on the causes and consequences of war, and the sources and conditions of peace. The journal has published articles on balancing vs. bandwagoning, deterrence in enduring rivalries, the Domino theory, nuclear weapons proliferation, civil-military relations, political reforms in China, strategic culture in Asia and the P...

  6. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  7. Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With an increasing number of countries becoming industrialized, energy, the so-called blood of modern economies, is becoming increasingly important Energy security has become an important factor that directly influences world economic stability and international relations. In an article posted on People's Daily Online, Liu Jianfei, professor at the International Strategic Research Center of the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, shares his opinions on energy security.

  8. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  9. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  10. A Multiscale Lattice-Boltzmann Model of Macro-to-Micro Scale Transport Relevant to Gut Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxing; Brasseur, James; Banco, Gino

    2007-11-01

    Nutrient and pharmaceutical absorption in the small intestine involve coupled multiscale transport and mixing processes that span several orders of magnitude. We hypothesize that muscle-induced villi motions generate and control a ``micro-mixing layer'' that couples with macro-scale mixing to enhance molecular transport to and from the epithelium. In this work we developed a 2-D numerical method based on a multigrid strategy within the lattice-Boltzmann framework. We model a macro-scale cavity flow with microscale finger-like villi in pendular motion on the lower surface and evaluate the coupling between macro and micro-scale fluid motions, scalar mixing, and uptake of passive scalar at the villi surface. Preliminary results show that the moving villi can be effective mixers at the micro scale, especially when groups of villi move in a coordinated, but out-of-phase fashion. A time-evolving series of flow recirculation eddies are generated within a micro mixing layer that increase transport of passive scalar from the macro eddy to the surface by advection. Flow parameters such as frequency of pendular motion, spacing between villi and villi grouping, have strong influences on the behaviors of the micro-mixing layer and the efficiency of scalar transport. An extensive analysis is in process to quantify correlation between scalar mixing and flux, details of villi motion, and induced flow patterns.

  11. Marketingová strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Gazdíková, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    The Master´s thesis introduces the marketing strategy of the company Linde Material Handling Česká republika Ltd. The theoretical part explains the theoretical basis, which is concerning given problems. In the practical part is an analysis of marketing micro and macro environment, SWOT analysis and marketing strategy in the marketing mix. The objective of this thesis is the marketing strategy for the next period of operation of the company.

  12. Macro-players in stock markets

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2005-01-01

    It is usually assumed that stock prices reflect a balance between large numbers of small individual sellers and buyers. However, over the past fifty years mutual funds and other institutional shareholders have assumed an ever increasing part of stock transactions: their assets, as a percentage of GDP, have been multiplied by more than one hundred. The paper presents evidence which shows that reactions to major shocks are often dominated by a small number of institutional players. Most often the market gets a wrong perception and inadequate understanding of such events because the relevant information (e.g. the fact that one mutual fund has sold several million shares) only becomes available weeks or months after the event, through reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Our observations suggest that there is a radical difference between small ($ 5% $) price changes which, on the contrary, may be caused by massive sales (or purchases) by a few players. This suggests that the mechanisms which a...

  13. 证券交易复杂事件处理策略管理服务模块的设计与实现%DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURITIES TRADING COMPLEX EVENT PROCESSING STRATEGY MANAGEMENT SERVICE MODULE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋波; 陈智; 苏厚勤

    2015-01-01

    Complex event processing is an important implementation algorithm of quantitative trading of securities,and has been widely applied in financial markets.Aiming at the efficiency problem of complex event processing pattern in traditional securities trading,in this paper we present a new design scheme for strategy management services module.The scheme encapsulates the standard data transmission interface to facilitate the transmission of strategy and control module data,provides system management methods according to three different levels of strategy,customers and examples,and abstracts a part of the functional code of the strategy and the code in regard to periphery programs interaction to strategy management service module,in addition eliminates the coupling between the algorithm strategy module and the control module as well.Experimental results show that the scheme proposed in this paper and its practice can effectively reduce the bandwidth utilisation,improve system resource utilisation,and can effectively improve the concurrent processing speed.%复杂事件处理是证券量化交易的一种重要的实现算法,在金融市场应用广泛。针对传统证券交易中复杂事件处理模式的效率问题,提出一种新的策略管理服务模块的设计方案。该方案封装标准的数据传输接口便于策略与控制模块的数据传输,提供按照策略、客户和实例三个不同层次的系统管理方法,以及将策略的部分功能代码及与外围程序交互的代码抽象到策略管理服务模块中,去除了算法策略模块和控制模块的耦合。实验结果表明,所提出和实践的方案可以有效降低带宽的使用率、提高系统资源利用率,并能有效提高并发处理速度。

  14. Micro and macro contact mechanics for interacting asperities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramesh; Satish V Kailas; K R Y Simha

    2008-06-01

    Contact of rough surfaces at micro and macro scales is studied in this paper. The asperities at micro scale are characterised by small radius of curvature whereas the waviness is characterised by large radius of curvature. When two rough surfaces come in contact, on the micro scale, of asperities contacts in a very small area leave large gaps between the surfaces; whereas on the macro scale the surfaces conform to each other under the application of load without gaps. Contact at micro scale is modelled by superposition of Hertzian stress fields of individual asperity contacts and the waviness at macro scale is modelled as a mixed boundary problem of rough punch indentation where displacements of uneven profile are prescribed along the region of contact. In both the cases for simplification the roughness is assigned to one surface making the other surface perfectly flat an assumption often made in contact mechanics of rough bodies. The motivation for modelling the asperities at micro scales comes from the preliminary results obtained from photoelastic experiments. Numerical results are presented based on the analytical results available for Hertzian contacts. The motivation for modelling the asperities at macro scales comes from the results available in literature for flat contacts from solving mixed boundary elasticity problems. A condition of full stick is assumed along the contact which is a common assumption made for rough contacts. The numerical results are presented for both the cases of rough contact at micro and macro scales.

  15. Performance evaluation of macro lens in digital close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2009-08-01

    Recently, the documentation and visualization of various cultural heritages have been receiving attention, and a small Buddha such as less than 10 cm tall which was stored in the womb of Buddha is also included in cultural heritages. Zoom lenses are generally used to document these small objects and thus conserve the cultural heritage. However, there exist certain issues pertaining to the use of zoom lenses for such digital documentation. These issues include image sharpness and distortions that occur with changes in focal length setting, and in particular, the depth of field is issue from application standpoint such as documentation of the small cultural heritage. On the other hand, macro lenses can be used to capture sharp images of small objects from the view point of working distance, and its depth of field is related to the aperture of the camera. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of macro lenses in digital close range photogrammetry, macro lens and zoom lens were mounted on a digital single lens reflex camera (Canon EOS20D, 8.2 Mega pixels). This paper deals in a first part with comparative evaluations for both lenses with respect to their lens distortion, imaging mode, and calibration aspects. The results indicated that macro lenses were more suitable for digital close range photogrammetry. Calibration tests are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of macro lens in close range photogrammetic applications.

  16. Characteristics of soil water retention curve at macro-scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Scale adaptable hydrological models have attracted more and more attentions in the hydrological modeling research community, and the constitutive relationship at the macro-scale is one of the most important issues, upon which there are not enough research activities yet. Taking the constitutive relationships of soil water movement--soil water retention curve (SWRC) as an example, this study extends the definition of SWRC at the micro-scale to that at the macro-scale, and aided by Monte Carlo method we demonstrate that soil property and the spatial distribution of soil moisture will affect the features of SWRC greatly. Furthermore, we assume that the spatial distribution of soil moisture is the result of self-organization of climate, soil, ground water and soil water movement under the specific boundary conditions, and we also carry out numerical experiments of soil water movement at the vertical direction in order to explore the relationship between SWRC at the macro-scale and the combinations of climate, soil, and groundwater. The results show that SWRCs at the macro-scale and micro-scale presents totally different features, e.g., the essential hysteresis phenomenon which is exaggerated with increasing aridity index and rising groundwater table. Soil property plays an important role in the shape of SWRC which will even lead to a rectangular shape under drier conditions, and power function form of SWRC widely adopted in hydrological model might be revised for most situations at the macro-scale.

  17. The Analysis and Evaluation of the“Maritime Security Strategy of the United States”%美国《海事安全国家战略》的解析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 孙斌

    2014-01-01

    “9.11事件”之后,美国将恐怖主义列为头号威胁并全面调整了它的国家战略。相对于陆上安全和空中安全而言,美国认为海上安全更加脆弱和难以保障。为了确保美国能够安全、有效利用海洋,防范恐怖主义对美国港口、重要海上交通运输线发动袭击,整合联邦、州以及相关私人机构的力量,加强国际合作,美国发表了《海事安全国家战略》。它是美国国家安全战略的重要组成部分。%After the 9.11 attack, the government of USA regarded terrorism as its top threat and put the national strategy into a comprehensive adjustment. The government of USA believes that maritime security is more fragile and harder to guarantee than the security on land and air.To ensure that the ocean resource is utilized effectively and safely, the significant ports and some maritime transportation lines are protected from being attacked by terrorism, the power of the federation, states and some relevant private agencies are integrated availably, even the cooperation among international community is guaranteed long-term, the United States of America published“The National Strategy on Maritime Security”, which covers a significant part of the whole national strategy of USA.

  18. Inversion and inertia investment strategy in China security market's applicability%反转与惯性投资策略在我国证券市场的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚敏

    2011-01-01

    In the current market environment to stren gthen the Securities Investment Fund Investment behavior,not only conducive to advocate the correct values and investment philosophy,development and expansion of investment funds,but also help promote the healthy and stable development of securities markets and the perfection of the financial system.China's stock market systemic risk is very high proportion of the total risk,systematic risk is very great.In this case,one to reverse the strategy and policy inertia,the reverse strategy of large chance of success,and expect abnormal returns is considerable.The possibility of policy failure of inertia is very large,at least not affect the stock price for investors,policy inertia or"chase sell"is the worst strategy.%基于当前的市场条件,深入的研究证券市场的投资行为,不仅可以帮助投资者进一步树立正确的投资理念,而且还可以促进金融体制的不断完善。由于我国股市的系统风险非常大,在投资总风险中占很高比例。因此,从反转策略与惯性策略的对比来看,反转策略有更高可能性成功,并且取得期望超常收益。反之策略更容易失败,起码对于那些难以影响股票价格的中小投资者来说,选择惯性策略或"追涨杀跌"无疑是最不利的。

  19. DIRAC Security

    CERN Document Server

    Casajús Ramo, A

    2006-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...

  20. The Potential Use of Agroforestry Community Gardens as a Sustainable Import-Substitution Strategy for Enhancing Food Security in Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Oelbermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of food insecurity experienced by northern First Nations partially results from dependence on an expensive import-based food system that typically lacks nutritional quality and further displaces traditional food systems. In the present study, the feasibility of import substitution by Agroforestry Community Gardens (AFCGs as socio-ecologically and culturally sustainable means of enhancing food security was explored through a case study of Fort Albany First Nation in subarctic Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry is a diverse tree-crop agricultural system that has enhanced food security in the tropics and subtropics. Study sites were selected for long-term agroforestry research to compare Salix spp. (willow-dominated AFCG plots to a “no tree” control plot in Fort Albany. Initial soil and vegetative analysis revealed a high capacity for all sites to support mixed produce with noted modifications, as well as potential competitive and beneficial willow-crop interactions. It is anticipated that inclusion of willow trees will enhance the long-term productive capacity of the AFCG test plots. As an adaptable and dynamic system, AFCGs have potential to act as a more reliable local agrarian system and a refuge for culturally significant plants in high-latitude First Nation socio-ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable to rapid cultural, climatic, and ecological change.

  1. The existing security problems and coping strategies in WIFI%无线网络存在的安全问题及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周付安; 刘咏梅

    2012-01-01

    无线网络相对于有线网络系统更容易遭遇非法攻击和入侵。无线网络遭遇盗用、无线用户信息被窃听、遭遇无线钓鱼攻击是最为常见的安全问题。无线网络存在的安全问题是由多种原因造成的,无线网络工作方式的特点、破解无线带来的直接经济价值、用户的安全意识淡薄是其中最重要的原因。采取一定的策略能够增强无线网络的安全性。%Wireless network relative to the wired network system easier to encounter illegally attack and intrusion.Wireless network encounter theft,wireless user information been wiretapped and encounter wireless fishing attack is the most common security.Wireless network safety problem exist is by a variety of causes,wireless network way of working characteristics,warez wireless brings direct economic value,the safety of users consciousness is one of the most important reasons.Take some tactics can enhance the security of wireless network.

  2. The Technological Countermeasure of Food Security Strategy in Chongqing%重庆粮食安全战略的科技对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟小红

    2012-01-01

    分析了重庆粮食生产的科技潜力,针对当前科技兴粮面临的三大难题,提出应通过推进"三个科技工程"(粮食科技创新工程、粮食科技示范工程和农技体系振兴工程),强化重庆粮食安全的科技支撑。%Grain production is the basis of food security; this article has analyzed the sci-tech potential of production in Chongqing. In view of the current science and technology to promote grain is facing the major problems, this paper put forward to should be passed to advance "three technological engineering" technological innovation engineering, food technological demonstration project and agricultural technology revitalization project) to strengthen the technological support of Chongqing food security. gram three (food system

  3. The Personalized Configuring Security Strategy of OPAC Retrieval Machine%OPAC检索机安全性能优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Growing OPAC retrieve machine information security issues for library, a security optimization program based the keywords public key encryption OPAC retrieval machine based on the the original PEKS keyword search encryption technology, learn searchable symmetric encryption technology, the roleis divided into the sender, recipient,and the server, respectively, in the system initialization, the message is sent,the message reception and server retrieval operation optimization. The experimental results show that the program has been greatly improved operational efficiency and safety performance, effective program.%  针对图书馆OPAC检索机信息安全问题日益严重的现状,提出了一种基于关键词公钥加密的OPAC检索机安全优化方案,该方案基于原先PEKS关键词检索加密技术,借鉴可搜索对称加密技术,将角色分为发送者、接收者和服务器,分别在系统初始化、消息发送、消息接收和服务器检索操作时进行优化。实验结果表明,该方案在运行效率和安全性能上得到了很大的提高,方案切实有效。

  4. Security Metrics: A Solution in Search of a Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Computer security is one of the most complicated and challenging fields in technology today. A security metrics program provides a major benefit: looking at the metrics on a regular basis offers early clues to changes in attack patterns or environmental factors that may require changes in security strategy. The term "security metrics" loosely…

  5. Cyber security analytics, technology and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Neittaanmäki, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the Internet and more broadly cyberspace has had a tremendous impact on all parts of society. Governments across the world have started to develop cyber security strategies and to consider cyberspace as an increasingly important international issue. The book, in addition to the cyber threats and technology, processes cyber security from many sides as a social phenomenon and how the implementation of the cyber security strategy is carried out. The book gives a profound idea of the most spoken phenomenon of this time. The book is suitable for a wide-ranging audience from graduate to professionals/practitioners and researchers. Relevant disciplines for the book are  Telecommunications / Network security, Applied mathematics / Data analysis, Mobile systems / Security, Engineering / Security of critical infrastructure and Military science / Security.

  6. IT Convergence and Security 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kyung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.

  7. Relay Placement for Physical Layer Security: A Secure Connection Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jianhua; Liu, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This work studies the problem of secure connection in cooperative wireless communication with two relay strategies, decode-and-forward (DF) and randomize-and-forward (RF). The four-node scenario and cellular scenario are considered. For the typical four-node (source, destination, relay, and eavesdropper) scenario, we derive the optimal power allocation for the DF strategy and find that the RF strategy is always better than the DF to enhance secure connection. In cellular networks, we show that without relay, it is difficult to establish secure connections from the base station to the cell edge users. The effect of relay placement for the cell edge users is demonstrated by simulation. For both scenarios, we find that the benefit of relay transmission increases when path loss becomes severer.

  8. A macro-micro robot for precise force applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Wang, Yulun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an 8 degree-of-freedom macro-micro robot capable of performing tasks which require accurate force control. Applications such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning are a few examples of tasks which need this capability. Currently these tasks are either performed manually or with dedicated machinery because of the lack of a flexible and cost effective tool, such as a programmable force-controlled robot. The basic design and control of the macro-micro robot is described in this paper. A modular high-performance multiprocessor control system was designed to provide sufficient compute power for executing advanced control methods. An 8 degree of freedom macro-micro mechanism was constructed to enable accurate tip forces. Control algorithms based on the impedance control method were derived, coded, and load balanced for maximum execution speed on the multiprocessor system.

  9. Micro-origin of Macro-strength: Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Jerves, Alex X

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study about the behavior of arbitrary shaped and sized non-cohesive two-dimensional granular materials. Several mechanical properties and relations are unraveled by connecting micro and macro scales in an explicit fashion that, at the same time, provides the basis of an analytical-theoretical framework for the development of new multi-scale techniques. Furthermore, the work herein presented is based on three main ideas that are developed and connected progressively; namely, the obtention of explicit expressions that enable us to relate micro-scale parameters, such as contact forces and fabric, to stress as a macro (continuum) physical property. Then, with these powerful tools, physical connections and relations between the mentioned micro-parameters and macro-constitutive parameters, in specific, Mohr-Coulomb's mobilized internal friction angle, are established. Finally, a non-linear optimization problem, which includes physical constraints at the contact point level, is prop...

  10. A Macro for Reusing Abstract Functions and Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J. C. Joosten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though the ACL2 logic is first order, the ACL2 system offers several mechanisms providing users with some operations akin to higher order logic ones. In this paper, we propose a macro, named instance-of-defspec, to ease the reuse of abstract functions and facts proven about them. Defspec is an ACL2 book allowing users to define constrained functions and their associated properties. It contains macros facilitating the definition of such abstract specifications and instances thereof. Currently, lemmas and theorems derived from these abstract functions are not automatically instantiated. This is exactly the purpose of our new macro. instance-of-defspec will not only instantiate functions and theorems within a specification but also many more functions and theorems built on top of the specification. As a working example, we describe various fold functions over monoids, which we gradually built from arbitrary functions.

  11. Data security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  12. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  13. 中国国家安全战略的几个政治地理热点问题%On several geopolitical hot issues about Chinese national security strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙峰华; 徐建斌; 任成凯; 李少鹏

    2014-01-01

    以2013年9月21-22日中国地理学会世界地理专业委员会在北京举办的第二届“地理学与中国全球战略高层论坛”为背景,在深入探讨反思会议上争论的主要政治地理热点问题的基础上,概括出目前中国国家安全战略的4个政治地理热点问题:(1)从“综合国家竞争力”到“国家地理竞争力”;(2)从世界经济“一体化”到“奥林匹克地缘政治经济运动会”;(3)从中国古代“三国之争”方略到世界现代“三个大国博弈”的战略;(4)从国外的地缘战略论到重新发现毛泽东的地缘战略思想。以毛泽东地缘战略思想为指导,构建了当代中国国家安全总体战略和具体战略,认为构建中国国家安全战略必须有新政治地理观念、思维和思路。%The second session of “Geography and Global Strategy Summit Forum of China” was held in Beijing by the World geography Professional Committee of the Geographical Society of China ,Sep-tember 21-22 ,2013 .Take it as the background ,based on discussing the main hot issues of political geography argued in review meeting ,4 instant hot issues of political geography about Chinese securi-ty strategy were summarized :(1)From the “comprehensive national competitiveness” to “National Geographic competitiveness”;(2)From the world economic “integration” to “Olympic Games in the geopolitical economy”;(3)From the general plan of “Three Kingdoms battle” to the strategy of cos-mopolitan modern“three great countries’ power game”;(4)From the foreign Geopolitical strategy theories to the rediscovery of Mao Zedong’s geo strategic thinking .Guided by the MAO’s geopoliti-cal strategic thought ,overall strategy and specific strategy about national security of contemporary China were built separately .And the conclusion indicated that the construction of Chinese national se-curity strategies calls for new concepts ,ideas and

  14. Privatising Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mindova-Docheva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of the different approaches towards employing the international legal framework in the regulation and oversight of private military and security companies’ operation in armed conflicts and in peace time security systems. It proposes a partnership-based approach for public and private actors aiming at creating and sharing common values under the principles of solidarity, protection of human rights and rule of law. A focus of further research should be the process of shaping those common values.

  15. Trivariate Local Lagrange Interpolation and Macro Elements of Arbitrary Smoothness

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, Michael Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Michael A. Matt constructs two trivariate local Lagrange interpolation methods which yield optimal approximation order and Cr macro-elements based on the Alfeld and the Worsey-Farin split of a tetrahedral partition. The first interpolation method is based on cubic C1 splines over type-4 cube partitions, for which numerical tests are given. The second is the first trivariate Lagrange interpolation method using C2 splines. It is based on arbitrary tetrahedral partitions using splines of degree nine. The author constructs trivariate macro-elements based on the Alfeld split, where each tetrahedron

  16. Inverse kinematics model of parallel macro-micro manipulator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An improved design, which employs the integration of optic, mechanical and electronic technologies for the next generation large radio telescope, is presented in this note. The authors propose the concept of parallel macro-micro manipulator system from the feed support structure with a rough tuning subsystem based on a cable structure and a fine tuning subsystem based on the Stewart platform. According to the requirement of astronomical observation, the inverse kinematics model of this parallel macro-micro manipulator system is deduced. This inverse kinematics model is necessary for the computer-controlled motion of feed.

  17. Personal number Management : personal numbers and identity fraud – number strategies for security and privacy in an information society - part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    For the sake of clarity and manageability, this article is in the form of a checklist. It will be published in two parts. The first part in this issue presents some practical and juridical characteristics of personal number systems. But at the end of the day, it is the number strategy that

  18. The Study of Digitalization Hospital Network Security Issues and Strategies%数字化医院的网络安全问题及对策探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智华

    2011-01-01

    Digital management of medical equipment and first-class modern hospital two main components,through the computer network,PACS systems to achieve a concentration of medical image management and sharing of information,HIS system put the hospital and medical services for transaction management information management,computer networks and digital management in hospitals is becoming increasingly important role.To enhance network management,protection of digital and information security management,this paper analyzes the hospital information network security problems faced on the basis of a solution of comouter viruses,information system crashes,data loss and other oroblems measures.%数字化管理和一流的医疗设备是医院现代化的两个主要组成部分,通过计算机网络,PACS系统实现了各类医疗图像信息的集中管理和共享,HIS系统则把医院的事务管理和医疗业务进行信息化管理,计算机网络和数字化管理在医院中的作用显得日益重要。为加强网络管理,保障数字化、信息化管理的安全,本文在分析医院信息网络安全所面临问题的基础上,探讨了解决计算机病毒、信息系统崩溃、数据遗失等问题的措施。

  19. Patterns of Behavior-based Computer Security Strategy Research%基于行为模式的计算机安全策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会彦; 马宗亚; 张慧娟

    2013-01-01

      This paper aims at studying the behavior patterns of the virus, by an act that prevents the main virus database into behavior libraries, and the behavior patterns implementing the control, taking advantage of the total and ultimate realization of the Information Security, behavior patterns, by which method can achieve the goal of reducing the hardware and software upgrade effectively,real-time tracking of patterns of behavior, and gradually set the level of security and detection of virus in a variety of attacks, the utilizing of current artificial intelligent technology, effective monitoring of the behavior of the virus, and thus the implementation of auto-immune%  文章的目的就是研究病毒的行为模式,通过行为防范为主,把病毒库变成行为库,利用行为模式来实施控制,最终实现信息安全,通过行为模式进行方法能够有效的减少软硬件的升级工作,根据对行为模式的实时跟踪,逐步设定安全等级并且检测病毒的各种攻击行为,利用当前人工智能技术,对病毒行为进行有效监控,从而实施自动免疫。

  20. Security of earthquake disaster reduction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Bo; TAO Xia-xin; WEN Rui-zhi; DAI Zhi-yong

    2005-01-01

    No matter whether a system is operated manually or automatically controlled by computer, the system' s vulnerability always exists. Earthquake Disaster Reduction System (EDRS) belongs to the category of information system. According to the features of security for EDRS, the steps and the methods on how to build the EDRS security were analyzed. The EDRS security features, security strategies and security measures were also given through a distributed EDRS skeleton that has been applied. Because there was still no appointed and authoritative agency or organization to certify and test EDRS security in China, a national information technology security certification center was introduced and suggested for the certification of the EDRS security. Finally,several discussions and tendencies for the EDRS development were presented.

  1. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  2. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    of the general security situation and to identify both the explicit and the implicit agendas of the primary state actors. The region contains all the ingredients for confrontation and conflict but the economical potential for all the parties concerned creates a general interest in dialogue and cooperation...

  3. Secure Ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joep de Hart; Frans Knol; Cora Maas - de Waal; Theo Roes

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Zekere banden. Discussions about the Netherlands of today often throw up terms such as 'social cohesion', 'social integration', 'liveability' and 'security'. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP has carried out a study of this phenomenon and presents the results in this

  4. Secured transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beale, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I describe the work that is currently under way, within the Network of Excellence charged with creating a draft Common Frame of Reference, to draft rules on security over moveable assets. After a brief introduction, I deal with two broad questions: (1) the general aims and scope of the

  5. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no state

  6. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  7. The citizen security reconfiguration: The security and coexistence policy for football in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Felipe Puentes Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Security policies are passing through a crucial time in which management strategies focused on crime, use of force and increasing clampdown on criminal matters, are inefficient in a scenario that promotes a normative spectrum linked to Human Rights seeking to insert the security as a condition for the construction of universal dignity in what the United Nations has called Human Security. This article is inserted in the current citizen security policy debates, to evidence how concepts such as ...

  8. Exploration on graded protection strategies of mobile internet information security in 4G era%4G时代移动互联网信息安全分等级防护策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霖

    2014-01-01

    进入4G时代,移动互联网“路”更宽了,从移动互联网威胁的来源来看,其不但来源于传统的互联网,越来越多的威胁将出现在移动互联网内部。基于4G时代移动互联网面临的信息安全风险、威胁,对移动互联网信息安全防护体系进行分析,提出了分等级防护的防护策略。%In the 4G era, the“road”of mobile internet has become wider. The mobile internet threats come from not only the traditional internet but also the internal of the mobile internet. Based on the information security risks and threats of mobile internet in the 4G era, this paper analyzes the information security protection system of the mobile internet and puts forward the graded protection strategies.

  9. Opinions about Component Energetic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Elena GOLUMBEANU (GEORGESCU)

    2012-01-01

    Collective security (international) represent the morphological expression of individual security components. According to the Report presented at the United Nations Development Programme, collective security (international) as well as national security, is the expression of seven synergistic dimensions as follows: economic security, food security, environmental security, personal security, community security, political security and individual security. As part of economic security, energy an...

  10. The strategy of training staff for a new type of helicopter as an element of raising the security level of flight operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązkowski, Robert; Wołkowski, Władysław; Mikos, Marcin; Szajda, Sławomir; Wejnarski, Arkadiusz; Świeżewski, Stanisław Paweł

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Polish Medical Air Rescue started replacing its fleet with modern EC135 machines. To ensure the maximum possible safety of the missions performed both in the period of implementing the change and later on, the management prepared a strategy of training its crews to use the new type of helicopter. The analysis of incidents that occurred during 2006-2009 showed that both the human and the technical factors must be carefully considered. Moreover, a risk analysis was conducted to reduce the risk both during general crew training and in the course of particular flight operations. A four-stage strategy of training pilots and crew members was worked out by weighing up all the risks. The analysis of data from 2010 to 2013 confirmed that the risk connected with flying and with all the activities involved in direct support aircraft operations is under control and lowered to an acceptable level.

  11. Security Administration Reports Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  12. Security Investigation Database (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Security Investigation & Personnel Security Clearance - COTS personnel security application in a USAID virtualized environement that can support USAID's business...

  13. Resizing the Euro-Mediterranean Dialogue in the Area of Security: The Challenge of Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Soler i Lecha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Although in the countries of the south the concept of human security is not very well-rooted and the security of states or regimes continues to take precedence, this article analyses the extent to which regional co-operation strategies, especially the BarcelonaProcess, have directly or indirectly promoted a new conception of security based on the protection of the citizen. For this, it analyses what had been done in the framework of the political and security basket of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership up until the Euro-Mediterranean Summit in Barcelona, but it also emphasises some of the important deficiencies, such as inaction in the field of reformation of the security sector. This analysis is framed within a broader discussion about whether or not the Mediterranean is a security complex and whether or not it can become a security community that would make human security one of the foundations of a culture of shared security.

  14. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    - Takes a new approach to understanding Europe’s fertility gap - Demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making - Provides new insights into how people make decisions about having children as well as how policies affect fertility This book provides new insights into

  15. Pigment encapsulation by emulsion polymerization using macro-RAFT copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Zondanos, Hollie S; Farrugia, Jason M; Serelis, Algirdas K; Such, Chris H; Hawkett, Brian S

    2008-03-04

    A new method is described, based on living amphipathic random macro-RAFT copolymers, which enables the efficient polymeric encapsulation of both inorganic and organic particulate materials via free-radical polymerization. The mechanism for this new approach is examined in the context of the polymer coating of zirconia- and alumina-coated titanium dioxide particles and its breadth of application demonstrated by the coating of organic phthalocyanine blue pigment particles. The particulate materials were first dispersed in water using a macro-RAFT copolymer as a stabilizer. Monomer and water-soluble initiator were then added to the system, and the monomer polymerized to form the coating. If nucleation of new polymer particles in the aqueous phase was to be avoided, it was found necessary to use a macro-RAFT copolymer that did not form micelles; within this constraint, a broad range of RAFT agents could be used. The macro-RAFT agents used in this work were found not to transfer competitively in the aqueous phase and therefore did not support growth of aqueous-phase polymer. Successful encapsulation of particles was demonstrated by TEM. The process described enables 100% of the particles to be encapsulated with greater than 95% of the polymer finishing up in the polymeric shells around the particles. Moreover, the coating reaction can be carried out at greater than 50% solids in many cases and avoids the agglomeration of particles during the coating step.

  16. Exploring the Macro-Micro Dynamic in Data Use Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    In their opening comments to this special issue on data use, Coburn and Turner point to "one of the most central questions in social theory: the interrelationship between macro-social structure and micro-level action." Questions about data use--which entail social phenomena that range from federal policy to moment-to-moment interactions…

  17. Le pilotage macro-budgétaire des finances locales

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François; Steckel, Marie-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Ce bref article présente les justifications et modalités de mise en oeuvre du pilotage macro-budgétaire des finances locales, c.-à-d. de leur intégration dans le pilotage global du secteur des administrations publiques tant en termes de solde de financement que de dette.

  18. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  19. Micro, meso and macro issues emerging from focus group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand the perceptions and experiences of HIV management in ... curriculum design; underlying concerns relating to HIV management and ... At a macro level, participants felt that the political nature of HIV and curriculum structure were ... AJOL jobs · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and ...

  20. Heralded generation of a micro-macro entangled state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2013-01-01

    Using different optical setups based on squeezed state and photon subtraction we show how optical entanglement between a macroscopic and a microscopic state-the so-called Schro¨dinger cat state or micro-macro state-can be generated. The entangled state is heralded and is thus produced a priori...

  1. A macro-mechanical constitutive model for shape memory polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is of theoretical and engineering interest to establish a macro-mechanical constitutive model of the shape memory polymer (SMP), which includes the mechanical constitutive equation and the material parameter function, from the viewpoint of practical application. In this paper, a new three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive equation, which describes the mechanical behaviors associated with the shape memory effect of SMP, is developed based on solid mechanics and the viscoelasticity theorem. According to the results of the DMA test, a new material parameter function is established to express the relationship of the material parameters and temperature during the glass transition of SMP. The new macro-mechanical constitutive equation and material parameter function are used to numerically simulate the process producing the shape memory effect of SMP, which includes deforming at high temperature, stress freezing, unloading at low temperature and shape recovery. They are also used to investigate and analyze the influences of loading rate and temperature change rate on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP. The numerical results and the comparisons with Zhou’s material parameter function and Tobushi’s mechanical constitutive equation illustrate that the proposed three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive model can effectively predict the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP under the state of complex stress.

  2. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  3. Study of atmospheric neutrinos with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Scapparone, E

    2003-01-01

    The MACRO experiment detected different categories of atmospheric muon neutrinos. We describe in this paper the energy estimate of upward throughgoing muons by using the multiple coulomb scattering. Combining the results of such analysis with the upgoing muon angular distribution, both not using the absolute nu flux normalization information, an evidence above 4 sigma for atmospheric neutrino oscillation is found. (7 refs).

  4. Macro-pyramid in GaN Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; YANG Zhi-Jian; XU Shi-Fa; ZHU Xing; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2001-01-01

    A thin film of GaN with the thickness of 1.0μm was grown on α-Al2Oa substrate by metal organic chemical vapour disposition and then a thick GaN film with thickness of 12μm was grown in the halide vapour phase epitaxy system. Some macro-pyramids appeared on the surface of the sample. The macro-pyramids made the surfaceof the GaN film rough, which was harmful to the devices made by GaN materials. These defects changed the distribution of carrier concentration and affected the optical properties of GaN. The step height of the pyramids was about 30-40 nm measured by atomic force microscopy. A simple model was proposed to explain the macro- pyramid phenomenon compared with the growth spiral The growth of the macro-pyramid was relative to the physical conditions in the reaction zone. Both increasing growth temperature and low pressure may reduce the pyramid size.

  5. A Calculus of Macro-Events: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    1410, USA iliano@itd.nrl.navy.mil Angelo Montanari Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica Universita di Udine Via delle Scienze, 206 { 33100 Udine...nition of ECTD-structure only by the following points: M MT is a set of macro-events over T . The codomain of [jji and hjj] are rede ned to be

  6. The Construction of Macro-events. A typological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper Talmy's influential typology of macro-events (Talmy 1985, 1987, 1991, 2000) is discussed from the point of view of construction grammar (Goldberg 1995, 2006). Talmy has described typological differences of lexicalization between what he calls satellite framed languages and verb fram...

  7. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  8. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  9. Integrating a macro emission model with a macroscopic traffic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.A.; Stelwagen, U.; Taale, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a macro emission module for macroscopic traffic models to be used for assessment of ITS and traffic management. It especially focuses on emission estimates for different intersection types. It provides emission values for CO, CO2, HC, NOx, and PM10. It is applied and validated fo

  10. Reclaiming and Reimagining Macro Social Work Education: A Collective Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, F. Ellen; O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Cole, Portia L.; Hopkins, Karen; Jones, Jenny L.; Kim, Youngmi; Leisey, Monica; Mulroy, Elizabeth A.; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Thomas, M. Lori; Weil, Marie O.; Wike, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors focus on a collective biography of 12 women social work educators, all either tenured or in tenure lines, from five different universities at the time of the study. The participants represent several aspects of macro practice including administration, planning, community practice, and policy. Beginning with reflections about coming…

  11. Operationalizing Macro-Scripts in CSCL Technological Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounikine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the technological dimensions related to the operationalization of CSCL macro-scripts. CSCL scripts are activity models that aim at enhancing the probability that knowledge generative interactions such as conflict resolution, explanation or mutual regulation occur during the collaboration process. We…

  12. Restoration of Benthic Macro-endofauna after Reforestation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sediments and the forest densities, community composition and diversity of macro-endofauna. ... mangrove degradation leads to drastic changes in sediment characteristics as well ... biodiversity of estuarine and nearshore areas and act as .... Sand (%). 43 ± 5. 27 ± 9. 59 ± 14. 79 ± 5. Temperature (oC). 29 ± 0.5. 28 ± 0.2.

  13. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  14. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government...

  15. Bridging the Micro-Macro Gap in Population Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIDI, .

    2011-01-01

    MicMac - Bridging the micro-macro gap in population forecasting: a study funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme "Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area". In an ageing population, the demand for adequate health care services, pension systems and other

  16. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    - Takes a new approach to understanding Europe’s fertility gap - Demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making - Provides new insights into how people make decisions about having children as well as how policies affect fertility This book provides new insights into

  17. Effective Macro Control Eases Up The Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The outlook of the macro economic operation in 2007 cannot be separated from the comprehensive, accurate and scientific observation on the economic operation in 2006. We conclude three main issues to be illustrated on the basic characteristics of the national economic operation in 2006.

  18. Bridging the Micro-Macro Gap in Population Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIDI, .

    2011-01-01

    MicMac - Bridging the micro-macro gap in population forecasting: a study funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme "Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area". In an ageing population, the demand for adequate health care services, pension systems and other so

  19. Security Analysis and Strategy Research of Kerberos Protocol%Kerberos协议的安全分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 宁红云

    2015-01-01

    Some improvements are made based on the analysis of the traditional Kerberos protocol’s security. To solve problems of the password guessing attacks and the complexity of symmetric key storage,public key encryption and private key decryption mechanism is presented in this paper. The new methods of combining the message sequence number with the random number is used to help the application server to distinguish the message replayed by the attacker and the message resent by the legal client,so as to solve the problem that the encrypted request message is seized and replayed by the attacker. Also,in view of the problem that the session key is intercepted,the non-volatile memory is adopted on the client and application server to store the key chain and the message list,and message between client and application server is encrypted by the key in the key chain instead of the session key issued by the Ticket Granting Server ( TGS ) , the dynamic key ensures the integrity of the message. Analysis result shows that the improued protocol can improve the security of the system.%对传统Kerberos协议的安全性进行分析,提出一种改进协议。利用公钥加密私钥解密体制,解决口令猜测攻击以及对称密钥存储复杂的问题。为避免请求资源的消息被攻击者截获后进行重放,通过增加消息序列号和发送随机数相结合的方法,使应用服务器能够识别出被攻击者重放攻击和客户端重发的消息。在客户端和应用服务器端都采用非易失性存储器来存储密钥链和消息列表,客户端与资源服务器之间的交互数据都使用密钥链中的密钥代替票据授权服务器颁发的会话密钥进行加密,动态密钥保证消息的完整性,使会话密钥不易被截获。分析结果表明,改进协议能有效提高系统的安全性。

  20. 基于S WO T分析法的公安机关媒体沟通策略%Strategies of Communication based on the SWOT Analysis between Public Security Organs and the Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛

    2014-01-01

    The construction of the police public relations is the inevitable requirement of the public security bureau to establish the Scientiifc Outlook of Development and the need of modern policing work to meet the demand of social development. The emergence of economic and social transformation, the formation of the new media environment as well as the development of the theory of the police public relations cause public security organs to establish a new relationship with the media in the sense of public relations. Due to the limitation of traditional ideas and system, there still exist many obstacles in the process of communication with the media by the public security organs. The application of the SWOT analysis can make us ifnd out the internal strengths, weaknesses and external opportunities as well as challenges of communication relations between public security organs and the media so as to build a virtuous interaction between the two sides to provide effective strategies and methods.%警察公共关系建设是公安机关树立科学发展观、转变职能的必然要求,是现代警务工作适应社会发展的需要。经济社会转型期的出现、新媒体环境的形成以及警察公共关系理论的发展,使公安机关与媒体倾向于建立一种新型的关系,即公共关系学意义上的沟通关系。公安机关由于受传统观念和体制的束缚,在与媒体进行沟通的过程中,还存在着诸多障碍。运用SWOT分析方法,可以发现公安机关与媒体沟通关系中的内部优势和劣势、外部机遇及挑战,从而为双方构建良性的互动关系提供行之有效的策略和方法。