WorldWideScience

Sample records for macro legal analysis

  1. Knowledge translation at the macro level: legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Hamann, Cara J; Monico, Edward P; Degutis, Linda; Schuur, Jeremiah; Kantor, Walter; Graffeo, Charles S

    2007-11-01

    Macro-level legal and ethical issues play a significant role in the successful translation of knowledge into practice. The medicolegal milieu, in particular, can promote clinical inertia and stifle innovation. Embracing new clinical practice guidelines and best practice models has not protected physicians from superfluous torts; in some cases, emerging evidence has been used as the dagger of trial lawyers rather than the scalpel of physicians. Beyond the legal challenges are overarching justice issues that frame the broad goals of knowledge translation (KT) and technology diffusion. Optimal implementation of the latest evidence requires attention to be paid to the context of the candidate community and the key opinion leaders therein, characterized by the "8Ps" (public, patients, press, physicians, policy makers, private sector, payers, and public health). Ethical and equitable KT also accounts for the global burdens and benefits of implementing innovation such that disparities and gaps in health experienced by the least advantaged are prioritized. Researchers and thought leaders must attend to questions of fairness, economics, and legal risk when investigating ways to promote equity-oriented KT.

  2. Masonry macro-block analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, N

    2015-01-01

    The structural analysis involves the definition of the model and selection of the analysis type. The model should represent the stiffness, the mass and the loads of the structure. The structures can be represented using simplified models, such as the lumped mass models, and advanced models resorting the Finite Element Method (FEM) and Discrete Element Method (DEM). Depending on the characteristics of the structure, different types of analysis can be used such as limit analysis, linear and non...

  3. Theorization and Modelling of Law – Some meso to macro models of legal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mancilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a larger project-a theory of Law- which purports to use concepts of systems theory, complexity and cybernetics in order to create models of legal behavior that can be subject to computer simulation and modeling, thus making theory and practice more relatable to each other. Because of space constrains, two models of Law: one on how knowledge about Law, Justice and the Rule of Law is created and circulates and one on what norms are and how they are implemented, along with a brief notion of who are its subjects. These models are applicable on a midrange to macro scale (cities of a certain size, States, confederations of States and onwards, despite the fact that the implementation model can also be used on small scale systems like communities, dyads, triads and so on. The work offered in this study is correlated with the Law and Society approach to legal empiricism and I conclude that theory and practice holds a recursive relation: theory without a practical referent is fiction and practice without theory is blind development; computer modeling is a way to further the complementary relationship that both ought to hold.

  4. Micro-macro analysis of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a "classic" approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail ("micro") to a different scale level ("macro"), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability.

  5. Resource Curse: Micro and Macro Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    corporate sub-levels, while at the macro level there are the state and the global ... development and good governance than do countries with fewer resources” ( .... Individuals can contribute to resource curse by acting as corrupt agents of the.

  6. The analysis of macro-environment for the pork meat industry from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Buzamat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the realization of this study we used PESTEc analysis of the external environment (politico-legal, economic, social and technological in order to highlight the opportunities which can lead to a higher efficiency of the economic activity or the threats represented by the potential impediments which could prevent the development of the economic activity of the studied company. The study was realized on a company which has as activity the raising of porcine, but due to confidentiality reasons we will not divulge its name. Keywords :industry, macro-environment,  meat, pork

  7. Values, Challenges and Implementation of Legalization of Macro-control%宏观调控法治化:价值、难题与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新红

    2015-01-01

    Legalization of macro-control, the key to the rule of law, is designed to regulate, ensure and control the power of macro-control. Legalization of macro-control is of great values in improving the performance of macro-control, reducing the risk of macro-control, and preventing it from becoming a profit-making tool of the interest group, etc. But, there are at least three challenges, such as concept challenge, system challenge and technology challenge, in implementing the legalization of macro-control. These challenges constitute our environment of macro-control law. So, we should take methods which are combined with hardness and softness, according to discretion which is the characteristic of macro-control, based on the environment, to achieve the legalization of macro-control gradually.%宏观调控法治化旨在规范、保障和控制宏观调控权的行使,是依法治国的题中之义。宏观调控法治化对提高宏观调控的绩效、降低宏观调控的风险、预防宏观调控沦为利益集团牟利的工具等均具有重要价值。但是,宏观调控法治化的实现,至少面临三大难题:观念难题、制度难题和技术难题。这些难题构成我国实现宏观调控法治化的环境。立足于这一环境,结合宏观调控相机抉择的特点,采取柔中带刚、从柔至刚和刚柔相济的方法,逐步实现宏观调控法治化。

  8. %ERA: A SAS Macro for Extended Redundancy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giorgio Lovaglio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to structural equation modeling based on so-called extended redundancy analysis has been recently proposed in the literature, enhanced with the added characteristic of generalizing redundancy analysis and reduced-rank regression models for more than two blocks. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable composites that were estimated as linear combinations of exogenous variables, permitting a great flexibility to specify and fit a variety of structural relationships. In this paper, we propose the SAS macro %ERA to specify and fit structural relationships in the extended redundancy analysis (ERA framework. Two examples (simulation and real data are provided in order to reproduce results appearing in the original article where ERA was proposed.

  9. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  10. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for geochemical background analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A Visual Basic macro entitled BACKGROUND calculates geochemical background values of chemical parameters and estimates threshold values separating background data from anomalies. The macro uses two statistical methods, the iterative 2-sigma technique and the calculated distribution function, and integrates these model-based objective methods into a widely accessible platform (i.e., MS Excel). The macro offers the possibility for automated processing of geochemical data and enables an automated generation of background range and threshold values for chemical parameters.

  11. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  12. 48 CFR 1552.211-76 - Legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Legal analysis. 1552.211-76... analysis. As prescribed in 1511.011-76, insert this contract clause when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis. Legal Analysis (APR 1984) The Contractor shall furnish to the Project Officer...

  13. Concept Of The Legal System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr E. Zhigockiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article an attempt to provide a theoretical analysis of the legal system, and to consider the law as one of the most complicated social phenomena was made. Author notes, that the contradictions prevailing in public practice are unpredictable. Doctrines of law are varied in their approaches, scores and results, but based on a common foundation: the law for people always acted as a certain order in a society, where the differences begin. Author draws attention to the fact, that the state and the law ensure the order in society by removing contradictions and achieving social compromises. The legal reality is divided into certain groups of legal systems, there is a classification. If we are relying on the identification of groups of the same order, there is the theoretical generality as the level of the theory of law on the legal systems basis. Analysis of the political and legal systems will draw attention to the democratic and totalitarian regimes. Totalitarian regimes are characterized by law as means of violence, the means of coercion and suppression. The majority of democratic regimes are characterized by the use of law as a means of social harmony and social compromise. In conclusion, author underlines, that the theory of law can be made not only at the level of each country. This level is a necessary basis for the theory, but not its completion. Based on the individual characteristics of each country's law, that is descended from the general and particular to an individual, the theory can and should continue to make the way back from the individual to the particular and the general.

  14. 48 CFR 1511.011-76 - Legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Legal analysis. 1511.011-76... PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-76 Legal analysis. Contracting Officers shall insert the clause at 1552.211-76 when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis....

  15. Progressive failure analysis of composite structure based on micro- and macro-mechanics models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志刚; 阮绍明; 陈磊; 宋迎东

    2015-01-01

    Based on parameter design language, a program of progressive failure analysis in composite structures is proposed. In this program, the relationship between macro- and micro-mechanics is established and the macro stress distribution of the composite structure is calculated by commercial finite element software. According to the macro-stress, the damaged point is found and the micro-stress distribution of representative volume element is calculated by finite-volume direct averaging micromechanics (FVDAM). Compared with the results calculated by failure criterion based on macro-stress field (the maximum stress criteria and Hashin criteria) and micro-stress field (Huang model), it is proven that the failure analysis based on macro- and micro-mechanics model is feasible and efficient.

  16. Analysis of Fuzzy Words in Legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波

    2015-01-01

    With the development of legal English,fuzzy words are poured into legislative language and judicial practice constantly.Hence,this paper aims at exploring the application and funtion of different kinds of fuzzy words in legal English.

  17. The Features of Analysis of the Macro Environment of Enterprise in the External Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtal Tetyana V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available External Markets (p. 103 - 108 The article highlights the problem of the export crisis in Ukrainian business, its causes and the magnitude of its effects. According to the authors, a topical problem for Ukrainian enterprises is search for new markets for selling their products, solving which will provide a reliable vector for development of enterprise. Available methods for analyzing the macro environment of enterprise, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the ways to level these deficiencies, have been explored. The purpose of the article is to find ways to improve the adequacy of the analysis results as to the macro environment of enterprise. The object of the article is methods of analyzing the macro environment of enterprise. The subject of the article is the particularities of use of econometric methods in the analysis of the micro environment of enterprise. Usage of econometric methods in the course of analysis of the influence of macro environment factors has been suggested.

  18. The moral legalization analysis in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小平

    2013-01-01

    the moral legalization is a controversial topic, but the proper moral legalization has become a consensus. China Is in the period of social transition , the moral anomie problem has become the wounds of the state and society, through analyzing the problems existing in the moral legalization at the present stage,.proposed to fol ow the tradition and reality, try to find the ethics which is suitable for our country, The cycle of the legislation, law enforcement and judicial wil help the moral legalization, so as to create a more harmonious society.

  19. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  20. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  1. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein.

  2. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  3. Discussing Course Literature Online: Analysis of Macro Speech Acts in an Asynchronous Computer Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosunen, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a macro speech act analysis of computer-mediated conferencing on a university course on language pedagogy. Students read scholarly articles on language learning and discussed them online, in order to make sense of them collaboratively in preparation for a reflective essay. The study explores how the course participants made use…

  4. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  5. Troubleshooting digital macro photography for image acquisition and the analysis of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Kuka, Janis; Dambrova, Maija

    2013-01-01

    For years, image acquisition and analysis have been an important part of life science experiments to ensure the adequate and reliable presentation of research results. Since the development of digital photography and digital planimetric methods for image analysis approximately 20 years ago, new equipment and technologies have emerged, which have increased the quality of image acquisition and analysis. Different techniques are available to measure the size of stained tissue samples in experimental animal models of disease; however, the most accurate method is digital macro photography with software that is based on planimetric analysis. In this study, we described the methodology for the preparation of infarcted rat heart and brain tissue samples before image acquisition, digital macro photography techniques and planimetric image analysis. These methods are useful in the macro photography of biological samples and subsequent image analysis. In addition, the techniques that are described in this study include the automated analysis of digital photographs to minimize user input and exclude the risk of researcher-generated errors or bias during image analysis.

  6. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for recession curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea; Nakić, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    A Visual Basic program for an Excel spreadsheet was written to construct a master recession curve (MRC), using the adapted matching strip method, for recession analysis of ground water level time series. The program uses five different linear/nonlinear regression models to adjust individual recession segments to their proper positions in the MRC. The program can also be used to analyze the recession segments of other time series, such as daily stream discharge or stage. Some examples of field data from Croatia are used to illustrate the usefulness of its application.

  7. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, A.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wene, C.O. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ``top-down macroeconomic`` and ``bottom-up engineering`` perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system`s costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  8. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, A.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Wene, C.O. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled top-down macroeconomic'' and bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  9. PESTEL Model Analysis and Legal Guarantee of Tourism Environmental Protection in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of summarizing the general situation of tourism environmental protection in China, this paper analyses the macro factors of tourism environmental protection by using PESTEL model. On this basis, this paper explores the improvement paths of tourism environmental protection based on PESTEL model. Finally, it puts forward the legal guarantee suggestion of tourism environment protection.

  10. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary the

  11. DOCTRINAL BASICS OF THE LEGAL TECHNIQUE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Malko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal technique was initially developed as a kind of “interpreter” for the legislative will in the legal language using a specific ingenuity of legal engineering. Historically, the theoretical base of the legal technique was formed on a phased basis, essentially stimulated by state reforms, social transformations, and active legislation systematization. It should be mentioned here that legal technique is a distinctive category reflecting the political, economic, and legal situation in the historical period of a certain state development, but being extra-national in itself.The resource harmonization of the legal technique within the European legal framework means norm-setting regulations, coordination, and elaboration of common recommendations for the European countries. The cooperation in the legal technique standards harmonization will require the all-European cooperation to the new level as far as legal standards, human rights, democratic development, legitimacy and cultural cooperation are concerned.

  12. Analysis of psychoactive and intoxicating substances in legal highs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Piątek, Jacek; Sobczak, Paweł; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Fornal, Emilia; Kuczumow, Andrzej; Biliński, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    "Legal highs" known also as "smarts", "legal drugs" or "boosters" contain in their composition psychoactive substances the production, sale and possession of which are not prohibited in legislation. They are offered for sale under the cover of collectors' items, a salt bath, aroma sticks, or plant fertilizer. Marketing was the reason for such high sales of these "highs" in Poland. The phenomenon became of concern when information became available about the first cases of tragic health consequences. Raising the awareness of youth about the level of imminent danger and serious consequences associated with the use of legal highs may be a very effective way to develop appropriate attitudes of young people, and in the light of their own health can help them take proper life decisions."Legal highs" are substances of natural or synthetic origin having psychostimulating properties. These compounds may differ in chemical structure, potency, half-life, metabolism and severity of side effects. Their pharmacological activity is associated with changes in the neurotransmitter system. After higher doses of "legal highs" psychotic symptoms may occur: visual and auditory hallucinations resembling schizophrenic endogenous psychoses. An alarming fact is the underestimation of the adverse effect of these substances on human health. Any actions aimed at improving this situation are extremely important; therefore, in one of the key projects undertaken at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, in cooperation with other scientific institutes, concerned the analysis of a selected series of "legal highs". This research was meant top serve as a source of information for science and medicine, and for popularizing knowledge about legal highs.

  13. Improvement of Information and Methodical Provision of Macro-economic Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurina Dina M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article generalises and analyses main shortcomings of the modern system of macro-statistical analysis based on the use of the system of national accounts and balance of the national economy. The article proves on the basis of historic analysis of formation of indicators of the system of national accounts that problems with its practical use have both regional and global reasons. In order to eliminate impossibility of accounting life quality the article offers a system of quality indicators based on the general perception of wellbeing as assurance in own solvency of population and representative sampling of economic subjects.

  14. The Digital Single Market and Legal Certainty : A Critical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, A.G.; Graaff, de R.; Haentjens, M.; Colombi, Ciacchi A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the CESL from the viewpoint of its capability to provide legal certainty for commercial actors. This chapter’s analysis focuses on three important stages in the life cycle of a contract, seen from a business perspective: the scope rules that determine whether the CES

  15. Macros for Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of two macros written in the programming language of Microsoft's EXCEL for educational research applications. The first macro determines the frequency of responses to a Likert-type questionnaire or multiple-choice test; the second performs a one-way analysis of variance test. (Author/LRW)

  16. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  17. Analysis of Macro-Structure of Why Historians DisagreeLesson 3 of Contemporary College English Book4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li

    2009-01-01

    With the development of the study of text analysis and ihnctional grammar,text teaching has gradually become an important method in foreign language teaching.In the field of text analysis,textual structure has always been linguists' focus.After introducing researches on macro-structure of text,this paper gives a brief introduction to the text Why Historians Disagree,and then discusses how different macro-structure patterns are adopted in the text,at last draws implications for the teaching of intensive reading course.

  18. Desain Perancangan Alat Penyaring Dalam Proses Pembuatan Tahu Dengan Metode Macro Ergonomic Analysis and Design (MEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Haripurna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gunung Kidul Regency is a region of soybean producer in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. The raw materials support the tofu-making industry where one of the centers of tofu industry in Siraman and Sumbermulyo Wonosari. The productivity of the tofu manufacturing process is determined on the work tool and worker performance. To increase productivity a holistic approach is necessary considering all aspects. In this research, the method used to design holistically is macro ergonomic analysis and design (MEAD. With a sociotechnical MEAD approach, it is identified control variance to avoid musculoskeletal complaints that have an impact on increased productivity. This research only makes the design with high tool filter is 1014,70 mm and width 419,9 mm. A blower tool that facilitates removal of soy water material with suction specification and press 30 m / s using 220 VA power supply and 1300 VA power with galvanized pipe as conductor of 2 inch diameter.

  19. The Micro and Macro Analysis of English and Arabic Religious Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araji, Baida Faisal; Al-Azzawi, Sarab Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Religious discourse has been treated differently in various types of studies. In the present study, the English Biblical and Arabic Prophetic Hadiths will be tackled on two bases namely the micro and macro levels. In other words, the data will be analyzed at both micro and macro levels to maintain the organizational status of the religious texts.…

  20. A legal analysis of corporate sector structural reform in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    金子, 由芳

    2002-01-01

    Law Reform has been one of the most important tools of the Corporate Sector Structural Reform in Thailandsince the first ‘conditionalities' set under the IMF rescue package. However, very few researches have been madeto review the adequacy and the efficiency of such Law Reform. This article tries such a review on the Thailand'scorporate sector reform, in the context of critical analysis over the growing trend of Legal Technical Assistance ini-tiated by both multilateral and bilateral donors.A...

  1. Of the Legalization of Macro-control Decision-makings in Big Data Era%论大数据时代背景下宏观调控决策的法治化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐寅

    2014-01-01

    Big data is transforming our society in a fantastic speed in directions of business,management and even way of think-ing.These changes present both opportunities and challenges to our national macro-control.In macro-regulation process,we should strengthen the independence,participation and transparency of decision making,and coordinate and ensure its specializa-tion and democracy to adapt to the new requirements of the age of big data.In addition,matching legal data-cored adjustments be done respectively in terms of decision data collection,openness,treatment and protection,and a multi-level system design made.By these means,a legalized system of macro-control decision making can be achieved and its effectiveness be improved.%大数据正以难以想象的速度给社会带来新的商业变革、管理变革乃至思维变革,在宏观经济调控领域,大数据带来的变革对国家的宏观调控既提供了机遇又提出了挑战。在宏观调控决策过程中,我们要适应大数据时代的新要求,加强宏观调控决策的独立性、参与性和透明化,对调控的专业性与民主性进行协调和保障,做到以数据为核心,对决策数据(信息)的收集、公开、处理、保护分别进行相应的法律调整,做好多层次的制度设计,才能用宏观调控决策的法治化来提高宏观调控的有效性。

  2. Analysis of trends in ecology factor influencing the macro, meso and microlevels’ systems competitiveness formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Averihina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article. Analysis of trends in ecology factor influencing the macro, meso and microlevels’ systems competitiveness formation Results of the analysis. Trends in the macroeconomic level: as we observe from the correlation analysis’ results for the studied countries, their development reveals a strong statistical association between the global competitiveness index and indicators of the main competitiveness factors. In particular, the correlation coefficients of the global competitiveness index and human development index, GDP per capita, economic transformation and economic freedoms are 0,913; 0,784; 0,917 and 0,830 respectively. These estimates do highlight the fact that the environmental factor (ecological transformation index reveals, along with indexes and indicators of social and economic development, strong statistic relationship with index of global competitiveness. Trends in the meso-economic level: to analyse relationship between environmental factors and competitiveness at the meso-economic (regional systems level, we did estimate the region competitiveness based on the competitive advantage indices using the latest techniques of competitive comparisons. To be noted is that the correlation analysis of the statistical relationship between partial indices of competitive advantages and the integral index of region’s competitiveness, calculated using the new method, revealed about the same level of mutual linkage between economic and ecological factors and the integral indicator, that positively confirming the validity of competitive comparisons’ mechanism used in this study. If at the macroeconomic level studies a central role was played by the environmental transformation index, reflecting the relative equivalent of not only the natural resources availability, but also of environmental condition as a result of environmental protection measures, as well as the effects of improving the natural environment for other

  3. ANALYSIS OF AUGMENTED THREE-FIELD MACRO-HYBRID MIXED FINITE ELEMENT SCHEMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo Alduncin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of composition duality principles, augmented three-field macro-hybrid mixed variational problems and finite element schemes are analyzed. The compati-bility condition adopted here, for compositional dualization, is the coupling operator surjec-tivity, property that expresses in a general operator sense the Ladysenskaja-Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup condition. Variational macro-hybridization is performed under the assumption of decomposable primal and dual spaces relative to nonoverlapping domain decompositions. Then, through compositional dualization macro-hybrid mixed problems are obtained, with internal boundary dual traces as Lagrange multipliers. Also, "mass" preconditioned aug-mentation of three-field formulations are derived, stabilizing macro-hybrid mixed finite element schemes and rendering possible speed up of rates of convergence. Dual mixed incompressible Darcy flow problems illustrate the theory throughout the paper.

  4. Public assistance, drug testing, and the law: the limits of population-based legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Candice T

    2014-01-01

    In Populations, Public Health and the Law, legal scholar Wendy Parmet urges courts to embrace population-based legal analysis, a public health inspired approach to legal reasoning. Parmet contends that population-based legal analysis offers a way to analyze legal issues--not unlike law and economics--as well as a set of values from which to critique contemporary legal discourse. Population-based analysis has been warmly embraced by the health law community as a bold new way of analyzing legal issues. Still, population-based analysis is not without its problems. At times, Parmet claims too much territory for the population perspective. Moreover, Parmet urges courts to recognize population health as an important norm in legal reasoning. What should we do when the insights of public health and conventional legal reasoning conflict? Still in its infancy, population-based analysis offers little in the way of answers to these questions. This Article applies population-based legal analysis to the constitutional problems that arise when states condition public assistance benefits on passing a drug test, thereby highlighting the strengths of the population perspective and exposing its weaknesses.

  5. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cooling in macro- and micro-channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lixin; Thome, John R. [Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM), Faculty of Engineering Science (STI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 9, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Ribatski, Gherhardt [Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM), Faculty of Engineering Science (STI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 9, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    A comprehensive analysis of heat transfer and pressure drop experimental data and correlations for supercritical CO{sub 2} cooling in macro- and micro-channels is presented in this article. First, the physical and transport properties of CO{sub 2} at supercritical conditions are discussed and then their influence on heat transfer and pressure drops. Next, a review of experimental studies on heat transfer and pressure drops of supercritical CO{sub 2} cooling is provided and detailed comparisons and analysis relative to the available heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for supercritical CO{sub 2} cooling were done where possible. Furthermore, noting the lack of all pertinent experimental details required to use the data published in many of these studies, comments are given on how to reduce and present supercritical CO{sub 2} experimental data properly in the future. In addition, the effect of oil on heat transfer and pressure drops for supercritical CO{sub 2} is shown to significantly decrease the former and to increase the latter. Comparison of experimental data to a selection of heat transfer correlations shows that the Fang et al. [2001b. Modeling and analysis of gas coolers. ASHRAE Trans. 107 (1), 4-13] correlation gives the closest values to the experimental data but is still not satisfactory. According to the comparison and analysis, it is recommended that further efforts be made to develop good heat transfer methods for supercritical CO{sub 2} cooling based on accurate database in the future. To achieve this, more careful experiments should be done over a wide range of test parameters to meet the requirement in practical applications. In addition, four experimental studies show that the Blasius equation works well for CO{sub 2} cooling in the near supercritical region. More careful experimental data are still needed to further validate this conclusion because some experimental data are much different from others. (author)

  6. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  7. Mediation analysis allowing for exposure-mediator interactions and causal interpretation: theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Linda; Vanderweele, Tyler J

    2013-06-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful and widely employed approach to studies in the field of psychology and in the social and biomedical sciences. The contributions of this article are several-fold. First we seek to bring the developments in mediation analysis for nonlinear models within the counterfactual framework to the psychology audience in an accessible format and compare the sorts of inferences about mediation that are possible in the presence of exposure-mediator interaction when using a counterfactual versus the standard statistical approach. Second, the work by VanderWeele and Vansteelandt (2009, 2010) is extended here to allow for dichotomous mediators and count outcomes. Third, we provide SAS and SPSS macros to implement all of these mediation analysis techniques automatically, and we compare the types of inferences about mediation that are allowed by a variety of software macros.

  8. Interference characterization and mitigation benefit analysis for LTE-A macro and small cell deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Soret, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    are densely deployed. Thus, the main interference characteristics of the macro layer and the dense small cell layer are studied separately. Moreover, the potential benefit of mitigating the dominant interferer in such scenarios is quantified as an upper bound gain and its time variability is discussed...... is such that 30% of the users could achieve at least a 50% throughput gain if said interferer were mitigated, with some users reaching a 300% improvement during certain time intervals. All the mentioned metrics are remarkably similar in the macro and small cell deployments, which suggests that densification does...

  9. Macro- and microscopic analysis of the internet economy from network measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mikians, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the Internet impacts multiple areas of the world economy, and it has become a permanent part of the economic landscape both at the macro- and at microeconomic level. On-line traffic and information are currently assets with large business value. Even though commercial Internet has been a part of our lives for more than two decades, its impact on global, and everyday, economy still holds many unknowns. In this work we analyse important macro- and microeconomic aspects of the I...

  10. Legal Protection Against Women An Analysis Of Domestic Violence Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Erniyati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find and analyze the policy formulation of legal protection of women on the crime of domestic violence in Indonesia find and analyze the policy of criminal law in the formulation of a system of criminal sanctions against the crime of domestic violence find and analyze the constraints and solutions in the application of the crime of domestic violence This study uses normative research and empirical jurisdiction which is supported by field research conducted by interviewing. The data used is primary and secondary data. The data analysis used is qualitative analysis. The results stated first Policy Formulation against the crime of domestic violence based on provisions of Law Domestic Violence does not have an effect in the form of illness or impediment to carry out daily activities. Criminal law in the formulation of a system of criminal sanctions against the crime of domestic violence according to the provisions of the Law on Domestic Violence using this type of system an alternative formulation.

  11. Methodology of data extraction from a corpus for the conceptual analysis of metaphor in legal English

    OpenAIRE

    Kucheruk, Liliya

    2014-01-01

    The present paper entitled “Methodology of data extraction from a corpus for the conceptual analysis of metaphor in legal English” investigates the main approaches to the study of metaphor in legal language from the point of view of cognitive linguistics. It also offers the most widely spread methods of data extraction form a corpus.

  12. The Use of Legal Terminology in Student Conduct Codes: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janice E.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of 20 student conduct codes identified through stratified random sampling was performed to determine the extent to which legal terminology had been eliminated, as suggested by judicial affairs experts. The results showed that 80% of the codes selected in this study still contained some legal terms. These words and phrases are…

  13. Relationship between texture and residual macro-strain in CVD diamond films based on phenomenological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Mao; Hongxi Zhu; Leng Chen; Huiping Feng

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between texture and elastic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films was analyzed based on the phenomenological theory, which reveals the influence of crystalline orientation and texture on the residual macro-strain and macro-stress. The phenomenological calculations indicated that the difference in Young's modulus could be 15% in single dia- mond crystals and 5% in diamond films with homogeneously distributed strong fiber texture. The experimentally measured residual strains of free-standing CVD diamond films were in good agreement with the correspondingly calculated Young's modulus in con- nection with the multi-fiber textures in the fills, though the difference in Young's modulus induced by texture was only around 1%. It is believed that texture should be one of the important factors influencing the residual stress and strain of CVD diamond films.

  14. The Features of Analysis of the Macro Environment of Enterprise in the External Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Shtal Tetyana V.; Bondarenko Liudmyla M.; Yarkovyi Oleh E.

    2017-01-01

    External Markets (p. 103 - 108) The article highlights the problem of the export crisis in Ukrainian business, its causes and the magnitude of its effects. According to the authors, a topical problem for Ukrainian enterprises is search for new markets for selling their products, solving which will provide a reliable vector for development of enterprise. Available methods for analyzing the macro environment of enterprise, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the ways to level thes...

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE MACRO EXPERIMENT DATA TO COMPARE PARTICLE ARRIVAL TIMES UNDER GRAN SASSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ronga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim of a neutrino velocity different from the speed of the light, made in September 2011 by the Opera experiment, suggested the study of the time delays between TeV underground muons in the Gran Sasso laboratory using the old data of the MACRO experiment, ended in 2000. This study can also give hints on new physics in the particle cascade produced by the interaction of a cosmic ray with the atmosphere.

  16. From Macro- to Microplastics - Analysis of EU Regulation along the Life Cycle of Plastic Bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida; Hartmann, Nanna; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the oceans and its effects on the environment and aquatic life has received global attention the recent years. Despite an increasing concern, little attention has been directed towards the regulation of plastics over its full life cycle (LC). Here we map European regulation......-based recommendations to policy-makers on regulatory gaps, which should be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics accumulating in oceans....

  17. Macro- and microscopic analysis of the internet economy from network measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mikians, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Tesi per compendi de publicacions. The growth of the Internet impacts multiple areas of the world economy, and it has become a permanent part of the economic landscape both at the macro- and at microeconomic level. On-line traffic and information are currently assets with large business value. Even though commercial Internet has been a part of our lives for more than two decades, its impact on global, and everyday, economy still holds many unknowns. In this work we analyse important mac...

  18. Data driven analysis of rain events: feature extraction, clustering, microphysical /macro physical relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djallel Dilmi, Mohamed; Mallet, Cécile; Barthes, Laurent; Chazottes, Aymeric

    2017-04-01

    The study of rain time series records is mainly carried out using rainfall rate or rain accumulation parameters estimated on a fixed integration time (typically 1 min, 1 hour or 1 day). In this study we used the concept of rain event. In fact, the discrete and intermittent natures of rain processes make the definition of some features inadequate when defined on a fixed duration. Long integration times (hour, day) lead to mix rainy and clear air periods in the same sample. Small integration time (seconds, minutes) will lead to noisy data with a great sensibility to detector characteristics. The analysis on the whole rain event instead of individual short duration samples of a fixed duration allows to clarify relationships between features, in particular between macro physical and microphysical ones. This approach allows suppressing the intra-event variability partly due to measurement uncertainties and allows focusing on physical processes. An algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Self Organising Maps (SOM) is developed to obtain a parsimonious characterisation of rain events using a minimal set of variables. The use of self-organizing map (SOM) is justified by the fact that it allows to map a high dimensional data space in a two-dimensional space while preserving as much as possible the initial space topology in an unsupervised way. The obtained SOM allows providing the dependencies between variables and consequently removing redundant variables leading to a minimal subset of only five features (the event duration, the rain rate peak, the rain event depth, the event rain rate standard deviation and the absolute rain rate variation of order 0.5). To confirm relevance of the five selected features the corresponding SOM is analyzed. This analysis shows clearly the existence of relationships between features. It also shows the independence of the inter-event time (IETp) feature or the weak dependence of the Dry percentage in event (Dd%e) feature. This confirms

  19. [[An analysis of the relationship between nuptiality and fertility in Japan, 1961-2000, through macro-simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoh, M; Itoh, T; Kojima, H

    1986-07-01

    The relationship between nuptiality and fertility in Japan since 1961 is examined using a macro-simulation model originally developed by Tatsuya Itoh. The model utilizes both survey and vital statistics data and calculates marriage duration from vital events. Life table methods for projecting marriage trends and the Coale-McNeil nuptiality model for projecting first marriages are also employed. The model is used to project nuptiality trends up to the year 2000, and to date, has proved particularly successful in the analysis of trends in divorce.

  20. Drug Testing and Searches in Public Schools: A Legal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota House of Representatives, St. Paul. Research Dept.

    This document examines the Fourth Amendment as the source of search and seizure law; drug testing of school employees; and drug testing searches of students. The United States Supreme Court case that established the two-part test to determine the legality of a student search is discussed, three separate student drug testing programs that have been…

  1. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and optimal trajectory planning of a high-speed macro-micro manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-ling; Wei, Yan-ding; Lou, Jun-qiang; Fu, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-wei

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the nonlinear dynamic modeling and the optimal trajectory planning for a flexure-based macro-micro manipulator, which is dedicated to the large-scale and high-speed tasks. In particular, a macro- micro manipulator composed of a servo motor, a rigid arm and a compliant microgripper is focused. Moreover, both flexure hinges and flexible beams are considered. By combining the pseudorigid-body-model method, the assumed mode method and the Lagrange equation, the overall dynamic model is derived. Then, the rigid-flexible-coupling characteristics are analyzed by numerical simulations. After that, the microscopic scale vibration excited by the large-scale motion is reduced through the trajectory planning approach. Especially, a fitness function regards the comprehensive excitation torque of the compliant microgripper is proposed. The reference curve and the interpolation curve using the quintic polynomial trajectories are adopted. Afterwards, an improved genetic algorithm is used to identify the optimal trajectory by minimizing the fitness function. Finally, the numerical simulations and experiments validate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the established dynamic model and the trajectory planning approach. The amplitude of the residual vibration reduces approximately 54.9%, and the settling time decreases 57.1%. Therefore, the operation efficiency and manipulation stability are significantly improved.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Macro Economic in Central Java (PDRB Analysis in Year 1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Kiswanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the spatial analysis macroeconomics condition in central Java from 1993-2001 base on PDRB analysis. Central Java stands in the last position in the economic in Central Java based on PDRB variable and economic growth is in the lowest category in the comparation with another provinces in Java. This is reason why Central Java is categorized as "LL" (Low low. One of the prime sectors in Central Java is small medium scale enterprises which is dominated 30% of national market, but since the economic crisis stroke in 1997 the manufacture sector, especially industry and processing had collapse. In 1996-1997, the level of manufacture growth increased to 14.4% but then decreased until minus 19.3%. This condition caused by bankruptcy to many of the industries. The poverty profile in Central Java from 1999-2003 is average 23.3% from the total population every years. Central Java stepping to number 2 in level of poverty absolute number 1. In poverty relativity level, Central Java became number 1 in Java from 2002-2003 with the level of poverty reached above the national average. This fact shows the unsuccessfully effort in reducing the poverty level.

  3. A Legal Analysis of Safeguard Measures in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the “Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China” and the “Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in thIn 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the "Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China" and the "Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in the European Community comply with the WTO Agreement on Safeguards. In conclusion, based on the analysis of safeguard measures in the European Community's legal system and their practice in actual cases, it apparent that the European Community is making a serious effort to comply with the standards of the WTO Safeguards Agreement. In certain respects, the European Community has a comparatively higher level of standards than the WTO. Nevertheless, there continue to be challenges to WTO

  4. PLASTIC LIMIT ANALYSIS OF DUCTILE COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FROM MICRO-TO MACRO-MECHANICAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao Zhang; Yinghua Liu; Bingye Xu

    2009-01-01

    The load-bearing capacity of ductile composite structures comprised of periodic composites is studied by a combined micro/macromechanical approach. Firstly, on the microscopic level, a representative volume element (RVE) is selected to reflect the microstructures of the composite materials and the constituents are assumed to be elastic perfectly-plastic. Based on the homogenization theory and the static limit theorem, an optimization formulation to directly calculate the macroscopic strength domain of the RVE is obtained. The finite element modeling of the static limit analysis is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming and solved by the sequential quadratic programming method, where the temperature parameter method is used to construct the self-stress field. Secondly, Hill's yield criterion is adopted to connect the micromechanical and macromechanical analyses. And the limit loads of composite structures are worked out on the macroscopic scale. Finally, some examples and comparisons are shown.

  5. Analysis and control of macro - and microorganisms interactions for missions of different duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    In developing different t pes of life support systems for use in space or extremey environments Earth, researchers should pay attention to the functional state and stability of such systems. Special attention has been given to the interactions between macro- and microorganisms. Microorganisms are considered the most suitable indicators of a system's health and its component links. We can divide all space missions into types by which the behavior of man microbe interactions may be categorized: short missions and long ones. For short missions sanitary and hygiene procedures can be used to control the microflora of open and / or physico -chemical systems of life support. F r more prolonged missions hygieneo provisions may become inadequate and opportunistic infection occur rapidly. In general we should understand that the task of maintaining the heals of human being under conditions of stress is not only a question of sanitation and hygiene, but also a problem of the ecological balance within the habitat.

  6. A combined analysis technique for the search for fast magnetic monopoles with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe a search method for fast moving ( beta = v/c > 5 * 10/sup -3/) magnetic monopoles using simultaneously the scintillator, streamer tube and track-etch subdetectors of the MACRO apparatus. The first two subdetectors are used primarily for the identification of candidates while the track-etch one is used as the final tool for their rejection or confirmation. Using this technique, a first sample of more than two years of data has been analyzed without any evidence of a magnetic monopole. We set a 90% CL upper limit to the local monopole flux of 1.5 * 10/sup -15/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/sr/sup -1/ in the velocity range 5 * 10/sup -3/

  7. Processes of decision making on energy issues: micro and macro analysis (the case of Poland 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Iwińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article tackles the idea of environmental and participatory democracy in Poland. Due to Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters known as the Aarhus Convention people should be involved in decisions concerning environment and energy issues in the country. All large investments, and those are certainly investments in energy infrastructure, are associated with a variety of interest groups and organizations. The main goal of this article is to show the decision making processes do not come across the knowledge and public information on nuclear energy in Poland. We present the context and background for the structural model of energy decisions using and reinterpreting survey data from 2014 and 2015 from the opinion polls on various sources of energy in Poland. From this point of departure we distinguish the micro-, meso- and macro- level of energy decisions.

  8. Analysis of Factors on Fluent Communication in English for Chinese Learners from Macro and Micro Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟佳

    2014-01-01

    This paper will study on the factors that directly or indirectly influence the fluent communication in English for Chi-nese learners from both macro and micro perspectives, on the basis of some recent reports about English language learning. Ac-cording to the principles of language learning and teaching, the author analyses a theoretical framework for the willingness to Eng-lish language communication and puts forward the three kinds of factors, including personality factors, socio-cultural factors and styles and strategies that directly and indirectly influence the willingness to English language communication and then influence English communication. This study will further illustrate three aspects:first, the general tendency and characteristics of students ’ willingness to English language communication inside and outside the classroom; second, the influence of first language acquisi-tion and inter-language on English communication; third, the influence of communicative motivation, communicative anxiety, communicative competence, language evaluation on fluent English communication.

  9. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle...... are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste...... requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should...

  10. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja; Hartmann, Nanna B; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-05-01

    Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste Framework Directive and the Directive on the Landfill of Waste. The main gaps identified relate to lack of clear definitions of categories of polymers, unambitious recycling rates and lack of consideration of macro- and microplastics in key pieces of legislation. We recommend that polymers are categorized according to whether they are polymers with the same monomer constituents (homopolymers) or with different monomer constituents (copolymers) and that polymers are no longer exempt from registration and evaluation under REACH. Plastics should furthermore have the same high level of monitoring and reporting requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should also apply to heavyweight plastic carrier bags. Last, the Marine and Water Framework Directives should specifically address plastic waste affecting water quality

  11. Analysis of the effects of zinc pollution on the macro-invertebrate populations of the Afon Crafnant, North Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, M

    1985-09-01

    The study of the input draining from mine-waste into the Afon Crafnant, N. Wales, revealed that the most significant pollutant was zinc. The concentrations of zinc were monitored during 1978 and 1979, and spot samples were concentrated and analysed for lead, copper, cadmium, iron, cobalt, manganese and nickel. Analysis was by flame atomic absorption specto-scopy. The 'total' zinc concentration of the input was about 4 mg Zn/l which was diluted by the Afon Crafnant to give mean annual concentrations of 213 μg Zn/l and 146 μg Zn/l for 1978 and 1979 respectively at a site 60 metres downstream of the input. The numbers of individuals and number of taxa in the macro-invertebrate community were reduced at these concentrations. The taxa affected werePhagocata vitta,Erpobdella octoculata, Oligochaeta,Ithytrichia lamellaris, Simuliidae,Ancylus fluviatilis andRithrogena semicolorata. Several commonly used diversity indices failed to show differences between the macro- invertebrate communities at the affected and control sites whereas a modified version of Chandler's Biotic Score (detailed in this paper) revealed both the acute effects at higher concentrations and the chronic effects at lower concentrations.

  12. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Semi-automated image processing system for micro- to macro-scale analysis of immunohistopathology: application to ischemic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao; Lin, Baowan; Ginsberg, Myron D

    2005-04-01

    Immunochemical staining techniques are commonly used to assess neuronal, astrocytic and microglial alterations in experimental neuroscience research, and in particular, are applied to tissues from animals subjected to ischemic stroke. Immunoreactivity of brain sections can be measured from digitized immunohistology slides so that quantitative assessment can be carried out by computer-assisted analysis. Conventional methods of analyzing immunohistology are based on image classification techniques applied to a specific anatomic location at high magnification. Such micro-scale localized image analysis limits one for further correlative studies with other imaging modalities on whole brain sections, which are of particular interest in experimental stroke research. This report presents a semi-automated image analysis method that performs convolution-based image classification on micro-scale images, extracts numerical data representing positive immunoreactivity from the processed micro-scale images and creates a corresponding quantitative macro-scale image. The present method utilizes several image-processing techniques to cope with variances in intensity distribution, as well as artifacts caused by light scattering or heterogeneity of antigen expression, which are commonly encountered in immunohistology. Micro-scale images are composed by a tiling function in a mosaic manner. Image classification is accomplished by the K-means clustering method at the relatively low-magnification micro-scale level in order to increase computation efficiency. The quantitative macro-scale image is suitable for correlative analysis with other imaging modalities. This method was applied to different immunostaining antibodies, such as endothelial barrier antigen (EBA), lectin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), on histology slides from animals subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion by the intraluminal suture method. Reliability tests show that the results obtained from

  14. Ion Chromatography as an Alternative to Standard Methods for Analysis of Macro-nutrients in Mehlich 1 Extracts of Unfertilized Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph B. Fischer; James H. Miller

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates ion chromatography (IC) as an alternative to atomic absorption (AA) and inductively-coupled plasma spectromctry (ICP) for analysis of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca), and and as an alternative to antimonylmolybdate colorimetry and ICP for analysis of phosphorus (P) macro-nutrients in Mehlich 1 extracts. Soils typical of pine forests...

  15. Euthanasia of companion animals: a legal and ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, Annamaria; Fenga, Carmela; Morciano, Cristina; Morelli, Chiara; Russo, Maria; Di Pietro, Carlotta; Passantino, Michele

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, the conditions under which euthanasia of small pets is justified are only partially regulated by law n. 281/1991, article 2 n. 6 and 9, by the later Ministry Circular n. 9 made on 10/03/1992 and by law n. 189/2004. Law n. 281/1991, besides delegating the job of birth control in cat and dog populations to the regions, has made it statutory that stray dogs may only be euthanised when they are 'seriously or incurably ill or proven to be dangerous'. The Ministry Circular underlines the fact that 'euthanasia of dogs is prohibited except in special justified cases'. On the other hand, due to the legal classification of animals as property, the owner has the right of ownership over his animal so that he can sell it and kill it (ius vitae ac necis). In this view a request for euthanasia is licit, whatever the animal's state of health may be. The authors feel that further legislation to regulate the question more completely would be opportune and thus they analyse the problems of legal-ethics and public health that a veterinarian faces when carrying out euthanasia, also bearing in mind the laws and codes of professional ethics. They suggest possible solutions which could be adopted by the competent authorities.

  16. Influence of Macro Environmental Factors on Business in SMEs: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murlidhar Nebhwani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has long been discussed due to its capabilities to generate employment in country, tax generation and business growth. It cannot be ignored that businesses often face many troubles at different stages, including internal as well as external problems which may stop company\\'s performance without any doubt. However, entrepreneurs learn from mistakes and problems occurring in businesses therefore, they consider problems as opportunities. Furthermore, data in this paper is gathered from scholarly publications, online data, entrepreneurship and economics literature from international and domestic publications. Primary data has been obtained with the help of questionnaire and personal interactions with business owners, mangers of SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises situated in province of Sindh, Pakistan. Moreover, the data collected was only theoretical therefore, statistical tools have been applied to get the required outcome in numbers, facts and figures. In this paper, external factors called macro environmental factors have also been taken into account which help in creating positive prospect for businesses such as consumer, marketing, advertisement, competitiveness, suppliers and media.

  17. Micro-Macro Analysis and Phenomenological Modelling of Salt Viscous Damage and Application to Salt Caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Pouya, Ahmad; Arson, Chloé

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to gain fundamental understanding of the microscopic mechanisms that control the transition between secondary and tertiary creep around salt caverns in typical geological storage conditions. We use a self-consistent inclusion-matrix model to homogenize the viscoplastic deformation of halite polycrystals and predict the number of broken grains in a Representative Elementary Volume of salt. We use this micro-macro modeling framework to simulate creep tests under various axial stresses, which gives us the critical viscoplastic strain at which grain breakage (i.e., tertiary creep) is expected to occur. The comparison of simulation results for short-term and long-term creep indicates that the initiation of tertiary creep depends on the stress and the viscoplastic strain. We use the critical viscoplastic deformation as a yield criterion to control the transition between secondary and tertiary creep in a phenomenological viscoplastic model, which we implement into the Finite Element Method program POROFIS. We model a 850-m-deep salt cavern of irregular shape, in axis-symmetric conditions. Simulations of cavern depressurization indicate that a strain-dependent damage evolution law is more suitable than a stress-dependent damage evolution law, because it avoids high damage concentrations and allows capturing the formation of a damaged zone around the cavity. The modeling framework explained in this paper is expected to provide new insights to link grain breakage to phenomenological damage variables used in Continuum Damage Mechanics.

  18. PERFORMANCE AND DEVELOPMENT LEVEL - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DISPARITIES AMONG REGIONS OF DEVELOPMENT AND MACRO-REGIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of the regional policies is to mitigate the social and economic disparities between different territories and regions. The immediate reality shows that this is a problem which is neither simple nor for short term. For Romania, which has large lags behind compared to the economically developed countries, the intense mobilization of internal and external factors of economic growth in order to reduce and eliminate disparities compared to other countries, is a definite necessity, a regularity resulting from regional and national interests in terms of its finality - the welfare of society. The economic crisis has increased regional disparities in the European Union countries, these especially affecting the countries which are less economically efficient. The present research aims at accomplishing a comparative analysis regarding disparities among regions of development and macro-regions of Romania in order to assess the performance of the productive sector, of the structural types of economies and of their level of development.

  19. Scanning the macro-environment for liquid biofuels: A comparative analysis from public pocies in Brazil, United States and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Padula, A.D.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Macro-environmental scanning is a first step in strategic planning, which is essential in an emerging industry such as liquid biofuels. The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions within which the governments of Brazil, the USA and Germany have constructed the macro-environment

  20. Analysis on the Macro Competitive Environment of Domestic Retail Enterprises%我国零售企业宏观竞争环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪

    2014-01-01

    介绍了企业宏观竞争环境的概念,采用PEST分析方法,提出了我国零售企业宏观竞争环境分析框架,并对我国零售企业所处宏观环境中的政治因素、经济因素、社会因素和技术因素进行了详细分析。%This paper introduces the basic concepts of enterprises’ macro competitive environment, develops an analytical framework for the macro competitive environment of domestic retail enterprises based on PEST analysis method, and analyzes in detail the political factors, economic factors, social factors and technological factors in the macro environment of domestic retail enterprises.

  1. An Analysis of China’s Overall Price Level Movement and Macro-control since the Reform and Opening-up Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双正; 李英

    2008-01-01

    This article begins with a detailed depiction of China’s overall price movement since the reform and opening-up period, then proceeds with an in-depth analysis of the key factors affecting the overall price movement. On this basis, the paper conducts a comparison of overall price plan/macro-control objectives and actual implementation results. Based on an in-depth dissection of the deviations between plan objectives and actual results, this article offers specific policy recommendations on how to improve and strengthen macro-control over overall price movement.

  2. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  3. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  4. The Levy Runs Dry: A Legal and Economic Analysis of EU Private Copying Levies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Quintais, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a legal and economic analysis of private copying levies in the EU, against the background of the Copyright Directive (2001/29), a number of recent rulings by the European Court of Justice and the recommendations presented by mediator Vitorino earlier this year. It concludes tha

  5. A Legal Analysis and Contrarian View of the Syllabus-as-Contract Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Kent D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the claim made in the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) literature for over two decades that a syllabus is a contract, the courts have uniformly ruled that it is not. While there is no harm in thinking one's syllabus is a contract, there may be legal risk in proclaiming it so. The author provides an analysis of the…

  6. The Levy Runs Dry: A Legal and Economic Analysis of EU Private Copying Levies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Quintais, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a legal and economic analysis of private copying levies in the EU, against the background of the Copyright Directive (2001/29), a number of recent rulings by the European Court of Justice and the recommendations presented by mediator Vitorino earlier this year. It concludes tha

  7. The Levy Runs Dry: A Legal and Economic Analysis of EU Private Copying Levies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Quintais, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a legal and economic analysis of private copying levies in the EU, against the background of the Copyright Directive (2001/29), a number of recent rulings by the European Court of Justice and the recommendations presented by mediator Vitorino earlier this year. It concludes

  8. Analysis of Inserted Clauses in the Legal Discourse from the Pragmatic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzanna Karapetyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the given study is to examine the use of inserted clauses in the legal discourse and their unique role in this speech genre.  The investigation of the topic is conducted in line with the principles of Functional Discourse Grammar. In the course of analysis we apply the theory of speech acts, namely performatives, the fundamental tenets of which permit to view the specific combination of shall+inserted clause as a particular feature of legal discourse.  These overcomplicated grammatical structures are shown to fulfill the immediate function of performatives, that of enacting legal acts and doing things in the pragmatic sense of word, to the full extent.

  9. NParCov3: A SAS/IML Macro for Nonparametric Randomization-Based Analysis of Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Zink

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of covariance serves two important purposes in a randomized clinical trial. First, there is a reduction of variance for the treatment effect which provides more powerful statistical tests and more precise confidence intervals. Second, it provides estimates of the treatment effect which are adjusted for random imbalances of covariates between the treatment groups. The nonparametric analysis of covariance method of Koch, Tangen, Jung, and Amara (1998 defines a very general methodology using weighted least-squares to generate covariate-adjusted treatment effects with minimal assumptions. This methodology is general in its applicability to a variety of outcomes, whether continuous, binary, ordinal, incidence density or time-to-event. Further, its use has been illustrated in many clinical trial settings, such as multi-center, dose-response and non-inferiority trials.NParCov3 is a SAS/IML macro written to conduct the nonparametric randomization-based covariance analyses of Koch et al. (1998. The software can analyze a variety of outcomes and can account for stratification. Data from multiple clinical trials will be used for illustration.

  10. 余额宝的法律风险分析--基于PEST分析%The Legal Risk Analysis of Balance Treasure---Based on PEST Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫金兰

    2015-01-01

    Balance treasure as a web-based financial creative attempt launched a powerful impact on the fi-nancial markets. Through PEST analysis tools,this paper analyzes the macro environment of balance treasure,finds balance treasure disintermediation Internet financial form is the trend of the development of the financial markets. However,issues emerge in endlessly,such as the lack of social credit,risk disclosure and reveal inadequate,and le-gal compliance risks,this presents new opportunities and challenges for regulatory authorities. So regulators should strengthen the construction of Internet financial credit management system,establish deposit insurance system which can corresponded to the balance treasure,and improve the legal system of Internet financial.%余额宝作为基于互联网金融的创造性尝试给金融市场带来了巨大的冲击。通过PEST工具对余额宝所处的宏观环境进行分析,发现余额宝去中介化的互联网金融形式已是金融市场发展的趋势。但是社会信用缺失、风险披露和揭示不充分、法律合规风险等问题层出不穷,给监管部门提出了新的挑战,应采取加强互联网金融的信用管理体系建设、建立与余额宝相适应的存款保险制度、完善互联网金融的法律体系等措施予以完善。

  11. The Flow of International Students from a Macro Perspective: A Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.; Lee, Moosung; Jiang, Ke; Park, Han Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a network analysis of the international flow of students among 210 countries and the factors determining the structure of this flow. Among these factors, bilateral hyperlink connections between countries and the number of telephone minutes (communication variables) are the most important predictors of the flow's structure,…

  12. Legal Interviewing For Paralegals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsky, William P.

    One of the training materials prepared for paralegals, or legal assistants, by the National Paralegal Institute under a Federal grant, the document presents legal interviewing techniques by focusing on an analysis of a particular legal interview conducted by a paralegal on a hypothetical case. From the analysis of the case, a number of problems,…

  13. Legal Culture as the Determinant of Value Orientations in Youth in the Society of the Transition Period (Philosophical Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulzhanova, Zhuldizay T.; Kulzhanova, Gulbaram T.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the philosophical analysis of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in the transition period society. The purpose of the study is to discover the essence and specificity of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in a transition society from the philosophical perspective. In accordance with…

  14. Ethical principles and legal requirements for pediatric research in the EU: an analysis of the European normative and legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Wim; Dierickx, Kris; Nys, Herman

    2009-10-01

    The involvement of minors in clinical research is inevitable to catch up with the lack of drugs labeled for pediatric use. To encourage the responsible conduct of pediatric clinical trials in the EU, an extensive legal framework has been developed over the past decade in which the practical, ethical, legal, social, and commercial issues in pediatric research are addressed. In this article, the European legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials is analyzed from the perspective of the major ethical concerns in pediatric research. The four principles of biomedical ethics will be used as a conceptual framework (1) to map the ethical issues addressed in the European legal framework, (2) to study how these issues are commonly handled in competent adults, (3) to detect workability problems of these paradigmatic approaches in the specific setting of pediatric research, and (4) to illustrate the strong urge to differentiate, specify, or adjust these paradigmatic approaches to guarantee their successful operation in pediatric research. In addition, a concise comparative analysis of the European regulation will be made. To conclude our analysis, we integrate our findings in the existing ethical discussions on issues specific to pediatric clinical research.

  15. Macro-System Model: A Federated Object Model for Cross-Cutting Analysis of Hydrogen Production, Delivery, Consumption and Associated Emissions; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Goldsby, M. E.; Sa, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier for light-duty vehicles involves concomitant technological development of infrastructure elements, such as production, delivery, and consumption, all associated with certain emission levels. To analyze these at a system level, the suite of corresponding models developed by the United States Department of Energy and involving several national laboratories is combined in one macro-system model (MSM). The macro-system model is being developed as a cross-cutting analysis tool that combines a set of hydrogen technology analysis models. Within the MSM, a federated simulation framework is used for consistent data transfer between the component models. The framework is built to suit cross-model as well as cross-platform data exchange and involves features of 'over-the-net' computation.

  16. Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Timothy D.; Jei-Fu Shaw; Liang Zheng; Chun-Lan Huang; YiLung Chang; ChuanWei Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils, reports a new discovery of well preserved three dimensional macro body fossils of the Ediacaran Period in central YunNan province in the People's Republic of China. These body fossils will enable more detailed and in-depth exploration of the evolution of multi-cellular macro organisms on this planet, whereas in the past, researches could only rely on cast or imprint fossils.

  17. Analysis of the main requirements to the ethical behavior of civil servants in Ukraine: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Sorokina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal regulations that define the basic requirements to the ethical behavior of public servants in Ukraine have been analyzed in the article. It has been noted that the only recognition of the importance of professional ethics is not enough. One of the most effective measures of the public service authority’s improvement in society,  corruption combating and improvement of the governance culture is the legal regulation on the professional ethics of public service. It has been determined that the ethical principles of public service in Ukraine are noted in many Ukrainian legal acts, thus, the considerable attention in the paper was given to the study of the Laws of Ukraine “On State Service”, “On Corruption Prevention”, the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On approval of rules of the ethical behavior of public officials” and the Order of the National agency of Ukraine on civil service “On approval of the General rules of ethical behavior of civil servants and local government officials”. During analysis it has been determined that it is almost impossible to make a comprehensive list of rules of behavior of civil servants at the level of legal documents. So, the best guarantee of preventing power abuse, corruption and other service and ethical violation is personal dignity and high moral standing of employee and, above all, the professional honor and duty.

  18. Thermal analysis of energy crops. Part 1. The applicability of a macro-thermobalance for biomass studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, R.A.; Groenli, M.G.; Hustad, J.E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Meszaros, E.; Varhegyi, G.; Mohai, I. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Marosvoelgyi, B. [Institute of Energetics, University of West Hungary, Sopron (Hungary)

    2008-01-15

    In this work young shoots of poplar (Populus euramericana), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) and pellets of a type of energy grass (Agropyron) were studied in order to get information about the applicability of these biomass materials for energy production by direct combustion. During the combustion of plant materials three main processes take place: (1) formation of volatiles, (2) burning of volatiles and (3) burn-off of the produced char. The thermal behavior of the samples was studied with the help of a macro-thermobalance built at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Pyrolysis experiments have been performed in inert atmosphere to get a deeper insight into the formation of volatile products, whereas measurements in oxidative atmosphere have provided information about the burn-off of the samples, as well. In addition to monitoring the weight loss of the samples, the analysis of the evolved gases was carried out with gas chromatography (GC). The TG and DTG curves and the profiles of the evolved gases obtained in the pyrolysis experiments are similar in the case of the poplar and the tree of heaven samples implying that the thermal behavior of these crops is alike, whereas those of the energy grass sample show significant differences. The decomposition of poplar occurs at a lower temperature in the presence of oxygen than that of energy grass. The evolution curves of the monitored products also exhibit differences. The results will be interpreted in terms of the chemical composition of the samples determined by proximate and ultimate analysis. (author)

  19. Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Quasem Al-Amin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.

  20. Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Sherman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The least restrictive alternative concept is widely used in mental health law. This paper addresses how the concept has been applied to treatment decisions. The paper offers both a legal and a behavioral analysis to some problems that have emerged in recent years concerning the selection of behavioral procedures used to change client behavior. The paper also offers ways of improving the application of the concept, which involve developing a more behaviorally functional perspective toward restrictiveness. PMID:22478138

  1. Legal analysis of information displayed on dental material packages: An exploratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Bhumika Rathore; Pusphpanjali Krishnappa; Suraj U Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some of the dental materials possess occupational hazards, preprocedural errors, and patient allergies as suggested by evidence. With due consideration to safety of the patients and dental professionals, it is essential that the trade of these materials is in conformity with the law. Aim: To perform the legal analysis of the information displayed on the packaging of dental materials. Materials and Methods: The Bureau of Indian Standards sets guidelines for packaging and marketin...

  2. Applying Positioning Theory to the Analysis of Classroom Interactions: Mediating Micro-Identities, Macro-Kinds, and Ideologies of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kate T.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to positioning theory by approaching the discursive and material mediation of classroom positioning from an integrated micro-, meso-, and macro-social perspective. I propose an analytic framework that unpacks the lived and ideological resources for positioning and their social and curricular implications for understanding…

  3. Macro-level determinants of young people's subjective health and health inequalities : A multilevel analysis in 27 welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Ottova, Veronika; Hurrelmann, Klaus; de Looze, Margarethe; Levin, Kate; Molcho, Michal; Elgar, Frank; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Richter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cross-national studies have rarely focused on young people. The aim of this study is to investigate whether macro-level determinants are associated with health and socioeconomic inequalities in young people's health. Study design: Data were collected from the Health Behaviour in School-a

  4. Why Macro Practice Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article asserts that macro practice is increasingly important in today's rapidly changing and complex practice environment. It briefly explores the history of macro practice in U.S. social work, summarizes its major contributions to the profession and to U.S. society, and provides some suggestions for how social work programs can expand…

  5. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  6. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    into expectancy and professional norms, the study leads us to set up two assumptions about the existence of norms at the macro-strategic level that may impact on attitudes across members of different discourse communities within the legal domain. These norms, we believe, may be useful in legal translation...

  7. Protection of the African Lion: A Critical Analysis of the Current International Legal Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Watts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the current international regime that pertains to the African lion, a species that needs adequate protection across its range (a range that does not adhere to state boundaries. This analysis comes at a time when threats such as habitat and prey loss, retaliatory killing, trophy hunting and trade, are all impacting the remaining populations of African lions. The species is in danger of rapid population decline and possible extinction in the near future. Two decades ago there was an abundance of African lions, roughly 100 000, on the continent. But at present there are less than 32 000, while some believe there to be as little as 15 000 left. This decline is mainly due to the threats noted above. African lions are currently listed as "vulnerable" on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. This listing is being contested by commentators who believe that the species now requires an "endangered" status. African lion populations, and the threats to the species, extend across state boundaries. Therefore, international law is of particular importance in providing conservation and protection measures to the species. Creating conservation obligations at a global level allows for more uniform action, implementation and enforcement of legislation at regional and local levels. Therefore this article looks at each threat to African lion populations in detail and then assesses the international legal regime pertaining to each of these threats, and whether that regime is adequate. The Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance are but some of the international instruments that are analysed. This article outlines the arguments that the international legal framework is not acceptable for the protection of the species

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL BASE REGULATING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PUBLIC PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Dobrolyubova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The budget legislation stipulates that starting from the budget cycle of 2016, all Russian regions should form their budgets based on public (state programs. The article presents the results of the analysis of regional legal acts and regulations aimed at assessing readiness on the part of the regions to implement program budgeting practices and identifying regional specifics of such regulation. The analysis allowed to identify regional approaches to setting procedures and regulating the contents of regional public programs, evaluate the relations between program development and regional budget planning procedures, define specific approaches to monitoring and evaluating performance of regional public programs.

  9. The influence of the macro-environment on physical activity: a multilevel analysis of 38 countries worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosdriesz Jizzo R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As indicated by the ANGELO framework and similar models, various environmental factors influence population levels of physical activity (PA. To date attention has focused on the micro-level environment, while evidence on the macro-level environment remains scarce and mostly limited to high-income countries. This study aims to investigate whether environmental factors at macro-level are associated with PA among a broader range of countries. Methods Data from the World Health Survey (WHS was used to analyze 177,035 adults from 38 (mostly low and middle income countries. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S was used to measure PA. Respondents were classified as active or inactive for vigorous PA, moderate PA and walking. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to assess associations between macro-level environmental factors and the prevalence of PA, with control for individual-level socioeconomic factors. Results The prevalence of PA varied widely between countries and types of PA (5.0%-93.8%. A negative association was found between gross domestic product and PA, odds ratios for men were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.65-0.89 for moderate PA and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.63-0.98 for walking. A higher temperature was associated with less PA (all types and higher urbanization was associated with less vigorous and moderate PA. More gender equality was also associated with more walking for women. Governmental functioning and literacy rate were not found to be associated with any type of PA. Conclusions This exploratory study indicates that factors such as climate, economic development and cultural factors are determinants of the level of overall PA at national levels. This underlines the suggestion that the macro-environment should be regarded as an important influence on PA.

  10. The influence of the macro-environment on physical activity: a multilevel analysis of 38 countries worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Witvliet, Margot I; Visscher, Tommy L S; Kunst, Anton E

    2012-09-11

    As indicated by the ANGELO framework and similar models, various environmental factors influence population levels of physical activity (PA). To date attention has focused on the micro-level environment, while evidence on the macro-level environment remains scarce and mostly limited to high-income countries. This study aims to investigate whether environmental factors at macro-level are associated with PA among a broader range of countries. Data from the World Health Survey (WHS) was used to analyze 177,035 adults from 38 (mostly low and middle income) countries. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to measure PA. Respondents were classified as active or inactive for vigorous PA, moderate PA and walking. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to assess associations between macro-level environmental factors and the prevalence of PA, with control for individual-level socioeconomic factors. The prevalence of PA varied widely between countries and types of PA (5.0%-93.8%). A negative association was found between gross domestic product and PA, odds ratios for men were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.65-0.89) for moderate PA and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.63-0.98) for walking. A higher temperature was associated with less PA (all types) and higher urbanization was associated with less vigorous and moderate PA. More gender equality was also associated with more walking for women. Governmental functioning and literacy rate were not found to be associated with any type of PA. This exploratory study indicates that factors such as climate, economic development and cultural factors are determinants of the level of overall PA at national levels. This underlines the suggestion that the macro-environment should be regarded as an important influence on PA.

  11. Legal analysis of information displayed on dental material packages: An exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika Rathore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some of the dental materials possess occupational hazards, preprocedural errors, and patient allergies as suggested by evidence. With due consideration to safety of the patients and dental professionals, it is essential that the trade of these materials is in conformity with the law. Aim: To perform the legal analysis of the information displayed on the packaging of dental materials. Materials and Methods: The Bureau of Indian Standards sets guidelines for packaging and marketing of dental products in India. An exploratory cross-sectional study was performed using various search engines and websites to access the laws and regulations existing pertaining to dental materials packaging. Based on the data obtained, a unique packaging standardization checklist was developed. Dental laboratory and impression plasters, alginates, and endodontic instruments were surveyed for all the available brands. This study considered 16 brands of plasters and alginates and 42 brands of endodontic instruments for legal analysis. Legal analysis was performed using the direct observation checklist. Descriptive statistics were obtained using SPSS version 19. Results: The guidelines set by the Bureau of Indian Standards do exist but are not updated and stand as oblivious guards for marketing standards. Overall compliance to the guidelines was reported to be 18.5% by brands of alginates, 4.1% by plaster of Paris, and 11.11% by endodontic instruments. Wave One™ File reported maximum adherence with the guidelines as 66.7%. Conclusion: This study found lower rate of adherence to the guidelines, thus indicating insufficient information being disclosed to the consumers.

  12. Stakeholders Analysis of Policy-Making Process: The Case of Timber Legality Policy on Private Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyaningrum Mulyaningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify and measure the relationships among stakeholders that influence the process of policy-making in defining legality of timber from private forests. The study focuses on the policy-making process of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation P.38/Menhut-II/2009 on Standard and Guidelines for Assessment of Sustainable Forest Management Performance and Timber Legality Verification of Concessionaire or of the Private Forest License Holder as the subject that has been implemented in several private forest management units as follow: Giri Mukti Wana Tirta in Lampung, Koperasi Serba Usaha APIK in Bali, Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari in South East Sulawesi, and Koperasi Wana Lestari Menoreh Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta. This research used a qualitative approach and the analysis method used in this research is a modified-stakeholder analysis that developed by ODA (1995, Reitbergen et al. (1998, and Mayer (2005. The stakeholder analysis shows that the interests and influences do not consider private forest farmers as primary stakeholder during  the process of policy formulation.  The strong national and international interests, supported by high authority could not be influnced by the role of the NGOs and academicians. The imbalance of responsibilities, rights, and revenues that was experienced by  farmers as the manager of private forest when started implementing the policy was more as burdens, it means implementation of the policy was more as burdens. Strong relationships between the Ministry of Forestry with the state as a core could not empower the relationship with private forest farmers. As result, policy assumptions cannot be implemented properly.Keywords: policy making process, timber legality, private forest, stakeholder.DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.156

  13. Analysis of the Ethical, Legal and Economic Domains of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Business Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Peláez Villada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of organizations is to achieve positioning and legitimacy through strategies of corporate social responsibility (CSR. This article focuses on the analysis of CSR practices and it seeks, through a business case, to define a method to examine the benefits of its application in society and in organizations. From the proposal of Schwartz (2011 on the domains of corporate social responsibility, where the ethical, economic, and legal dimensions of philanthropic organizations converge, financial reports and social balances of a company, were studied, where we identified, financial, ethical, and tax variables which allowed us to establish the orientation and balance between social responsibility practices and corporate image.

  14. A look at the strength of micro and macro EEG analysis for distinguishing insomnia within an HIV cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Kristin M; Kang, Yu Min; Kerr, Matthew S D; Sarma, Sridevi V; Ewen, Joshua; Allen, Richard; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel M E

    2015-01-01

    HIV patients are often plagued by sleep disorders and suffer from sleep deprivation. However, there remains a wide gap in our understanding of the relationship between HIV status, poor sleep, overall function and future outcomes; particularly in the case of HIV patients otherwise well controlled on cART (combined anti-retroviral therapy). In this study, we compared two groups: 16 non-HIV subjects (seronegative controls) and 12 seropositive HIV patients with undetectable viral loads. We looked at sleep behavioral (macro-sleep) features and sleep spectral (micro-sleep) features obtained from human-scored overnight EEG recordings to study whether the scored EEG data can be used to distinguish between controls and HIV subjects. Specifically, the macro-sleep features were defined by sleep stages and included sleep transitions, percentage of time spent in each sleep stage, and duration of time spent in each sleep stage. The micro-sleep features were obtained from the power spectrum of the EEG signals by computing the total power across all channels and frequencies, as well as the average power in each sleep stage and across different frequency bands. While the macro features do not distinguish between the two groups, there is a significant difference and a high classification accuracy for the scoring-independent micro features. This spectral separation is interesting because evidence suggests a relationship between sleep complaints and cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients stable on cART. Furthermore, there are currently no biomarkers that predict the early development of cognitive decline in HIV patients. Thus, a micro-sleep architectural approach could serve as a biomarker to identify HIV patients vulnerable to cognitive decline, providing an avenue to explore the utility of early intervention.

  15. The Stability of Currency Systems in East Asia --Quantitative Analysis Using a Multi-Country Macro-Econometric Model--

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Kamada

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the stability of East Asian financial and currency systems, using the multi-country macro-econometric model constructed by Kamada and Takagawa (2005) to depict economic interdependence in the Asian-Pacific region. The highly-developed system of the international production network in the East Asian region was not only the driving force behind the "East Asian miracle," but also, as seen in the "Asian currency crisis," worked as a platform whereby local e...

  16. Undocumented workers in the labor market: an analysis of the earnings of legal and illegal Mexican immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1999-01-01

    "This paper studies the differences in earnings between Mexican legal and illegal immigrants in the United States. The analysis includes a cross-sectional examination of the wage differences between legal and undocumented workers as well as a longitudinal analysis examining the impact of legalization on the earnings of previously-undocumented workers. It is shown that the average hourly wage rate of male Mexican legal immigrants in the United States was 41.8% higher than that of undocumented workers while female legal immigrants earned 40.8% more."

  17. Legal Research, Writing and Analysis for Law Students and Paralegals: Some Starting Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsky, William P.

    The textbook, written for first year law students and for paralegals, or legal assistants, attempts to break down the components of legal research and writing and to identify effective starting points for these activities. It was designed for use in a classroom setting or on-the-job as a dictionary/reference source. The first part, Legal Research,…

  18. The relationship between oil price shocks and China's macro-economy. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Limin [China Center for Energy Economics Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanan, He [The Wang Yanan Institute for Studies in Economics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wei [School of Economics and Management, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Chu

    2010-08-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between the world oil price and China's macro-economy based on a monthly time series from 1995:1 to 2008:12, using the method of multivariate vector autoregression (VAR). The results show that the world oil price affects the economic growth and inflation of China significantly, and the impact is non-linear. On the other hand, China's economic activity fails to affect the world oil price, which means that the world oil price is still exogenous with respect to China's macro-economy in time series sense, and China has not yet had an oil pricing power in the world oil markets. The structural stability tests demonstrate that there is a structural break in the VAR model because of the reforms of China's oil pricing mechanism, thus it is more appropriate to break the whole sample into different sub-samples for the estimation of the model. (author)

  19. The relationship between oil price shocks and China's macro-economy: An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Limin, E-mail: dlmsos@hotmail.co [China Center for Energy Economics Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanan He [Wang Yanan Institute for Studies in Economics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wei Chu [School of Economics and Management, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between the world oil price and China's macro-economy based on a monthly time series from 1995:1 to 2008:12, using the method of multivariate vector autoregression (VAR). The results show that the world oil price affects the economic growth and inflation of China significantly, and the impact is non-linear. On the other hand, China's economic activity fails to affect the world oil price, which means that the world oil price is still exogenous with respect to China's macro-economy in time series sense, and China has not yet had an oil pricing power in the world oil markets. The structural stability tests demonstrate that there is a structural break in the VAR model because of the reforms of China's oil pricing mechanism, thus it is more appropriate to break the whole sample into different sub-samples for the estimation of the model.

  20. Justice Of The Peace Foreign Experience Of Organization Comparative Legal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishat R. Kaitova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article a short comparative analysis of the modern advanced states of the judicial systems is carried out. With considered judicial system's specifics existence it is possible to reveal their common features and tendencies of development. Today, for all states of the world community the process of globalization and universalism is characteristic. Practically all modern Constitutions and laws of states reproduce general approaches to the organization of the judicial systems and trial procedures, which are basis on the principles of the norms of international law, such as the right for fair and public trial in the reasonable time by the independent and impartial court, created on the basis of law. Moreover, today it is already possible to speak not only about declarative fixing of these general approaches, but also about their practical expression in the form of the number of judicial reforms implementation among which the important role is played by the problem of the institute of the justice of the peace formation and development. In this context foreign experience of the institute of the justice of the peace formation and functioning study will allow to reveal the general tendencies and ways of this legal institute improvement in our country. In the conclusion author notes that in the Romano-German family of the legal systems (France, Spain, Anglo-American (USA, Great Britain and mixed (Canada, Australia - justice of the peace carried out justice earlier and still continue to function successfully, at the same time this legal institute not usual for the socialist law. So there were no justices of the peace in the USSR, China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Cuba, etc.

  1. Development and application of dynamic hybrid multi-region inventory analysis for macro-level environmental policy analysis: a case study on climate policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Wei; Heijungs, Reinout; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-03-19

    We develop a novel inventory method called Dynamic Hybrid Multi-Region Inventory analysis (DHMRI), which integrates the EEMRIOA and Integrated Hybrid LCA and applies time-dependent environmental intervention information for inventory analysis. Consequently, DHMRI is able to quantify the change in the environmental footprint caused by a specific policy while taking structural changes and technological dynamics into consideration. DHMRI is applied to assess the change in the total CO2 emissions associated with the total final demand caused by the climate policy in Taiwan to demonstrate the practicality of this novel method. The evaluation reveals that the implementation of mitigation measures included in the existing climate policy, such as an enhancement in energy efficiency, promotion of renewable energy, and limitation of the growth of energy-intensive industries, will lead to a 28% increase in the total CO2 emissions and that the main driver is the export-oriented electronics industry. Moreover, a major increase in the total emissions is predicted to occur in Southeast Asia and China. The observations from the case study reveal that DHMRI is capable of overcoming the limitations of existing assessment tools at macro-level evaluation of environmental policies.

  2. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  3. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  4. Where macro meets micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R Stephen; Smirnov, Boris M

    2014-06-01

    Reconciling or somehow linking the macroscopic and microscopic approaches to chemical and physical processes has been a challenge unaddressed for many years. One approach, presented here, treats the issue by examining individual phenomena well described by a macro approach that fails when applied to small systems. The key to the approach is determining the approximate system size below which the breakdown of the macro description is observable. The most developed example is the failure of the Gibbs phase rule for sufficiently small atomic clusters. Other examples, such as the onset, at sufficient size, of the insulator-to-metal transition, are discussed, as are some still more challenging phenomena.

  5. Macro- and micro-element analysis in milk samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sanja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl and Zn, as well as total fat content of milk samples, originated from different sources. The analyzed milk samples were: human milk, fresh cow milk, pasteurized cow milk from a local market, and reconstituted powder milk. The milk samples were obtained from Jablanica District (Serbia territory. Preparation of samples for macro- and micro-analyses was done by wet digestion. Concentrations of the elements after digestion were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Total fat content of milk samples was determinate by the Weibull and Stoldt method. The results showed that potassium and calcium concentrations were the highest in all samples: 1840.64 - 2993.26 mg/L and 456.05 - 1318.08 mg/L, respectively. Of all heavy metals from the examined milk samples (copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium, and lead, the most common were zinc and copper, with approximately similar content in the range of 5 - 12 mg/l, while cadmium nickel and manganese were not detected at all. Samples of fresh cow milk and human milk showed the highest fat content of 3.6 and 4.2 %, respectively. Results for total fat and macro- and micro-analyses showed that fresh cow milk has the highest contents of fat and calcium, making it the most nutritious. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34012

  6. Analysis of Teaching Methods Innovation of Legal Professions of Higher Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hui

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the needs of economic and social development, the legal system of China has been constantly improved. As a result, our country is in increasingly urgent demand for legal professionals. Legal professions of higher vocational colleges are responsible for the training of a variety of application-oriented legal talents for our country, which plays a very important role for the construction of the legal system. However, at present, there are some disadvantages in teaching methods of higher vocational legal professions, such as the imitation of general education while lack of vocational characteristics, the rigid and single teaching methods, and theory divorced from reality. The paper will start from these drawbacks, and will propose such appropriate solutions as the introduction of teaching method of case study, the implementation of "Clinic-style" practical teaching, and the conduction of "Law-article" teaching method, in the hope of offering some help to the development of higher vocational legal professions and cultivating truly practical legal talents with professional capacity, able to take up the mission of the law, and able to make a significant contribution to the legal system construction of the country, in cooperation with this wide range of vocational legal education models.

  7. O depósito legal na Argentina: análise da Ley 11.723/1933 = The legal deposit in Argentina: analysis of Law 11.723/1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Rodrígues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El depósito legal en Argentina: análisis de la Ley 11.723/1933. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión teórica sobre el tema del depósito legal de las publicaciones en Argentina, incluyendo una revisión de la ley que regula el depósito legal –Ley 11.723 de 28 de setiembre de 1933– Régimen legal de la propiedad intelectual, a la luz de las recomendaciones propuestas por Larivière, en su publicación titulada Legislación sobre depósito legal: directrices, publicado en 2000. El análisis de la legislación argentina demuestra la necesidad de adaptar diversas cuestiones planteadas por Larivière (2000. En términos generales, la ley se muestra obsoleta requierendo de un rediseño para adaptarse a los efectos del depósito legal y, por lo tanto, a los objetivos del Control Bibliográfico Universal. Depósito legal de publicaciones Ley 11.723/1933 Control Bibliográfico Universal = O presente trabalho apresenta uma revisão teórica sobre o tema do depósito legal de publicações na Argentina, incluindo uma análise da lei que regula o depósito legal –Ley 11.723, de 28 de setiembre de 1933– Regimen legal de la propiedad intelectual, à luz das recomendações propostas por Larivière, em sua publicação intitulada Guidelines for legal deposit legislation, publicada em 2000. A análise da lei argentina demonstra necessidade de adequações sob diversos aspectos apontados por Larivière (2000. De forma ampla, a lei mostra-se obsoleta, necessitando passar por reformulação a fim de se adequar aos propósitos do depósito legal e, consequentemente, aos objetivos do Controle Bibliográfico Universal. Depósito legal de publicações Lei argentina 11.723/1933 Controle Bibliográfico Universal. = The legal deposit in Argentina: analysis of Law 11.723/1933. This article presents a theoretical review on the subject of legal deposit of publications in Argentina, including a review of the law that regulates the legal deposit –Law 11

  8. Macro Intentions, Micro Realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Muller (Allan); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe current understanding of Regional Integration is largely macro-economic and political in orientation and has tended to neglect, even ex post, the significance of the Single European Market (SEM) for the spatial restructuring of individual firms. The problem stems largely from a lopsi

  9. Is Lifecycle Analysis Unconstitutional? New Frontiers in the Legal Battle Over Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullenward, D.; Weiskopf, D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent federal court decisions have established that judges should not second-guess government agency findings related to basic climate change science [1,2]. Nevertheless, the legal battle over climate science is far from over. In the absence of federal legislation, climate policy opponents are developing new arguments to challenge the authority of states to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation describes a recent challenge to California's climate policy and provides an example of a strategic scientific response. In December 2011, a federal district court ruled that California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard ("LCFS") is unconstitutional [3]. The LCFS regulations employ lifecycle analysis to set a limit on the carbon intensity of fuels sold in California. According to the court, however, the policy's use of lifecycle analysis "facially discriminates" against interstate commerce. Because the court found that nondiscriminatory alternatives were available, it held the policy unconstitutional. If upheld, this reasoning would severely limit the ability of states to address climate change. On appeal to the Ninth Circuit, the Stanford Environmental Law Clinic represented climate scientists [4] and lifecycle analysis scientists [5] in support of upholding the LCFS. These briefs addressed the necessity of lifecycle analysis in the context of transportation fuels, and also presented evidence from the climate impacts literature that supports the state's interest in pursuing climate policy. Although written for the court and targeted at specific legal questions, both briefs were developed in the style of scientific assessments, based on published literature [6,7] and feedback from reviewers. Because courts lack the expertise to evaluate arguments about scientific issues, there is an ongoing need for climate scientists to participate in litigation. Perhaps most importantly, an effective response requires interdisciplinary collaboration between lawyers and scientists

  10. Legal analysis of citizen lawsuit toward management of the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprihadi, Bambang

    2017-07-01

    The Asian Disaster Reduction Center informed that on 27 May 2006 at 5:54 AM Local time or 26 May 2006 at 10:54:00 PM UTC, an M6.3 earthquake has struck the very highly populated region of Yogyakarta. The death estimated between 5,775 and 6,234 and the number of injured was between 46,000 and 53,000. Invitation letters were sent to Indonesia Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) and to 18 government institutions for attending the session at the Yogyakarta Court on 4 December 2006. Such case was a lawsuit proposed by 46 citizens and registered as number 73/PDT.G/ 2006/PN-Yk and the researcher attended court-session on behalf of the BMKG. Research is conducted to provide legal analysis of citizen lawsuit toward management of the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. Data was collected by examining the process of court sessions and mediation between Parties involved which then analysed using the relevant articles of Indonesian Civil Procedural Law. Legal analysis proposed by the researcher indicates that State Court (Pengadilan Negeri) held an `absolute competence' because such case shall not be settled by State Administrative Court (Pengadilan Tata Usaha Negara), however Yogyakarta District Court didn't hold a `relative competence' because such case shall be settled by the Central Jakarta District Court. Such case was not continued due to successful mediation between the two Parties. The 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake alerts BMKG as the earthquake information provider to work properly in accordance with the standard operating procedure to avoid citizen lawsuit that might be proposed in the near future.

  11. Should UK law reconsider the initial threshold of legal personality? A critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, David J

    2010-01-01

    At present UK Law states that the unborn child only becomes a legal person invested with legal rights and full protections, like other human persons, at birth. This article critiques the present legal position of setting the threshold for legal personality at birth, showing its inconsistencies and fundamentally pragmatic basis. Against this background, it is argued that a principled approach towards unborn life is necessary, which reflects in law the reality that the unborn child is a type of human person deserving protection as it develops through the continuum of human personhood--from embryonic personhood, to infant personhood and ultimately into adult personhood Human personhood is defined as a union of a material and immaterial self meaning that at every stage of their development they are never a "potential person," but rather a "person with potential" even if it is not actualized through miscarriage, premature death, or disability. This moral and philosophical reasoning is what justifies protecting the sanctity of unborn life in law. The rest of the article explores and critiques the alternative static legal threshold for ascribing legal personality, at conception, implantation and viability. Having considered the practical moral, legal and philosophical problems of these alternatives; the final proposal for law reform combines all three of these thresholds in a proposal for a "dynamic" threshold for legal personality commencing at conception, which would render birth as an irrelevant threshold for moral and legal reasoning about the unborn.

  12. The characteristic of marketing macro environment of European developing countries and Ukraine for company's marketing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor

    2013-01-01

    Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.

  13. Analysis and identification of irradiated Spirulina powder by a three-step infrared macro-fingerprint spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai Jing; Xu, Chang Hua; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Feng; Li, Wei Ming; Ha, Yi Ming; Sun, Su Qin

    2013-04-01

    A three-step infrared (IR) macro-fingerprint method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR), was developed to analyze Spirulina powder before and after gamma irradiation. In the IR spectra, most of the absorption peaks of samples irradiated at 1, 2.7, 6, and 10.4 kGy had lower intensities than the non-irradiated ones, whereas peaks at 1152, 1078, and 1051 cm-1 were slightly enhanced with irradiation at 2.7, 6, and 10.4 kGy. Their second derivative spectra amplified the differences and revealed that irradiation affected the C=O band of carboxylic acid and esters, and the N-H band of proteins. The peaks at 1746 and 1741 cm-1, and those at 1730 and 1725 cm-1 became two broad peaks. Meanwhile, the three sharp peaks at 1548 cm-1, 1544 cm-1 and 1536 cm-1 changed to two broad peaks at around 1547 and 1534 cm-1 after irradiation at doses higher than 1 kGy. The characteristic IR bands from 1700 cm-1 to 1600 cm-1, which represent the C=O band in proteins, also have different shapes and intensities after irradiation. The finding indicated that irradiation affected the secondary structures of protein which was confirmed by curve fitting results. During the process of increasing the temperature from 50 to 210 °C, the ratio of amide I to II in absorption intensities in the 2D-IR spectra of the irradiated samples varied with different response for different samples. Saccharides in Spirulina powder had a higher thermostability than proteins, but the autopeaks of irradiated samples did show differences from the non-irradiated sample. The intensity of autopeaks at 1012 cm-1 increased dramatically in the irradiated samples while that of peaks at 1053, 1071, and 1083 cm-1 decreased after irradiation. Based on the three-step IR macro-fingerprint method, irradiated Spirulina powder samples were successfully and fast identified and discriminated.

  14. Power Control and Performance Analysis of Outage-Limited Cellular Network with MUD-SIC and Macro-Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Derrick Wing Kwan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the uplink goodput (bits/sec/Hz successfully decoded) and per-user packet outage in a cellular network using multi-user detection with successive interference cancellation (MUD-SIC). We consider non-ergodic fading channels where microscopic fading channel information is not available at the transmitters. As a result, packet outage occurs whenever the data rate of packet transmissions exceeds the instantaneous mutual information even if powerful channel coding is applied for protection. We are interested to study the role of macro-diversity (MDiv) between multiple base stations on the MUD-SIC performance where the effect of potential error-propagation during the SIC processing is taken into account. While the jointly optimal power and decoding order in the MUD-SIC are NP hard problem, we derive a simple on/off power control and asymptotically optimal decoding order with respect to the transmit power. Based on the information theoretical framework, we derive the closed-form expressions...

  15. Geostatistical analysis and isoscape of ice core derived water stable isotope records in an Antarctic macro region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, István Gábor; Leuenberger, Markus; Kohán, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2017-09-01

    Water stable isotopes preserved in ice cores provide essential information about polar precipitation. In the present study, multivariate regression and variogram analyses were conducted on 22 δ2H and 53 δ18O records from 60 ice cores covering the second half of the 20th century. Taking the multicollinearity of the explanatory variables into account, as also the model's adjusted R2 and its mean absolute error, longitude, elevation and distance from the coast were found to be the main independent geographical driving factors governing the spatial δ18O variability of firn/ice in the chosen Antarctic macro region. After diminishing the effects of these factors, using variography, the weights for interpolation with kriging were obtained and the spatial autocorrelation structure of the dataset was revealed. This indicates an average area of influence with a radius of 350 km. This allows the determination of the areas which are as yet not covered by the spatial variability of the existing network of ice cores. Finally, the regional isoscape was obtained for the study area, and this may be considered the first step towards a geostatistically improved isoscape for Antarctica.

  16. Micro and Macro Content Analysis of English Textbook Entitled “Mosaic One Listening and Speaking (Student’s Book” In The Light of Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Juma'a Hamed Al-Mashaqba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which the listening and speaking lessons which are presented in textbook entitled “Mosaic One Listening and speaking (Student’s Book” are characterized with appropriateness and meaningfulness in light of communicative competence and meet the Principles and features of communicative language teaching. The content analysis was at micro and macro level in terms of the availability of seven criteria of communicative competence in the textbook under the study and in terms of strength and weakness of the content. The findings indicate that The English textbook entitled “Mosaic One Listening and speaking (Student’s Book” fulfilled 84% of communicative competence’s criteria of the good EFL textbook adapted from some experts in the light of communicative competence.

  17. Some New Ideas on the Role of Legal Analysis applied to the Regulation of Telecommunications Services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Faro de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper aims to present new ideas and analytical approaches developed in recent years by Brazilian legal scholars regarding regulation and economic development. Regulatory law of telecommunications services is taken as an example of application of such new ideas and analytical approaches. Methodology/approach/design – Two main approaches to the relationship between law and economic issues are described: the New Law and Development (NLD approach and the Legal Analysis of Economic Policy (LAEP perspective. The paper highlights prominent ideas of each perspective. Findings – The paper shows that there are structured ideas available in recent Brazilian legal literature which have a non-negligible potential of being explored in legal discussions and analyses of economic policy and regulatory issues of many sectors of emerging economies, including the telecommunications industry. Originality/value – The paper offers valuable contributions that may help in efforts to enhance and innovate the role of legal expertise in the regulatory process of several economic sectors, including the telecommunications sector.

  18. LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND LEGAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    BOSHNO SVETLANA

    2016-01-01

    This chapter of the course manual in jurisprudence discloses the notion of legal consciousness. Comprehending law, legislation, principal state and legal institutes manifests itself in law enforcement. One shouldn't absolutize the role of legislation as it is, since it is only after texts of normative acts go through the prism of legal consciousness of the actor's personality, they convert into some behaviour patterns. Legal consciousness has a definite structure, it is divided into levels. L...

  19. Developing Law Students' Communicative-Linguistic Competence: Analysis of Eight Spanish Legal Textbooks from a Sociopragmatic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joseba Ezeiza

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a study carried out on eight Spanish legal textbooks in order to draw up an inventory of educational resources available to support the development of law students' communicative competence, taking into account the law degree curricula at Spanish universities (Ezeiza Ramos forthcoming a, forthcoming b). The analysis was…

  20. Developing Law Students' Communicative-Linguistic Competence: Analysis of Eight Spanish Legal Textbooks from a Sociopragmatic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joseba Ezeiza

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a study carried out on eight Spanish legal textbooks in order to draw up an inventory of educational resources available to support the development of law students' communicative competence, taking into account the law degree curricula at Spanish universities (Ezeiza Ramos forthcoming a, forthcoming b). The analysis was…

  1. Photovoltaic commercialization: an analysis of legal issues affecting a government-accelerated solar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Photovoltaics Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 is discussed. Legal issues, including solar access, the need for performance standards, the effects of building codes on photovoltaic system use and commercialization, and manufacturer and installer performance guarantees, are examined. Electric utility policies are examined, including interconnection, and rates and legal issues affecting them. (LEW)

  2. Macro-Control Malady

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An undeniable fact is that China practices macro-control more frequently than countries with a developed market economy. Since the country began to adopt the policy of reform and opening up in 1978, the Central Government has launched five adjustments to cool down the economy. Professor Li Yiping at the School of Economics, the Renmin University of China, attributes the frequent control practices to the immature economic system.

  3. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-06-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks.

  4. Micro-processus et macro-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Victor Cicourel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Des approches sociologiques traditionnelles ont défini des macro-structures sociales comme un niveau particulier de la réalité sociale, à distinguer des micro-épisodes de l’action sociale. Cela les a conduits à concevoir ces macro-structures et à mener des recherches sur elles de manière plus ou moins indépendante des pratiques observables de la vie quotidienne. Cicourel soutient que les faits (macro-sociaux ne sont pas simplement donnés, mais émergent de pratiques routinières de la vie de tous les jours. Le macro, au sens de descriptions résumées, hors contexte, normalisées et typifiées, est un produit typique des procédures interactives et organisationnelles qui transforment les micro-événements en structures macro-sociales. Ainsi une précondition pour l’intégration des phénomènes micro- et macro-sociaux dans notre théorie et dans notre méthodologie renvoie à l’identification des processus contribuant à la création de macro-structures par des inférences routinières, des interprétations et des procédure de résumé. Le texte montre aussi que les différences entre approches micro-sociologiques apparaissent parallèles à celles existant entre approches micro et macro. On se centrant sur de petits fragments d’interactions conversationnelles, certains travaux micro-sociologiques tendent à ignorer ce qui informe ces interactions conversationnelles pour les participants eux-mêmes. Les comptes rendus décontextualisés produits par de telles méthodes ressemblent à la décontextualisation résultant des procédures macro-sociologiques d’agrégation. Contre cela, Cicourel défend la constitution de bases de données comparatives n’incluant pas seulement le contexte des interactions de face à face, mais étudiant aussi les phénomènes sociaux de manière systématique à travers différents contextes.Micro-processes and macro-structures. Notes on articulation between different levels of analysis

  5. Homosexual individuals, same-sex couples and homoparental families : An analysis of French legal reality

    OpenAIRE

    Borrillo, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The individual gets everything, the couple gets only a little and the family gets nothing: that is how could briefly decribe French legal reality in terms of rights of homosexual in 2006

  6. Legal Status Of The Election Organizer Ethics Council An Analysis Of Indonesian Election Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify and to analyze the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the General Election in Indonesia. This research is a normative research by using statute approach official records and the judges verdict which is then described qualitatively. These results indicate that the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia as supporting organ that serves to uphold ethics rule of ethics and guarding democracy. The authority of Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia sometimes out of authority. Ideal concept of the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in general elections was as supporting organ which have the infrastructure secretary general and administrative staff so it has a public legal entity as similar to the Election organizers serve as code of ethics enforcement agencies code of ethics and can equated to other state institutions.

  7. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  8. Political strike. Viability analysis in the legal system of the Republic of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Goldstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several motivations have led unionized workers to exercise this fundamental right recognized under Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uruguay. This right has been the subject doctrine discussions by legal scholars when strikes are considered atypical. In this paper, the viability of strikes when they are motivated by politics is discussed, as well as the response of the national legal system to this phenomenon.

  9. The legal reserve: historical basis for the understanding and analysis of this instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís Muniz Ottoni Santiago; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The revisions made in the Forest Code (FC) in 2012 appear to have promoted the weakening of the legal reserve (LR), which after at least 80 years of development, had become established in the Brazilian legal system as an instrument of environmental conservation. This study investigated the possibility of disruption in the implementation of the LR and was developed using qualitative approaches, including bibliographical and documental analyses, to assess the historical construction a...

  10. Analysis of legal and economic aspects of precipitation weather derivatives for Serbian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are not present in Serbia nor in the neighbouring countries and have no significant application in the European Union, either. Weather derivatives originated in the USA, where the market for these instruments is most developed, in terms of both economy and law. However, positive effects of their application, through the decrease of influence of unfavourable weather conditions on agricultural crops, are a good basis for their further study. The most common reasons for their absence from our financial market are their complexity and the inexistence of prerequisites for their introduction. This paper analyses legal and economic aspects of weather derivatives, as forms of financial derivatives, as well as weather derivative contracts concluded with the aim of hedging against precipitation exposure. The goal of the analysis is to find an optimal contract structure, but also the conditions that have to be met in order for its signing to be economically justified for both contractual parties, as well as the creation of preconditions for this weather derivative contract to be the instrument of trade on the financial market. The paper also analyses normative frameworks for the conclusion of these derivative contracts, as well as the necessity to educate market participants, which refers both to agricultural producers and financial institutions. Furthermore, it emphasizes the difference in relation to the classical contract of insurance against drought risk.

  11. Regulating biobanking with children's tissue: a legal analysis and the experts' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, Elcke J; Ploem, M Corrette; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2016-01-01

    Many current paediatric studies concern relationships between genes and environment and discuss aetiology, treatment and prevention of Mendelian and multifactorial diseases. Many of these studies depend on collection and long-term storage of data and biological material from affected children in biobanks. Stored material is a source of personal information of the donor and his family and could be used in an undesirable context, potentially leading to discrimination and interfering with a child's right to an open future. Here, we address the normative framework regarding biobanking with residual tissue of children, protecting the privacy interests of young biobank donors (0-12 years). We analyse relevant legal documents concerning storage and use of children's material for research purposes. We explore the views of 17 Dutch experts involved in paediatric biobank research and focus on informed consent for donation of leftover tissue as well as disclosure of individual research findings resulting from biobank research. The results of this analysis show that experts have no clear consensus about the appropriate rules for storage of and research with children's material in biobanks. Development of a framework that provides a fair balance between fundamental paediatric research and privacy protection is necessary.

  12. Use of the Legal-Institutional Analysis Model to assess hydropower licensing negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Lamb, B.L.; Garcia de Jalon, D.; Sabaton, C.; Souchon, Y.; Tamai, N.; Robinette, H.R.; Waddle, T.J.; Brinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is responsible for issuing or renewing licenses for hydropower projects owned and operated by power companies. During the licensing process, these companies are required to consult with agencies and other parties that are affected by project operating regimes. Typical participants include state and federal fish and wildlife agencies, environmental interest groups, and the FERC. One of the most difficult tasks facing participants is to reach agreement about what kinds of environmental conditions should be placed on license. Researchers at the United States Geological Survey developed a model to analyze the institutional context of natural resource disputes. The Legal-Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) is a computerized model that allows an analyst to determine the likely behavior of each organization in a conflict. The model also analyzes the types and levels of negotiating power held by each organization. Researchers at the USGS have used the model in several cases involving hydropower license applications. To use the model, they facilitate workshops for stakeholder groups in order to develop a shared understanding of the likely obstacles and opportunities for successful resolution of the issues. This allows a systematic workshop analyses to develop strategies for successful negotiations, because they are able to better understand the negotiation problem and work more effectively with both their allies and their competitors.

  13. Legal sequelae of occupational back injuries: a longitudinal analysis of Missouri judicial records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Raymond C; Chibnall, John T

    2011-08-01

    Telephone survey and longitudinal analysis of judicial database for cohort of worker's compensation (WC) claimants in Missouri. To compare legal difficulties experienced by African American and white WC claimants presettlement versus postsettlement. Retrospective studies suggest that workers with occupational back injuries experience financial and personal duress after claim settlement. This study examined these issues by comparing financial and domestic court actions for the 5-year presettlement against 5-year postsettlement. Sociodemographic differences also were examined. Missouri judicial records were reviewed for African American (n = 580) and non-Hispanic white (n = 892) WC claimants to determine the frequency with which four types of cases occurred: general financial, domestic financial, residence financial, and domestic behavior. Average annual level of judicial activity during the 5 years before claim settlement was compared to activity for each of five postsettlement years; significance of change was evaluated with univariate and multivariate repeated measures analyses. Statistically significant (P financial and domestic financial cases. A significant interaction between age and time occurred for general financial cases. Significant three-way interactions (race × income change × time) emerged for general and domestic financial cases. The results confirm that workers with occupational back injuries, especially African American and younger adults, encounter long-term financial and domestic duress that appears to escalate with each passing year after claim settlement. This pattern suggests that short-term studies underestimate postsettlement difficulties, particularly among selected demographic cohorts.

  14. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender –relev

  15. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender –relev

  16. [Medico-legal opinions in penal cases provided by clinicians and forensic medicine specialists--comparative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.

  17. The Analysis of Mining Right Legal Position%采矿权法律定位的探析1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琴

    2013-01-01

    通过对采矿权法律定位各种不同意见的分析,结合权利本身的法律属性,明确肯定物权法对采矿权的法律定位--用益物权,同时进一步提出细化建议,分离采矿权中其它类型权利,改革权证混杂不清的现状,以保障采矿权的法律定位能促进权利效能的实现。%Through the analysis of the mining right legal position different opinions, the legal attribute of com-bining rights itself, clear affirmation for mining right is the legal position of property law, and further puts for-ward detailed Suggestions, separation of other types of rights of mining right, supplemented by the operation-al rules of form a complete set, in order to protect the rights of mining right legal position can promote effi-ciency of the implementation.

  18. Legal Environment Against Online Identity Theft: Comparative Analysis of USA’s and Lithuania’s Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet and e-commerce has taken identity theft to new levels. Indeed, consumers, financial institutions and the whole economic suffer from online identity theft. This article analyses the legal environment which is concerned with online identity theft. The analysis is based on the comparison of two countries—USA’s and Lithuania’s— legislation, regulating such fields as personal data protection, electronic information security, identification, criminal liability and special legal acts, regulating online identity theft, because if all these fields are sufficiently regulated, the fight with online identity theft is more successful. The choice of the countries is based on the fact that USA has experience in fighting online identity theft while Lithuania is taken into a deeper consideration as it is a member of the European Union, the legal system of which has great differences in comparison to the USA. The analysis of legislation, regulating personal data protection, is based on comparison of the main requirements and principles of personal data protection, institutions which are responsible for personal data protection and liability for breaches of personal data protection rules. The authors of the present article also present similarities and differences of legal regulation of electronic information security in USA and Lithuania by comparing the institutional control of information security, main requirements for information security and liability for breaches of information security rules. Also, the variety of personal identity documents in the USA and Lithuania is analyzed, main personal identity documents are presented as well as regulation of online identity theft, elements and types of identification online are discussed. Moreover, criminal and special legislation of USA and Lithuania is taken into consideration in order to discuss and compare criminalization aspects of online identity theft. In this article it is

  19. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  20. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  1. Structured behavioral interview as a legal guarantee for ensuring equal employment opportunities for women: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Equal employment opportunities for women are a legal requirement in many legal environments, including the United States (US and European Union (EU legislations. In this context, indirect discrimination in the access to jobs is an illegal practice. For this reason, personnel selection procedures must be fair for protected-by-law groups. Specifically, gender discrimination is the focus of research on employment interviews. This article presents a meta-analysis of gender differences in the scores in structured behavioral interviews (SBI. A database was created consisting of studies conducted with real candidates and employees. Psychometric meta-analysis methods were applied. The results showed that the SBI is fair for women and men and does not show evidence of adverse impact and indirect discrimination. Implications for the practice of personnel selection are discussed and future research is suggested.

  2. [Modest clinical benefits of ASAT analysis in today's health care. A case report of macro-ASAT giving rise to pathologically increased ASAT levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Karlsson, Bengt

    2002-09-19

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) may occur as a macroenzyme after forming a complex with immunoglobulins. The complex results in decreased plasma clearance and thus elevated AST levels. So far, macro-AST has only been described in a few patients. Here, we report a case of macro-AST in a healthy female. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon so that patients are not subjected to unnecessary investigations.

  3. 法人精神损害赔偿之法理分析%A Legal Analysis of Mental Damage Compensation for Legal Persons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利民; 陈平凡

    2012-01-01

    Mental damage compensation for legal persons has been a hot issue in Tort Law in recent years. The mainstream schol ars are inclined to believe that legal persons have no mental damage compensation, as China~ judicial interpretation specifies that legal persons do not enjoy the claim right for mental damage compensation. Besides, the mental damage compensation right of legal persons is not recognized by Tort Law. Therefore, the existing legal system provides no legal and adequate protection for legal persons, which threatens legal persons" survival and deteriorates the legal environment. Legal persons, like natural persons, are independent civil sub jects and enjoy the capacity for rights and conduct. Accordingly, it should have the claim right for mental damage compensation.%法人精神损害赔偿是近年来侵权行为法中的热点问题。但主流学者的观点似乎倾向于认定法人没有精神损害赔偿,特别是我国的司法解释明确规定法人不能享有精神损害赔偿的请求权,我国《侵权责任法》虽没明确规定,但对法人是否享有精神损害赔偿的权利,从实质意义上讲,也是持否定态度的。因而造成法人的合法权益得不到合法的、充分的保护,致使其生存出现危机,环境面临恶化。法人与自然人一样,同样为独立的民事主体,同样具有权利能力和行为能力,应同样依法独立享有精神损害赔偿之请求权。

  4. Going "Macro": Exploring the Careers of Macro Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Applewhite, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    Important benefits accrue to the profession and to its vulnerable clientele when social workers hold positions with substantial community or policy influence. However, fewer social workers are holding these positions than in the past, and student preferences to pursue macro-specific training have declined. To improve the social work profession's ability to recruit and educate students interested in competing for leadership positions in human services organizations, this article analyzes data from a survey of MSW graduates of a public school of social work located in the southwestern United States and currently working as macro practitioners. Findings indicate that macro social workers can successfully compete for mid-level and top-level administrative and policy positions, and provide evidence contrary to many of the concerns students express when deciding whether to pursue a macro concentration or career. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for supporting and educating social work students interested in pursuing a macro practice career.

  5. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-01-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks. PMID:28502999

  6. National Curriculum Guidelinesand the process of teacher education in Physical Education: analysis from legality, knowledge and labour world/market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela da Silva Souza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We aim to contribute to the analysis of ten years of DCN for Physical Education in order to understand what this process has given us and still gives us. For this, we will relate DCN and Formation, mediated by the categories of Legality, and Knowledge World/ Job Market. We use materialist dialectics as a method of analysis and literature search, and documental analysis as a research technique. Finally, considering that challenges remain, we believe that the results of this process to evaluate and comment on it coincides with evaluate and comment on the very area of Physical Education in its entirety.

  7. Macro-Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Focus on Programmes and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This overview identifies some common features of macro-level language planning and briefly summarises the changing approaches to the analysis of macro-planning in the field. It previews six cases of language-in-education planning in response to linguistic diversity presented by the contributors to this issue. The cases show how macro-planning can…

  8. Macro-Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Focus on Programmes and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This overview identifies some common features of macro-level language planning and briefly summarises the changing approaches to the analysis of macro-planning in the field. It previews six cases of language-in-education planning in response to linguistic diversity presented by the contributors to this issue. The cases show how macro-planning can…

  9. Comparative analysis of eu membership candidate countries legal economic framework (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Zharova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article represents the results of analytical review and comparative analysis of EU membership candidate countries legal economic framework for Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova. The aim of the research is to show opportunities and illuminate the gaps for timely fulfillment of obligation in framework of euro integration process. The results of the analysis. The choice of countries is determined by similarity of political, economic, and social conditions including, inter alia: 1 the aftermath of the global economic crisis; 2 political crisis; 3 threat to sovereignty and territorial integrity, including the risk of armed conflict (the unlawful annexation of the Crimea and Sevastopol and destabilization in the Eastern Ukraine; occupation of Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgia; and the Transnistria conflict in Moldova. Economic growth based on more efficient use of available scarce resources is the key to successful withstanding and overcoming these adverse factors. It implies that implementing the Association Agreement is closely linked with the transition toward a green economy. The comparative analysis determined some similarities in positive shifts for all countries. The following positive shifts characterizing the progress achieved by the countries can be highlighted: demonstration of proactive efforts toward meeting their commitments under the Association Agreement; existing policies, practices and programmes aiming to support the sustainable industrial and business development; reflection of the sustainable development and green economy issues in the official development strategies and their considering to be a priority; activation of effort to develop a system of specific indicators including those that can be used for measuring the efficiency of national policies; incorporation sustainable development objectives in the local development agendas and environmental action plans; taking active part in the international

  10. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  11. ARE MACRO AND MICRO ENVIRONMENT AFFECTING MANAGEMENT OF FRESH WATER RESOURCES? A CASE FROM IRAN WITH PESTLE ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atighechian, Golrokh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Jahangiri, Katayoun

    2016-07-24

    Oil spill in fresh water can affect ecological processes and accordingly it can influence human health. Iran, due to having 58.8 % of the world oil reserves, is highly vulnerable to water contamination by oil products. The aim of this study was to determine environmental factors affecting the management of the oil spill into one of the river in Iran using the PESTLE analysis. This was a qualitative case study conducted in 2015 on an oil spill incident in Iran and its roots from a disaster management approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Seventy managers and staffs with those responsible or involved in oil spill incident management were recruited to the study. Qualitative content analysis approach was employed for the data analysis. Document analysis was used to collect additional information. Findings of the present study indicated that different factors affected the management of the event of oil spill onto one of the central river and consequently the management of drink water resources. Using this analysis, managers can plan for such events and develop scenarios for them to have better performance for the future events.

  12. Bhopal Gas Tragedy – A Social, Economic, Legal and Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the economic and legal aspects of the difficulties in obtaining compensation of chemical disaster that occurred India, when the parent company is located in the United States. After this disaster, several laws regulating chemical plant operation became mandatory in both US and in India.

  13. Thinking Like a Lawyer: An Educator's Guide to Legal Analysis and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Sarah E.

    This book uses narratives, actual court cases, study tips, research methodologies, and an extensive glossary to demystify the legal process and allow those who need to know the law to move comfortably in this realm by providing a bridge between professionals in both law and education. It aims to help educators understand how law is made, how to…

  14. Teacher Free Speech and Expression in a Digital Age: A Legal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathon, Justin M.; Brady, Kevin P.

    2010-01-01

    In this technological age, the definition of private, public, and protected speech and expression for today's school employees is largely misunderstood and unclear. This article addresses the current legal standards as well as some recent case law involving teacher speech and expression and its major implications for addressing teacher online…

  15. Assistive Technology for Students with Disabilities: A Legal Analysis of Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etscheidt, Susan Larson

    2016-01-01

    Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams are required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to consider a student's need for assistive technology (AT). Despite this legal requirement, AT supports are often not available to students with disabilities. Many students with disabilities and their families have addressed the…

  16. Virtual acts, real crimes? A legal-philosophical analysis of virtual cybercrime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2014-01-01

    The advent of computer technology has given rise to a new type of crime: cybercrime, which can, in broad terms, be defined as crime that involves the use of computers or computer networks. Examples of cybercrime are hacking (in legal terms: illegal access) and e-fraud. The newest generation of

  17. Virtual acts, real crimes? A legal-philosophical analysis of virtual cybercrime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2014-01-01

    The advent of computer technology has given rise to a new type of crime: cybercrime, which can, in broad terms, be defined as crime that involves the use of computers or computer networks. Examples of cybercrime are hacking (in legal terms: illegal access) and e-fraud. The newest generation of cyber

  18. Evolving medical service in the information age: a legal analysis of applying telemedicine programs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing-Hao

    2008-12-01

    In the face of the information age, Internet and telecommunication technologies have been widely applied in various settings. These innovational technologies have been used in the areas of e-commerce, long distance learning programs, entertainment, e-government, and so on. In recent years, the evolution of Internet technology is also pervading the health care industry. This dramatic trend may significantly alter traditional medical practice as well as the means of delivery of health care. The idea of telemedicine is to use modern information technology as a means or platform to deliver health care service in remote areas and to manage medical information in digitalized forms. The progress of developing telemedicine, however, is rather slow. The main reason for this slow progress is not technological but rather legal. Health care providers are reluctant to promote this innovation in medical service mainly due to uncertain legal consequences and ethical concerns. Although there are many legal challenges surrounding telemedicine, this note will examine major legal issues including licensure, malpractice liability, and privacy protection. Furthermore, I will discuss the potential of applying telemedicine programs in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program (hereinafter referred to as NHI).

  19. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  20. Parallel Factor Analysis in Dual-class Tax Impacts of Agricultural Products: An Economic Research from Macro Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products using the parallel factor analysis. Along with the rapid economic development of China, the growing purchasing power of Chinese residents has been accelerated; particularly in the expensive agricultural products market. China has adjusted taxable items of consumption tax to narrow the gap between rich and poor and to promote social equity. The atrophy of the expensive agricultural products market brought by the tax may curb the growth and development of domestic agricultural products industry. In this study, the parallel factor analysis is employed to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products. The results indicate that the taxation system should be taken from a forward-looking aspect. The market supply and demand for expensive agricultural products and consumer behaviors should be combined with an overall consideration. Hence, specific adjustments China expensive agricultural products market have been eventually put forward.

  1. ANALYSIS OF MACRO AND MICROELEMENTS IN TEETH, SALIVA, AND BLOOD OF WORKERS IN FERGANA CHEMICAL PLANT OF FURAN COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnatillo Gaffarov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to share the results of research conducted in the Fergana chemical plant of furan compounds (FCPFC in Uzbekistan.19 workers of the Furan compounds plant, in Fergana, Uzbekistan, were tested. By neutron activation analysis method, we have studied microelement composition of saliva, blood, dental hard tissue, and the level of Ca, Zn, Fe, and Ag in these subjects. We havedetected that the level of chemical elements in dental hard tissue, blood, and saliva of these workers was subject to negative changes as compared to the analysis results from those in the control group.The research results havepractical value for the prophylaxis, treatment, and health resumption of the people living in rugged ecological environment and workers who are engagedwith harmful substances in chemical industry.  Furthermore,this research also provides recommendations fortreatment of dental diseases related to common conditions of pathophysiological processes carried out bylivingorganisms.

  2. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, G.R.K.; Balaji, T. [Department of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati (India); Denschlag, H.O.; Mauerhofer, E.; Porte, N. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed.

  3. Macro-level pedestrian and bicycle crash analysis: Incorporating spatial spillover effects in dual state count models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to explore the viability of dual-state models (i.e., zero-inflated and hurdle models) for traffic analysis zones (TAZs) based pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency analysis. Additionally, spatial spillover effects are explored in the models by employing exogenous variables from neighboring zones. The dual-state models such as zero-inflated negative binomial and hurdle negative binomial models (with and without spatial effects) are compared with the conventional single-state model (i.e., negative binomial). The model comparison for pedestrian and bicycle crashes revealed that the models that considered observed spatial effects perform better than the models that did not consider the observed spatial effects. Across the models with spatial spillover effects, the dual-state models especially zero-inflated negative binomial model offered better performance compared to single-state models. Moreover, the model results clearly highlighted the importance of various traffic, roadway, and sociodemographic characteristics of the TAZ as well as neighboring TAZs on pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency.

  4. Analysis of Macro-micro Simulation Models for Service-Oriented Public Platform: Coordination of Networked Services and Measurement of Public Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yumiko

    When service sectors are a major driver for the growth of the world economy, we are challenged to implement service-oriented infrastructure as e-Gov platform to achieve further growth and innovation for both developed and developing countries. According to recent trends in service industry, it is clarified that main factors for the growth of service sectors are investment into knowledge, trade, and the enhanced capacity of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). In addition, the design and deployment of public service platform require appropriate evaluation methodology. Reflecting these observations, this paper proposes macro-micro simulation approach to assess public values (PV) focusing on MSMEs. Linkage aggregate variables (LAVs) are defined to show connection between macro and micro impacts of public services. As a result, the relationship of demography, business environment, macro economy, and socio-economic impact are clarified and their values are quantified from the behavioral perspectives of citizens and firms.

  5. Corpus-based critical discourse analysis as a method of exploring underlying ideologies and self-representation strategies in legal texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potts, Amanda; Kjær, Anne Lise

    , 2008). In this paper, I demonstrate how a corpus-based critical discourse analysis of legal language can expose hidden traces of the underlying ideologies of text creators, while demonstrating how identity can be performed in legal texts. Research is based on a half-million-word corpus of annual...... reports by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Key semantic domain analysis (Rayson, 2008) is used to identify the most salient themes in the legal texts compared to reference corpora of general written English, indicating areas for closer analysis. Results show......Legal language is an integral and foundational party of our social reality, but it is underrepresented in interdisciplinary, critical linguistic analyses. This is perhaps because language is more objective and formulaic than media texts, which can be more subjective and emotive (Kjær and Palsbro...

  6. On the Strategic Information Analysis for Macro-management Decision Service%论为宏观管理决策服务的战略情报研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符福峘

    2003-01-01

    Four issues related with strategic information analysis for macro-managemgement decision are discussed.First, the features and functions; second, the scope and the requirement; thirdly, the development trend and the exist-ing problems; fourthly, the policies and principles. It's pointed out that strengthening the strategic information analysiswork is of great significance in the new era for the development of national economy and modernization of defense construc-tion.

  7. AnovArray: a set of SAS macros for the analysis of variance of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Jean-Paul

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance is a powerful approach to identify differentially expressed genes in a complex experimental design for microarray and macroarray data. The advantage of the anova model is the possibility to evaluate multiple sources of variation in an experiment. Results AnovArray is a package implementing ANOVA for gene expression data using SAS® statistical software. The originality of the package is 1 to quantify the different sources of variation on all genes together, 2 to provide a quality control of the model, 3 to propose two models for a gene's variance estimation and to perform a correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion AnovArray is freely available at http://www-mig.jouy.inra.fr/stat/AnovArray and requires only SAS® statistical software.

  8. The impact of immigration on health systems: a legal analysis from a three-country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Carstens, P; Talib, N

    2005-06-01

    The focus of this paper will be on how health care systems in three countries, Malaysia, South Africa and the United States, are responding to the health needs of immigrants with a strong focus on the legal aspects of the respective national responses. The Malaysia portion emphasizes legal immigration and analyses as to how the country's Ministry of Health and the delivery system itself is responding to the demands of immigrant's health. In the context of South Africa, the paper explores implications of the South African Constitution, which establishes a right to access health care, and explores whether such a right can be extended to non-citizens, or can be tempered by economic constraints. In the American discussion the focus is on whether publicly supported health care programs can be accessed to provide coverage for undocumented residents, and highlights recent constraints in using government monies in this area.

  9. Child Labour in Bangladesh - An Analysis of Gaps and Weaknesses of the Existing Legal Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Norpoth, Johannes; Gross, Lukas; Aktar, Rahima

    2014-01-01

    Child labour, particularly in its worst forms, harms the health and general welfare of children. It is considered to be a decisive impediment to the development efforts of developing countries. Working children drop out of school early and the resulting comparative lack of knowledge and skills decreases their chances to find well-paid employment in the future. International legal documents, most prominently in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN CRC) and Conventions b...

  10. Analysis of drug prohibition and estimation of budgetary implications of marijuana legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Flegr, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of drug prohibition on society. It analyzes starting-points and aims of prohibition and shows, how prohibition attempts to achieve its goals. Furthermore, it explores social costs of prohibition, mainly the impact on potencial health risks of drug use and property and violent crimes. Then it presents main reasons of failure to achieve its goals. Furthemore, this paper estimates probable budgetary implications of marijuana legalization. This estimate is based on ...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF PERSONAL DATA PROTECTION IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevov A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern democratic society human rights and, in particular, the right to privacy is of paramount importance. Information about citizens is collected and accumulates various government (the Ministry of internal Affairs, Bureau of technical inventory authorities of acts of civil status, medical institutions, agencies of registration of rights to immovable property and transactions with it, the bodies of registration of legal entities, etc. and private entities (cell companies, private educational, medical, legal organizations, etc. at birth and receiving documents, identity when applying for a job, when applying to a medical institution, for the purchase of immovable property (apartments, cars, for the establishment of private enterprises in other cases. When making purchases in online stores, a consumer is forced to disclose their personal data. However, the owners of these shops do not always ensure the protection of personal data (including credit cards, and the absence of law creates a gap in legal regulation. To the very same personal data includes biographical and identifying data, personal characteristics, information about family, social status, education, profession, career and financial situation, health condition and other

  12. Legal Environment Against Online Identity Theft: Comparative Analysis of USA’s and Lithuania’s Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Pakutinskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The growth of the Internet and e-commerce has taken identity theft to new levels. Indeed, consumers, financial institutions and the whole economic suffer from online identity theft. This article analyses the legal environment which is concerned with online identity theft. The analysis is based on the comparison of two countries—USA’s and Lithuania’s— legislation, regulating such fields as personal data protection, electronic information security, identification, criminal liability and special legal acts, regulating online identity theft, because if all these fields are sufficiently regulated, the fight with online identity theft is more successful. The choice of the countries is based on the fact that USA has experience in fighting online identity theft while Lithuania is taken into a deeper consideration asit is a member of the European Union, the legal system of which has great differences in comparison to the USA. The analysis of legislation, regulating personal data protection, is based on comparison of the main requirements and principles of personal data protection, institutions which are responsible for personal data protection and liability for breaches of personal data protection rules. The authors of the present article also present similarities and differences of legal regulation of electronic information security in USA and Lithuania by comparing the institutional control of information security, main requirements for information security and liability for breaches of information security rules. Also, the variety of personal identity documents in the USA and Lithuania is analyzed, main personal identity documents are presented as well as regulation of online identity theft, elements and types of identification online are discussed. Moreover, criminal and special legislation of USA and Lithuania is taken into consideration in order to discuss and compare criminalization aspects of online identity theft.In this article

  13. Regulating Cannabis Social Clubs: A comparative analysis of legal and self-regulatory practices in Spain, Belgium and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Tom; Pardal, Mafalda; Queirolo, Rosario; Boidi, Maria Fernanda; Sánchez Avilés, Constanza; Parés Franquero, Òscar

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are a model of non-profit production and distribution of cannabis among a closed circuit of adult cannabis users. CSCs are now operating in several countries around the world, albeit under very different legal regimes and in different socio-political contexts. In this paper we describe and compare the legal framework and the self-regulatory practices of Cannabis Social Clubs in three countries (Spain, Belgium, and Uruguay). The objective of our comparative analysis is to investigate how CSCs operate in each of these countries. To foster discussions about how one might regulate CSCs to promote public health objectives, we conclude this paper with a discussion on the balance between adequate governmental control and self-regulatory competences of CSCs. The data used for this analysis stem from independently conducted local studies by the authors in their countries. Although the particular designs of the studies differ, the data in all three countries was collected through similar data collection methods: analysis of (legal and other documents), field visits to the clubs, interviews with staff members, media content analysis. We identified a number of similarities and differences among the CSCs' practices in the three countries. Formal registration as non-profit association seems to be a common standard among CSCs. We found nevertheless great variation in terms of the size of these organisations. Generally, only adult nationals and/or residents are able to join the CSCs, upon the payment of a membership fee. While production seems to be guided by consumption estimates of the members (Spain and Belgium) or by the legal framework (Uruguay), the thresholds applied by the clubs vary significantly across countries. Quality control practices remain an issue in the three settings studied here. The CSCs have developed different arrangements with regards to the distribution of cannabis to their members. By uncovering the current practices of CSCs

  14. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  15. A Psychological Analysis of Macro-economic Policy Ineffectiveness%宏观经济政策失效的心理学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大光

    2001-01-01

    Discussion on macro- ecomic policy ineffectiveness from the viewpoint of psychology opens a new angle of studying macro- economic policy effect. There are some forms of macro- economic policy ineffectiveness , such as rash advance ,lag attenuation, exhale at will, repeat ineffective ,and reverse moving. There are psychology activities of demand-→motivation-→action inside the policy established principal parts, implement principal parts and implements objects. Psychology errors cause macro- economic policy defects. The attitudes and actions of the policy implement principal parts are affected by two psychology demands. At some definite conditions, macro- economic policy effects is affected by the actions of policy implements objects.%从心理学角度探讨宏观经济政策失效的问题,从而开拓出研究宏观经济政策效应的新视角。宏观经济政策失效有冒进放大型、滞后衰减型、发散随意型、累次无效型、反向而动型等表现形式。政策制定主体、实施主体及实施客体的经济行为的背后都经历需要→动机→行为的心理活动过程。心理误区常导致宏观经济政策出现缺陷,两种心理需求影响政策实施主体的态度和行为,而政策实施客体的行为则在一定的条件下决定宏观经济政策的效应。

  16. Expropiation and seizure goods as penalties for drug traffic. Economic analysis of the legal regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article through the use of economic categories tries to identify the reasons that did not allow that former legislation (Law 333 1996 produced the result expected from the administration of seizure goods. This law pretended that this goods were not only productive, but also that they may generate employment. It is proposed in this article some remedies for the problems that were not solve by the new legislation (laws 785-793 2002 with the aim to establish the legal and institutional adjustments that permit that permit the fulfillment of the original objectives.

  17. Parental opinions of their child's experience in the legal process: an interpretative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Christina; Gustafsson, Per A; Berterö, Carina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate how parents of children who are victims of sexual assault experience the legal process from the children's and parents' perspective. Nine parents, identified in the records of three public prosecution offices in three cities in Sweden, were interviewed. The parents described feelings of shame and guilt over what their children had experienced. They felt stigmatized and had difficulty fulfilling their parental role, perceived a lack of information and support from the professionals involved, and experienced a sense of withdrawal from their role as parents, though they felt the professionals who worked with their children were helpful and influential.

  18. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study tw...

  19. 求职过程的宏观—微观分析:多层次模型%A Macro-Micro Interactive Analysis of the Job-Search Process: A Multilevel Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉成

    2012-01-01

    Based on the New connects macro and micro levels, capital affects the job-search marketization is under full play. Institutionalism Theory's perspective that this paper presents an analysis of how social process in Chinese large cities where There have been few empirical studies with a macro-micro framework, and social capital as a multilevel theoretical concept across both macro and micro levels has not been a focus in research. In this paper, through Manski's interactive model (1993), the collective effectiveness of social capital at the macro level and individuals' social capital at the micro level are linked to examine how the former influences the utilization of the latter. Based on the cohesive relationship between the personal use and macro- level collective use of social capital, and the correlated effects of the in-group similar individuals' behaviors in the same institutional environment, this paper has made two propositions about the interaction between capital's collective effects and the endogenous preference of capital's correlated effects. Thus, an individual's social capital effects in one's job seeking are analyzed within the framework of the macro-level social environment with an attempt to explain that, during the social transformation of China, individuals' social capital and the decision-making of how to use it reflect their endogenous preference of the market system in its evolution, which in turn promotes the development of the market system itself. The empirical analysis has confirmed the commonality and cohesiveness of the functional mechanism of the social capital in job seeking on both the individual and macro levels. The labor market' s positive attitude towards social capital may have increased the probability of using social capital at the individual level and the effective endogenous preference of it. During the establishment of the market system, its development tends to reinforce the preference of the actors

  20. The Analysis of the Macro Factors on the Stock Price of the Real Estate%宏观因素对房地产行业股票价格影响的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹妍

    2015-01-01

    The author has chosen the macro economic index and the stock price index of the real estate to empirically analyze the macro factors on the stock price of the real estate by regression analysis. What we have got from the study is that three macro economic indices(fixed investment, CPI and RMB benchmark deposit interest rates of financial in⁃stitutions)have obvious influence on the stock price index of the real estate,which can serve a certain barometer for in⁃vestors to invest in the real estate stock .%文章通过选择宏观经济指标与房地产股票价格指数数据,运用回归分析方法,就宏观因素对房地产股票价格的影响情况进行了实证分析,得出了固定资产投资、居民消费价格指数和金融机构人民币贷款基准利率3个宏观经济指标对房地产股票价格指数有显著的影响的结论,为投资者投资房地产行业股票提供一定的决策参考。

  1. 移动微型学习应用于英语词汇学习的可行性分析%The feasibility analysis of applying the mobile macro-learning to the English words study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雁

    2014-01-01

    随着网络信息技术和通讯技术的迅速发展,多元化的学习媒介已经延伸到人们生活的各个角落里。移动技术的应用催生移动微学习是利用移动通信技术实现的双向交流的学习方式,本文将在介绍移动微型学习的概述及优势、高职英语词汇学习中存在的问题、移动微型学习应用于英语词汇学习的可行性及需要注意的问题进行了系统研究。%With the rapid development of network information technology and communication technology, diversified learning media has extended to every corner of people's life. The use of mobile technology spawned a mobile macro-learning which is the way of learning achieving the two-way exchange by the use of mobile communication technology, This paper mainly introduces the mobile macro-learning and its advantages, the problems of vocational col ege English learning and the feasibility analysis of applying the mobile macro-learning to the English words study.

  2. Between Economic and Legal Analysis of Incorporated Things: a Critical "NO" to Aedilitian Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CG Kilian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the dictum of the Phame v Paizes 1973 3 397 (A within economic and legal principles to determine whether incorporeal things could possess characteristics of value or quality characteristics as in the case of corporeal things. The author uses practical economic examples to argue for the development of common law. The author identifies relevant Roman law principles which justify the legal nature of incorporeal things. It is demonstrated that the value of incorporeal things depends greatly on future circumstances. It is argued in this article that the courts’ willingness to extend the Aedilitian remedies and the wide interpretation of a dictum et promissum create an open door for any unsatisfied buyer with no entrepreneurial skills to claim a reduced price if the business is unable to achieve similar financial results to those prior to the conclusion of the contract. Currently the seller of a business has no clear or enforceable defense under these circumstances. The author subsequently suggests that relevant Roman law principles should be revisited in the aim to develop an appropriate defense for the seller.

  3. Imatinib Case: Technical and Legal Analysis of Patent Prosecution in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Díaz Pinilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib –marketed as Gleevec™ or Glivec™– is a drug mainly used to treat a condition called Acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Its patent protection in Colombia, as a polymorphic entity of mesylate salt –called Beta polymorphous–, exhibits a divergent procedure due to differences between Colombian Patent Office (SIC and State Council judgment given in order to deny patent right in 2003 and then revoking such denial and ordering patent grant in 2012, respectively. This paper evaluates technical regards associated with each institution arguments and legal topics considered to conclude the instance. Findings show that studies carried out in relation to testimonial evidence and expert advice –that were submitted by two experts –one of them– directly related to the patent application– guided Colombian State Council in order to grant the polymorphous patent, even when there was no clear evidence of inventive step, especially referred as a compound surprising technical effect. Furthermore, the paper includes some comparisons related to legal instances that are in charge of studying patent office decisions in other jurisdictions and protection given –or not– to polymorphous entities in other countries.

  4. Macro Cell Muting Coordination for Non-Uniform Topologies in LTE-A HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for co-channel deployments of pico cells throughout a macro cell layout is studied. In particular, we analyze a scenario where only some macro cells have picos deployed, while other macro cells have no small cells. The challenge for such highly...... irregular scenarios is how to operate eICIC, and especially how to coordinate macro-cell muting. Our analysis shows that for eICIC to provide gain in such scenarios, it is recommended to use fully time aligned traditional Almost Blank Subframes (ABS) in the macro-cells with picos, while first tier...... surrounding macro cells shall use low-power ABS. For such cases, user throughput gains of 30%-40% are still achievable. Moreover, it is demonstrated that if macro muting patterns are not fully time aligned, it causes additional interference fluctuations in the network, resulting in less efficient link...

  5. Better constraints on sources of carbonaceous aerosols using a combined 14C – macro tracer analysis in a European rural background site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The source contributions to carbonaceous PM2.5 aerosol were investigated at a European background site at the edge of the Po Valley, in Northern Italy, during the period January–December 2007. Carbonaceous aerosol was described as the sum of eight source components: primary (1 and secondary (2 biomass burning organic carbon, biomass burning elemental carbon (3, primary (4 and secondary (5 fossil fuel burning organic carbon, fossil fuel burning elemental carbon (6, primary (7 and secondary (8 biogenic organic carbon. The concentration of each component was quantified using a set of macro tracers (organic carbon OC, elemental carbon EC, and levoglucosan, micro tracers (arabitol and mannitol, and 14C measurements. This was the first time that 14C measurements were performed on a long time series of data able to represent the entire annual cycle. This set of 6 tracers, together with assumed uncertainty ranges of the ratios of OC-to-EC, and the fraction of modern carbon in the 8 source categories, provides strong constraints to the source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol. The uncertainty of contributions was assessed with a Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC method accounting for the variability of OC and EC emission factors, and the uncertainty of reference fractions of modern carbon. During winter biomass burning composed 50% of the total carbon (TC concentration, while in summer secondary biogenic OC accounted for 45% of TC. The contribution of primary biogenic aerosol particles was negligible during the entire year. Moreover, aerosol associated with fossil fuel burning represented 26% and 43% of TC in winter and summer, respectively. The comparison of source apportionment results in different urban and rural areas showed that the sampling site was mainly affected by local aerosol sources during winter and regional air masses from the nearby Po Valley in summer. This observation was further confirmed by back-trajectory analysis applying the Potential

  6. 推动澳大利亚入境游的宏观环境因素综述%Macro-environmental Analysis on Australia Inbound Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹恬

    2014-01-01

    Australia is viewed internationally as a desirable tourist destination. This paper investigates the literature search and analysis for Australian inbound tourism. Attention has been given to two macro-environmental factors, socio-culture (terrorism and special interest tourism), economic (currency rate and Chinese market). By logically analyzing the literatures related to those aspects, the work shows that the Australia inbound tourism is growing under a relatively safe background, and is doing a good job to serve tourists' special interests. Also, the Chinese market is driving Australia inbound tourism. After the recovery of the global economy, Australian dollar in recent years had additional impact on inbound tourism of Australia. Depreciation of Australian dollar can improve the price competitiveness of inbound tourism. Appreciation of Australian dollar can weaken the price competitiveness of inbound tourism.%澳大利亚不仅是南半球经济最发达的国家,还凭借其独特的自然风光和出色的人文景观吸引了全球游客的光临。本文针对澳大利亚入境游的文献资料进行了研究调查与分析,重点放在两大宏观因素上,社会文化因素(恐怖主义和兴趣旅游)和经济因素(汇率和中国市场)。通过调研本文指出,澳大利亚入境游人数在一个相对安全的国际环境下呈现出稳定增长的趋势,尤其在开发兴趣旅游方面表现出色,并且中国市场对澳大利亚入境游起到了不可小视的推动作用。全球经济回暖后,澳币汇率近五年的变化对入境游造成了附加影响,当澳币增值时澳大利亚入境游发展速度放缓,反之加快。

  7. 土地政策参与宏观调控的SWOT分析%SWOT Analysis of Land Policy Participation in Macro Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭贯成; 邹伟

    2012-01-01

    运用土地政策参与宏观调控是我国在新时期提出来的一个重大理论和实践问题,有助于丰富、完善社会主义宏观调控理论,有利于国民经济持续、健康、稳定发展,具有重大的理论价值与现实意义.探讨了土地政策能够参与宏观调控的理论依据,运用SWOT分析法,对土地政策参与宏观调控的优势、劣势以及面临的机遇和挑战与货币政策、财政政策进行了比较分析,最后给出了土地政策参与宏观调控的对策建议.%It is an important theoretical and practical problem in China to engage land policy in macro control, which helps to enrich and improve macro-control theory of socialism and is beneficial to the sustainable, healthy and stable development of national economy, and which is of great theoretical value and practical significance. This paper discusses the theoretical basis of land policy participation in macro control, and uses the SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the land policy, compared with monetary policy and fiscal policy. Finally, the paper puts forward some countermeasures for land policy participation in macro control.

  8. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  9. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  10. Analysis on Factors Influencing Development of Renewable Energy Within Legal Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article systematically discusses supplementary rules and regulations required by the Renewable Energy Law. Based on the contents of the law, the interrelationships among various parts of the law is established and analyzed briefly in the form of flowchart. Several key factors are analyzed, such as understanding of developing renewable energy, methods of setting goals, electricity price fixing, completion time of making relevant regulations and setting relevant standards within the legal framework. It presents several suggestions on corresponding measures, including promoting by law, instituting rules and regulations in advance, planning scientifically, setting goals, taking local conditions into account, learning experience of other countries, reducing capital cost, establishing a mechanism of follow-up evaluation and revising in good time.

  11. Patient Mobility in Times of Austerity: A Legal and Policy Analysis of the Petru Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischhut, Markus; Fahy, Nick

    2016-03-01

    The case-law of the Court of Justice (ECJ) on patient mobility was recently challenged by a ruling that a patient could go to Germany for treatment when facilities in Romanian hospitals were inadequate. Given the reported impact of austerity measures in the field of health care this raises the question; what is the impact of the ECJ's ruling on how Member States can manage expenditure and limit outflows of patients and how should such measures be legally evaluated? The objective of this article is to analyse potential impact on health systems in the context of increasing pressure on public financing for health. While the ECJ mainly referred to the requirement of treatment in due time, we also analyse possible austerity reductions of the basket of care against the background of EU law (i.e., EGJ case-law, patient mobility directive, Charter of Fundamental rights and social security regulation).

  12. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  13. Early childhood development in Rwanda: a policy analysis of the human rights legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Scott, Kirstin W; Harward, Sardis H

    2016-01-12

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a critical period that continues to impact human health and productivity throughout the lifetime. Failing to provide policies and programs that support optimal developmental attainment when such services are financially and logistically feasible can result in negative population health, education and economic consequences that might otherwise be avoided. Rwanda, with its commitment to rights-based policy and program planning, serves as a case study for examination of the national, regional, and global human rights legal frameworks that inform ECD service delivery. In this essay, we summarize key causes and consequences of the loss of early developmental potential and how this relates to the human rights legal framework in Rwanda. We contend that sub-optimal early developmental attainment constitutes a violation of individuals' rights to health, education, and economic prosperity. These rights are widely recognized in global, regional and national human rights instruments, and are guaranteed by Rwanda's constitution. Recent policy implementation by several Rwandan ministries has increased access to health and social services that promote achievement of full developmental potential. These ECD-centric activities are characterized by an integrated approach to strengthening the services provided by several public sectors. Combining population level activities with those at the local level, led by local community health workers and women's councils, can bolster community education and ensure uptake of ECD services. Realization of the human rights to health, education, and economic prosperity requires and benefits from attention to the period of ECD, as early childhood has the potential to be an opportunity for expedient intervention or the first case of human rights neglect in a lifetime of rights violations. Efforts to improve ECD services and outcomes at the population level require multisector collaboration at the highest echelons

  14. A Jurisprudential Analysis of Public Schools' Legal Status%我国公立中小学法律地位的法理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅添

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese public schools' legal status is an important issue, but is full of debates in recent years. By the jurisprudential analysis under present legal system of China, we can conclude that the public schools meet all the establishment requirements of legal personality. They act as administrative counterpart in the legal relationship of education administration. But in civil legal relationship they should be regarded as institution legal persons, and execute the autonomy in running schools independently.%我国公立中小学的法律地位,在学界中一直是一个重要的争论焦点.而在我国现行的法律体制下,透过对其的法理分析可以发现,公立中小学符合我国所规定的法人成立要件.因此,在教育行政法律关系中它是行政相对人,而在民事法律关系中则是独立的事业单位法人,拥有独立的、不受干涉的办学自主权.

  15. 应用SAS软件宏命令实现二分类数据的Meta分析%Application of SAS software macros for realizing Meta-analysis of two-category data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢金柱; 李胜; 翁鸿; 曾宪涛

    2014-01-01

    SAS system is considered as one of international standard software systems in the field of data processing and statistics, however, it required the user has higher capability due to its complex and difficult programming. For well applying SAS for conducting a Meta-analysis, Stephen Senna and his colleagues developed a suite of macros for the Meta-analysis of binary data. These macros will realize the Meta-analysis of binary data conveniently and can generate the forest plot, funnel plot, Galbraith plot, Q-Q plot and other graphs. The authors introduced in the paper how to use these SAS macros for conducting the Meta-analysis of binary data.%SAS被誉为国际上数据处理和统计分析领域的标准软件系统,但其程序编写复杂且难度较大,对使用者的要求较高。为了更好的使用SAS软件实现Meta分析,Stephen Senna等人编写了一套专用于二分类资料的Meta分析的宏命令。这套宏语言可以方便的实现Meta分析,绘制森林图、漏斗图、加尔布雷斯图、Q-Q正态分布图等图形。本文结合实例对应用SAS宏语言实现二分类数据Meta分析的方法进行详细介绍。

  16. Studying policy implementation using a macro, meso and micro frame analysis: the case of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care (CLAHRC) programme nationally and in North West London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Sarah E M; Mays, Nicholas

    2012-10-15

    The publication of Best research for best health in 2006 and the "ring-fencing" of health research funding in England marked the start of a period of change for health research governance and the structure of research funding in England. One response to bridging the 'second translational gap' between research knowledge and clinical practice was the establishment of nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). The goal of this paper is to assess how national-level understanding of the aims and objectives of the CLAHRCs translated into local implementation and practice in North West London. This study uses a variation of Goffman's frame analysis to trace the development of the initial national CLAHRC policy to its implementation at three levels. Data collection and analysis were qualitative through interviews, document analysis and embedded research. Analysis at the macro (national policy), meso (national programme) and micro (North West London) levels shows a significant common understanding of the aims and objectives of the policy and programme. Local level implementation in North West London was also consistent with these. The macro-meso-micro frame analysis is a useful way of studying the transition of a policy from high-level idea to programme in action. It could be used to identify differences at a local (micro) level in the implementation of multi-site programmes that would help understand differences in programme effectiveness.

  17. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  18. d Macro and (3)He macro production in square root of s(NN) = 130 GeV Au+Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; DeMello, M; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grabski, J; Grachov, O; Greiner, D; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Y I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Konstantinov, A S; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lynn, D; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Y A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Y; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Platner, E; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Radomski, S; Rai, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Symons, T J; de Toledo, A S; Szarwas, P; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vanyashin, A; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Wenaus, T; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-12-24

    The first measurements of light antinucleus production in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider are reported. The observed production rates for d macro and (3)He macro are much larger than in lower energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. A coalescence model analysis of the yields indicates that there is little or no increase in the antinucleon freeze-out volume compared to collisions at CERN SPS energy. These analyses also indicate that the (3)He macro freeze-out volume is smaller than the d macro freeze-out volume.

  19. 101 Ready-To-Use Excel Macros

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Save time and be more productive with this helpful guide to Excel macros! While most books about Excel macros offer only minor examples, usually aimed at illustrating a particular topic, this invaluable resource provides you with the tools needed to efficiently and effectively program Excel macros immediately. Step-by-step instructions show you how to create VBA macros and explain how to customize your applications to look and work exactly as you want them to. By the end of the book, you will understand how each featured macro works, be able to reuse the macros included in the book and online,

  20. Analysis Of Credit Risk in Legal Entities in The Case of „Vakufska Banka“ – Sarajevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JasminaAdemović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Each bank in its operations, faces numerous factors that can lead to negative consequences. Risk represents the uncertainty of future outcomes, which consists of uncertainties and exposure to the specified uncertainty. If the bank is exposed to uncertainty it can lead to serious financial consequences, provided that the level of uncertainty is not equated with the degree of exposure. It should be noted that most of the risks can not be predicted and financial institutions over and over again are facing with crisis phenomena and numerous losses because they do not have accompanying measures and strategies to combat the risks. The subject of the final paper is related to the definition and analysis of credit risk management. In accordance with a defined problem and the subject of research, the main goals are to define the main banking risks as well as the Basel principles and risk management strategy, define credit risk, analyze credit risk management in banking and to analyze and present credit risk management in legal entities in the example of the "Vakufska banka“ (analysis of qualitative and quantitative indicators, cash flow analysis, analysis projects, the SC analysis, exposure, analysis of related parties.

  1. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Manne, A.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US); Wene, C.O. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US)]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled {open_quotes}top-down macroeconomic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}bottom-up engineering{close_quotes} perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands? Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources? Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands? An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  2. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Manne, A.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Wene, C.O. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled [open quotes]top-down macroeconomic[close quotes] and [open quotes]bottom-up engineering[close quotes] perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  3. [Verification of private paternity analysis at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Greifswald, Jena, and Kiel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Simeoni, Eva; Poetsch, Micaela; Banaschak, Sibylle; Mályusz, Victoria; Schwark, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    This investigation presents the retrospective evaluation of paternity testing done as a "second opinion" in the last four years at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Jena, Greifswald, and Kiel (Germany). All analyses were court-ordered and were preceded by paternity tests of "private" labs. The cases were selected in chronological order without any further exclusion criteria. A total of 59 cases, in which "private" laboratories from all regions of Germany had already performed paternity tests, were evaluated. In all cases, analyses were mainly done by PCR-based STR-typing (8 - 20 STRs). 18 % of the investigated "private" expert opinions showed a false determination of alleles. In two cases, paternity was wrongly confirmed or excluded. The reasons for the mistakes of private laboratories were hard to analyse, since most labs did not provide sufficient information (e.g. alleles, kits and chemicals used) in the written test results. In several cases, not even the typing results were revealed. Furthermore, in paternity testing of "private" labs the identity of the persons examined was usually not assured (e. g. by photo documentation or fingerprints) adding to the problem of insufficient test result reliability.

  4. A comparative legal analysis of social media advertising of drugs in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies use social media such as Facebook and Twitter more and more to advertise their products. Advertising of medicinal products especially in social media is a critical issue confronting patient protection, competition law and ethical concerns in direct-to-consumer advertising. Advertising in the World Wide Web must take into account national and international regulations, depending on which user from which country will have access to the information posted. Different legal requirements, if any, regulate the advertising of medicinal products. This paper discusses, challenges and compares the requirements and regulations of advertising medicinal products in social media, such as Facebook, in the United States on a federal level and the European Union with Germany as a reference Member State. Social media are very active and fast moving. Therefore, it is challenging and necessary at the same time to set guidelines and regulations for the use of social media in drug advertising. This paper is a first step toward promoting an international, consistent approach when talking about regulating advertising of medicinal products in social media.

  5. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  6. Analysis of geodetic and legal documentation in the process of expropriation for roads. Krakow case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Amendment to the Act on special rules of preparation and implementation of investment in public roads resulted in an accelerated mode of acquisition of land for the development of roads. The decision to authorize the execution of road investment issued on its basis has several effects, i.e. determines the location of a road, approves surveying division, approves construction design and also results in acquisition of a real property by virtue of law by the State Treasury or local government unit, among others. The conducted study revealed that over 3 years, in this mode, the city of Krakow has acquired 31 hectares of land intended for the implementation of road investments. Compensation is determined in separate proceedings based on an appraisal study estimating property value, often at a distant time after the loss of land by the owner. One reason for the lengthy compensation proceedings is challenging the proposed amount of compensation, unregulated legal status of the property as well as imprecise legislation. It is important to properly develop geodetic and legal documentation which accompanies the application for issuance of the decision and is also used in compensation proceedings. Zmiana ustawy o szczególnych zasadach przygotowywania i realizacji inwestycji w zakresie dróg publicznych spowodowała przyspieszony tryb pozyskiwania gruntów przeznaczonych pod budowę dróg. Wydawana na jej podstawie decyzja o zezwoleniu na realizację inwestycji drogowej wywołuje szereg skutków, tj. m.in. ustala lokalizację drogi, zatwierdza podziały geodezyjne, zatwierdza projekt budowlany a także powoduje nabycie nieruchomości z mocy prawa, przez Skarb Państwa lub jednostki samorządu terytorialnego. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały iż w powyższym trybie miasto Kraków nabyło w okresie 3 lat ponad 31 ha gruntów przeznaczonych na realizację inwestycji drogowych. Odszkodowanie ustalane jest w drodze odrębnego postępowania w oparciu o operat szacunkowy okre

  7. Should Postponing Motherhood via “Social Freezing” Be Legally Banned? An Ethical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bernstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In industrial societies, women increasingly postpone motherhood. While men do not fear a loss of fertility with age, women face the biological boundary of menopause. The freezing of unfertilized eggs can overcome this biological barrier. Due to technical improvements in vitrification, so-called “social freezing” (SF for healthy women is likely to develop into clinical routine. Controversial ethical debates focus on the risks of the technique for mother and child, the scope of reproductive autonomy, and the medicalization of reproduction. Some criticize the use of the technique in healthy women in general, while others support a legally defined maximum age for women at the time of an embryo transfer after oocyte cryopreservation. Since this represents a serious encroachment on the reproductive autonomy of the affected women, the reasons for and against must be carefully examined. We analyze arguments for and against SF from a gendered ethical perspective. We show that the risk of the cryopreservation of oocytes for mother and future child is minimal and that the autonomy of the women involved is not compromised. The negative ethical evaluation of postponed motherhood is partly due to a biased approach highlighting only the medical risks for the female body without recognizing the potential positive effects for the women involved. In critical accounts, age is associated in an undifferentiated way with morbidity and psychological instability and is thus used in a discriminatory way. We come to the conclusion that age as a predictor of risk in the debate about SF is, from an ethical point of view, an empty concept based on gender stereotypes and discriminatory connotations of aging. A ban on postponing motherhood via SF is not justified.

  8. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  9. Legal analysis of contract models in a common Nordic electricity retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerneby, Henrik; Alvik, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to consider the legal advantages and disadvantages with different contract models given NordREG's choice of a supplier centric model with mandatory combined billing in a future Nordic end-user market for electricity.At the outset, there are today three relevant categories of agreements in place between customers, suppliers and DSOs in the Nordic electricity retail markets: the electricity supply agreements between customers and suppliers, the grid use agreements between customers and DSOs, and the grid connection agreements usually entered into between customers and DSOs. We have assumed that issues governed by the grid connection agreements will still be entered into by DSOs under a supplier centric model. Two general contract models have on this basis been considered as possible approaches to regulation of electricity supply and grid use terms under a future supplier centric model. The subcontractor model is considered in more detail in chapter 7 of this report. Under this model, the customer enters into a contract with the supplier governing both electricity supply and grid use. The supplier then enters into a separate contract with the DSO for grid use, making the DSO a subcontractor for this service. The Danish wholesale model which will be implemented from 1 October 2014 represents one example of a subcontractor model.The main advantage of the subcontractor model is that it will entitle the customer to envisage the electricity supply, including grid services, as a single service delivered by the supplier. On the other hand, the sub-contractor model will extend the responsibilities of suppliers towards customers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this model further in section 7.2. The power of attorney model is considered in more detail in chapter 8 of this report. Under this model, the customer and the DSO will still formally be contract parties to the grid use agreement, but the supplier will act with a

  10. Legal analysis of contract models in a common Nordic electricity retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerneby, Henrik; Alvik, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to consider the legal advantages and disadvantages with different contract models given NordREG's choice of a supplier centric model with mandatory combined billing in a future Nordic end-user market for electricity.At the outset, there are today three relevant categories of agreements in place between customers, suppliers and DSOs in the Nordic electricity retail markets: the electricity supply agreements between customers and suppliers, the grid use agreements between customers and DSOs, and the grid connection agreements usually entered into between customers and DSOs. We have assumed that issues governed by the grid connection agreements will still be entered into by DSOs under a supplier centric model. Two general contract models have on this basis been considered as possible approaches to regulation of electricity supply and grid use terms under a future supplier centric model. The subcontractor model is considered in more detail in chapter 7 of this report. Under this model, the customer enters into a contract with the supplier governing both electricity supply and grid use. The supplier then enters into a separate contract with the DSO for grid use, making the DSO a subcontractor for this service. The Danish wholesale model which will be implemented from 1 October 2014 represents one example of a subcontractor model.The main advantage of the subcontractor model is that it will entitle the customer to envisage the electricity supply, including grid services, as a single service delivered by the supplier. On the other hand, the sub-contractor model will extend the responsibilities of suppliers towards customers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this model further in section 7.2. The power of attorney model is considered in more detail in chapter 8 of this report. Under this model, the customer and the DSO will still formally be contract parties to the grid use agreement, but the supplier will act with a

  11. Hygienic Macros for JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Timothy Charles

    2015-01-01

    Languages like Lisp, Scheme, and Racket have shown that powerful and expressive macro systems can give programmers the ability to grow their own language. Unfortunately, in languages with syntax like JavaScript, macros have had less success, due in part to the difficulty of integrating macro expansion and complex grammars.This dissertation describes sweet.js, a hygienic macro system for JavaScript that fixes long standing challenges in lexing JavaScript and provides expressive pattern matchi...

  12. Multiple muons in MACRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  13. 比较广告的合法性分析%Analysis of the Legality of Comparative advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林锴琪

    2012-01-01

    比较广告作为商事个体从事商务活动所采用的竞争手段,其运用与其他商事个体的商品在质量、用途、性能、条件、价款等方面进行比较,以此来吸引消费者并占据市场,是市场竞争者在竞争市场上的有力武器。比较广告行为是商业性言论自由的体现,有利于对消费者的保护,但是,其本身有不可避免的弊端。因此,对比较广告的合法性进行分析,对正确合法的比较广告加以保护,而对超出市场“游戏规则”的行为要加以禁止。%Advertising exists everywhere in modem society, no one could escape from it. Comparative Advertising is used as a commercial entity engaged in commercial activities by means of competition, its use and comparison with other commercial individual goods in quality, use, performance, condition, price, etc. are to attract consumers and occupy the market, it is a powerful weapon for competitive market in the competing market. Comparison of commercial advertising is a manifestation of freedom of expression, and is conducive to consumer protection. Meanwhile, it has unavoidable defects. Therefore, analysis of The Legality of Comparative advertising could protect Comparative Advertising which is legal and could prohibit Comparative Advertising whish is beyond the market "game rules".

  14. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage; Analisis juridico a la Ley de responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, A

    2000-07-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  15. Preliminary analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the low-head hydroelectric potential of the 19 northeastern US (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia) is presented. The statutes and case laws of the 19 states and the Federal government which affect developers of small dams are stressed. The legal uncertainty which confronts the developer of small dams and the regulatory burden to which the developer may be subjected once the uncertainty is resolved are emphasized.

  16. Legal Language in Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the considerable role of legal translation in intercultural communication. Effective intercultural communication requires sufficient language skills and also extensive knowledge of the cultures involved, which encompass official social behaviour norms, enshrined in the corresponding legal systems. The basic legal terms often pose substantial difficulties even for experienced translators and, hence, to communication, because these terms nominate concepts that are inherently linked with culture, moral values and legal tradition of a given country. In intercultural communication the most widely used legal English is permeated by Anglo-Saxon legal system and concepts which have little or no equivalents in Romano-Germanic or other continental law countries. The authors present a comparative analysis of the translation strategies employed by the compilers of two main English-Lithuanian law dictionaries (V. Bitinaitė „Mokomasis anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės terminų žodynas“ and O. Armalytė, L. Pažūsis. „Anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės žodynas“ in translation of the English-Welsh law terms defining abstract common law terms, some specific English-Welsh legal professions and the English-Welsh court names. The findings of the analysis reveal the difficulties which the dictionary compilers have to cope with when translating culture-bound terms and the strategies chosen by them for problematic translations. The research also highlights the role of the legal language translator as the key figure in facilitating different cultural background comprehension of the legal terms and, what is even more important, specific aspects of legal systems; the latter being necessary for efficacious intercultural cooperation.

  17. A Corpus-Based Discourse Information Analysis of Chinese EFL Learners' Autonomy in Legal Case Brief Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinshi

    2017-01-01

    Legal case brief writing is pedagogically important yet insufficiently discussed for Chinese EFL learners majoring in law. Based on process genre approach and discourse information theory (DIT), the present study designs a corpus-based analytical model for Chinese EFL learners' autonomy in legal case brief writing and explores the process of case…

  18. 宏观噪声方法在铀部件分析中的应用研究%Research on Uranium Components Analysis Based on Macro-noise Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢军华; 刘知贵; 张活力; 任立学

    2012-01-01

    Depth Nuclear Disarmament relates to identification and discrimination of Nuclear War Head. The key of Depth Nuclear Disarmament is identification and discrimination of Nuclear Components of Nuclear War Head, and Nuclear Components of Nuclear War Head are mainly Plutonium components and Uranium components. So analysis of Uranium components attributes is one of the important contents of arms control verification. By analyzing fission reaction of active induced uranium components, we acquired its fission laws. According the laws, computer simulation was used to actively induce the random pulse counting signal of uranium components. Using macro-noise analysis method to deal with random pulse counting signal, we obtained auto-correlation function, cross-correlation function, auto power spectral densities, cross power spectral densities and multiplicity, and features functions of simulation data. Thus the methodology to the characteristics of fission time correlation signal of active induced uranium components was established with macro-noise analysis.%深度核裁军涉及到核弹头的认证和鉴别,关键是对核弹头中核部件的认证和鉴别,核弹头中的核部件主要是钚部件和铀部件,那么,对铀部件属性的分析是军控核查技术的重要内容之一.通过分析主动诱发铀部件的裂变反应过程,得到裂变规律,据此,采用计算机仿真主动诱发铀部件的随机脉冲计数信号.使用宏观噪声分析方法处理随机脉冲计数信号,得到仿真数据的自相关函数与互相关函数、功率谱密度与互谱密度及多重性等特征数据,并建立了主动诱发铀部件裂变时间关联信号特性的宏观噪声分析方法,为认证提供了依据.

  19. Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettelheim, Eric C; D'Origny, Gilonne

    2002-08-15

    The controversy over the issues of carbon sinks and emissions trading nearly aborted the Kyoto Protocol. The lengthy and intense debate over the roles that each are to play under the Protocol and the consequent political compromises has resulted in a complex set of provisions and an arcane nomenclature. The distinction drawn between the use of carbon sinks in developed countries under Joint Implementation and their use in developing countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a particular source of intricacy. It is at least arguable that key elements of the compromises reached at COP-6 and COP-7 in this regard are inconsistent with the terms of the Protocol and are ultra vires the Convention on Climate Change. This is a source of both uncertainty and potential legal challenge. Not only do the recent decisions create needless complexity, they also clearly discriminate against developing nations. Among the recent political compromises is the creation of a third type of non-bankable but tradeable unit with respect to forest management, which is only available to Annex I countries. The result is an anomalous one in which a variety of otherwise equivalent carbon credits can be generated under three different regimes including one, the CDM, that is subject to an elaborate regulatory overlay that discriminates against carbon sequestration by developing countries. For example, complying developed countries can essentially self-certify sequestration projects. In contrast, projects in developing countries must obtain prior approval from a subsidiary body, the CDM Executive Board, mandated to require detailed information and impose substantive and procedural hurdles not required or imposed by its companion body, the Article 6 Supervisory Committee on Joint Implementation Projects. The parallel and related debate over the third 'flexibility' mechanism, emissions trading, compounded the complexity of an already asymmetric and bifurcated system. The new requirements

  20. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  1. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice.

  2. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  3. 商业银行理财产品创新对宏观审慎管理的影响分析%The Analysis of Financial Product Innovation of Commercial Banks Influence on Macro Prudential Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2013-01-01

    2005年以来,商业银行理财产品创新迅猛发展,在满足大众旺盛的投资需求的同时也为商业银行创造了新的利润增长点。与此同时,我们注意到,商业银行理财产品创新对宏观审慎管理的实施提出了新的要求。本文在对理财产品市场发展现状和特点进行总结的基础上,梳理出理财产品创新对宏观审慎管理影响的六个突出问题,最后提出下一步的政策建议。%Since 2005, financial product innovation of commercial banks has rapid development, that create a new proift growth point at the same time meet the public strong investment demand for commercial banks. However, the ifnancial product innovation of commercial banks has the impact on the implementation of macro prudential management. In this paper based on the analysis of the ifnancial products market development status and characteristics, tease out the six outstanding issues that affect financial products innovation on macro Prudential Management, ifnally puts forward policy suggestions.

  4. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  5. Analysis of surveying and legal problems in granting right-of-way and expropriation for the purpose of locating technical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A condition which determines the location of technical infrastructure is an entrepreneur holding the right to use the property for construction purposes. Currently, there are parallel separate legal forms allowing the use of a real property for the purpose of locating transmission lines, i.e. transmission easement (right-of-way) established under the civil law and expropriation by limiting the rights to a property under the administrative law. The aim of the study is to compare these forms conferring the right to use real properties and to analyze the related surveying and legal problems occurring in practice. The research thesis of the article is ascertainment that the current legal provisions for establishing legal titles to a property in order to locate transmission lines need to be amended. The conducted study regarded legal conditions, extent of expropriation and granting right-of-way in the city of Krakow, as well as the problems associated with the ambiguous wording of the legal regulations. Part of the research was devoted to the form of rights to land in order to carry out similar projects in some European countries (France, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden). The justification for the analysis of these issues is dictated by the scale of practical use of the aforementioned forms of rights to land in order to locate technical infrastructure. Over the period of 2011-2014, 651 agreements were concluded on granting transmission right-of-way for 967 cadastral parcels owned by the city of Krakow, and 105 expropriation decisions were issued, limiting the use of real properties in Krakow.

  6. Digital Audio Legal Recorder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Digital Audio Legal Recorder (DALR) provides the legal recording capability between air traffic controllers, pilots and ground-based air traffic control TRACONs...

  7. Immunoglobulin-associated creatine kinase masquerading as macro-creatine kinase type 2 in a statin user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ang, Yan Hoon; Neo, Siew Fong; Yin, Cecilia; Wong, Moh Sim; Leong, Sai Mun; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil K

    2012-01-01

    Macro-creatine kinase (CK) is a cause of falsely elevated CK. Macro-CK type 1 is immunoglobulin-associated CK; type 2 is polymeric mitochondrial-CK. An elderly asymptomatic lady had an elevated CK level after receiving statin therapy. Her CK gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated coexisting macro-CK type 1 and type 2 patterns. Further analysis by immunofixation and mixing this patient's serum with CK control material revealed an IgG-associated macro-CK that mimicked the electrophoretic pattern of macro-CK type 2. This highly unusual discovery suggests the possibility of the misinterpretation of macro-CK type 1 as macro-CK type 2. Falsely elevated CK is still common despite modern laboratory instrumentation and should be investigated.

  8. Substitute decision making in medicine: comparative analysis of the ethico-legal discourse in England and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jox, Ralf J; Michalowski, Sabine; Lorenz, Jorn; Schildmann, Jan

    2008-06-01

    Health care decision making for patients without decisional capacity is ethically and legally challenging. Advance directives (living wills) have proved to be of limited usefulness in clinical practice. Therefore, academic attention should focus more on substitute decision making by the next of kin. In this article, we comparatively analyse the legal approaches to substitute medical decision making in England and Germany. Based on the current ethico-legal discourse in both countries, three aspects of substitute decision making will be highlighted: (1) Should there be a legally predefined order of relatives who serve as health care proxies? (2) What should be the respective roles and decisional powers of patient-appointed versus court-appointed substitute decision-makers? (3) Which criteria should be determined by law to guide substitute decision-makers?

  9. Legal Analysis of Third Party Logistics Contract%第三方物流合同的法律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩松

    2012-01-01

    阐述了第三方物流合同的概念、特征及主要内容,分析其法律性质,在介绍与第三方物流合同相关的法律关系基础上,从合同的法律适用、归责原则、法律风险及规避等方面分析第三方物流合同.%In this paper, we introduced the concept, characterization and main content of third party logistics contract, analyzed its legal nature, and on the basis of an exposition of the legal relationship in third party logistics contracts, studied the legal applicability, accountability principle, legal risks and their aversion of the contracts.

  10. ANALYSIS OF LEGAL ASPECTS OF STORAGE OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS APPOINTED FOR MEDICAL AND SANITARY CONSEQUENCES OF EMERGENCIES MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Ibragimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes principal legal aspects of medical products storage, appointed for medical and sanitary consequences of emergencies mitigation. We have revealed that nowadays there is a whole range of legal gaps and uncertainties in the regulation of medical products storage. We have also offered the ways for their solution

  11. Representation of Gamblers in the Singaporean Press since Casino Legalization: A Corpus-driven Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray C. H. Leung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Capitalizing on the lack of gambling-related research among discourse analysts and the recent liberalization of casino operations in Singapore, the present article reports on the discursive representation of gamblers in Singapore newspaper texts by merging corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis. 889 articles from the popular daily paper The Straits Times (Singapore were retrieved via LexisNexis in accordance with a series of criteria. The extracted texts, which were dated from 17 April 2005 to 28 April 2013, constitute the 615 827-word corpus of the current study. WordSmith Tools 6.0 was used to perform collocation analysis, which was enriched by critical examination of the concordance lines. The findings indicate that apart from gender stereotyping, social alienation is manifested in various ways while gamblers are being portrayed. For instance, the pronoun collocate ‘we’ of the node ‘gambler*’ tends to signify the non-gamblers’ voice which is geared towards the institutional stance. The verb collocate ‘say’ is frequently used in contexts where the gamblers are being commented upon or criticized. The analytic outcomes of the research have once again confirmed the ‘hegemonizing’ character of newspaper texts. Keywords: critical discourse analysis, gamblers, Singaporean press, corpus linguistics, institutionally constructed identities, collocation

  12. 人口结构转变及其对宏观经济运行影响评述%Demographic Transition and Its Effects on Macro Economy: A Literature Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨艺; 张琼

    2012-01-01

    人口结构转变如何影响宏观经济运行既是一个国际性的命题也是一个颇具中国特色的典型问题,国内外学者已就此展开了长时间的多角度探索,但鲜有研究对此进行系统性总结.本文以人口结构转变理论演进为切入点,结合现有分析方法和结论对人口结构转变影响宏观经济运行的传导路径进行了回顾性梳理.结论表明,首先就方法论而言,人口对宏观经济影响的文献已经从早期的总量分析过渡到了如今的结构性分析,并且学者在分析过程中也逐渐从人口如何影响一国或地区的消费、储蓄、投资、进出口贸易以及国际资本流动等中间变量的角度来思考人口对宏观经济影响的具体传导路径;其次,尽管文献结论倾向于认为人口结构转变会对这些中间变量产生影响,但影响的方向与幅度远未达成一致,从而意味着人口结构转变对宏观经济运行的最终影响并无定论;这既与理论分析未成定论相对应,也与学者所采用的数据和方法不同等密切相关.因此,本文认为尽管分析人口对宏观经济影响的研究颇多,但在中国特色国情背景下相关方面的研究仍任重道远.%How demographic transition affects macro economy has always been not only an international proposition, but also a typical topic with Chinese characteristics. Therefore both domestic and foreign scholars have considered the relationship between population and economic development from various aspects for a long time, while few studies have reached an agreement on conclusions so far. This paper starts with a review on theoretical evolution of related literature, and then retrospectively summarizes possible mechanisms of demographic transition on macro economy. It finds that, firstly, in terms of methodology, related researches have changed their focus on aggregate analysis at the very early first stage to recent structural investigations, and further

  13. A Preliminary Analysis of Insects of Medico-legal Importance in Curitiba, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Osvaldo Moura

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the carrion fauna was made at two sites in Curitiba, State of Paraná, with the objective of describing the insects associated with carrion and setting up a preliminary data-base for medico-legal purposes in south Brazil. Vertebrate exclusion experiments were carried out in each season between 1994 and 1995 with a 250 g laboratory-bred rat (Rattus norvegicus. Five stages of decomposition were identified: fresh, bloated, decaying, dry and adipocere-like. Some species showed seasonal and site preference and so could be used to identify the probable place and season where death took place. Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera, Calliphoridae was restricted to an open field site and to cooler months. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Pattonella resona (Diptera, Sarcophagidae were restricted to the forest site and warmer months. Phaenicia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Oxyletrum discicolle (Coleoptera, Silphidae were present at both sites throughout the year and could be useful for population level analysis. Dissochaetus murray (Coleoptera, Cholevidae was present throughout the year at the forest site and was associated with the adipocere-like stage. Ants played an important role producing post-mortem injuries to the carcasses. Insects of 32 species are reported as being useful in community level approaches

  14. Scientific analysis and historical aspects as tools in the legal investigation of paintings: a case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schossler, Patricia; de Figueiredo Júnior, João Cura D'Ars; Fortes, Isabel; Cruz Souza, Luiz Antônio

    2014-12-01

    The faker makes use of several strategies to give credibility to his work, as for example by copying artist's style or by using artificial aging techniques. The characterization of artistic materials, such as pigments, binding media and supports through chemical and/or physico-chemical analysis, coupled with art historical information is essential to establish the non-authenticity of works of art. This paper presents a contribution in a legal case regarding paintings attributed to important Brazilian and European artists such as Candido Portinari, Juan Gris, Camille Pissarro, and Umberto Boccioni, among others. In the investigation, modern synthetic painting materials were identified in all the ground layers of the suspected paintings. The use of diverse instrumental analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry enabled this characterization. The results demonstrated the presence of titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate and kaolin as inorganic components of the paints, and polyvinyl acetate copolymerized with vinyl versatates or diisobutylphtalate as binding media in the ground layers of the paintings. The results obtained, along with art historical information and art technological studies, were very important in the judicial process, due to the possibility to use titanium dioxide and polyvinyl acetate copolymerized with vinyl versatates as chronological markers.

  15. Legal English and Adapted Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the significance of authentic legal English text and adapted legal texts in ESP classes. The authors point out the advantages and disadvantages of legal texts and analyse the possibilities of their efficient application in the teaching process. At the initial stage of teaching English legalese, materials prepared specially for teaching purposes in textbooks seem to be more appropriate as they are adapted for a particular level for law students whereas in more advanced levels, authentic texts in a legal English classroom can more considerably contribute to the learning experience. The usage of both legal authentic materials and adapted legal texts have tangible impact on mastering legal English.

  16. [Burnout syndrome. Legal medicine: analysis and evaluation INAIL protection in cases of suicide induced by burnout within the helping professions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Luigi; Fidenzi, Luca; Gualtieri, Giacomo; Nucci, Giulia; Fagiolini, Andrea; Coluccia, Anna; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    After a survey of the definition and etiopathogenesis of burnout syndrome (BOS) carried out with the support of the most reliable available literature on the subject, the essay focuses on clinical evaluation (psychometric identification and quantification) of burn-out. In accordance with Circular 71/2003 of INAIL, it is assumed to be essential both legally and scientifically knowledge that the syndrome of burnout, knowledge, which involves an analysis of the case conducted with objective strictness and critical sensibility. It is carried out by collecting data on work history, physiological history, remote and proximal pathological history and performing a physical examination including neuro-psychiatric and psycho-diagnostic tests surveys. Only after the ascertainment of an effective existence of a psychiatric syndrome related to burnout phenomenon indeed, it will be possible (and necessary) to quantify the period of illness and the potential temporary biological damage or, more rarely, a permanent one. Given the difficulty of applying the forensic methodology to BOS (among which: the evaluation of the previous state of the person, the assessment of the causal link, the difficulties of nosographic of mental illness, the near impossibility of adequate prognostic evaluation, the difficulty to identify suitable criteria for establishing the importance and nature of limitations of daily living), in order to quantify the damage as objective as possible, it will be necessary to: 1) reconstruct the previous mental state of the subject; 2) assess the psychopathological condition following the event which the action of recognition focuses on; 3) express the clinical severity graduation judgment of the framework as well as a prognosis regarding the mental disorder found. The second part of the analysis focuses on the relationship between BOS and "helping profession"; specific attention is paid, in this section of work, to the analysis of the relationship between a typical

  17. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: A Legal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    engage in, or intends to engage in homosexual and heterosexual acts.” 4 The term “ homosexual ” is also defined to include the terms “ gay ” and “ lesbian .”5...who are gay are not members of a “suspect class” for purposes of federal equal protection analysis, that the military ban on homosexual “acts” was...Appeals for the First Circuit handed down a decision upholding a lower court’s dismissal of a challenge to DADT brought by 12 gay and lesbian veterans

  18. 浅析大学生创业的法律制度保障%The brief analysis of legal system to protect the graduate’s undertaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘妍

    2012-01-01

      While the college student, it's Entrepreneurship issues has become the focus of social attention, the legal risks in their entrepreneurial processes is also gradually emerging. On the basis of analysis of the legal guarantee for the status quo of college students venture, the paper point out the defects, and put forward the Corresponding measures. In a bid to improve the socialist market economy in China under the Students entrepreneurial legal protection .We combine the experience of developed countries with China's basic national conditions to achieve the legal protection for college student.%  目前大学生创业问题已成为人们关注的焦点,创业过程中的法律风险问题也逐渐显现。本文在分析了大学生创业法律保障现状的基础上,指出了其中存在的缺陷,并提出相应对策。在借鉴发达国家实现法律保障的同时,结合我国基本国情,完善社会主义市场经济下的我国大学生创业法律保障问题。

  19. Study of atmospheric neutrinos with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Scapparone, E

    2003-01-01

    The MACRO experiment detected different categories of atmospheric muon neutrinos. We describe in this paper the energy estimate of upward throughgoing muons by using the multiple coulomb scattering. Combining the results of such analysis with the upgoing muon angular distribution, both not using the absolute nu flux normalization information, an evidence above 4 sigma for atmospheric neutrino oscillation is found. (7 refs).

  20. Operationalizing Macro-Scripts in CSCL Technological Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounikine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the technological dimensions related to the operationalization of CSCL macro-scripts. CSCL scripts are activity models that aim at enhancing the probability that knowledge generative interactions such as conflict resolution, explanation or mutual regulation occur during the collaboration process. We…

  1. Medical imaging technology shock and volatility of macro economics: Analysis using a three-sector dynamical stochastic general equilibrium REC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shurong; Huang, Yeqing

    2017-07-07

    The study analysed the medical imaging technology business cycle from 1981 to 2009 and found that the volatility of consumption in Chinese medical imaging business was higher than that of the developed countries. The volatility of gross domestic product (GDP) and the correlation between consumption and GDP is also higher than that of the developed countries. Prior to the early 1990s the volatility of consumption is even higher than GDP. This fact makes it difficult to explain the volatile market using the standard one sector real economic cycle (REC) model. Contrary to the other domestic studies, this study considers a three-sector dynamical stochastic general equilibrium REC model. In this model there are two consumption sectors, whereby one is labour intensive and another is capital intensive. The more capital intensive investment sector only introduces technology shocks in the medical imaging market. Our response functions and Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the model can explain 90% of the volatility of consummation relative to GDP, and explain the correlation between consumption and GDP. The results demonstrated the significant correlation between the technological reform in medical imaging and volatility in the labour market on Chinese macro economy development.

  2. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  3. 刑事辩护法律障碍探析%Analysis of Legal Obstacles of Criminal Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雅芬

    2016-01-01

    The criminal defense lawyer is responsible for the maintenance of criminal suspects and the defendant's legal interests and personal rights , but the criminal defense lawyers in the criminal proceedings are faced with the lack of defense rights , security measures and the judicial interpretation of the legal issues for the reason of the transmission system of legal culture , the legislative idea and the judicial system of constraints . The renewal of judicial idea , the further perfection of the lawyer's right , the improvement of the legal status of the legal system , and the realization of the legal status of the criminal defense lawyer and the legal status of the district attorney and the smooth exercise of the right of lawyers is an urgent task at present .%刑事辩护律师承担着维护犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的合法利益及人身权利的重大使命,但刑事辩护律师在刑事诉讼中面临着辩护权利不足、保障措施缺失及司法解释立法化等法律问题,究其原因是传统的法律文化、立法观念和司法制度的制约导致。更新司法理念、进一步完备律师权利、提高律师社会地位、完善法律制度体系,从而真正实现刑事辩护律师与公诉人的诉讼权利平等、保障律师权利的顺利行使,是当下刻不容缓的工作。

  4. Analysis of Legal Validity of Fake Marriage%假结婚的法律效力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧

    2016-01-01

    The false marriage is no longer a strange word in our real life .There are so kinds of false marria-ges under the guise of law.At the same time,it has also not been in the smooth water and only after con-tradictions and disputes coming in a throng that the parties and the judicial personnel then realize its risks. But the current marriage law in China has no regulations and restrictions for this phenomenon which brings some difficulties to the judicial practice.So it is necessary to discuss about this question through theoretical analysis and combination with the comparison of the force to the foreign countries on the basis of the anal-ysis of the phenomenon of false marriage.Then putting forward to some suggestions on the regulation of false marriage in order to put forward to my own suggestions on legislation and judicial practice.%假结婚在现实生活中已不再是个陌生的词汇,在法律的外衣下,隐藏着形形色色的假结婚,但同时,它的出现也并非风平浪静,当后续的矛盾纠纷纷至沓来之时,才让当事人以及司法人员察觉出它的隐患。而我国现行的婚姻法并没有对这一现象进行规定和限制,这给司法实践带来了一些难题,因此有必要在分析假结婚现象的基础上,通过法理分析,结合比较法上的借鉴,对假结婚现象的效力分情形进行研讨,并对假结婚的规制提出一些建议,以期对立法和司法实践提出自己的建议。

  5. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Legalization of an Informal Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Philippines--a developing Southeast Asian country--exemplifies the co-existence of Western-oriented, medical science and indigenous, non-allopathic practices collectively known as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. The purpose of this study is to determine why and how the economics and politics of CAM’s integration with biomedical science could impede the achievement of health care redistribution in developing countries like the Philippines. Approach: Representative case studies of CAM methods and content analysis of related legislation and policy initiatives were undertaken. Results: The study shed light on the problems, challenges and opportunities in addressing the misdistribution of primary and secondary health care in the Philippines. It found that subjective considerations underlie CAM’s legitimacy. These become critical when scientific validity is at issue, information exchanged is asymmetric and political consensus is not readily available. How these considerations were valued from a cost-benefit perspective shaped actual policy outcomes. Conclusion: The study suggested that proper timing, phasing and collaborative strategies are critical to CAM's institutionalization in light of confining economic conditions and political conflicts over health policy. Both objective and subjective costs and benefits of CAM methods and products should be considered in integrating the formal (biomedical and informal (CAM health sectors, particularly in developing countries where health care is largely dependent on individual or household resource-based access and competitive prowess.

  6. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  7. Spreadsheet macros for coloring sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1993-12-01

    This article describes a set of Microsoft Excel macros designed to color amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments for review and preparation of visual aids. The colored alignments can then be modified to emphasize features of interest. Procedures for importing and coloring sequences are described. The macro file adds a new menu to the menu bar containing sequence-related commands to enable users unfamiliar with Excel to use the macros more readily. The macros were designed for use with Macintosh computers but will also run with the DOS version of Excel.

  8. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part II. Cases of complex fatal poisonings: interactions of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Konopka, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The study represents an attempt at employing segmental hair analysis in complex poisonings with xenobiotic mixtures of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines in the context of the cause of death as a consequence of complex interaction mechanisms which occurred prior to death. Two cases of complex poisonings: heroine - cocaine and heroine - cocaine - amphetamines were analyzed and documented with macro- and microscopic examinations and complex toxicological examinations, including the analysis of classic biological material, i.e. samples of selective blood, and alternative material, i.e. hair samples. Determinations of opioids, cocaine and its metabolite and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization--tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). Segmental hair analysis of the investigated cases indicated a prolonged intake of similar psychoactive substances and a developed adaptation of the addicted to interaction mechanisms, which, however, led gradually to multiorgan anatomopathological changes, and in consequence to death.

  9. Analysis on Legal Risk Management of Nuclear Power Enterprise%核电企业法律风险管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亮华

    2015-01-01

    At present, 26 nuclear power plantsare under construction in China, the installed capacity of them are 28.5 GW, whichis the largest number of the plants under construction in the world.With the restart of nuclear power, and the accelerating of the marketization processofthe nuclear power industry, the legal risk management of nuclear power enterprises appears more and more important.The paper enumerates the factors of the legal risk of nuclear power enterprises during their life cycle,analyses the current status and problems of the legal risk management of nuclear power enterprises, proposes the contents and measures of the establishment of the legal risk management system of nuclear power enterprises. In the whole process of the nuclear power business, we must establish a sound legal risk management system, make an effectiveorganizational guarantee, identify important risks and propose response options in accordance with the legal risk identification, analysis, evaluation, supervision and inspection and other risk assessment process, reduce the legal risk of enterprise management, promote enterprise's development.%目前,我国在建核电机组26台,装机容量为2 850万千瓦,在建规模居世界第一.随着核电重启,核电行业市场化步伐加快,核电企业法律风险管理愈加重要,该文章列举了核电企业全寿期内可能面临的法律风险的因素,分析了当前核电企业法律风险管理现状和存在的问题,提出了核电企业法律风险管理体系建设的内容及措施.在核电企业经营的全过程,一定要建立健全法律风险管理体系,形成有效的组织保障,按照法律风险识别、分析、评价、监督与检查等风险评估流程,确定重要风险并提出应对方案,降低企业经营的法律风险,为企业发展保驾护航.

  10. America's progress in achieving the legalization of same-gender adoption: analysis of public opinion, 1994 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Darrel M

    2014-10-01

    The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  11. Biplot and Singular Value Decomposition Macros for Excel©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Lipkovich

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The biplot display is a graph of row and column markers obtained from data that forms a two-way table. The markers are calculated from the singular value decomposition of the data matrix. The biplot display may be used with many multivariate methods to display relationships between variables and objects. It is commonly used in ecological applications to plot relationships between species and sites. This paper describes a set of Excel macros that may be used to draw a biplot display based on results from principal components analysis, correspondence analysis, canonical discriminant analysis, metric multidimensional scaling, redundancy analysis, canonical correlation analysis or canonical correspondence analysis. The macros allow for a variety of transformations of the data prior to the singular value decomposition and scaling of the markers following the decomposition.

  12. Analysis of recent incidents of on-field violence in sport: legal decisions and additional considerations from psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, John H

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two recent incidents of serious on-field violence in sports and the legal consequences for those involved. The two incidents occurred in Dutch football (soccer) and became infamous owing to the nature of the violent incidents and widespread media coverage. The legal outcomes of these two incidents are described, and some of the difficulties that legal authorities face in considering assaults on the sports field are discussed. A new way of categorizing such violent incidents and the motivation behind them, based on an established psychological theory [reversal theory, Apter, 1982, 2001] is proposed. Taken along with the other points made in this article, being aware of when and how individuals cross the boundaries between play and anger, power or thrill violence may provide an additional perspective to making informed decisions about illegal violent acts on the sports field. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Diffusiophoresis at the macro-scale

    CERN Document Server

    Mauger, C; Machicoane, N; Bourgoin, M; Cottin-Bizonne, C; Ybert, C; Raynal, F

    2015-01-01

    Diffusiophoresis, a ubiquitous phenomenon which induces particle transport whenever solute gradients are present, was recently put forward in the context of microsystems and shown to strongly impact colloidal transport (from patterning to mixing) at such scales. In the present work, we show experimentally that this nanoscale-rooted mechanism can actually induce changes in the \\textit{macro-scale mixing} of colloids by chaotic advection. Rather than the usual decay of standard deviation of concentration, which is a global parameter, we use different multi-scale tools available for chaotic flows or intermittent turbulent mixing, like concentration spectra, or second and fourth moments of probability density functions of scalar gradients. Not only those tools can be used in open flows (when the mean concentration is not constant), but also they allow for a scale by scale analysis. Strikingly, diffusiophoresis is shown to affect all scales, although more particularly the smallest one, resulting in a change of sca...

  14. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  15. PROBLEMS OF CUSTOMS LEGAL REGULATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION, RUSSIA AND CHINA: ANALYSIS OF LITHUANIAN JUDICIAL PRACTICE SINCE 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Valantiejus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the aim of this article is: (i to overview the level of the problems and obstacles of international trade between the Republic of Lithuania, as the EU Member State and the BRICS group of countries (Russia, China according to the case-law of the Republic of Lithuania in disputes relating to customs decisions and actions (for the period from 2010-01-01 to 2015-01-01 and (ii to present proposals for development of the regulatory regime for import customs duties. Design/methodology/approach – analysis of relevant issues is based both on theoretical (analysis and synthesis, systematic and in particular empirical methods (statistical analysis of data, analysis of documents, generalization of professional experience, in particular – practice of the courts of Lithuanian Republic in disputes with customs authorities. The article consists of an introduction, three chapters and conclusions. Findings – for more than ten years (since 2004 the Republic of Lithuania is a member of EU and is realizing its economic and trade relations with other foreign countries, and regulating customs duties according to the requirements of the EU common foreign trade policy (Common Commercial Policy. After accession to the EU, more than 20 percent of Lithuanian foreign trade consisted of trade transactions with the Russian Federation, which, despite of some fluctuations, had an overall trend to grow (increase (Bernatonytė, 2011; Slavickienė A., Jatkūnaitė D, 2006. In addition, from 2009 to 2014 Lithuania consistently increased its foreign trade (both imports and exports with the other country of the rapidly growing economic BRICS region of the world, i.e. China. On the other hand, the analysis on practical problems of the foreign trade with these particular countries which have arisen in Lithuania since 2010, justifies that most legal problems of customs regulation are caused by legal matters relating to the tariff classification of imported goods

  16. Caffeine and Bicarbonate for Speed. A Meta-Analysis of Legal Supplements Potential for Improving Intense Endurance Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Christensen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 1% change in average speed is enough to affect medal rankings in intense Olympic endurance events lasting ~45 s to 8 min which for example includes 100 m swimming and 400 m running (~1 min, 1,500 m running and 4000 m track cycling (~4 min and 2,000 m rowing (~6-8 min. To maximize the likelihood of winning, athletes utilizes legal supplements with or without scientifically documented beneficial effects on performance. Therefore, a continued systematic evidence based evaluation of the possible ergogenic effects is of high importance. A meta-analysis was conducted with a strict focus on closed-end performance tests in humans in the time domain from 45 s to 8 min. These test include time-trials or total work done in a given time. This selection criterion results in a high relevance for athletic performance. Only peer-reviewed placebo controlled studies were included. The often applied and potentially ergogenic supplements beta-alanine, bicarbonate, caffeine and nitrate were selected for analysis. Following a systematic search in Pubmed and SportsDiscuss combined with evaluation of cross references a total of 7 (beta-alanine, 25 (bicarbonate, 9 (caffeine, and 5 (nitrate studies was included in the meta-analysis. For each study, performance was converted to an average speed (km/h from which an effect size (ES; Cohens d with 95% confidence intervals was calculated. A small effect and significant performance improvement relative to placebo was observed for caffeine (ES: 0.41 [0.15–0.68], P = 0.002 and bicarbonate (ES: 0.40 [0.27–0.54], P < 0.001. Trivial and non-significant effects on performance was observed for nitrate (ES: 0.19 [−0.03–0.40], P = 0.09 and beta-alanine (ES: 0.17 [−0.12–0.46], P = 0.24. Thus, caffeine's and bicarbonate's ergogenic effect is clearly documented for intense endurance performance. Importantly, for all supplements an individualized approach may improve the ergogenic effect on performance.

  17. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool for the analysis of nonhuman skeletal remains in a medico-legal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Joaquin; Mora, Esther; Rodriguez, Lucia; Muñoz, Mariela; Cantin, Mario G; Fonseca, Gabriel M

    2016-09-01

    To confirm the nature and forensic significance of questioned skeletal material submitted a medico-legal setting is a relatively common procedure, although not without difficulties when the remains are fragmented or burned. Different methodologies have been described for this purpose, many of them invasive, time and money consuming or dependent on the availability of the analytical instrument. We present a case in which skeletal material with unusual conditions of preservation and curious discovery was sent to a medico-legal setting to determine its human/nonhuman origin. A combined strategy of imagenological procedures (macroscopic, radiographic and cone beam computed tomography - CBCT-technology) was performed as non-invasive and rapid methods to assess the nonhuman nature of the material, specifically of pig (Sus scrofa) origin. This hypothesis was later confirmed by DNA analysis. CBCT data sets provide accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, which demonstrate its reliable use as a forensic tool.

  18. On Providing Downlink Services in Collocated Spectrum-Sharing Macro and Femto Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Xiaoli; López-Pérez, David; Tao, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Femtocells have been considered by the wireless industry as a cost-effective solution not only to improve indoor service providing, but also to unload traffic from already overburdened macro networks. Due to spectrum availability and network infrastructure considerations, a macro network may have to share spectrum with overlaid femtocells. In spectrum-sharing macro and femto networks, inter-cell interference caused by different transmission powers of macrocell base stations (MBS) and femtocell access points (FAP), in conjunction with potentially densely deployed femtocells, may create dead spots where reliable services cannot be guaranteed to either macro or femto users. In this paper, based on a thorough analysis of downlink (DL) outage probabilities (OP) of collocated spectrum-sharing orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based macro and femto networks, we devise a decentralized strategy for an FAP to self-regulate its transmission power level and usage of radio resources depending on its di...

  19. Study on Macro-traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangGe; GuowuZhang; BaojunYuan; KepingLi

    2004-01-01

    Macro-traffic model is an effective tool for supporting traffic programmer to This article is based on the software products VISEM (demand model) and VISUM (supply model) from PTV Company of Germany, and studies macro-traffic model on the basis of considering that traffic system is an interactive system of between a supply system and a demand system.

  20. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  1. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree transduc

  2. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree

  3. THE GAP BETWEEN LEGAL RULES AND PRACTICE IN ADVERTISING NONREGISTERED PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS - A NEW METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERINGA, NF; DEMEIJER, AHR; SCHUTJENS, MDB; VOS, R

    1992-01-01

    The market of non-registered pharmaceutical products is growing fast in number and overall costs, not only in the Netherlands, but also in other European countries. These products often give the impression that the consumer may expect 'an effect as from a drug'. Legally, there is a clear distinction

  4. Hereditary position of relatives in direct ascending and collateral line, spouses and cohabitation partner: Comparative legal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses hereditary position of ascendants and collateral relatives on one hand and a surviving spouse and cohabitation partner on the other hand, as intestate successors in the modern laws of Europe, particularly those belonging to the European civil law system, which also includes the Serbian legal system. The subject of the research is observed through the prism of comparative method which is necessary in order to obtain a comprehensive insight into the scope of application and the manner of usage of kinship in direct ascending and collateral line and marriage, that is, cohabitation, as material facts in formulating the rules of inheritance. This method further allows to recognize certain differences and, more importantly, similarities and common solutions and general legal principles that these laws are governed by in their legislative and theoretical approach regarding this issue. In this way we aim to answer the question to what extent the relationship between the kinship in the direct ascending and collateral line and marriage, in Serbian law, is synchronized with legal standards adopted in legal systems of the most other European countries; and whether there is a need in the local law, in particular in terms of adoption of the Civil Code of Serbia, for certain inheritance law reforms relating to regulation of this issue.

  5. From Indifference to Mutual Support - A Comparative Analysis of Legal Pluralism in the Governing of South Asian Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; Johnson, D.; Amarasinghe, O.; Rubinoff, J.; Southwold-Llewellyn, S.; Thomson, K.T.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings on the current state of fisheries governance in South Asia from the perspective of legal pluralism. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in six coastal districts of India and Sri Lanka and focuses on resource health and allocation. We suggest that interactions between

  6. Cloud computing security legal risk analysis%云计算安全法律风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振汕

    2012-01-01

    As a novel mode of business computing,cloud computing,virtual and international features spawned a number of legal and regulatory level.Which the right to cross-border legal and regulatory, regulatory and privacy protection,computer crime forensics are all facing a huge legal risk.To adapt to cloud computing era,the present legal system is bound to have an adjustment process,there are still many problems to be solved.linitiate some personal insights.The universal application of cloud computing in order to be able help.%作为一种新型的商业计算模式,云计算的虚拟性及国际性特点催生出了许多法律和监管层面的问题。其中跨境法律管辖权、信息监管和隐私保护、计算机犯罪取证等都面临巨大的法律风险。要适应云计算时代的到来,现行的法律制度必将有一个调整的过程,尚有很多问题亟待解决。本文提出一些个人的见解,以期能对云计算的应用普及有所帮助。

  7. An Analysis of Copyright-Related Legal Cases and Decisions: Implications to Designing Internet-Based Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, Dave; Lan, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    To provide information about potential legal problems that might arise from using and distributing instructional materials and designing activities for Internet-based instruction, this article analyzes court cases and decisions relating to course packets; illustrations and figures; learning activities; video, sound and graphic images; and…

  8. From Indifference to Mutual Support - A Comparative Analysis of Legal Pluralism in the Governing of South Asian Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; Johnson, D.; Amarasinghe, O.; Rubinoff, J.; Southwold-Llewellyn, S.; Thomson, K.T.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings on the current state of fisheries governance in South Asia from the perspective of legal pluralism. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in six coastal districts of India and Sri Lanka and focuses on resource health and allocation. We suggest that interactions between

  9. Legal education as a national in the country in the modern Russian society

    OpenAIRE

    Аdaeva O.; Kopteva K.

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to problems of categorical apparatus of legal education. Examines different points of view of authors on the definition of the concept of legal education. Covers the problematic issues regarding the content, forms and means of legal education. The following is the analysis of normative–legal base in the sphere of legal education. Is the idea of the necessity of improving the state policy in the field of legal education and legal culture.

  10. 公立医院法律属性分析%Analysis on Legal Attributes of Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹培杰; 程跃华; 刘子锋

    2014-01-01

    Through systematic examination of public hospital legal attribute legislation, policy evolution, global public hospitals' organizational change, and the change in public hospital autonomy ( i.e. legal persons' independence ), this paper discusses property and will independence of public hospitals in China, and reveals the reality that the public hospitals in China don't really have the rights of legal person. Based on the systematic introduction to the theoretical concept of corporate body in continental law system, and the comparison of the legislation situation in public hospitals of Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong, this paper defines the legal attributes of public hospitals in China, and suggests the idea that public hospitals in China should be modified as corporate body under private legal person.%本文通过对公立医院法律属性立法、政策沿革、全球公立医院组织变革以及公立医院自主权(即法人独立性)变化等方面进行系统梳理,结合我国公立医院财产、意志独立性加以探讨,揭示了我国公立医院存在不具有法人之实的问题。在系统介绍大陆法系财团法人理论概念的基础上,通过比较日本、我国台湾和香港地区公立医院的立法情况,对我国公立医院法律属性作出界定,提出了我国公立医院应当改造为私法人下的财团法人的观点。

  11. The MARKAL-MACRO model and the climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    MARKAL-MACRO and its extensions is a model appropriate to study partial and general equilibrium in the energy markets and the implications of the carbon dioxide mitigation policy. The main advantage of MM is the explicit treatment of energy demand, supply and conversion technologies, including emission control and conservation options, within a general equilibrium framework. The famous gap between top-down and bottom-up models is resolved and the economic implications of environmental and supply policy constraints can be captured either in an aggregated (Macro) or in a sectorial (Micro) level. The multi-regional trade version of the model allows to study questions related to efficient and equitable allocation of cost and benefits associated with the climate change issue. Finally, the stochastic version of the model allows to assess policies related to uncertain and even catastrophic effects and define appropriate hedging strategies. The report is divided in three parts: - the first part gives an overview of the new model structure. It describes its macro economic part and explains its calibration, - the second part refers to the model applications for Switzerland when analyzing the economic implications of curbing CO{sub 2} emissions or policies related to the introduction of a carbon tax, including a hedging strategy, - the last part is organized in form of Appendices and gives a mathematical description and some potential extensions of the model. It describes also a sensitivity analysis done with MARKAL-MACRO in 1992. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. A Comparative Approach to the Principles of Proportionality and Subsidiarity in the Jurisprudence of the ECJ and the ACCJ: The Coordination-Harmonization of Regional Legal Pluralisms under the Challenge of the Internationalization of Regional Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenfieth de Jesus Sierra cadena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the current complexity of performing a comparative analysis of European Union Law and Andean Community Law as a result of growing pluralistic internationalization, the mere idea of coordinating the various regional legal pluralism leads us to reassess the great principles of interpretation of the law as a representation of both the diversity and the unity of a supranational legal system. Nowadays, it does not seem possible to define the boundaries of the internationalization of Regional Integration Law, as they are vague and permeable. It is therefore necessary to study the center of this legal internationalization based on the comparison of macro-principles of a universal type. Proportionality and subsidiarity can be analyzed from a comparative perspective based on the jurisprudence of the ECJ and TJCA. The first principle may be viewed as a means of coordinating community rights while the latter may be viewed as a means for the coordination of community competences.

  13. Impact of macro-level socio-economic factors on rising suicide rates in South Korea: panel-data analysis in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in suicide rates in South Korea, particularly in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, compares with the declining suicide rates observed in most other OECD countries over the same period. This study aimed to examine an array of macro-level societal factors that might have contributed to the rising suicide trend in South Korea. We first investigated whether this trend was unique to South Korea, or ubiquitous across five Asian countries/areas that are geographically and culturally similar (South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), using WHO mortality data and national statistics (1980-2009). Age-standardised suicide rates (per 100,000 population) were calculated for each gender and age group (15-24, 25-44, 45-64, and 65+) for each country. Both panel data and country-specific time-series analyses were employed to investigate the impact of economic change and social integration/regulation on suicide. Despite similarities in geography and culture, the rising trend of suicide rates was unique to South Korea. This atypical trend was most apparent for people aged 65 and over, which was in sharp contrast to the decreasing suicide trends observed in the other four Asian countries. The results of the panel data analyses generally pointed to a negative relationship between economic growth and suicide rates, particularly for working-aged people. The results of the time-series analyses further suggested that low levels of social integration, as indicated by rising divorce rates, may also have a role in rising suicide rates in South Korea, particularly for older people. Furthermore, the association between suicide rates and economic adversity (unemployment and economic downturn) was most salient among middle-aged men in South Korea. Compared to four other East Asian countries/areas (Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), South Korea has uniquely experienced a rising trend of suicide rates over the past three decades

  14. TEACHING LEGAL ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADEA ELENA CODRUTA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the definition of a specific language corpus, usages of various teaching strategies and emphasis on particular kinds of communication in a specific context.The article aims to highlight some aspects of teaching legal English by a non-native teacher who is not an expert in law. It particularly focuses attention on the development of basic communication skills and the use of lexical approaches in successful language acquisition in legal English.

  15. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  16. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  17. Legal theory, legal practice and drama (1200-1600)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhaïk-Gironès, M.; Gabay, S.; Koopmans, J.; Lavéant, K.

    2011-01-01

    Theatre and the law always have a complex relationship. An analysis of French legal sources from the Middle Ages and the early modern period clearly points to the tension between the conceptual and the practical sides of drama. Three main issues will be addressed: codification by the Church, what no

  18. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system....

  19. Legally high? Legal considerations of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Khey, David N

    2008-06-01

    The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular American consciousness, and a review of the different legal mechanisms through which states have controlled the plant and the pending legislation proposing controls. Lastly, the implications of various state laws are discussed.

  20. Aligning graduate competence with occupational standards An analysis of medico legal training and practice in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DH Edussuriva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the necessity to aligning graduate competence with occupational standards in workforce development and discusses the existing gap between the service recipient (ministry of justice, service provider (ministry of health, higher education regulatory bodies (University Grants Commission/Sri Lanka Medical Council, the pre service training institutions (ministry of higher education and students with special reference to medico legal practice.It considers the options available as continue training medical officers inadequately in the hope that the number of medico-legal consultants would one day be adequate for the needs of the country, since this as a transient period in the development of the speciality increase the production of specialists resulting in diminishing of expectations from the generalist establish protocols for specialist referrals provide a short internship/training program in medico-legal work to all medical officers immediately after graduation restructure the Forensic medicine teaching program. It proposes a way forward with particular reference to instructional reform while identifying constraints and recommendations for its implementation.

  1. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  2. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part I. Segmental hair analysis in cases of fatal opioids and amphetamines poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Konopka, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The present experimental investigations were inspired by the necessity of standardizing the procedures and analytical methods employed in hair analysis aiming at a retrospective evaluation of ingestion of various xenobiotics. Thus, in keeping with the principal premises, the main objective of the study was development of unique, novel chemico-toxicological procedures for analyzing hair content of psychoactive substances in two basic groups of substances of abuse: opioids (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA) by HPLC-APCI-MS-MS, followed by verification of the thus worked out procedures in medico-legal practice through opinionating in selected group of patients deceased due to fatal psychoactive substance poisoning (cause of death determination). Determinations of opioids and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). In the group of fatal poisonings by ,,Polish heroine", hair segmental analysis confirmed the abuse profile of the opiate or mixed (opiate-amphetamine) type, which to some measure is characteristic of Polish drug addiction, indicating the presence of these xenobiotics in the investigating hair samples in the premortem period.

  3. Financial Imbalances and Macro-prudential Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikarpova Olga S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The credit crisis and its transformation into a sovereign debt crisis have illustrated the limited character of the traditional macro financial politics. The financial crisis has shown that the priority of price stability does not guarantee macroeconomic stability. Revision of the goals and objectives of the monetary and credit policy is being carried out in many countries. In order to ensure macroeconomic stability, central banks have to use new instruments considering financial stability as an additional object. Since 2009 the IMF recommends central banks to use macro-prudential instruments for reducing macro-financial risks and imbalances in the financial system structure. The effectiveness of macro-prudential policy depends on its calibration with the monetary and credit policy. The growth of financial imbalances in the first decade after the adoption of the euro, presence of contradictory fiscal policies, deployment of a spiral of rapid crediting and price inflation have led to apraxia in the monetary and credit policy, and fiscal policy was limited by institutional arrangements. Accumulating funds during the budget surplus the countries-members of the European Monetary System (EMS attempted to reduce asymmetric shocks. The priority of price stability in the EMS had been achieved but the economies of these countries suffered from financial imbalances. Macro-prudential policy is aimed at prevention and mitigation of systemic risk, plays a significant role in reforming the new policy of central banks. That is why European countries are developing new methods and an institutional framework for the implementation of a new macro-prudential policy. Problems of structural arbitration and the possibility of emergence of new financial imbalances in the EMS are becoming increasingly real. The flow of financial capitals and financial institutions to more lenient jurisdictions is connected with the establishment of macro-prudential policy. The macro

  4. Death with Dignity: A Tripartite Legal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblang, Theodore Raymond

    1978-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive overview of the legal problems that attend medical treatment of the terminally ill patient as well as a careful analysis of the legal vehicles that have been offered in response to these problems--the living will, the antidysthanasia contract, and right to die legislation. (Author)

  5. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  6. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  7. Genetic testing and genomic analysis: a debate on ethical, social and legal issues in the Arab world with a focus on Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanti, Hatem; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Gallouzi, Imed Eddine; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-11-14

    In 2013 both Saudi Arabia and Qatar launched genome projects with the aim of providing information for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and, ultimately to realize personalized medicine by sequencing hundred thousands samples. These population based genome activities raise a series of relevant ethical, legal and social issues general, related to the specific population structure as well as to the Islamic perspective on genomic analysis and genetic testing. To contribute to the debate, the Authors after reviewing the existing literature and taking advantage of their professional experience in the field and in the geographic area, discuss and provide their opinions. In particular, the Authors focus on the impact of consanguinity on population structure and disease frequency in the Arab world, on genetic testing and genomic analysis (i.e. technical aspects, impact, etc.) and on their regulations. A comparison between the Islamic perspective and the ethical, social and legal issues raised in other population contexts is also carried. In conclusion, this opinion article with an up-to-date contribution to the discussion on the relevance and impact of genomic analysis and genetic testing in the Arab world, might help in producing specific national guidelines on genetic testing and genomic analysis and help accelerate the implementation and roll out of genome projects in Muslim countries and more specifically in Qatar, and other countries of the Gulf.

  8. 货币政策工具调控房地产价格的传导机制分析%Analysis of Monetary Policy Tools Transmission Mechanism in China's Housing Price Macro-control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任木荣; 苏国强

    2012-01-01

    货币政策手段是房地产宏观调控体系中的一个重要手段,利用货币政策工具对房地产价格进行调控就是将住房的实物供求调控转化为房地产开发与需求的资金供求调控。本文把货币政策工具分为价格型工具和数量工具,论文通过分析表明:利率政策、信贷政策以及选择性货币政策工具可以影响房地产的供给方与需求方的成本以及资金预算约束从而可以影响房价,但由于供给与需求对货币政策工具的弹性的差异导致房地产价格调控存在不确定性,房价的调控还需要辅以其他政策工具。%Using monetary policy on macro-control of real estate market is actually transferring the physical supply and demand control into fund control.Monetary policy instruments is an important means of monetary policy tools in the real estate macro control system,which divided into price-based and quantity-based tools.This paper’ s analysis shows that: interest-rate policy,credit policy and selective monetary policy can influence the cost and capital budget constraints of the real estate supply and demand,which can affect the price,but the flexibility’ s difference of supply and demand to monetary policy instruments lead to uncertainties in real estate price regulation,Housing price regulation and control still need to be complemented by other policy instruments.

  9. Modeling Regional Recycling and Remanufacturing Processes: From Micro to Macro

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Cooper; Randall Jackson; Nancey Green Leigh

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports progress in modeling recycling and remanufacturing processes within metropolitan regional economies at the micro and macro levels. The paper presents interim results from a multi-year, inter-institutional research project funded by the National Science Foundation. We identify a number of issues that have arisen from an in-depth industry level analysis of obsolete and waste products generated in the Seattle, WA and Atlanta, GA metro regions from waste electronics (e-waste) a...

  10. Understanding co-movements in macro and financial variables

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agostino, Antonello

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, the growing availability of large datasets and the improvements in the computational speed of computers have further fostered the research in the fields of both macroeconomic modeling and forecasting analysis. A primary focus of these research areas is to improve the models performance by exploiting the informational content of several time series. Increasing the dimension of macro models is indeed crucial for a detailed structural understanding of the economic environmen...

  11. MACRO constraints on violation of Lorentz invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, M

    2007-01-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrino-induced upward-going muons in MACRO has been analysed in terms of relativity principles violating effects, keeping standard mass-induced atmospheric neutrino oscillations as the dominant source of $\

  12. An Empirical Analysis of the Influence of Macro and Micro Factors on the Credit Risk of Commercial Banks%宏微观因素对商业银行信贷风险影响的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶伟超

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, using the panel data of 15 listed commercial banks and the fixed effects estimation method, em-pirical analysis influence of macro and micro factors of commercial bank credit risk are examined. Results show that:there is significant positive correlation between the commercial bank credit risk and the size of commercial banks, operating costs, income structure, monetary policy, residents purchasing power;and significant negative correlation with the size of the loan, economic development, fiscal policy;and not significant with inflation.%利用15家上市商业银行面板数据,采用固定效应的估计方法,实证分析宏微观因素对商业银行信贷风险的影响。结果表明:商业银行信贷风险与商业银行规模、营业成本、收入结构、货币政策、居民购买力呈现显著正相关关系,与贷款规模、经济发展状况、财政政策呈现显著负相关关系,与通货膨胀关系不显著。

  13. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  14. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  15. The Relationship between EU Legal Order and Albanian Legal Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisë Rukaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the interaction of Community law with the national law and in particular the ratio between Community - Albanian law. Main purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of the international legal order and in particular that of the Community in the Albanian legal regulated by constitutional provisions. During the analysis of the interaction between the Community and the Albanian law a question arises in case of a conflictual confrontation between the two legal systems, which one will be applied? Such situation always occurs in the cases when a provision of EU law transfers the rights and imposes direct obligations to the citizens of the EU while the content of this provision collides with the rule of national law. To resolve such a situation, the Republic of Albania has held a definite stance: bigotry retains superiority of international versus national law, positioning it in the hierarchy of sources of law immediately after the Constitution of the Republic of Albania. It is clear that the Albanian constitution legislators have been aware of their European perspective and for this fact the EU law and its legal order can survive only if compliance and protection is guaranteed by two cornerstones: direct applicability of Community law and the advantage of Community law over national law. They are two fundamental principles of European law which guarantee the implementation of the uniform and priority of the right of the EU in all Member States.

  16. Is territorially-bound polity vanished into education governance? A legally-focused analysis to explore its relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    for public policy is often out of sight or invisible. This contribution questions whether territorially-bound polity might still be of relevance to consider when comprehending concrete decisions on (and justifications for) the share of national budgets that goes in support of education within delimited...... territories. It does so by looking at a concrete country, the USA, and questioning whether and how broader (national) party values about education, training for job and the country’s sustainable development feed into the ongoing legal debate about adult basic education. This work is part of a broader project...

  17. Peremptory Norms in International Law; Development or Revolution of Sources of International Law (A Comparative Analysis of National Legal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Fazlollah Mosavi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary international law introduces a notion of peremptory norms comparable to hierarchy of norms in national legal system. A jus cogens is a norm of international law considered so fundamental that it overrides all other sources of international law. A rule of jus cogens has a specific process of emergence that will be essentially different from other sources of international law which reflected in Article 38(1 of ICJ Statute. Unfortunately, there is not a precise definition of jus cogens norms. The vagueness of the definition and thereby its instances is one problematic issue that harden realization of ideals of the international community.

  18. Raising awareness of new psychoactive substances: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity screening of 'legal high' packages containing synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Margarida; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; Dias da Silva, Diana; Gaspar, Helena; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The world's status quo on recreational drugs has dramatically changed in recent years due to the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), represented by new narcotic or psychotropic drugs, in pure form or in preparation, which are not controlled by international conventions, but that may pose a public health threat comparable with that posed by substances listed in these conventions. These NPS, also known as 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs', are typically sold via Internet or 'smartshops' as legal alternatives to controlled substances, being announced as 'bath salts' and 'plant feeders' and is often sought after for consumption especially among young people. Although NPS have the biased reputation of being safe, the vast majority has hitherto not been tested and several fatal cases have been reported, namely for synthetic cathinones, with pathological patterns comparable with amphetamines. Additionally, the unprecedented speed of appearance and distribution of the NPS worldwide brings technical difficulties in the development of analytical procedures and risk assessment in real time. In this study, 27 products commercialized as 'plant feeders' were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was also evaluated, for the first time, the in vitro hepatotoxic effects of individual synthetic cathinones, namely methylone, pentedrone, 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Two commercial mixtures ('Bloom' and 'Blow') containing mainly cathinone derivatives were also tested, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was used as the reference drug. The study allowed the identification of 19 compounds, showing that synthetic cathinones are the main active compounds present in these products. Qualitative and quantitative variability was found in products sold with the same trade name in matching or different 'smartshops'. In the toxicity studies performed in

  19. Simplify Uncertainty Analysis with Excel Macros Reflective ePortfolios--ChE Student Perceptions of Learning from Reflective ePortfolio Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple classroom exercise is used to teach students about the law of propagation of uncertainty in experimental measurements and analysis. Students calculate the density of a rectangular wooden block with a hole from several measurements of mass and length using a ruler and scale. The ruler and scale give students experience with estimating…

  20. Simplify Uncertainty Analysis with Excel Macros Reflective ePortfolios--ChE Student Perceptions of Learning from Reflective ePortfolio Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple classroom exercise is used to teach students about the law of propagation of uncertainty in experimental measurements and analysis. Students calculate the density of a rectangular wooden block with a hole from several measurements of mass and length using a ruler and scale. The ruler and scale give students experience with estimating…

  1. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vicentini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  2. Mapping Qatar’s Cognitive Macro-Structure: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis to Make Industry-Specific Recommendations for Engaging Female Entrepreneurship in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Bachir, Abir

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose - As individual conduct is inextricably intertwined with environmental structure and perceived process, this paper reviews these three variables and their impact to female entrepreneurial activity in Qatar. Design - The first chapter uses a qualitative exploration of the role and potential of human capital within the national social construct. The second chapter summarizes an analysis of the larger economic and political cognitive construct enterprising female entrepre...

  3. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: A potential tool for the analysis of contaminants and macro/micronutrients in organic mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Senesi, Giorgio Saverio; de Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz; Marangoni, Bruno Spolon; De Melo Benites, Vinícius; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2016-09-15

    Organic fertilizers are obtained from waste of plant or animal origin. One of the advantages of organic fertilizers is that, from the composting, it recycles waste-organic of urban and agriculture origin, whose disposal would cause environmental impacts. Fast and accurate analysis of both major and minor/trace elements contained in organic mineral and inorganic fertilizers of new generation have promoted the application of modern analytical techniques. In particular, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is showing to be a very promising, quick and practical technique to detect and measure contaminants and nutrients in fertilizers. Although, this technique presents some limitations, such as a low sensitivity, if compared to other spectroscopic techniques, the use of double pulse (DP) LIBS is an alternative to the conventional LIBS in single pulse (SP). The macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Zn) and contaminant (Cr) in fertilizer using LIBS in SP and DP configurations were evaluated. A comparative study for both configurations was performed using optimized key parameters for improving LIBS performance. The limit of detection (LOD) values obtained by DP LIBS increased up to seven times as compared to SP LIBS. In general, the marked improvement obtained when using DP system in the simultaneous LIBS quantitative determination for fertilizers analysis could be ascribed to the larger ablated mass of the sample. The results presented in this study show the promising potential of the DP LIBS technique for a qualitative analysis in fertilizers, without requiring sample preparation with chemical reagents.

  4. Analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maine is discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined. The first step any developer of small-scale hydropower must take is to acquire right, title, or interest in the real property. In Maine, that step requires acquisition in some form of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary, the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important, for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence a legal use. A non-riparian could not draw water from a stream to increase the water level of an impoundment area on another stream. Apart from the usual methods of land acquisition involving sale, lease, or perhaps gift, Maine has two somewhat unique methods a developer may use for property acquisition. These methods, authorized by statute, are use of the abandoned dams law and use of the Mill Dam Act for flowage of upstream impoundment areas.

  5. Analysis on the Legal Education of College Students%浅析当前大学生法制教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓洁

    2011-01-01

    The college students' legal education system realizes the responsibility of a well-off society.However,due to the society,school,family and the students themselves,college students ignore life,miss the value consciousness of themselves and others.Therefore,we should strengthen college students' cultural knowledge training,at the same time,focus more on life and values education,take effective measures to effectively pay special attention to the legal system education of college students.%大学生肩负着祖国的希望。然而由于社会、学校,家庭及学生个人方面的种种原因,造成了当前大学生漠视生命,对自己和他人的价值认识意识缺失。因此,在加强对高校大学生文化知识培养的同时,将更多的注意力放在对他们生命观、价值观的教育上,采取积极有效的措施切实抓好大学生法制教育工作。

  6. Macro and micro challenges for talent retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kerr-Phillips

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the challenges presented in retaining South Africa’s talent at both macro (country and micro (organisational levels. Using a web-based survey placed on eight New Zealand sites, the reasons for emigration of South African talent during the period 1994–2006 were explored with 84 respondents. Utilising a purposive sampling technique, 20 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with identified ‘top talent’ in two financial services companies. Content analysis of the responses from both samples was employed. Reasons for emigration (macro issues included uncertainty about the future of the country, job insecurity and fears regarding both corruption and violent crime. Reasons for talent loss amongst identified top talent (micro issues were found to be linked to leadership, organisational culture and employment equity.

  7. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented.

  8. From micro-correlations to macro-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-11-01

    Random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure share a common value of pair-wise correlation between their different components. The symmetric correlation structure appears in a multitude of settings, e.g. mixture models. In a mixture model the components of the random vector are drawn independently from a general probability distribution that is determined by an underlying parameter, and the parameter itself is randomized. In this paper we study the overall correlation of high-dimensional random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure. Considering such a random vector, and terming its pair-wise correlation "micro-correlation", we use an asymptotic analysis to derive the random vector's "macro-correlation" : a score that takes values in the unit interval, and that quantifies the random vector's overall correlation. The method of obtaining macro-correlations from micro-correlations is then applied to a diverse collection of frameworks that demonstrate the method's wide applicability.

  9. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Scale is widely recognized as a fundamental conceptual problem in biology, but the question of whether species-richness patterns vary with scale is often ignored in macro-ecological analyses, despite the increasing application of such data in international conservation programmes. We tested for s...... peaks, decreasing the power of statistical tests to discriminate the causal agents of regional richness gradients. Ideally, the scale of analysis should be varied systematically to provide the optimal resolution of macro-ecological pattern....

  10. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  11. The composition and structure of macro and microcrystalline paraffin waxes. Part 2. Results of analysis; Ueber die Zusammensetzung von makro- und mikrokristallinen Paraffinen. Teil 2. Untersuchungsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthaei, M.; Butz, T. [Sasol Wax GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Geissler, A. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The composition and structure of the non-n-alkane fraction of macrocrystalline and microcrystalline paraffin waxes are described inconsistently and with contradictions in the current literature. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the substance of previous analytical techniques, in order to further develop and improve these methods and to state more precisely and thus broaden the knowledge of the structure of petroleum paraffin waxes. IR structure group analysis only resulted in relatively imprecise information. GC-MS enabled the identification and semi quantitative determination of various cycloalkanes. By adopting and further developing a polymer analysis {sup 13}C-NMR structure group analysis method it was possible to identify and to determine the semiquantification of 20 different structure groups. From the results we concluded that the non-n-alkane fraction of paraffin waxes mainly consists of isoalkanes. The side-chains of the isoalkanes are mainly located at the {gamma} position and consist to 60-80% of methyl groups, 5-20% of ethyl groups and 15-20% of longer alkyl groups. An average macrocrystalline paraffin molecule has about 0.14 side chains, an average microcrystalline paraffin molecule up to 0.67 side chains. Regarding the naphthenic structure class, only mono- and dialkyl substitued cyclohexanes were found with alkyl chain lengths of up to C{sub 26} in macrocrystalline paraffin and up to C{sub 34} in microcrystalline paraffin. The number of cyclohexyl groups in the average molecule increases with the graduation of the paraffin wax and reaches up to 0.22 maximum in microcrystalline wax. (orig.)

  12. %HPGLIMMIX: A High-Performance SAS Macro for GLMM Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs comprise a class of widely used statistical tools for data analysis with fixed and random effects when the response variable has a conditional distribution in the exponential family. GLMM analysis also has a close relationship with actuarial credibility theory. While readily available programs such as the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS and the lme4 package in R are powerful tools for using this class of models, these progarms are not able to handle models with thousands of levels of fixed and random effects. By using sparse-matrix and other high performance techniques, procedures such as HPMIXED in SAS can easily fit models with thousands of factor levels, but only for normally distributed response variables. In this paper, we present the %HPGLIMMIX SAS macro that fits GLMMs with large number of sparsely populated design matrices using the doubly-iterative linearization (pseudo-likelihood method, in which the sparse-matrix-based HPMIXED is used for the inner iterations with the pseudo-variable constructed from the inverse-link function and the chosen model. Although the macro does not have the full functionality of the GLIMMIX procedure, time and memory savings can be large with the new macro. In applications in which design matrices contain many zeros and there are hundreds or thousands of factor levels, models can be fitted without exhausting computer memory, and 90% or better reduction in running time can be observed. Examples with a Poisson, binomial, and gamma conditional distribution are presented to demonstrate the usage and efficiency of this macro.

  13. TO THE QUESTION OF THE LEGAL NATURE OF MARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bondov S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of various approaches to the main definitions of a family law, such as marriage, family, and marriage legal relationship. In the article we profoundly considered the legal aspects of a procedure of marriage as the act of registration of marriage is the basis of emergence of marriage legal relationship. The conditions and the bases of marriage are characterized. We made a conclusion that marriage is a legal fact establishing, changing or stopping the corr...

  14. GENFIT: software for the analysis of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data of macro-molecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Francesco; Ferrero, Claudio; Ortore, Maria Grazia; De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Mariani, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Many research topics in the fields of condensed matter and the life sciences are based on small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. With the current rapid progress in source brilliance and detector technology, high data fluxes of ever-increasing quality are produced. In order to exploit such a huge quantity of data and richness of information, wider and more sophisticated approaches to data analysis are needed. Presented here is GENFIT, a new software tool able to fit small-angle scattering data of randomly oriented macromolecular or nanosized systems according to a wide list of models, including form and structure factors. Batches of curves can be analysed simultaneously in terms of common fitting parameters or by expressing the model parameters via physical or phenomenological link functions. The models can also be combined, enabling the user to describe complex heterogeneous systems.

  15. GENFIT: software for the analysis of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data of macro­molecules in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Francesco; Ferrero, Claudio; Ortore, Maria Grazia; De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Mariani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Many research topics in the fields of condensed matter and the life sciences are based on small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. With the current rapid progress in source brilliance and detector technology, high data fluxes of ever-increasing quality are produced. In order to exploit such a huge quantity of data and richness of information, wider and more sophisticated approaches to data analysis are needed. Presented here is GENFIT, a new software tool able to fit small-angle scattering data of randomly oriented macromolecular or nanosized systems according to a wide list of models, including form and structure factors. Batches of curves can be analysed simultaneously in terms of common fitting parameters or by expressing the model parameters via physical or phenomenological link functions. The models can also be combined, enabling the user to describe complex heterogeneous systems. PMID:24904247

  16. The Network of French Legal Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzega, Pierre; Boulet, Romain; 10.1145/1568234.1568271

    2012-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the codified Law of France as a structured system. Fifty two legal codes are selected on the basis of explicit legal criteria and considered as vertices with their mutual quotations forming the edges in a network which properties are analyzed relying on graph theory. We find that a group of 10 codes are simultaneously the most citing and the most cited by other codes, and are also strongly connected together so forming a "rich club" sub-graph. Three other code communities are also found that somewhat partition the legal field is distinct thematic sub-domains. The legal interpretation of this partition is opening new untraditional lines of research. We also conjecture that many legal systems are forming such new kind of networks that share some properties in common with small worlds but are far denser. We propose to call "concentrated world".

  17. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment...... provisions’ which empower the municipalities to later ruling. This way of making plans postpones the actual regulation of an area (i.e. the planning permission) making it an individual ruling for instance at the application of building permits. Case studies show examples of this way of regulating an area......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...

  18. Quantifying the impact of legal culture and institution on carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Wang, B.; Yu, C.; Deng, H.; Cai, W.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic carbon emissions has been believed to trigger more than half of the global warming over the past half a century. Climate change analysis based on human activities should not neglect the driving force of human society. Different countries or regions have different legal culture traditions and legal systems that can greatly influence regional carbon emissions. This will lead to differences in implementation way and implementation intensity of the law and policies. Without understanding the social and legal background, it is not enough to understand how the climate change rules work and what the effects enforce. Using the panel data of 71 countries from 1996-2010, this study analyzes the effects of macro channels influencing mitigation policies, which contains rules and regulations including value, religion, genealogy of law, public participation, regulatory, government effectiveness, corruption, rule of law, etc. The results show that the interaction between legal variables and economic variables is very important for carbon emissions reduction. The law affects the carbon emissions by adjusting the economic and other related variables, and vice verse, economic and other variables will also impact the level of the rule of law. The study also reveals that developing national economy is most countries' urgent current task, and there are not sound strategies or strong enforcement to guarantee the achievement of the emissions reduction commitment. It is not enough to make justice dominant by cultivating a fair attitude. Practical measures and institutional means for social justice must be promoted. These results will give insight to policy makers in creating feasible and practical climate polices.

  19. 转基因植物知识产权的法律分析%Legal Analysis of Intellectual Property of Genetically Modified Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高茜

    2015-01-01

    With the application of transgenic technology and the global commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops , both of those provide a good effective way to increase food production .However, it also incurred too many problems and dispute recently .So we need to improve the legal institutions of intellectual property of genetically modified crops as soon as possible .This paper chooses European Union and India to make a comparison with the legal institutions of intellectual prop -erty of genetically modified crops .As the typical cases , the two countries bring us much experiences and lessons .This text analyzes the questions from several aspects:equilibrating the conflict of interest between commercial breeders and farmers , solving the difficulties that single cropping of genetically modified crops exert negative influences on biological diversity , u-sing legal method to deal with commercial monopoly behavior and genes of plagiarism of the multinational corporation .we hope all of the analysis above can provide beneficial inspirations for the establishment of legal institutions of intellectual property of genetically modified crops .%转基因技术的应用以及全球转基因植物种植的商业化为解决粮食短缺问题提供了有效路径。然而,转基因技术也带来了一系列问题,使得进一步完善转基因植物知识产权法律制度建设的步伐成为目前迫切需要加快解决的重要课题。选取发达国家和发展中国家的两个典型案例作为研究对象,对其转基因知识产权保护制度进行对比分析,从中吸取成功经验和失败教训,并就育种者的专利权与农民利益间的冲突、转基因植物单一种植对生物多样性的消极影响、跨国公司的商业垄断行为和基因剽窃行为等重大问题展开讨论,以期为我国转基因知识产权法律制度构建提供有益的借鉴。

  20. Analysis of association of macro economic development and travel abroad%宏观经济发展与出国旅游的关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪珊珊

    2013-01-01

    Based on the index of industrial production, consumer price index and the exchange rate of three macroeconomic factors to analyze the travel market, the main purpose is to find out which macroeconomic factor and the outbound tourism is the highest related, and may forecast the future travel crowd or the economic index, and then develop a travel analysis model, to explain the masses travel times, in order to facilitate the future as to predict the future trend of the Chinese people travel abroad.%本研究将以工业生产指数、消费者物价指数以及汇率这三个宏观经济因素来分析出国旅游市场,而主要目的是在发现哪个宏观经济因素与国人出国观光旅游相关性最高,并可能作为预测未来出国旅游人潮增减的经济指数,并进而发展出一套旅游分析模式,使足以解释群众出国旅游人次,以利于将来作为预测未来我国人民出国旅游趋势。

  1. Religion and intimate partner violence in Chile: macro- and micro-level influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Evelyn L; Lehrer, Vivian L; Krauss, Ramona C

    2009-09-01

    The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present study explores the puzzle posed by these seemingly opposing macro- and micro-level forces. Results based on data from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a questionnaire on gender-based violence administered to students at a large public university in Chile, show that moderate or low levels of religiosity are associated with reduced vulnerability to violence, but high levels are not. This non-linearity sheds light on the puzzle, because at the macro level the religious views shaping Chile's legal and social environment have been extreme.

  2. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Wang

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1 the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2 the domestication rate of cereals, and (3 the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia.

  3. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; He, Keyang; Huan, Xiujia

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1) the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2) the domestication rate of cereals, and (3) the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia.

  4. Determinants of The Application of Macro Prudential Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Firano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of macro prudential instruments today gives rise to a major debate within the walls of central banks and other authorities in charge of financial stability. Contrary to micro prudential instruments, whose effects remain limited, macro prudential instruments are different in nature and can affect the stability of the financial system. By influencing the financial cycle and the financial structure of financial institutions, the use of such instruments should be conducted with great vigilance as well as macroeconomic and financial expertise. But the experiences of central banks in this area are sketchy, and only some emerging countries have experience using these types of instruments in different ways. This paper presents an analysis of instruments of macro prudential policy and attempts to empirically demonstrate that these instruments should be used only in specific economic and financial situations. Indeed, the results obtained, using modeling bivariate panel, confirm that these instruments are more effective when used to mitigate the euphoria of financial and economic cycles. In this sense, the output gap, describing the economic cycle, and the Z-score are the intermediate variables for the activation of capital instruments. Moreover, the liquidity ratio and changes in bank profitability are the two early warning indicators for activation of liquidity instruments.

  5. Performance Evaluation Of Macro amp Micro Mobility In HMIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ali Abdelgadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changing the location of mobile node during transmission or receiving of data always caused changing of the address of the mobile node which results in packet loss as well as delay in time taken to locate the new address of the Mobile Node therefore delay of data receiving is caused this problem was known as micro-mobility issue. To resolve this problem and ascurrently mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of mobile IP which supports quality of service minimum packet loss limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of mobile IP and micro mobility protocols where mobile IP handles macro mobility and HMIP cellular IP HAWAII handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed.HIERARCHICAL MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOL is used. To identify the impact of micro-mobility in IP based Wireless Network to implement selected micro-mobility model of Hierarchal Micro Mobility Protocol in network simulator and for more analysis and measurements results and for the purpose of performance comparison between both Macro and Micro mobility Protocol Management.. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2

  6. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  7. MEDIATION AGREEMENTS LEGAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ponomarev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the legal model of mediation agreements in Russian and international legislation. The authors consider the main provisions of the mediation agreements in civil matters, in particular, is defined by such features of the legal model as the requirements for this type of agreements. In addition, the article discusses the problematic issues of implementation of mediation agreements.

  8. Learning the Legalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Victoria

    1987-01-01

    Certain types of crises cry out for legal counsel. Becoming familiar with the basics of media law is suggested for public relations offices. Three types of crises that call for legal advice include: litigation or potential litigation; a violation of a law or regulation; or incidents with any hint of liability. (MLW)

  9. [Legal medicine specialists within the framework of acute care : Analysis of legal medicine consultations in relation to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, G; Heide, S; Lucas, B; Brandstädter, K; Walcher, F; Kropf, S; Lessig, R; Piatek, S

    2017-09-18

    In acute medical care, there are patients who have been injured by the influence of others. The aim of this study was to analyze all cases which were presented to the Institute for Legal Medicine of the University Halle (Saale). The cases where analyzed in relation to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt. The consultations of the Institute for Legal Medicine Halle-Wittenberg for 2012-2015 were evaluated with regard to the age and gender distribution, the reasons for the consultation and time until the request for consultations. These cases were statistically compared to the victims' statistics of the state office of criminal investigation in Saxony-Anhalt 2014-2015. A total of 536 cases (55.6% male and 44.4% female patients) were evaluated. In all, 62.1% of patients were under 18 years of age; 43.5% of all consultations were requested by pediatric (surgery) clinics. The most common reasons for consultation were sexual child abuse or violence against children (50.7%). Compared to the victims' statistics, significantly more children were examined by legal medicine specialists than could have been expected (p < 0.001). In adult patients, the most common causes for consultation were acts of violence (20.4%) and domestic violence (10.1%). Among adults, significantly more women and fewer men were presented than expected (p = 0.001). There were only a small number of consultations of legal medicine specialists in relation to the victims' statistics. Most of them were children and women. The temporal latency between the act of violence and the consultations was one day and more. The latency and the renunciation of the consultation of the legal medicine specialists can lead to loss of evidence.

  10. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  11. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)

    2011-09-15

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  12. Macro-Controls Take the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese economy has maintained a bullish run for decades. But in recent years inflation has become more threatening. Worries therefore grow that the robust economy may slump due to the overwhelming macro-economic controls. How should China rein in inflation and at the same time hedge against economic freefall? What differentiates the country’s macro-economic controls in recent years from those in the past? Liu Shucheng and Zhang Xiaojing, researchers with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, gave their opinions in the following excerpts:

  13. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    "From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions of program......"From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions...

  14. OML macros Web presentation guidelines and source list

    CERN Document Server

    Sheau Hwang, Chang

    1999-01-01

    More than 100 macros have been written and made available on the Web since the debut of PFW in 1996. Evidently, OML has benefited many OCLC system users in automating their jobs. Nevertheless, finding the desired macros takes considerable time and effort because Web sites that provide macros present them in widely varied formats. This article presents the Web sites that currently provide macros for sharing, initiates the discussion on Web macro presentation guidelines, evaluates the presented Web sites based on these guidelines, and provides a source list of useful macros specifically for OCLC subsystem applications. (0 refs).

  15. Macro fluid analysis of laminated fabric permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A porous jump model is put forward to predict the breathability of laminated fabrics by utilizing fluent software. To simplify the parameter setting process, the methods of determining the parameters of jump porous model by means of fabric layers are studied. Also, effects of single/multi-layer fabrics and thickness on breathability are analyzed, indicating that fabric breathability reduces with the increase of layers. Multi-layer fabric is simplified into a single layer, and the fabric permeability is calculated by proportion. Moreover, the change curve of fabric layer and face permeability, as well as the equation between the fabric layer and the face permeability are obtained. Then, face permeability and pressure-jump coefficient parameters setting of porous jump model could be integrated into single parameter (i. e. fabric layers, which simplifies the fluent operation process and realizes the prediction of laminated fabric permeability.

  16. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  17. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strategic planning of business objectives. So it’s the need and the importance of developing a Legal Business Model that can be used in combination with Canvas.

  18. 浅析单方允诺的法律性质%Analysis of the Legal Nature of Unilateral Promise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志娟

    2011-01-01

    All along,there are many statements about the nature of unilateral promises,i.e.,unilateral legal action theory or contract theory.Due to the nature of uncertainty,a certain degree of difficulty results in judicial practice.From the opposite argument,by revealing inadequacies in contract theory and compromise theory,the nature of a unilateral promise is thereby identifying as unilateral act theory.%一直以来,学界对单方允诺的性质众说纷纭,以主张"契约说"和"单独行为说"者居多。由于性质不明确,在司法实践中适用法律法规时存在着一定的难度。从反面论证,通过揭示"契约说"和"折中说"的不足之处,从而认定单方允诺的性质应采"单独行为说"。

  19. Analysis of the political and legal environment in the context of the strategic planning in tourism and hospitality sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Fernández Alles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism companies are caught in a changing environment, characterized by technological advances, increased global competition and the consequences of the global economic crisis. Under these circumstances, tourism companies are forced to devise marketing strategies and implement strategic plans. Well, to understand the marketing and developing effective strategies is to understand the context in which the company operates, since it will generate market opportunities and threats presented that will condition their future. Among the forces that comprise the business environment are the economy, society, politics, demographics, among others. One of the most significant demographic phenomena for tourism enterprises in the last decade has been the increase in the disabled population, combined with greater participation in the tourism sector itself. However, this participation could be even greater if both destinations and companies comprising it were accessible to the disabled. The scant attention paid to them until recently, disabled people, and especially their right to leisure and enjoy your free time, have led to tourist destinations not accessible to disabled tourists. The present work is focused on the study of political and legal environment in the tourism sector in general and in the hotel sector, particularly regarding accessibility.

  20. Regulated utilities and solar energy: a legal-economic analysis of the major issues affecting the solar commercialization effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitos, J.; Feuerstein, R. J.

    1979-06-01

    The reaction of public utilities to the addition (and competitive) sources of energy supplied by solar technologies will have a significant impact on the commercialization of solar energy. Decentralized applications of solar energy need utility-produced power to back up the energy produced by solar means. The cost and availability of this power will largely determine the acceptance of solar energy. There are three legal issues surrounding the role of utilities in the solar commercialization effort: (1) the extent to which utilities may own, sell, lease, finance, or service solar devices for utility customers; (2) the degree to which solar-powered utilities may be able to compete with existing utilities; and (3) the degree to which various utility rate structures will be allowed to penalize decentralized solar users. The impact of state constitutional and statutory provisions upon these issues is examined, along with relevant federal constitutional doctrines. Finally, the statutes of the National Energy Act, many of which specifically address the above issues, are discussed.

  1. Evidence-based process for decision-making in the analysis of legal demands for medicines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2013-11-01

    Legal actions have been playing a significant role as an alternative pathway to access to medicines in Brazil. These lawsuits demand medicines used in Primary Health Care as well as medicines that are still in clinical research and have not been market approved by the Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA). The goal was to analyze medicines demanded through lawsuits brought to the judicial district which includes the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July/2007 to June/2008. The medicines in 281 lawsuits were examined for their respective indications, classified according to their presence in publicly-funded lists, market approval by ANVISA, compliance with national clinical guidelines, existence of alternative therapies in lists and support of indication by scientific evidence. Six different categories were described, which are deemed useful to managers and the Judiciary in decision-making. The support of evidence is of utmost importance for medicines that are not included in public funding lists and also for those with no available therapeutic alternatives.

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE COOPERATION AND VERIFICATION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available At 1st January 2007 when Romania joined the European Union was established a Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (further named “CVM” in order to support Romania to remedy certain shortcomings in the areas of judicial reform and fight against corruption, as well as to monitor the achieved progress through periodic reports. Though the reforms of the human resources management in the Romanian legal system were conceived in a coherent framework, the main changes in this area often did not complement each other, their implementation being sometimes inconsistent with previous measures taken. In this context, the study aims to make a short analysis of the way in which the human resources management’s reform was reflected in the European Commission’s reports, pointing the measures adopted by the Romanian authorities.

  3. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal, institutional and financial obstacles, and incentives to the development of hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam on the Monongahela River are analyzed. The study is one of five studies prepared by the Energy Law Institute pursuant to a contract with the National Conference of State Legislators. Each of the five studies views dam development by a different category of developer. These categories include a municipality, a public utility, a state, a private developer, and a cooperative. The Maxwell case study concerns potential development by Allegheny Electric Cooperative. Thus, the analysis of obstacles and incentives is focused on those factors which have particular impact on a cooperative. Subjects covered include a description of the site; developer description; the feasibility study; the economic feasibility; financing; Federal licensing by FERC; state licensing; local interest and requirements; the effect of locks and dam operation by the Army Corp of Engineers; and power marketing.

  4. Influence of halophytes and metal contamination on salt marsh macro-benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Caçador, I.

    2008-03-01

    Since an important fraction of the organic matter produced by salt marshes is decomposed in situ, macro-benthic communities are particularly exposed to the trace metals retained by these systems. Yet, few studies have investigated the macro-benthic communities using the between-root sediment habitat of the salt marsh halophytes (salt-tolerant plants), or the effect of trace metal pollution on its population dynamics. In the present study, samples were collected in vegetated and unvegetated sediment, in three salt marshes in the Tagus estuary, for trace metal concentration determination in the sediment and in the halophytes roots, grain size determination and macro-benthic organism identification. Data analysis revealed that the distribution of macro-benthic organisms is mainly determined by metal contamination, metal type and by the presence/absence of halophytes, not by the halophyte species. Five different associations were identified: resistant organisms were associated with the highest concentrations of lead (sediment); tolerant organisms with zinc, copper (sediment and roots) and lead (roots); cadmium in the sediment with a lack of macro-benthic life; sensitive organisms with low levels of metals except for cadmium in the roots; and macro-benthos typical of intertidal mudflats with unvegetated areas with low metal contamination.

  5. WORK PLACE RELATIONS AND PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: BETWEEN THE MICRO AND MACRO? EPISTEMOLOGICAL PROVOCATIONS RELACIONES DE TRABAJO Y GESTIÓN DE PERSONAS: ¿ENTRE EL MACRO Y EL MICRO? PROVOCACIONES EPISTEMOLÓGICAS RELAÇÕES DE TRABALHO E GESTÃO DE PESSOAS: ENTRE O MACRO E O MICRO? PROVOCAÇÕES EPISTEMOLÓGICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carvalho Neto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to promote discussion about our epistemological choices in view of the debate over macro or micro analysis in the  fields of study of Workplace Relations (WR) and PersonnelManagement (PM). The WR field is commonly identified with a macro analysis, while the PM is identified with the micro analysis. WR focuses on contexts as determinants, while PM focuses on contexts as conditioners. The article has exercises with themes of WR and PM to discuss micro or macro ass...

  6. Macro News, Riskfree Rates, and the Intermediary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, Albert J.; Sarkar, Asani; Wel, van der Michel

    2007-01-01

    Signed customer order flow correlates with permanent price changes in equity and nonequity markets. We exploit macro news events in the 30Y treasury futures market to identify causality from customer flow to riskfree rates. We remove the positive feedback trading part and establish that, in the 15 m

  7. Teaching Macro Principles "after" the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Recent events should force everyone who teaches macroeconomics (or finance, for that matter) to reconsider their curriculums. In this short article, the author shares his thoughts about what should and should not be changed in the way economists teach macro principles to beginning students. Two tradeoffs are paramount and must be faced by every…

  8. Neutrino physics and astrophysics with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Bakari, D; Giorgini, M; Sioli, M

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. The study of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons in the MACRO absorbers yield a distribution in L/E/sub nu / in agreement with nu /sub mu / from or to nu /sub tau / oscillations with the above parameters. (1 refs).

  9. Macros for Educational Research: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of four software packages, or macros, written in the programing language of Microsoft's EXCEL for use on the Macintosh computer for data manipulation and presentation used in educational research. Reordering tabulated data, reversing the scoring of tabulated data, and creating tables and graphs are explained.…

  10. The Mechanics of CSCL Macro Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Hong, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Macro scripts structure collaborative learning and foster the emergence of knowledge-productive interactions such as argumentation, explanations and mutual regulation. We propose a pedagogical model for the designing of scripts and illustrate this model using three scripts. In brief, a script disturbs the natural convergence of a team and in doing…

  11. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  12. Micro-Macro Paradoxes of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i det såkaldte micro-macro paradox fra Aids-Efficiency litteraturen og argumenterer for, at en tilsvarende problemstilling bør inddrages i vurderingen af f.eks. de beskæftigelsesmæssige konsekvenser af entrepreneuriel virksomhed. Den påviser også i en gennemgang af litteraturen...

  13. Legal Services: The Army Legal Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    legal services providedpro bono publico are not always on a no-fee basis because a reduced fee for professional services may be permissible in such...y f o u n d w i t h i n a p r i n c i p a l residence. Pro bono publico Legal services provided by civilian attorneys “for the public good or welfare...business activities, 3–6, 3–8 P r i v i l e g e , a t t o r n e y - c l i e n t , 3 – 8 , 4 – 3 , 4 – 8 , 5–5 Prisoners, 2–5 Pro bono publico , 3–7

  14. The criminal legal aid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Changhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.965The subject of the article is the criminal legal aid in China.The main goal of this work is to introduce the current state of legal aid in criminal cases in China to Russian scholars and legal professionals.Results. Criminal Legal Aid in China appeared relatively recently, and in the last years of its operation was marked by a number of achievements and some problems. Legal assistance in criminal cases is an integral part of the institute of legal aid in China and plays an invalu-able role in ensuring due process, maintaining the balance between prosecution and de-fense, as well as in guaranteeing human rights. This study contains a general description of the current state of criminal legal aid in China, highlights inherent problems of this institu-tion and describes prospects of its development. This work is based on the Criminal Proce-dure Code of the PRC in version of 2013 year, and provides analysis of the Russian and Chi-nese special literature, Chinese law and practice, as well as the official Chinese statistics. The scope of legal assistance in criminal cases is extremely narrow, the funding is not enough, and the quality leaves much to be desired. These and other shortcomings already have become obstacles to the development of the Chinese criminal procedure law. Despite of a number of changes to the legal regulation of the institute in the 2013 edition of the PRC Criminal Procedure Code, a number of issues remained unresolved.Conclusions. The existing difficulties can be overcame by expanding the scope of legal aid, increase in funding and introduction of public defenders. To increase funding in the budgets proposed to establish minimum public funding of legal aid, to attract non-governmental and international funding, to strengthen control and to ensure openness and transparency of spending. To improve the quality of legal aid PRC government should rise up compensations for lawyers, introduce the institution of public

  15. An Analysis on Several Important Issues of Yuan Dynasty Legal Studies (2000-2011)%元代法律史研究几个重要问题评析(2000-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴东

    2013-01-01

    Notable achievements in Yuan Dynasty legal studies have been obtained since 2000 .Yuan legal studies have been extensive and in-depth .Since 2000 ,historical materials have been discovered and sorted out ,analysis on custom factors in legal system have been made ,legal culture embodied in Yuan Zaju have been explored ,and studies on contents of civil law system ,problems of penal system ,concrete prac-tices of judicial system ,structure of Yuan legal system ,and the intension of certain particular legal form have been done .In addition ,specific legal provisions like Jingji people (Jingji people were first offenders of theft and robbery whose crimes were not severe enough to receive a death penalty .They were tattooed in the neck and the arm ,registered as special residents and monitored .) and salt law and copyright protection have been studied .%  2000年以来元朝法律史研究取得了显著的成绩。元朝法律史在研究上领域扩张,内容上更加深入。2000年以来,元朝法律研究主要在法律史料的发掘与整理、法律中民族风俗习惯因素的分析、元杂剧体现出的法律文化、民事法律制度的内容、刑罚制度的问题、司法制度的具体运行情况和元代法律体系的结构与某类法律形式内涵问题等展开了研究。此外,还有对元朝一些具体法律制度与问题进行研究,如警迹人、盐法和版权保护。

  16. A legal version of the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.

  17. Research on failure criterion of composite based on unified macro-and micro-mechanical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhigang; Zhao Long; Chen Lei; Song Yingdong

    2013-01-01

    A new unified macro-and micro-mechanics failure analysis method for composite structures was developed in order to take the effects of composite micro structure into consideration.In this method,the macro stress distribution of composite structure was calculated by commercial finite element analysis software.According to the macro stress distribution,the damage point was searched and the micro-stress distribution was calculated by reformulated finite-volume direct averaging micromechanics (FVDAM),which was a multi-scale finite element method for composite.The micro structure failure modes were estimated with the failure strength of constituents.A unidirectional composite plate with a circular hole in the center under two kinds of loads was analyzed with the traditional macro-mechanical failure analysis method and the unified macro-and micro-mechanics failure analysis method.The results obtained by the two methods are consistent,which show this new method's accuracy and efficiency.

  18. Discourse Analysis for Legal Culture Research Innovation%话语分析之于法律文化研究拓新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子远

    2013-01-01

    Research of Chinese legal culture grew vigorously and declined suddenly, the main reason is that the research conclusion cannot reasonably explain contemporary legal culture phenomenon, and no innovation of methodology is the main sticking point. Culture is a set of rules system, and discourses are a kind of power control rules. Judging by the appearance instead of in-depth study, the scholars may be confused in the narrative discourse of Chinese legal history created by rulers of ancient China. Discourse system of Confucianism ideology with a core of moral determinism dominated the people’s"truth"knowledge and value judgment on Chinese tradition law. Critical discourse analysis from linguistics methods can help people read, interpret or recreate text and discourse cultural connotation through the cover of ideology.%  中国法律文化研究由勃兴而忽亡,研究结论不能合理解释当代法律文化现象是根本原因,方法论没有革故鼎新是主要症结。文化是一套规则体系,话语是一种权力支配规则。流于“貌阅”而不能深入挖潜的研习定势下,学者们不免惑于统治者编造的中国法律史叙事话语。儒学意识形态下道德决定论为核心的话语体系支配了人们对中国传统法的“真理”性认识和价值判断。源于批判语言学的话语分析方法,有助于人们穿越意识形态的遮蔽,解读、诠释或重现文本与话语的文化内涵。

  19. PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF FREE LEGAL HELP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article analyze the legal grounds of free legal assistance marking the novels of legislation regulated by the federal law “On free legal assistance in the Russian Federation” and problems connected with its realization. There were given the characteristics of subjects of state and non-state systems of free legal assistance in the article. The special attention is paid to the specificity of the activity of state and municipal agencies, legal clinics, non-state centers of free legal assistance. The authors consider the peculiarities of legislation of the subjects of the Russian Federation setting the guarantee of rights on getting of free legal assistance. The problems of legal assistance under the presenting of citizens’ interests in arbitrary courts, problems of legal clinics assistance quality, problems of legal provision of the activity of municipal legal agencies are analyzed in the article. Due to the practice of realization of legislation in the Krasnodar region there were made the conclusions on the reasonability of extending of the list of citizens’ categories having the right for free legal assistance and cases of such assistance, giving the compulsory authority to the agreement on free legal assistance; the introduction of the article on municipal legal agencies into the Federal law; working outs of standards of the activity of legal clinics and systems of preparations to the legal assistance of students and teachers

  20. Analysis of the Legal Issues of the Actual Operation of Higher Education Foundation%高校教育基金会实际运作之法律问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓栋

    2011-01-01

    The development process of Chinese Higher Education Foundation for 20 years have encountered many obstacles, mainly due to its internal and external regulation is not perfect. The article analysed deeply the legal issues faced by Chinese Higher Education Foundation during the actual operation, firstly, the defects of the macro-legal system of higher education foundation. "dual management structure" limits the development of Chinese Higher Education Foundation, Chinese Higher Education Foundation being the conflicting contradictions in the administrative subordination and legal equality, lack of internal and external oversight mechanisms; secondly, the defects of the legal system in the investment operation of Chinese Higher Education Foundation: lack of relevant laws for increasing the value of the fundation, the problems of public expenditure and operational costs of foundation, the problems beared in the investment risk, the fulfillment of the donation agreement; finally, a brief proposed some specific proposals.%中国高校教育基金会在20多年的发展过程中遇到了很多阻碍,主要原因是由于其内外部规制的不健全。文章通过深入分析中国高校教育基金会在实际运作中面临的法律问题,一是,高校教育基金会宏观法律制度缺陷:“双重管理体制”限制发展、基金会存在行政隶属和法律地位平等相互冲突的矛盾、内外部监督机制缺失;二是,高校教育基金会投资运作中的法律制度缺陷:基金保值增值相关法律不足、基金会的公益支出和运作成本问题、投资风险承担的问题、捐赠协议的履行。最后简要提出针对性的建议。

  1. Legal Protections for Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Individual interest in privacy is a multiple legal issue, roughly divided into four parts according to different types of law: constitutional, statutory, administrative, and common law. Policy implications of this issue for institutions are discussed. (Editor/LBH)

  2. Digital Identity - The Legal Person?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clare

    This paper examines the concept of digital identity which the author asserts is now evident in the United Kingdom as a consequence of the Identity Cards Act (UK) 2006 and the National Identity Scheme it establishes. The nature and functions of the concept, particularly the set of information which constitutes an individual’s transactional identity, are examined. The paper then considers the central question of who, or what, is the legal person in a transaction i.e. who or what enters into legal relations. The analysis presents some intriguing results which were almost certainly not envisaged by the legislature. The implications extend beyond the United Kingdom to similar schemes in other jurisdictions, and to countries, like Australia, which may implement such a scheme.

  3. Euthanasia: the legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, C; Sanders, K

    The legal status of euthanasia is frequently deliberated. It remains unlawful in Britain and advocates for a change in the law are vigorously opposed by those who argue that it should remain unchanged. An objective account, in which current law and arguments for and against change are exposed, is essential to inform the euthanasia debate. In this article the legal issues concerning euthanasia are examined and arguments raised by proposed changes in the law are considered.

  4. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL RELATIONSHIP AND THE LEGAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkebuchava Yekaterina Bezhanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial and legal relationship and legal regulation. The financial activities of the state can not be carried out beyond the legal relations. Financial relations are expressed outwardly in the forms that are identified by the state as it is connected with the fact of its existence. With the help of law the state in the financial sphere determines and sets the types of budget revenues, taxation procedures, methods of currency use, etc. Administrative and legal regulation of financial relations is made up of such components as financial and legal relationships and legal regulation. This is why the concepts of "legal effect" and "legal regulation" come to the fore. According to the author, the term "legal regulation" and "legal effect" are not identical and have different meanings. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish between the "regulation" and "effect". This would eliminate naming the same thing with different words.

  5. An analysis on the bankruptcy legal system of commercial bank of our country%我国商业银行破产法律制度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖霄

    2009-01-01

    伴随着中国市场经济的发展,金融市场化改革的不断深化和金融市场的日益开放,我国的商业银行确实存在破产的现实可能性,完善我国商业银行破产法律制度有着很强的紧迫性.本文在对商业银行破产的可能性和特殊性进行分析的基础上,深入探讨了我国目前商业银行破产制度存在的缺陷,并尝试性地提出了完善我国商业银行破产法律制度的对策,以期对我国商业银行破产法律制度的构建提供一些帮助.%With the development of market economy in our country,the deeping of the financial market reform and the opening of the financial market,the possibility of the bankruptcy of commercial bank in our country is existent,the perfection of the bankruptcy leal system of commercial bank of our country is very important.Based on the possibility and the particularity analysis of this prob-lem,this paper discussed the defects of bankruptcy legal system of commercial bank of our country at present,proposed some mea-sures to fulfill the relevant laws and rules,accelerates the construction of the bankruptcy legal system of commercial bank of our country.

  6. Photodiode Circuit Macro-model for SPICE Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An accurate photodiode circuit macro-model is proposed for SPICE simulation. The definition and implementation of the macro-model is based on carrier stationary continuity equation. In this macro-model, the photodiode is a device of three pins, one for light intensity input and the other two for photocurrent output, which represent the relationship between photocurrent and incident light. The validity of the proposed macro-model is demonstrated with its PSPICE simulation result compared with reported experimental data.

  7. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  8. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic Im

  9. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic

  10. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients...... and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p ...

  11. CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS REGARDING APPOINTING AND REVOKING THE LEGAL ENTITY ADMINISTRATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN TODICA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Having as main objective the analysis the provisions of Company Law and the New Civil Code regarding the management of a trading company by a legal person, the study offers several solutions to a number of controversial issues with strict reference to two aspects: appointing and revoking the legal entity administrator. Can the administrator be any entity with a legal personality or just a trade company? Is the administrator subject to legal requirements of good repute, characteristic to a representative natural person? Can the legal person fulfill the president position in a collective administrative body? Can he be revoked ad nutum? Regarding the administrator legal person representative, may the company revoke the administrator, on its own? There are several questions outlining the juridical status of the administrator legal person, and to which the paper tries to find answers, introducing some jurisprudence solutions, comparative law issues and controversial doctrinal views.

  12. Public concerns regarding the storage and secondary uses of residual newborn bloodspots: an analysis of print media, legal cases, and public engagement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shannon; O'Doherty, Kieran C; Sénécal, Karine; Secko, David; Avard, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Recently, public concerns have been expressed regarding the non-consented storage and secondary research uses of residual newborn bloodspot (RBS) samples. The purpose of this paper is to examine public responses to the storage and secondary uses of RBS that can be identified through analysis of media, legal cases, and documented public engagement activities. Coverage in the examined print media confirmed the importance of RBS to journalists and those people who expressed their concerns to these journalists. Several lawsuits, brought by parents concerned about the storage of newborn bloodspots, placed the practice of storing NBS into the spotlight. This resulted in controversial debates and the mandatory destruction of millions of samples. Analysis of public engagement activities across several jurisdictions indicated that across (inter)national boundaries there are common elements to what is perceived as inappropriate governance of RBS. Public concerns were grouped into five main themes: trust, transparency, confidentiality, ownership, and stigmatization/discrimination. The results of our analysis help to make a compelling case for placing citizens at the center of the debate and developing policy about the storage and secondary uses of newborn bloodspots.

  13. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  14. 微观审慎监管与宏观审慎监管的协调性研究*--基于对商业银行稳健性的影响分析%Research on the Coordination between Micro-Prudential Supervision and Macro-Prudential Supervision:Based on the Impact Analysis of Commercial Bank Soundness Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡真; 彭建刚; 黎灵芝

    2014-01-01

    The paper using improved"Tragedy of the Commons"model demonstrates the necessity of banking industry to implement macro-prudential and micro-prudential supervision, and researches the macro-prudential and micro-prudential supervision tools impact on the soundness of commercial banks using panel VAR model. The empirical analysis shows that given the macro-prudential regulatory tools"banking concentration"and"generalized credit/GDP deviation"a certain impact, the soundness of commercial banks gradually shift from the level of negative response to the positive reaction;Given the micro-prudential regulatory tools"liquidity ratio","core capital adequacy ratio"and"leverage"a certain impact, commercial banks react positively robust level. The results show that single macro-prudential and micro-prudential regulatory tools are not fully coordinated effects, regulatory authorities should improve the macro-prudential regulatory tools of the type and mode of operation.%本文借鉴“公地悲剧模型”论证了银行业实施微观审慎与宏观审慎协调监管的必要性,并运用面板VAR模型对我国14家上市银行的数据进行实证检验,研究宏观审慎工具与微观审慎监管工具对商业银行稳健性的影响。实证研究结果表明,给定宏观审慎监管工具“银行业集中度”和“广义信贷/GDP偏离度”的一定冲击后,商业银行稳健性水平从负向反应逐步转为正向反应;给定微观审慎监管工具“流动性比率”、“核心资本充足率”和“杠杆率”的一定冲击后,商业银行稳健性水平呈现正向反应。这表明单一宏观审慎监管工具与微观审慎监管工具的效应并不完全协调,因此,应当完善宏观审慎监管工具的种类和操作方式。

  15. 基于PMAC的MACRO Station 的应用%The Application of MACRO Station Based on PMAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 王斌; 弓清忠; 祁玉宁

    2004-01-01

    介绍了PMAC运动控制器及MACRO Station(宏运动控制站)的概念.阐述MACRO Station的设置及映射的建立,结合轧辊磨床专用数控系统的建立,介绍MACRO Station的应用及其实际意义.

  16. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  17. Macro-modelling of a double-gimballed electrostatic torsional micromirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangya; Tay, Francis E. H.; Chau, Fook Siong

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a reduced-order macro-model for the double-gimballed electrostatic torsional micromirror using the hierarchical circuit-based approach. The proposed macro-model permits extremely fast simulation while providing nearly FEM accuracy. The macro-model is coded in MAST analog hardware description language (AHDL), and the simulations are implemented in the SABERTM simulator. Both the static and dynamic behaviour of the double-gimballed electrostatic torsional micromirror have been investigated. The dc and frequency analysis results obtained by the proposed macro-model are in good agreement with CoventorWareTM finite element analysis results. Based on the macro-model we developed, system-level simulation of a closed-loop controlled double-gimballed torsional micromirror is also performed. Decentralized PID controllers are proposed for the control of the micromirror. A sequential-loop-closing method is used for tuning the multiple control loops during the simulation. After tuning, the closed-loop controlled double-gimballed torsional micromirror demonstrates an improved transient performance and satisfactory disturbance rejection ability.

  18. Macro-institutional Complexity in Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, Frederic; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    structure and transactional costs, the concept of environmental complexity is applied to the logistics management perspective. Thereby, the impacts which a given framework on a macro-institutional level might have on the situation and leeway in decision-making at the firm (micro) or the supply chain (meso......In this paper, the interlink between the concept of macro-institutional complexity in logistics and the dynamics in the logistics practice of Eastern Europe will be examined. Referring to the importance of different authors having ascribed to the external environmental uncertainty on organizational......) levels will be analysed. Furthermore, a quantitative modelling approach will be presented and exemplified by using the case of logistics infrastructure in Eastern Europe....

  19. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  20. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Signal Code Power (RSCP) is stronger than femto RSCP. We also conclude that a macro escape carrier is a robust DL interference management solution. In uplink (UL) direction it is shown that a single femto UE close to macro cell potentially can cause a noise rise of 6 dB in the surrounding macro cell...... radius smaller than 5 meter – with realistic power settings. This makes co-channel femto deployment less promising in dense macro environments with good macro RSCP coverage....

  1. Exploring the links between macro-level contextual factors and their influence on nursing workforce composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2011-11-01

    Research that links macro-level socioeconomic development variables to health care human resources workforce composition is scarce at best. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between nonnursing factors and nursing workforce composition through a secondary, descriptive analysis of year 2000, publicly available national nursing human resources data from Mexico. Building on previous research, the authors conducted multiple robust regression analysis by federal typing of nursing human resources from 31 Mexican states against macro-level socioeconomic development variables. Average education in a state was significantly associated in predicting all types of formally educated nurses in Mexico. Other results suggest that macro-level indicators have a different association with each type of nurse. Context may play a greater role in determining nursing workforce composition than previously thought. Further studies may help to explain differences both within and between countries.

  2. Underground Muon Physics with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sioli, M

    2000-01-01

    Underground muon events detected by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso havebeen studied for different purposes. The studies include the vertical muonintensity measurement, multiplicity distribution, lateral and angular muondistribution and searches for substructures inside muon bundles. These analyseshave contributed to bring new insights in cosmic ray physics, in particular inthe framework of primary cosmic ray composition studies. Moreover, thisactivity allows the testing and tuning of Monte Carlo simulations, inparticular for aspects associated with models of hadronic interactions and muonpropagation through the rock.

  3. Introduction to macro-econophysics and finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Closed integrals in physics lead to equations for sources and vortices in fluid mechanics, electrodynamics and thermodynamics. In economics, the Stokes integral of economic circuits leads to new fundamental equations of macro-econophysics. These equations differ significantly from the laws of neoclassical theory. Entropy of markets replaces of the economic Cobb Douglas function and leads to stochastic processes and micro-econophysics of financial markets.

  4. Standardization of phaseolus vulgaris valves by macro- and microscopic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Ігорівна Крюкова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years on the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market a tendency to increase the range of the national herbal remedies is observed. Native flora herbs, having a sufficient resource base, deserve special attention and are characterized by a number of economic benefits for manufacturers. The implementation of herbal remedies in medical practice is accompanied by the necessity to improve the quality control of herbal material and to develop normative documents. Macro- and microscopy analysis becomes important at standardization of herbal material especially cut and powdered.Aim. The aim of our work was to carry out macro- and microscopy research of Phaseolus vulgaris and to determine its diagnostic morphologic and anatomic features.Methods. The conventional research methods in pharmacognosy have been used; photomicrography has been taken by using microscope MC-10 and Samsung PL 50 camera.Results. As a result of research, the microscopic diagnostic characteristics for Phaseolus vulgaris valves have been proposed, e.g.: the valves are elongated, straight, navicular or grooved, twisted to some extent; the external surface is smooth or slightly undulating, mat, pale yellow or yellow; the internal surface is shiny, white or yellowish-white. Sometimes carpophore (stalk may occur. The microscopic diagnostic features have been determined and offered, e.g.: cells of outer epidermis are pentagonal and hexagonal, with plicated cuticle; stomata are surrounded by 3–4 subsidiary narrow cells, additionally surrounded by 5–6 narrow cells; cover trichomes and glandular trichomes are elongated, pointed and unbranched; xylem vessels and tracheids; non-bundled structure stalk fragments with pericyclic sclerenchyma and secretory cells in the phloem.Conclusion. Research on determination of the macro- and microscopic characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris valves has been carried out. The diagnostic morphological and anatomic elements in herbal material have

  5. Transmission-line access for hydrothermal target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states: a legal/institutional analysis. Report No. 1022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-20

    Transmission line access is discussed as a legal and institutional problem impacting geothermal commercialization. A legal and regulatory overview is presented starting with the Federal Power Act of 1935. The legal and institutional attributes of both Bonneville Power Authority and the California Power Pool as well as their satellite transmission systems are examined, with an eye towards the setting that they, as institutions, will present to geothermal commercialization. The physical realities of the problem are presented for the Geysers, Mono-Long Valley and Coso, Imperial Valley, and Oregon. (MHR)

  6. Macro-FF: Improving AI Planning with Automatically Learned Macro-Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Botea, A; Mueller, M; Schaeffer, J; 10.1613/jair.1696

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress in AI planning, many benchmarks remain challenging for current planners. In many domains, the performance of a planner can greatly be improved by discovering and exploiting information about the domain structure that is not explicitly encoded in the initial PDDL formulation. In this paper we present and compare two automated methods that learn relevant information from previous experience in a domain and use it to solve new problem instances. Our methods share a common four-step strategy. First, a domain is analyzed and structural information is extracted, then macro-operators are generated based on the previously discovered structure. A filtering and ranking procedure selects the most useful macro-operators. Finally, the selected macros are used to speed up future searches. We have successfully used such an approach in the fourth international planning competition IPC-4. Our system, Macro-FF, extends Hoffmanns state-of-the-art planner FF 2.3 with support for two kinds of macro-operato...

  7. Legal basis for risk analysis methodology while ensuring food safety in the Eurasian Economic union and the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fedorenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health risk analysis methodology is an internationally recognized tool for ensuring food safety. Three main elements of risk analysis are risk assessment, risk management and risk communication to inform the interested parties on the risk, are legislated and implemented in the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. There is a corresponding organizational and functional framework for the application of risk analysis methodology as in the justification of production safety indicators and the implementation of public health surveillance. Common methodological approaches and criteria for evaluating public health risk are determined, which are used in the development and application of food safety requirements. Risk assessment can be used in justifying the indicators of safety (contaminants, food additives, and evaluating the effectiveness of programs on enrichment of food with micronutrients.

  8. Socially Induced Changes in Legal Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matulewska Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to present evolutionary and revolutionary changes in legal terminology. Legal terminology changes as a result of language usage, technological development, political and social changes and even economy reasons. The following research methods have been applied: the terminological analysis of the research material (empirical observation, analysis of comparable texts and parametric approach to legal terminology comparison and the analysis of pertinent literature. The research material included legislation from the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada and Australia. The author focuses on terminological changes resulting from social transformations. Selected terms and their transformation in respect to meaning and form are elaborated on in the paper. Finally, the author draws conclusions that translation of such terminology should aim at communication precision and many of them may be false friends in interlingual communication.

  9. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  10. SOCIAL LEGAL TRANSFORMATION OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan came into being in 1947. It struggled a lot during its initial days. It did not come to consensus to make a constitution until 1956 but later on military regime intervened. It is a drawback of Pakistan that laws and the constitution are not made indeed for its people rather they are made for the selfish elite who come into the power time to time without the support of the people. An unelected person cannot make a law for the betterment of the people he always do things for his own interest. Purpose - To point out weaknesses and hindrances in the social legal transformation of Pakistan and to recommend changes and best possible ways to build a highly social legal transformed society. Design/methodology/approach - The treatise is made taking into account the qualitative approach by looking into the historical prospect of social legal issues of Pakistan and to come to a conclusion to draw a better picture if followed the suggested steps. Findings - The paper includes the review of the history and weaknesses in legal transformation and comprehensive suggested steps to be followed to overcome the weaknesses and deficiencies. Research limitations/implications - The paper is limited to the social and legal aspects of the transformation in Pakistan and does not go into the deep details of politics and culture. Practical implications - Suggested steps can be followed by the legislature to make amendments in laws and to make more suitable laws which is a necessity for the better social transformation of Pakistan. Originality/Value - The research is a good piece and has an importance in its field and may help a lot in the development of the country and the region specially and the world at large generally. Keywords: Islamic rulers of the sub-continent; British India and its laws; Constitution of Pakistan 1956,1962 and 1973. Research type: The said research is a critical analysis on the development and transformation of Pakistan with respect to law

  11. Multilanguage function and user-macro function. Multi gengo kinoter dot user-macro kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Yatsuda, Y. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-10

    The multilanguage function and user-macro function of programmable controllers (PCs), FLEX-PC N series, were outlined which have been developed for machine control. The multilanguage function was developed as an effective function for realizing the same familiar operational environments on FLEX-PC N series as those on other manufacturers{prime} PCs or programming tools. In a programming tool, it realized various operational environments with the common base hardware, several keyboards and several system softwares, while in a PC, it efficiently realized such environments with the common base hardware and several executive hardwares for programs. The user-macro function was developed to enhance a programming efficiency, and could be easily operated by programming tools. It included both macros written with the instructions of several PCs and the assembler language of several MPUs. 8 figs.

  12. Far Away, So Close:A Legal Analysis of the Increasing Interactions between the Convention on Biological Diversity and Climate Change Law

    OpenAIRE

    Morgera, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    This article discuss the possible legal bases to support synergies between international biodiversity law and climate change law. The central section of the article analyse sthe multiple climate-change-related outcomes of the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, focusing on the legal relevance of the significant rapprochement of international biodiversity law and climate change law.

  13. Caffeine and bicarbonate for speed. A meta-analysis of legal supplements potential for improving intense endurance exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Shirai, Yusuke; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    and potentially ergogenic supplements beta-alanine, bicarbonate, caffeine and nitrate were selected for analysis. Following a systematic search in Pubmed and SportsDiscuss combined with evaluation of cross references a total of 7 (beta-alanine), 25 (bicarbonate), 9 (caffeine), and 5 (nitrate) studies was included...... in the meta-analysis. For each study, performance was converted to an average speed (km/h) from which an effect size (ES; Cohens d with 95% confidence intervals) was calculated. A small effect and significant performance improvement relative to placebo was observed for caffeine (ES: 0.41 [0.15-0.68], P = 0.......002) and bicarbonate (ES: 0.40 [0.27-0.54], P caffeine's and bicarbonate's ergogenic effect is clearly documented for intense endurance...

  14. Studying the impact of industry type validation criteria to Legal customers of Bank Saderat Iran using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rajabipour Meybodi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems of today's banking system is overdue loans. The basic strategy for solving this problem is creating a credit rating system of customers. Financial ratios extracted from financial statements of companies have long been considered as one of the useful tools used for evaluating companies by individuals to predict future conditions. Therefore, in this study, ranking of companies in each industry has been discussed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and a number of inputs and outputs such as financial ratios and other important characteristics from the viewpoint of professors and credit experts. Then, ratings of the inputs and outputs (credit criteria have been identified to distinguish and compare the types of industries using sensitivity analysis. Finally, the values of inputs and outputs have been studied for different industries. The research approach can be used by banks in credit risk management for customers.

  15. 我国现阶段土地利用变化驱动力的宏观分析%Macro-analysis on the driving forces of the land-use change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 李秀彬; 刘学军

    2001-01-01

    Land-use is one complex system, which is affected by many factors, including both socio-economic elements and natural resources and environment. This paper firstly established a framework for macro-analysis on the driving forces of land-use change in China, in which economic welfare, environmental welfare, the need for food security and the advancement of science and technology are the main forces contributing to the land-use changes. Then the paper analyzed the basic contradictions in the land-use change in recent years on the basis of current situation of land-use and economic development in China. In the third section, according to the analytical framework established firstly and the basic contradictions in the land-use change, and on the basis of the land-use data and other related socio economic documents in recent years, this paper analyzed and computed the indexes of the driving forces of the land-use change and represented their spatial distribution in China. By the distribution of these driving forces, the whole China can be seen as three distinct sub-areas: Tibet-southwest sub-area, central-northwest sub-area and east sub-area, each of which takes on different features in respect of the driving forces of land-use changes. As indicated in this paper, the economic welfare is the fundamental impetus to the land-use changes, and the environmental welfare and the need for food security are also important factors in China. The future land-use change is ultimately decided by the performance of these factors and their interactions.%土地利用的基本竞争模型是土地利用类型变化驱动力分析的理论基础。把握土地利用个体目标和社会目标的关系,尤其是它们之间的矛盾及其地区差异,是进行土地利用变化驱动力宏观分析的有效途径。工业化城市化与粮食安全之间的矛盾、农业发展与生态环境保护之间的矛盾是现阶段我国土地利用变化的基本矛盾。土地利用变化

  16. 外汇占款对中国宏观经济的影响探析%An Analysis on the Effect of Foreign Exchange Reserves on Macro Economy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉翔; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    加入世界贸易组织后,中国外汇储备状况发生了令人瞠目的变化。外汇占款如何影响宏观经济等问题引起了学者们的广泛关注。本文综合运用协整检验、格兰杰因果检验等计量方法,对过去十年内中国外汇占款、货币供给、经济增长、物价水平等变量之间关系进行系统的实证分析。从格兰杰因果检验来看,外汇占款的变动会引起货币供给、国内生产总值增速乃至物价水平的变动。从协整检验结果来看,外汇占款与货币供给和经济增长存在正向关系,而与物价水平却呈现反向关系。中国需要通过增强外汇冲销干预的有效性、完善外汇管理体制、调节国际收支失衡、加强金融市场建设、推动人民币国际化等有效措施,保持外汇占款的相对稳定和可持续增长。%Since China's accession to the WTO in 2001, there has been a lot of changes of its for- eign exchange reserves. The effect of foreign exchange reserves on macro economy draws a wide- spread attention of seholars. In this paper, we make an empirical and systemic analysis on the rela- tionship among foreign exchange reserves, money supply, economic growth and inflation level dur- ing past ten years with the methods of ADF test, co--integration test, and Granger causality test. From the perspective of Granger causality test, the changes of foreign exchange reserves is related to money supply, acceleration of GDP, and the changes of commodity price level. The result of co --integration test shows that foreign exchange reserves has a positive relationship with monetary supply and economic growth, and has a negative relationship with commodity price level. We should keep a relative stable and sustainable growth of foreign exchange reserves through more ef- fective sterilized intervention of foreign exchange, improvement of management system, adjustment of imbalance of international payments, strengthening of

  17. 地热资源的法律性质及其规制探析%Analysis on Legal Property and Regulations of Geothermal Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁华江

    2011-01-01

    地热是一种新型的清洁能源,许多国家都对其进行了专门立法,以推动循环经济的发展。分析矿产开采权的形成与发展,对比国际地热资源的立法实践,可知地热开采权是一种他物权,是国家所有者权益的经济体现。我国地热资源的广泛开发,与当前地热、矿产资源的必要法律制度的缺失、地方性规章与法律、行政法规冲突等情况形成了对立。在我国《矿产资源法》修订的基础上,有机、协调地制定统一的《地热能法》,是消除地热资源利用障碍的有效法律手段。符合国际新能源法律规制的趋势。%Geothermy is a new kind of clean energy. Many countries have special legislations for geothermal energy to promote the development of circular economy. With the analysis on the formation and development of the mineral rights and in contrast to the international legislative practices of geothermal resources, we can reach a conclusion that the geothermal mining right is a kind of other property rights, which is an economic reflection of the state ownership interest. The wide exploitations of geothermal resources in china have formed the opposition to faultiness of the necessary legal system of the current geothermal and mineral resources, and conflicts between local rules and laws and administrative regulations. On the basis of the revised edition of Mineral Resources Law, making a unified Geothermal Resources Law organically and harmoniously is an effective legal means to eliminate the obstacles in the utilization of geothermal resources, which is also in line with the trend of legislations about new energies.

  18. Analysis of export control legal system%出口管制法律制度基本问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧

    2016-01-01

    To study the features and essence of export control legal system and provide beneficial reference for the construction and perfection of export control legal system,this paper explored the historical evolution process of export control legal system and analyzed its features and essence.The results show that export control legal system has such features as politicalization,normality,variability, and contradictoriness. Export control legal systems is a kind of legal instrument of trade policy in essence.%为研究出口管制法律制度的特点和本质等基本问题,为建立和完善出口管制法律制度提供有益参考,在探究出口管制法律制度历史演进的基础上分析其特点和本质。研究认为,出口管制法律制度具有政治性、常态性、变动性、矛盾性的特点;出口管制法律制度在本质上是贸易政策的一种法律工具。

  19. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  20. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  1. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  2. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  3. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth.

  4. Legalization White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC.

    The second step of implementation of the legalization program of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) began on November 7, 1988. This second step is the process by which undocumented immigrants, initially granted temporary residence, may adjust to their status change to permanent resident. Certain aspects of the adjustment are…

  5. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  6. Drops bouncing off macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomi Moqaddam, Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Iliya V.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments with droplets impacting a macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces revealed new regimes of bouncing with a remarkable reduction of the contact time. We present here a comprehensive numerical study that reveals the physics behind these new bouncing regimes and quantify the role played by various external and internal forces that effect the dynamics of a drop impacting a complex surface. For the first time, three-dimensional simulations involving macro-textured surfaces are performed. Aside from demonstrating that simulations reproduce experiments in a quantitative manner, the study is focused on analyzing the flow situations beyond current experiments. We show that the experimentally observed reduction of contact time extends to higher Weber numbers, and analyze the role played by the texture density. Moreover, we report a non-linear behavior of the contact time with the increase of the Weber number for application relevant imperfectly coated textures, and also study the impact on tilted surfaces in a wide range of Weber numbers. Finally, we present novel energy analysis techniques that elaborate and quantify the interplay between the kinetic and surface energy, and the role played by the dissipation for various Weber numbers.

  7. The effects of macro-level interventions on addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, R L; Chaloupka, F J

    2001-12-01

    Drug addictions are often viewed as compulsive behaviors, not sensitive to the typical rules of self-discipline or market forces. Nonetheless, many governments try to discourage consumption of addictive substances through macro policy tools, such as taxation, regulation and prohibition, in an effort to reduce the harmful consequences that result from their consumption. The government's ability to discourage this type of behavior through these macro policies depends critically on the responsiveness of addictive consumption to market interventions. This paper reviews the growing literature that applies economic principles to the analysis of "substance abuse." Specifically, we review the impact of prices and public policies on the demands for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The findings from these studies clearly demonstrate that even addictive behaviors are sensitive to changes in the price of substances being abused. When the full price of the addictive good rises, consumption of that good falls, even among abusers. Therefore, public policies that raise the full price of a drug to a consumer, particularly youth, are likely to result in long run reductions in rates of addiction.

  8. Biologically relevant environmental data: macros to make the most of microclimate recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, B J

    2001-01-01

    The increased availability and use of automatic data loggers has made collection of microclimatic data cheap and easy. I present macros for the quantitative analysis and comparison of microclimatic (particularly temperature) data in the spreadsheet package Microsoft Excel. The macros presented will (1) collate maximum and minimum values of temperature (or other) cycles, (2) provide a count of the number of times a temperature recording crosses a given threshold, (3) measure the period of time spent above or below a given threshold, and (4) measure the rate of change of a data set as it approaches a threshold. A case study of the freeze tolerant grasshopper Sigaus australis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and winter temperatures from its alpine habitat is used to demonstrate the macros.

  9. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, Gary B.

    1994-07-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis.

  10. MACRO-PUBLIC RELATIONS: CRISIS COMMUNICATION IN THE AGE OF INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxuan Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the crisis communication in the age of Internet, the study takes the battle between two Internet companies, Tencent and Qihoo, as a case study, but focuses more on their huge public audiences, which may be defined as a “macro-public” crowd. The study employs multiple research methods including survey, focus groups interviews and content analysis to explore their “macro-public relations” which may be driven by the spiral of silence and crowd psychology. This dynamic underground power is the reason that two companies employed similar public relations strategies in crisis communication but the results of the crisis were different. The study attempts to contribute to the knowledge base by defining and highlighting the power and function of “macro-public relations” for crisis communication in the age of Internet.

  11. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  12. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  13. [Medico-legal certification of fatal cases after drug: abuse in the light of modern toxicological analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłys, M; Klementowicz, W; Bujak-Gizycka, B; Kołodziej, J; Trela, F

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of modern instrumental methods for toxicological analysis make possible a detection and identification of xenobiotics in different kind of multicomponents biological samples (plant sources of narcotics, body fluids and tissues of abusers) on a low concentration level. In this way a range of possibilities for the interpretation of toxicological results was enlarged. General medicolegal trends are strictly connected with modern analytics and they can be discussed on the basis of drug--users and fatal cases of intoxications with narcotics. Toxicological findings of these cases were worked out by means of modern analytical method--liquid chromatography with mass detection (LC/MS).

  14. Sexual orientation and gender identity in North America: legal trends, legal contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R Douglas; Bonauto, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The article provides a comparative analysis of recent legal developments with regard to LGBT rights in Canada and the United States of America. Both countries have made great progress towards better protection and full recognition of LGBT rights. Despite this progress, Canada appears to be ahead of the United States, as illustrated by two most recent court decisions (e.g. Halpern, legalizing same-sex marriage in Ontario, and Lawrence v. Texas, decriminalizing consensual sodomy in the United States).

  15. 影响公司并购绩效的宏观因素分析——基于边限协整理论的实证研究%The Analysis the Macro Impact Factors of Finn M&A Performance Based on the Margin Co - integration Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞晓波; 余燕妮

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets the ECM model to analysis the influence of main macro factors for the firm M&A per- formance by using the the Margin test, Toda- Yamamota causality test and autoregressive distributed lag approach (ARDL). the results show the two facts. First, there is the Co - integration relationship between firm M&A per- formance and main macro factors that are the rate, money supply, macro economy and the capital market. Second, there is the two - way causality relation between firm M&A performance and those factors, and it is testified that the first conclusion is steady.%采用边限检验法、Toda-Yamamota因果检验法以及自回归分布滞后模型对影响公司并购绩效的主要宏观因素进行了协整分析。结论表明:(1)公司并购绩效与宏观经济发展状况、资本市场发展状况以及利率和货币供应量之间具有协整关系;(2)公司并购绩效与宏观经济发展状况、资本市场发展状况以及利率和货币供应量之间存在着双向的因果关系,表明结论(1)是稳健的。

  16. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  17. Macro- and micromorphological studies of Clypeola species (Brassicaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Abbasian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clypeola is an annual genus from Brassicaceae with four (C. jonthlaspi, C. aspera, C. lappacea and C. dichotoma species in Iran. These are plants of different habitats and found as early spring therophytes in semiarid regions of Iran. In this study 63 populations of Clypeola genus have been studied by 49 macro- and micromorphological features. Results were analyzed by use of multivariate statistical methods. Cluster analysis, factor analysis and ordination methods were applied. The result showed that such characters as pedicle, trichome, stamen, petal features and sculpture of fruit surface have valuable diagnostic in separating of these species. In present study it was also found that the use of seed surface character in not effective alone for taxa delimitation except of some C. jonthlaspi subspecies. Among leaf features, trichome ornamentations, their position and branching pattern are effective for species separation. Fruit hairs are of diagnostics importance in species separation too.

  18. The Interface between Macro and Micro-Level Language Policy and the Place of Language Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the place of pedagogy in language-in-education policy through an analysis of how the macro-level of government policy interacts with the micro-level of local educational practice. It argues that pedagogy is typically considered a micro-level activity and policy frequently devolves decision-making about pedagogy to…

  19. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  20. Macros y atajos para el traductor

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Heredero

    2007-01-01

    Sin necesidad de recurrir a los productos comerciales de ayuda a la traducción que se han ido generalizando en muchas grandes empresas y organizaciones, el traductor independiente puede ver considerablemente facilitado su trabajo si sabe explotar las muchas posibilidades que brindan Visual Basic y otros lenguajes poco conocidos de dominio público. Se presentan aquí varias macros de Word y pequeñas aplicaciones desarrolladas en los últimos años para acelerar tanto las búsquedas de términos —ba...

  1. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  2. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in expl

  3. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  4. Macro-Integration for Solving Large Data Reconciliation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Mushkudiani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Macro-integration technique is a well established method forreconciliation of large, high-dimensional tables, especially applied to macroeconomic data at national statistical oces (NSO. This technique is mainly used when data obtained from dierent sources should be reconciled on a macro level. New areas of applications for this technique arise as new data sources become available to NSO's. Often these new data sources cannot be combined on a micro level, while macro integration could provide a solution for such problems. Yet, more research should be carried out to investigate if in such situations macro integration could indeed be applied. In this paper we propose two applications of macro-integration techniques in other domains than the traditional macro-economic applications. In particular: reconciliation of tables of a virtual census and reconciliation of monthly series of short term statistics gures with the quarterly gures of structural business statistics.

  5. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  6. 数控车床中的椭圆宏程序%Ellipse Macro Program in NC Lathe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志勇

    2012-01-01

    对于数控专业的初学者学习数控编程,特别是宏程序的编程是比较困难.通过分析数控车床中的椭圆宏程序和论述坐标法,让初学者能够以此作为宏程序学习的一个入门,掌握各种不同曲线宏程序的编辑方法.%For beginners to learn professional NC,NC programming,especially the macro program programming is difficult.Through the analysis of CNC lathe in the ellipse macro program and discussion of the method of coordinate,beginners can learn as an introductory in the macro program,to master various macro program editing method of the curve.

  7. 我国中央银行法律制度:历史考察与特点分析%Historical Investigation and Analysis of Characteristics of Legal System of China's Central Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常健; 饶常林

    2014-01-01

    It has been over 100 years since China's Central Bank and its legal system began to operate in China after the promulgation and implementation of"the Regulations on Pilot Bank of the Ministry of Revenue in Feudal China"and the establishment of Bank of Ministry of Revenue in Qing dynasty.The Central Bank legal system has come to be the nuclear financial legal system. The present paper investigates historically the change of Central Bank legal system and analyses the legal characteristics of the establishment of China's Central Bank and the formation of its legal system as the outcomes of political choices,the major fiscal function of the establishment of China's Central Bank ,and the evolution of China's Central Bank from the"government's bank"to the"bank's bank".This investigation and the analysis is of practical significance to people's thorough understanding of China's Central Bank and its legal system.%自1905年《试办户部银行章程》颁行和大清户部银行建立,中央银行及其法律制度落户中华大地已逾百年,逐步成为我国核心性金融法律制度。对中央银行法律制度变迁进行历史考察,梳理中央银行的设立与法律制度生成均为政治选择结果、中央银行设立以财政功能为主、中央银行从“政府的银行”逐步向“银行的银行”演进等法律特点,这对深入理解我国中央银行及其法律制度具有现实的意义。

  8. How is Macro News Transmitted to Exchange Rates? (December 2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D.D. Evans

    2005-01-01

    This paper tests whether macroeconomic news is transmitted to exchange rates via the transactions process and if so, what share occurs via transactions versus the traditional direct channel. We identify the link between order flow and macro news using a heteroskedasticity-based approach, a la Rigobon and Sack (2002). In both daily and intra-daily data, order flow varies considerably with macro news flow. At least half of the effect of macro news on exchange rates is transmitted via order flow.

  9. How is Macro News Transmitted to Exchange Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D.D. Evans; Lyons, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests whether macroeconomic news is transmitted to exchange rates via the transactions process and if so, what share occurs via transactions versus the traditional direct channel. We identify the link between order flow and macro news using a heteroskedasticity-based approach, a la Rigobon and Sack (2002). In both daily and intra-daily data, order flow varies considerably with macro news flow. At least half of the effect of macro news on exchange rates is transmitted via order flow.

  10. Legal Origin,Endowment and Financial Development%Legal Origin, Endowment and Financial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世雯

    2016-01-01

    Since the rise of the economic and financial development theory, around economic and financial development of the determinants and what financial arrangements for promoting economic growth and other issues, thus resulted in a variety of im-portant theoretical debate. This paper will Define what is meant by key terms such as legal tradition and endowment, explain the channels through which legal tradition and endowment affect financial development through talking about the relationship be-tween legal origin, initial in endowment and financial development. By comparing different legal traditions or the"Origins"be-tween the The Continental Law System and Common Law System, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of different origin of law on the financial and economic development.

  11. Expounding the Place of Legal Doctrinal Methods in Legal-Interdisciplinary Research : Experiences with Studying the Practice of Independent Accountability Mechanisms at Multilateral Development Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThere is a distinct place for legal doctrinal methods in legal- interdisciplinary research methodologies, but there is value to be had in expounding that place – in developing a deeper understanding, for instance, of what legal doctrinal analysis has to offer, wherein lies its limitation

  12. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  13. Search for rare particles with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, M; Rrhioua, A

    2002-01-01

    Massive rare particles have been searched for in the penetrating cosmic radiation using the MACRO detector located at the Gran Sasso laboratory. Liquid scintillators, streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors have been used, in a stand-alone and in combined way to search for GUT magnetic monopoles (MMs) in the velocity range 4 10 /sup -5/ < beta < 1. The search for MMs exploits their energy loss mechanisms in each of the three MACRO subdetectors. No monopole was observed and the global flux upper limit obtained is phi = 6.3 * 10 /sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/ for 5 * 10/sup -3/ < beta < 0.99. This limit is below the extended Parker limit. Scintillator and nuclear track subdetectors are also used to search for nuclearites (strange quark matter). Based on no observation of nuclearites signals, stringent flux upper limits are established, phi < 1.7 * 10 /sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/, beta ~ 10/sup -2/. We compared also the results of different experiments searching for MMs ...

  14. The MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Assiro, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barbarito, E.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P. E-mail: paolo.bernardini@le.infn.it; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bottazzi, E.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Candela, A.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Ceres, A.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; Creti, P.; De Cataldo, G.; Esposti, L.D.L. Degli; Dekhissi, H.; Marzo, C. De; Mitri, I. De; Derkaoui, J.; Vincenzi, M. De; Credico, A. Di; Ferdinando, D. Di; Diotallevi, R.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Gebhard, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Giuliani, R.; Goretti, M.; Grassi, M.; Grau, H.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, J.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Leone, A.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marrelli, V.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mossbarger, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orsini, M.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Ouchrif, M.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W. E-mail: peck@hep.caltech.edu; Pellizzoni, G.; Perchiazzi, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrakis, J.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.; Pinto, C.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Saggese, P.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Sondergaard, S.; Spinelli, P.[and others

    2002-07-01

    MACRO was an experiment that ran in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso from 1988 to 2000. Its principal goal was to observe magnetic monopoles or set significantly lower experimental flux limits than had been previously available in the velocity range from about {beta}=10{sup -4} to unity. In addition it made a variety of other observations. Examples are: setting flux limits on other so far unobserved particles such as nuclei and lightly ionizing particles, searching for WIMP annihilations in the Earth and the Sun and for neutrino bursts from stellar collapses in or near our Galaxy, and making measurements relevant to high energy muon and neutrino astronomy and of the flux of up-going muons as a function of nadir angle showing evidence for neutrino oscillations. The apparatus consisted of three principal types of detectors: liquid scintillator counters, limited streamer tubes, and nuclear track etch detectors. In addition, over part of its area it contained a transition radiation detector. The general design philosophy emphasized redundancy and complementarity. This paper describes the technical aspects of the complete MACRO detector, its operational performance, and the techniques used to calibrate it and verify its proper operation. It supplements a previously published paper which described the first portion of the detector that was built and operated.

  15. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  16. 论土地资源立法中的法益保护--以生态利益为视角%Analysis on the Protection of Legal Interests in Land Resources Legislation--from perspective of ecological interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国坤

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the more and more serious problem on legal positioning in China’s land resources legislation,and to explore the theories and program of legal interests protection that focus on the ecological interests.The analysis methods include legal empirical analysis;comparative analysis;legal interpretation.The results show that:(1)The existing land resources legislation in China in the category of legal interests has basically covers civil law interests,administrative law interests and penal law interests;(2)In the type of legal interests, property and order interests are more valued,while the ecological interests is ignored;(3)The current ecological crisis and environmental crisis become unprecedented intensified,social reality needs to establish criminal law interests to protect the ecological interests.The paper concludes that crime and penalties on illegal and criminal acts on land resources gradually become the trend of international resources legislation,the key attention on land resources legislation should be gradually shifted from property interests to ecological interests in land resources.%鉴于土地资源的稀缺性,通过法律手段予以保障向来是资源立法的历史传统。但是工业化进程的加速使得土地资源所遭受的破坏日趋严重,原先局限于保障土地资源所有权、使用权的民法法益和保障土地资源管理秩序的行政法法益均不足以应对当前的生态危机和环境危机。因而,对土地资源违法行为犯罪化和刑罚化成为国际资源立法的趋势,通过确立土地犯罪的刑法法益,并且逐步将关注重点从土地资源的财产利益转向生态利益代表了土地资源立法的未来趋向。

  17. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    requirements, state living will statutes, state death and gift taxes, and adoption of the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act. Several forms designed to be...health care, and a summary of state living will legislation. Legal assistance attorneys are advised that these state and territorial statutes are subject... state living will statutes is Gelfand, Living Will Statutes: The First Decade, 5 Wis. Law. Rev. 737 (1987). a A recent article addressing the types of

  18. Cultural Dimensions Of Legal Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierocka Halina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities

  19. Natural Phenomena in the Mechanism of Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Malyshkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interaction of nature phenomena and law in the regulation of social relations. The author proves that natural phenomena should be considered when legal acts are worked out. The analysis of the place and role of natural phenomena in the mechanism of legal regulation is analysed.

  20. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  1. A Legal Analysis of the Mode of Online Banking Supervision in China%我国网上银行监管模式的法律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋学

    2012-01-01

    银行业务的虚拟化,改变了传统银行业的经营模式、价值观念、管理方法和竞争格局。近几年来,我国网上银行业务飞速发展,但是在行业规划、经营管理、风险控制和业务监管等方面与国外网上银行业务发达的国家相比还有较大的差距。目前,我国网上银行的发展面临相关法制建设滞后、安全问题突出、监管不到位等问题,这些问题的存在影响了我国网上银行的可持续发展。本文对我国网上银行发展面临的困境进行了深入地分析,提出了一些解决问题的方法。%Banking virtualization has changed the traditional banking business model, values, management and competition. In recent years, online banking in our country has developed rapidly, but there is a large gap in the industry planning, management, risk control and business regulation compared with foreign countries. At present, the development of online banking in China is facing the problems of legal system, safety issues, and regulation. These problems affect the sustainable development of China' s online banking. This article makes an in - depth analysis of the dilemma of the development of online banking, and puts forward some solutions to the problems.

  2. 国有资产社会监管的法律分析%Legal analysis of social regulation of state-owned assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Our country has a large number, a wide variety of state-owned assets, And involves many areas, State-owned economy in our country's socialist economic construction plays an important role. The current in the legal system of state-owned assets supervision, government supervision is mandatory regulatory body, But the loss of state-owned assets and the state-owned assets management efifciency low problem is increasingly highlighted. With the gradually development of the socialist market economy, the establishment of consistent with the rule of law economy of state-owned assets supervision system is imminent. This article mainly from the analysis on the present situation of the state-owned assets supervision, from the perspective of regulation, discusses how to improve the oversight system for state-owned assets.%我国拥有数量庞大,种类繁多的国有资产,而且涉及到很多领域,国有经济在我国的社会主义经济建设中发挥着举足轻重的作用.现行国有资产监管法律体系中,政府监管是具有强制力的监管主体,但国有资产流失和国有资产经营效益低下的问题却日益凸显出来.随着社会主义市场经济的逐步发展,建立与法治经济相符的国有资产监管体系迫在眉睫.本文主要从国有资产监管的现状分析入手,探讨如何从社会监管角度完善国有资产监管制度.

  3. Economic analysis of Xv-Ting Case'legal Responsibility Attributing%许霆案归责的法经济学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁孙哲

    2011-01-01

    The attribution of legal responsibility complies with the four cardinal principles,which are the principle of statutory responsibility、principle of responsibility commensurate、principle of bearing responsibility solely for one's own crime、principle of causality,these basic principles are unification of the organic.These principles could be used economics principles such as individualism、costs of transactions、public choose、externalities to analyze.Through the using of these theoretical tools,this article think the judicial decision of Xv-Ting Case,does not conform with the four principles,Therefore from the perspective of economic analysis,the judicial decision of Xv-Ting Case is no efficient.%法律责任的归责要遵循四个基本的原则,分别是责任法定原则、责任相称原则、责任自负原则、因果关系原则,这些基本原则是有机统一的。这些原则可以运用个人主义、交易成本、公共选择、外部性等经济学原理进行分析。通过这些理论工具的运用,本文认为,许霆案的司法判决违反这四个原则,因此从经济分析的角度来看,许霆案的判决是无效率的。

  4. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  5. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  6. Positive Legal Responsibility in the Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Matveev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author bases on the analysis of doctrinal and normative sources attempt to substantiate the existence of positive legal responsibility. Author defines the specificity of positive familial liability in the mechanism of self- identity of lawful behavior. Considering the nature of family legal liability, author proves independence of family-legal responsibility; it differs from civil, criminal and administrative responsibility. Author gives own definition of family-legal responsibility, gives characteristic features of this type of liability and justifies own view of the concept of responsibility in the modern family. Author substantiates view that family liability is expressed in multiple sanctions fixable current family law. Author notes that measures of family - legal responsibility are: annulment of the marriage, deprivation and restriction of parental rights, abolition of adoption, custody, guardianship, termination of child in a foster family placement, deprivation of the right to communicate with the child, taking away a child, termination or limitation of the obligation to subject the material contents of family relationship to other entities. Justifying own views, author relies on the opinions of scholars, experts, as well as a number of other competent persons.

  7. Introducing Legal Method When Teaching Stakeholder Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...

  8. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...

  9. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current clients and competitors, also – singularity of the professional services.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Some reflections on the formal legal aspect of the creation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, based on analysis of the Pinar del Río case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisel Hernández Aguilar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an exam of some general elements of the legal regulation of the process of constitution of the non agricultural cooperatives. Subsequently, it centers its attention in three fundamental aspects of the same one: the authorizations to constitute, the notarial writings of constitutions and the inscription in the mercantile registration. These analyses, of the way in which it has been regulated legally and developed the process of constitution of the non agricultural cooperatives in Pinegrove of the River, are guided to determine the juridical – formal aspects that requires improvement.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 30.07.2015

  11. Legal insider trading and stock market liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, Hans; de Jong, Frank; Lefebvre, J.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of legal trades by corporate insiders on the liquidity of the firm’s stock. For this purpose, we analyze two liquidity measures and one information asymmetry measure. The analysis allows us to study as well the effect of a change in insider trading regulation, namely t

  12. The Construction of Macro-events. A typological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    languages. The discussion originates in a contrastive analysis of a short story by H. C. Andersen available in six parallel versions: the original Danish version, an English, a German, a Spanish, an Italian and a French version. The paper argues that the generalized version of the typology (Talmy 1991, 2000......, as a device for organizing the information, and that the typology is anchored in this task. The interpretation of Talmy's descriptive typology is in this perspective that some pairs of MIC/SIC are more entrenched in the grammar of some languages than in others. The proposed framework is well suited......In this paper Talmy's influential typology of macro-events (Talmy 1985, 1987, 1991, 2000) is discussed from the point of view of construction grammar (Goldberg 1995, 2006). Talmy has described typological differences of lexicalization between what he calls satellite framed languages and verb framed...

  13. 略论法学研究中阶级分析方法的两个基本问题%On the Two Basic Issues of Class Analysis in Legal Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘玉塑

    2014-01-01

    In legal research of China the focus of class analysis is about the present class,including class structure,class formation and class relation.This paper proposes a shift of perspective in class analysis, from class analysis to stratum analysis,from antithetic analysis to integrated analysis,and from internal a-nalysis to external analysis.%法学研究中阶级分析方法的核心问题是我国现阶段的阶级状况,即阶级结构、阶级成份和阶级关系。由此决定,阶级分析方法的适用应适当转换视角,由阶级分析到阶层分析、由对立分析到统一分析、由内向分析到外向分析。

  14. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  15. Legal Methodology Study in the Content of Ruling China by Law---Report on Legal Methodology Study of China(2014)%法治中国背景下的法律方法论研究--2014年中国法律方法论研究学术报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光宁; 焦宝乾

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 ,the research of legal methodology is focusing on practical function of its own , trying to make sense to legal study and construction of rule of law .In basic theory ,legal dogmatic and social science of law are confronted with each other ,although not so seriously .We can see that different legal theory can benefit from each other .In system of its theory ,legal interpretation ,legal argumentation is further studied in case analysis .In the practice of rule of law construction ,legal methodology is so important to both macro ideas and judicial institutions ,with guiding case system being a good case in point .In short ,stressing on rule of law ,supplying theory reference will be the trend for legal methodology study in the future .%在2014年中,法律方法论的研究成果集中于凸显自身的实践功能,力图对法学研究和法治实践发挥直接而明确的推动作用,这一宏观指向体现在以下三个方面:在理论基础方面,法教义学和社科法学之争并未达到剑拔弩张的程度,其背后的共识是法学研究应当取长补短,在各自分析视角内为法治实践提供最优参考。在自身理论体系方面,法律解释、法律论证等具体法律方法的研究,也特别强调以史为鉴和案例分析,最终落脚点也是为当前的法治实践服务。在法治建设的实践方面,法律方法论对现在的宏观法治理念和微观的司法制度,都有重要推动作用,案例指导制度就是典型例证。关注法治实践,为法治建设提供重要的理论参考,将继续成为法律方法论研究的整体取向。

  16. Is anti-doping analysis so far from clinical, legal or forensic targets?: The added value of close relationships between related disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Jordi

    2009-11-01

    There are many areas of common interest between anti-doping laboratories and those working in the clinical, legal and forensic fields. In addition to methodological similarities, there are aspects of the findings in sport drug testing that overlap with other fields in such a way that sport drug testing and clinical, legal or forensic work may benefit from mutual interaction. Three recent examples are presented from the author's experience. Case report 1 concerns the clinical relevance of hCG findings in sport drug testing as potential indicators of the presence of a (testicular) tumour in athletes. Case report 2 refers to difficulties that accredited laboratories can encounter due to differences between national legal systems and the administrative regulation systems of sport authorities. The example involves a network of blood collection for further autologous transfusion. Case report 3 relates to additional forensic-type investigations needed to interpret a situation where intoxication of a whole delegation was responsible for apparent doping cases. Clinical, legal and forensic fields must recognize the added value that some results and developments coming from anti-doping laboratories may have. At the same time anti-doping analysts should be aware of new issues, methodologies and problems appearing in related fields.

  17. Moving Towards Inclusive Education as a Human Right, An analysis of international legal obligations to implement inclusive education in law and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, L.B.; Toepke, C

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities experience ongoing segregation in special education classes or are otherwise excluded from education. This is in spite of the fact that States have a legal obligation to offer an accessible and inclusive education to all learners. Exclusion of any child from education is a

  18. Effects of Long-Term Fertilization on Distribution of Organic Matters and Nitrogen in Cinnamon Soil Macro-Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples collected from a 25-year long-term fertilizer experiment carried out on the Earth-cumulic-Orthic Anthrosols in semi-humid farmland ecological system, were used to study the distribution of soil organic matters, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniate nitrogen in different grades of soil macro-aggregates in order to study the effects of long-term application of organic manures in combination with chemical fertilizers. It is showed that the percentage of mass of the soil macro-aggregates with long-term application of fertilizers with sizes of 5-2 mm is increased compared with that of the samples with no fertilizer. It is easier to form lager size soil macro-aggregates by the long-term application of organic manures in combination with chemical fertilizers. The contents of organic matters, total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen are all higher after treatments with different combinations of fertilizers, while there is a little effect on the contents of ammoniate nitrogen. The contents of organic matters, total nitrogen in the grades of soil macro-aggregates from the plough layers of the treated farmland exhibited significant difference. Moreover, the contents of organic matters and total nitrogen in the soil macro-aggregates with the size of 1-0.25 mm is the highest in all treated soil samples. The contents of nitrate nitrogen in soil macro-aggregates increased with the increasing of soil macro-aggregate size except those applied with chemical fertilizer and lower amount of corn stover. The results of correlation analysis revealed that there exists a significantly positive correlation between the percentage of mass of soil macro-aggregates with the size of 5-2 mm and the contents of organic matters, total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the soil samples. However, the correlation between the percentage of mass of soil macro-aggregates with the size of 1-0.25 mm and the contents of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen is significantly negative. The

  19. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  20. Formal And Informal Macro-Regional Transport Clusters As A Primary Step In The Design And Implementation Of Cluster-Based Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežerenko Olga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the identification of a formal macro-regional transport and logistics cluster and its development trends on a macro-regional level in 2007-2011 by means of the hierarchical cluster analysis. The central approach of the study is based on two concepts: 1 the concept of formal and informal macro-regions, and 2 the concept of clustering which is based on the similarities shared by the countries of a macro-region and tightly related to the concept of macro-region. The authors seek to answer the question whether the formation of a formal transport cluster could provide the BSR a stable competitive position in the global transportation and logistics market.

  1. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  2. Particle size distribution in ferrofluid macro-clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wah-Keat, E-mail: wklee@bnl.gov [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Under an applied magnetic field, many commercial and concentrated ferrofluids agglomerate and form large micron-sized structures. Although large diameter particles have been implicated in the formation of these macro-clusters, the question of whether the particle size distribution of the macro-clusters are the same as the original fluid remains open. Some studies suggest that these macro-clusters consist of larger particles, while others have shown that there is no difference in the particle size distribution between the macro-clusters and the original fluid. In this study, we use X-ray imaging to aid in a sample (diluted EFH-1 from Ferrotec) separation process and conclusively show that the average particle size in the macro-clusters is significantly larger than those in the original sample. The average particle size in the macro-clusters is 19.6 nm while the average particle size of the original fluid is 11.6 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray imaging was used to isolate ferrofluid macro-clusters under an applied field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine particle size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show that macro-clusters consist of particles that are larger than average.

  3. Estimating Dynamic Equilibrium Models using Macro and Financial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Posch, Olaf; van der Wel, Michel

    We show that including financial market data at daily frequency, along with macro series at standard lower frequency, facilitates statistical inference on structural parameters in dynamic equilibrium models. Our continuous-time formulation conveniently accounts for the difference in observation...... of the estimators and estimate the model using 20 years of U.S. macro and financial data....

  4. Macro-economic impact of loss of health; Macro-economische impact van gezondheidsverlies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchimon, F. [BAM Techniek, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Ament, H.J.A. [Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Knies, J.; Pernot, C.E.E. [Pernot Consulting, Heeze (Netherlands); Van Bronswijk, J.M.H. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    More healthy life years are achievable by dwelling improvements. This article computes the healthy life years that may be gained by increased ventilation rates. It concerns the diseases Asthma, COPD en lung cancer. Increased ventilation removes house dust mites and their allergens, as well as tobacco smoke, which are associated with these diseases. Costs and savings are computes and compared in order to test the macro-economical feasibility of increased ventilation in dwellings. [Dutch] Door verbetering van woningen zijn veel gezonde levensjaren te behalen. In dit artikel worden de gewonnen gezonde levensjaren uitgerekend door meer ventileren voor de ziekten astma, COPD en longkanker. Zowel huisstofmijtallergeen als tabaksrook zijn geassocieerd met astma, COPD en longkanker. De kosten en de opbrengsten van meer ventileren worden met elkaar vergeleken om de macro-economische haalbaarheid te toetsen.

  5. Empirical Legal Research: The Gap between Facts and Values and Legal Academic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While traditional legal scholarship is under pressure and debates are taking place on the aims and methods of the academic study of law, at the same time empirical legal research is blossoming if not booming. The more empirical legal research is a growth industry, the more important it is to understand and discuss epistemological, methodological and translational problems of this field of study. This paper focuses on problems of a translational character, i.e. how to bring empirical evidence to the fore, in such a way that it can be understood and used by lawyers, legislators and regulators. And how to deal with the gap between facts (‘evidence’ and values, also known as the fact-value dichotomy. Our perspective is what students of law, including PhD candidates and legal practitioners (in training, need to know about this problem and how to address it. The paper summarizes several approaches to this gap problem, based on Giesen (2015 and continues with a critical analysis of his due process approach. Our analysis is that the gap problem continues to exist despite Giesen’s suggestions. Therefore four other approaches are put forward, two from the field of evaluation studies, one from argumentational analysis and one from empirically informed ethics. Finally, the paper discusses the relevance of these approaches for the legal curriculum.

  6. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  7. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  8. Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa

    2015-09-19

    Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal

  9. A novel macro model of traffic flow with the consideration of anticipation optimal velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G. H.; Song, W.; Peng, Y. J.; Wang, S. H.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a novel macro model which can investigate wide moving jams is derived from car-following model by applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables with the consideration of anticipation optimal velocity on single lane. The theoretic analysis and numerical simulation show that the new macro model of traffic flow can correctly reproduce common evolution of shock, rarefaction wave and local cluster effect under small perturbation, which shows that the congested traffic patterns about wide moving jam propagation are in accordance with empirical results. Furthermore, the results uncover that the anticipation effect can smooth the front of the shock wave and the rarefaction wave, which means that anticipation effect hasten the diffusion process of congregate in the shock wave and dissolution in rarefaction wave. The key improvement of this new macro model over the previous ones lies in the fact that the anticipation traffic behaviors can improve the stability of traffic flow with the consideration of the proper anticipation effect.

  10. Climate Change and Macro-Economic Cycles in Pre-Industrial Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Lee, Harry F.; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  11. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales.

  12. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  13. 宏观经济面临通货紧缩压力的原因分析及应对政策%Analysis of Macro-economy Facing Deflation Pressures and Policy Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张前荣

    2015-01-01

    At present, price shows low rising in consumption field and continuing decreasing in manufacture field. Macro-economy faces deflation pressure. Demand lacking, overcapacity, declining of international commodity price, pre-monetary policy tight and new business model is the main reasons of price decreasing. Deflation risk can not be taken lightly. We should respect the price reforming, fiscal and monetary policy, income distribution, related industries policy, demand stimulus policy to response deflation.%当前我国消费领域物价涨幅较低、生产领域价格持续下降,宏观经济总体面临通缩压力。需求相对不足、产能严重过剩、国际大宗商品价格大幅下降、前期货币政策相对偏紧、新的商业模式是当前物价下行压力加大的主要原因。对当前的通货紧缩风险应予以重视,采取价格改革、财政和货币、收入分配、刺激需求、化解过剩产能等相关政策加以应对。

  14. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts of the i......The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  15. Biopiracy: about its legal meanings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security...

  16. SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup.......SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup....

  17. The influence of printing substrate on macro non-uniformity and line reproduction quality of imprints printed with electrophotographic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Vujčić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Print quality is very important for every printing technique. It depends on many different quality attributes. This research included analysis of macro non-uniformities and line reproduction. 16 different paper substrates printed by electrophotographic process were analyzed. They were separated in two groups: coated and uncoated papers. Analysis of macro non-uniformity showed that print mottle has lower values when printed on coated papers than on uncoated papers. Line reproduction analysis showed that the toner spreaded, during melting and fixation, on line edges for both types of paper. According to these results it can be concluded that paper substrate affects the macro non-uniformity and line reproduction, thus overall print quality.

  18. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  19. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  20. the legal status of sustainable development in the nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Methodologically, the qualitative content analysis is used to ascertain the legal status of ... Policy in Nigeria: The Dilemma of the Concept of Sustainable Development (Lagos ..... development into its environmental law and practice,31 albeit not.