WorldWideScience

Sample records for macro encapsulation processing

  1. Lead macro-encapsulation conceptual and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Macro-encapsulation, the regulatory treatment for radioactively contaminated lead (mixed) waste has been conceptually and experimentally evaluated for practical application. Epoxy encapsulants molded around lead billets have proven to be exceptionally rugged, easily applied, have high radiation and chemical stability, and minimize required process equipment and production of secondary wastes. This technology can now be considered developed, and can be applied as discussed in this report

  2. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  3. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi; Tang, Waiching; Chen, Dazhu; Wen, Haibo

    2016-01-19

    The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  4. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  5. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  6. Structural-functional integrated concrete with macro-encapsulated inorganic PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Ehsan; Tang, Waiching; Wang, Zhiyu

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few years the application of thermal energy storage system incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) to foster productivity and efficiency of buildings energy has grown rapidly. In this study, a structural-functional integrated concrete was developed using macro-encapsulated PCM-lightweight aggregate (LWA) as partial replacement (25 and 50% by volume) of coarse aggregate in control concrete. The PCM-LWA was prepared by incorporation of an inorganic PCM into porous LWAs through vacuum impregnation. The mechanical and thermal performance of PCM-LWA concrete were studied. The test results revealed that though the compressive strength of concrete with PCM-LWA was lower than the control concrete, but ranged from 22.02 MPa to 42.88 MPa which above the minimum strength requirement for structural application. The thermal performance test indicated that macro-encapsulated PCM-LWA has underwent the phase change transition reducing the indoor temperature.

  7. Macro-Encapsulated PCM Cylinder Module Based on Paraffin and Float Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiang Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic phase change material (PCM with macro-encapsulation is attractive in energy storage applications as it has relatively low cost. This study focuses on using PET plastic pipes to encapsulate paraffin and using low-cost float stones to increase the thermal conductivity of PCM modules as they have a special structure of high porosity. Float stones were immersed in the liquid PCM and an ultrasonic welding method used to prevent leakage of the PET plastic pipes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to discover the appearance of the composite PCM. The thermal performance of the PCM cylinder module was analyzed through experimental tests of a constant-temperature water bath and numerical simulations. The result indicates that this PCM Ccylinder module is superior in thermal energy storage compared with the reference module even though fewer PCM was contained and the latent heat loss is considerable. The pipe diameter is an important parameter when using this kind of PCM cylinder module in water tanks.

  8. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  9. Encapsulation process sterilizes and preserves surgical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, L. C.; Morelli, F. A.

    1964-01-01

    Ethylene oxide is blended with an organic polymer to form a sterile material for encapsulating surgical instruments. The material does not bond to metal and can be easily removed when the instruments are needed.

  10. Process for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.; Hill, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste material, particularly radioactive ion exchange resin in the wet condition, is encapsulated in a polyurethane by dispersing the waste in an aqueous emulsion of an organic polyol, a polyisocyanate and an hydraulic cement and allowing the emulsion to set to form a monolithic block. If desired the emulsion may also contain additional filler e.g. sand or aggregate to increase the density of the final product. Preferred polyurethanes are those made from a polyester polyol and an organic diisocyanate, particularly hexamethylene diisocyanate. (author)

  11. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillard, D.; Claes, J.; Hennart, D.

    1983-01-01

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  12. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.L.; Telles, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  13. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  14. Processing glass-pyrochlore composites for nuclear waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, S.; Cannillo, V.; Wu, J.; Boccaccini, D.N.; Seglem, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Glass matrix composites have been developed as alternative materials to immobilize nuclear solid waste, in particular actinides. These composites are made of soda borosilicate glass matrix, into which particles of lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore are encapsulated in concentrations of 30 vol.%. The fabrication process involves powder mixing followed by hot-pressing. At the relatively low processing temperature used (620 deg. C), the pyrochlore crystalline structure of the zirconate, which is relevant for containment of radioactive nuclei, remains unaltered. The microstructure of the composites exhibits a homogeneous distribution of isolated pyrochlore particles in the glass matrix and strong bonding at the matrix-particle interfaces. Hot-pressing was found to lead to high densification (95% th.d.) of the composite. The materials are characterized by relatively high elastic modulus, flexural strength, hardness and fracture toughness. A numerical approach using a microstructure-based finite element solver was used in order to investigate the mechanical properties of the composites

  15. Novel encapsulation systems and processes for overcoming the challenges of polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlu-Gul, Mine; Topcu, Ahmet Alptekin; Shams, Talayeh; Mahalingam, Suntharavathanan; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2014-10-01

    The encapsulation process has been studied to develop smart drug delivery systems for decades. In particular, micro-encapsulation and nano-encapsulation approaches have gained wide interest in the development of particulate drug delivery and achieved progress in specialties such as nano-medicine. Encapsulation technologies have evolved through various platforms including emulsion solvent evaporation, spray drying and polymer conjugation. Among current encapsulation methods, electrohydrodynamic and microfluidic processes stand out by enabling the making of formulations with uniform shape and nanoscale size. Pressurized gyration is a new method of combining rotation and controlled pressure to produce encapsulated structures of various morphologies. In this review we address key developments in electrohydrodynamic, microfluidic, their combined and new approaches as well as their potential to obtain combined therapies with desired drug release profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Process engineering of high voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr, E-mail: gryshkov@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz University Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Pogozhykh, Denys, E-mail: pogozhykh@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz University Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Zernetsch, Holger, E-mail: zernetsch@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz University Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Hofmann, Nicola, E-mail: hofmann@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz University Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Mueller, Thomas, E-mail: mueller.thomas@mh-hannover.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Medical School Hannover, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Glasmacher, Birgit, E-mail: glasmacher@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz University Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Encapsulation of stem cells in alginate beads is promising as a sophisticated drug delivery system in treatment of a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, common use of air flow encapsulation of cells in alginate beads fails to produce beads with narrow size distribution, intact spherical structure and controllable sizes that can be scaled up. Here we show that high voltage encapsulation (≥ 15 kV) can be used to reproducibly generate spherical alginate beads (200–400 μm) with narrow size distribution (± 5–7%) in a controlled manner under optimized process parameters. Flow rate of alginate solution ranged from 0.5 to 10 ml/h allowed producing alginate beads with a size of 320 and 350 μm respectively, suggesting that this approach can be scaled up. Moreover, we found that applied voltages (15–25 kV) did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells post-encapsulation and cryopreservation as compared to air flow. We are the first who employed a comparative analysis of electro-spraying and air flow encapsulation to study the effect of high voltage on alginate encapsulated cells. This report provides background in application of high voltage to encapsulate living cells for further medical purposes. Long-term comparison and work on alginate–cell interaction within these structures will be forthcoming. - Highlights: • High voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was designed. • Reproducible and spherical alginate beads were generated via high voltage. • Air flow encapsulation was utilized as a comparative approach to high voltage. • High voltage did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated MSCs. • High voltage encapsulation can be scaled up and applied in cell-based therapy.

  17. Process and system to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, Muthian; Fleischer, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    System for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel containing active fission matter and comprised in a metal casing, where concrete covers this casing in a contiguous, uniform and complete manner. It is characterized in that this concrete contains metal fibres to raise the thermal conductivity and polymers for increasing impermeability and that convection facilities are provided for cooling the outer surface of the concrete [fr

  18. Optimization of the encapsulation process of bituminized radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jarine E.C.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose alternatives for the deposition of bituminized waste in metallic packages coated with a cementitious matrix for surface repository, aiming to meet the standards criteria and increasing the integrity of the metallic packaging during the planned storage time, transportation and disposal. For this purpose, tests will be carried out to evaluate cement pastes and mortar with cementitious additives, aiming at the durability and reduction of pores. Leaching tests with different thicknesses will also be carried out, where optimization of the encapsulation can meet safety, durability and economy standards for the repository, as well as practices that contribute to reduce environmental impacts and the economic burden imposed on future generations

  19. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes

  20. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  1. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; White, R. A.

    1978-06-01

    Springborn Laboratories is engaged in a study of evaluating potentially useful encapsulating materials for the encapsulation task of the Low-Cost Solar Array project (LSA) funded by the Department of Energy. The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials (other than glass) and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life photovoltaic solar modules. The results of an investigation of solar module encapsulation systems applicable to the Low-Cost Solar Array project 1986 cost and performance goals are presented. The 1986 cost goal for a 20 year life solar cell module is $0.50 per watt or $5 per square foot (in 1975 dollars). Out of this cost goal, $0.25 per square foot is currently allocated for the encapsulation in terms of raw materials, exclusive of labor. Assuming the flat-plate collector to be the most efficient module design, six basic construction elements were identified and their specific uses in module construction defined. In order to generate a comparative analysis, a uniform costing basis was established for each element. Extensive surveys into commercially available materials were then conducted in order to identify either general classes or specific products suitable for use for each construction element. The survey results were also useful in revealing price ranges for classes of materials and estimating the cost allocation for each element within the encapsulation cost goal.

  2. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli

    2014-09-01

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention, depending on rice variety and original nutritional quality. In this article, modern and traditional premilling, milling, and postmilling processing methods of different rice types are comprehensively reviewed. The implications of industrial rice processing methods, especially milling, as well as techniques for nutrient extraction, transfer, and enhancement, such as rice parboiling, sprouting, and fortification, for macro- and micronutrient content and consumer acceptance of the products, are documented. Socioeconomic constraints facing various aspects of rice processing methods are also discussed. This article reviews up-to-date research on rice industrial processing worldwide and aims to benefit engineers dealing with food processing, nutritionists and dieticians, food companies, education and research institutions, and quality-control and safety managers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. A Kinetic Ladle Furnace Process Simulation Model: Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone Model Using FactSage Macro Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ende, Marie-Aline; Jung, In-Ho

    2017-02-01

    The ladle furnace (LF) is widely used in the secondary steelmaking process in particular for the de-sulfurization, alloying, and reheating of liquid steel prior to the casting process. The Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone model using the FactSage macro processing code was applied to develop a kinetic LF process model. The slag/metal interactions, flux additions to slag, various metallic additions to steel, and arcing in the LF process were taken into account to describe the variations of chemistry and temperature of steel and slag. The LF operation data for several steel grades from different plants were accurately described using the present kinetic model.

  4. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

  5. Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.M.; Land, B.; Strachan, D.M.; Perez, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the US is in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. This paper describes a relatively simple concept of stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rocky Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters with high-level waste glass. The proposal described in this paper offers an integrated national approach for early stabilization and disposition of the nation's plutonium-bearing residues

  6. Electrochemical processes in macro and microfluidic cells for the abatement of chloroacetic acid from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scialdone, O.; Corrado, E.; Galia, A.; Sirés, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrochemical abatement of chloroacetic acid in water was studied. • The performance of both macro and microfluidic reactors was examined. • Cathodic reduction and anodic oxidation was studied in detail. • Mediated oxidation by electro-Fenton and active chlorine was carried out. • Anodic oxidation at BDD gave better performances. • Microfluidic reactors gave better performances compared to conventional cells. - Abstract: The remediation of solutions contaminated with monochloroacetic acid (CAA), which is one of the most resistant haloacetic acids (HAAs) to chemical degradation, dramatically depends on the adopted electrochemical approach: (i) CAA is only poorly oxidized either by homogeneous hydroxyl radical in electro-Fenton (EF), electrogenerated active chlorine or electro-oxidation on Pt anode; (ii) it is moderately abated by direct reduction on silver or compact graphite cathodes (from 30% in macro cells to 60% in the microfluidic devices); (iii) it is quantitatively removed by direct electro-oxidation on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The use of a microreactor enables operation in the absence of supporting electrolyte and drastically enhances the performance of the cathodic process. Simultaneously performing direct oxidation on BDD and reduction on graphite in a microfluidic cell yields the fastest CAA removal with 100% abatement at low current densities (∼5 mA cm −2 )

  7. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical

  8. Full-scale technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Wright, S.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, was held at the Environmental and Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in September 1994. Polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous, and mixed wastes. Although originally developed for treatment of DOE-generated wastes through waste management and environmental restoration activities, polyethylene encapsulation has application within the commercial sector. A fully equipped, production-scale system, capable of processing over 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control. Following the demonstration, waste-form testing was conducted to confirm performance of the final waste form. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Encapsulation of natural ingredient for skin protection via nanoemulsion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Usta, Aybala; Alzahrani, Naif; Patil, Vinay; Vanderwall, Adeesha

    2017-04-01

    Many of the sunscreens are used during the hot summer time to protect the skin surface. However, some of ingredients in the sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate and synthetic fragrances including parabens, phthalates and synthetic musk may disrupt the cells on the skin and create harmful effects to human body. Natural oils may be considered for substitution of harmful ingredients in sunscreens. Many natural oils (e.g., macadamia oil, sesame oil, almond oil and olive oil) have UV protective property and on top of that they have natural essences. Among the natural oils, olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Olive oil is used or substituted for cleanser, moisturizer, antibacterial agent and massage reliever for muscle fatigue. It is known that sun protection factor (SPF) of olive oil is around eight. There has been relatively little scientific work performed on the effect of olive oil on the skin as sunscreen. With nanoencapsulation technique, UV light protection of the olive oil can be extended which will provide better coverage for the skin throughout the day. In the present study, natural olive oil was incorporated with DI water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS) and sonicated using probe sonicators. Sonication time, and concentrations of olive oil, DI water and surfactant were investigated in detail. The produced nanoemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is believed that the nanoencupsulation of olive oil could provide better skin protection by slow releasing and deeper penetration of the nanoemulsion on skin surface. Undergraduate engineering students were involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This experience based learning will likely enhance the students' skills and interest in the scientific and engineering studies.

  10. Processes of decision making on energy issues: micro and macro analysis (the case of Poland 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Iwińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article tackles the idea of environmental and participatory democracy in Poland. Due to Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters known as the Aarhus Convention people should be involved in decisions concerning environment and energy issues in the country. All large investments, and those are certainly investments in energy infrastructure, are associated with a variety of interest groups and organizations. The main goal of this article is to show the decision making processes do not come across the knowledge and public information on nuclear energy in Poland. We present the context and background for the structural model of energy decisions using and reinterpreting survey data from 2014 and 2015 from the opinion polls on various sources of energy in Poland. From this point of departure we distinguish the micro-, meso- and macro- level of energy decisions.

  11. An Optimal Cure Process to Minimize Residual Void and Optical Birefringence for a LED Silicone Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jae Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicone resin has recently attracted great attention as a high-power Light Emitting Diode (LED encapsulant material due to its good thermal stability and optical properties. In general, the abrupt curing reaction of the silicone resin for the LED encapsulant during the curing process induces reduction in the mechanical and optical properties of the LED product due to the generation of residual void and moisture, birefringence, and residual stress in the final formation. In order to prevent such an abrupt curing reaction, the reduction of residual void and birefringence of the silicone resin was observed through experimentation by introducing the multi-step cure processes, while the residual stress was calculated by conducting finite element analysis that coupled the heat of cure reaction and cure shrinkage. The results of experiment and analysis showed that it was during the three-step curing process that the residual void, birefringence, and residual stress reduced the most in similar tendency. Through such experimentation and finite element analysis, the study was able to confirm that the optimization of the LED encapsulant packaging process was possible.

  12. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Seventh annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the program is to identify and evaluate encapsulation materials and processes for the protection of silicon solar cells for service in a terrestrial environment. Aging and degradation studies were performed including: thermal aging, sunlamp exposures, aging in controlled environment reactors and outdoor photothermal aging devices, and metal catalyzed degradation. Other tests addressed water absorption, primers and adhesives, soiling experiments, and corrosion protection. (LEW)

  13. Encapsulation of biomaterials in porous glass-like matrices prepared via an aqueous colloidal sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dean-Mo; Chen, I-Wei

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the encapsulation of biologically important proteins into transparent, porous silica matrices by an alcohol-free, aqueous, colloidal sol-gel process, and to the biological materials encapsulated thereby. The process is exemplified by studies involving encapsulated cytochrome c, catalase, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, although non-proteinaceous biomaterials, such as active DNA or RNA fragments, cells or even tissues, may also be encapsulated in accordance with the present methods. Conformation, and hence activity of the biomaterial, is successfully retained after encapsulation as demonstrated by optical characterization of the molecules, even after long-term storage. The retained conformation of the biomaterial is strongly correlated to both the rate of gelation and the subsequent drying speed of the encapsulatng matrix. Moreover, in accordance with this process, gelation is accelerated by the use of a higher colloidal solid concentration and a lower synthesis pH than conventional methods, thereby enhancing structural stability and retained conformation of the biomaterials. Thus, the invention also provides a remarkable improvement in retaining the biological activity of the encapsulated biomaterial, as compared with those involved in conventional alkoxide-based processes. It further provides new methods for the quantitative and qualitative detection of test substances that are reactive to, or catalyzed by, the active, encapsulated biological materials.

  14. Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.; McKibben, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. Not all of this material is chemically stable or is packaging acceptable for storage. Thus, it constitutes a potential hazard to employees and to the public. This paper describes a relatively simple concept for stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rock Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters with high-level glass

  15. Human placenta processed for encapsulation contains modest concentrations of 14 trace minerals and elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; David, Winnie B; Teng, Yuanxin; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation to evaluate the concentration of 14 trace minerals/elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed detectable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Based on one recommended daily intake of placenta capsules (3300 mg/d), a daily dose of placenta supplements contains approximately 0.018 ± 0.004 mg copper, 2.19 ± 0.533 mg iron, 0.005 ± 0.000 mg selenium, and 0.180 ± 0.018 mg zinc. Based on the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for lactating women, the recommended daily intake of placenta capsules would provide, on average, 24% RDA for iron, 7.1% RDA for selenium, 1.5% RDA for zinc, and 1.4% RDA for copper. The mean concentrations of potentially harmful elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium) were well below established toxicity thresholds. These results indicate that the recommended daily intake of encapsulated placenta may provide only a modest source of some trace micronutrients and a minimal source of toxic elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of printing substrate on macro non-uniformity and line reproduction quality of imprints printed with electrophotographic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Vujčić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Print quality is very important for every printing technique. It depends on many different quality attributes. This research included analysis of macro non-uniformities and line reproduction. 16 different paper substrates printed by electrophotographic process were analyzed. They were separated in two groups: coated and uncoated papers. Analysis of macro non-uniformity showed that print mottle has lower values when printed on coated papers than on uncoated papers. Line reproduction analysis showed that the toner spreaded, during melting and fixation, on line edges for both types of paper. According to these results it can be concluded that paper substrate affects the macro non-uniformity and line reproduction, thus overall print quality.

  17. Macro-nutrient concentrations in Antarctic pack ice: Overall patterns and overlooked processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Fripiat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic pack ice is inhabited by a diverse and active microbial community reliant on nutrients for growth. Seeking patterns and overlooked processes, we performed a large-scale compilation of macro-nutrient data (hereafter termed nutrients in Antarctic pack ice (306 ice-cores collected from 19 research cruises. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen and silicic acid concentrations change with time, as expected from a seasonally productive ecosystem. In winter, salinity-normalized nitrate and silicic acid concentrations (C* in sea ice are close to seawater concentrations (Cw, indicating little or no biological activity. In spring, nitrate and silicic acid concentrations become partially depleted with respect to seawater (C* Cw. The phosphate excess could be explained by a greater allocation to phosphorus-rich biomolecules during ice algal blooms coupled with convective loss of excess dissolved nitrogen, preferential remineralization of phosphorus, and/or phosphate adsorption onto metal-organic complexes. Ammonium also appears to be efficiently adsorbed onto organic matter, with likely consequences to nitrogen mobility and availability. This dataset supports the view that the sea ice microbial community is highly efficient at processing nutrients but with a dynamic quite different from that in oceanic surface waters calling for focused future investigations.

  18. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  19. Preliminary tests of an infrared process monitor for polyethylene encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.L.; Jones, R.W.; McClelland, J.F.; Kalb, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a process that is being investigated for the solidification of radioactive nitrate salts at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Rocky Flats Plant. In the encapsulation process, radioactive-salt waste is mixed with polyethylene pellets, heated, and extruded as a molten stream. Upon cooling, the mixture solidifies to a monolithic waste form with excellent properties for long-term waste storage. This paper describes a novel method to monitor the composition of the salt/polymer stream as it exits the extruder. The monitor is based on a technique known as transient infrared spectroscopy (TIRS). The TIRS monitor is able to capture the real-time mid-infrared spectrum of the processed waste stream as it exits the extruder. The wealth of chemical information contained in a mid-infrared spectrum makes this technique very appealing for on-line monitoring and process control. Data from the monitor can be used to guide processing, minimize waste volume, and certify the composition of the final waste form

  20. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1979-06-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. During the past year, the technical activities emphasized the reformulation of a commercial grade of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer for use as a pottant in solar cell module manufacture. After experimenting with a variety of techniques, a vacuum-bag process was developed and found to be an excellent encapsulation method. Adhesive strengths and primers for the bonding of ethylene/vinyl acetate to superstrate and substrate materials was assessed with encouraging results. The weathering effects on ten other polymers exposed to twelve months of weathering in Arizona, Florida, and under EMMAQUA were evaluated by determination of tensile strengths, elongations, optical transmission, etc. As may be expected, the best overall retention of mechanical properties is found for the fluorocarbon polymers, especially FEP. Hard coatings containing ultraviolet absorbers were investigated for the purpose of providing a soil resistant surface and additional weathering stability to the soft EVA pottant. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test were used to determine the degree of protection offered to a variety of metals by encapsulation in EVA pottant. A survey of scrim materials was also conducted. These open hole weaves are intended for use as spacers between the cell and substrate to provide a mechanical barrier, improve insulation resistance and prevent migration of the pigmented pottant over the cell surface. A mechanical engineering analysis of composite structural materials for use as substrates was performed. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  1. Effects of different encapsulation agents and drying process on stability of betalains extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran, Kavitha; Palaniraj, Ravichandran; Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Gabr, Ahmed M. M.; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R.; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    Red beet plants are rich in betalains that can be used as food natural colorants. Betalains were extracted from red beet and encapsulated with different carrier agents and freeze or spray dried. Effect of different encapsulating agents as maltodextrin, guar gum, gum Arabic, pectin and xanthan gum with different concentration (as encapsulating agents) were studied on the betalain stability. Encapsulated betalains with xanthan gum with maltodextrin showed about 65 % more recovery than the contr...

  2. Dataset on the evidence of bee products processing: A functional definition of a specialized type of macro-lithic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ache

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The database includes spatial, chronological and technological information about the analyzed tools in the article entitled “Evidence of bee products processing: a functional definition of a specialized type of macro-lithic tool” (Ache et al., 2017 [1]. The technological information refers to the tool type, its rock type, weight, state of preservation, morphology, metrical data and functional features. We also provide an index of acronyms to properly understand the dataset published here.

  3. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar-cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1982-07-01

    Potentially useful low cost encapsulation materials are evaluated. The goal of the program is to identify, evaluate, test, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long life solar cell modules. Technical investigations have concerned the development of advanced cure chemistries for lamination type pottants, the continued evaluation of soil resistant surface treatments, and the results of an accelerated aging test program for the comparison of material stabilities. Experiments are underway to assess the durability and cost effectiveness of coatings for protection of steel. Investigations are continuing with commercial maintenance coatings based on fluorocarbon and silicone-alkyd chemistries. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of occlusive coatings for wood products such as hard-board. An experimental program continued to determine the usefulness of soil resistant coatings. Primers were evaluated for effectiveness in bonding candidate pottants to outer covers, glass and substate materials. A program of accelerated aging and life predictive strategies is being conducted and data are reported for sunlamp exposure and thermal aging. Supporting activities are also discussed briefly. (LEW)

  4. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  5. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Seo, Bo Yeun; Vidyasagar, Mathukumalli; White, Michael A; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-03-01

    Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  6. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  7. Ambient-Processed Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Individual Pre-Encapsulation of Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Debnath, Ratan

    2010-05-05

    We report colloidal quantum dot solar cells fabricated under ambient atmosphere with an active area of 2.9 mm2 that exhibit 3.6% solar power conversion efficiency. The devices are based on PbS tuned via the quantum size effect to have a first excitonic peak at 950 nm. Because the formation of native oxides and sulfates on PbS leads to p-type doping and deep trap formation and because such dopants and traps dramatically influence device performance, prior reports of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have insisted on processing under an inert atmosphere. Here we report a novel ligand strategy in which we first encapsulate the quantum dots in the solution phase with the aid of a strongly bound N-2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-N-methyldithiocarbamate ligand. This allows us to carry out film formation and all subsequent device fabrication under an air atmosphere. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Effects of different encapsulation agents and drying process on stability of betalains extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Kavitha; Palaniraj, Ravichandran; Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Gabr, Ahmed M M; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2014-09-01

    Red beet plants are rich in betalains that can be used as food natural colorants. Betalains were extracted from red beet and encapsulated with different carrier agents and freeze or spray dried. Effect of different encapsulating agents as maltodextrin, guar gum, gum Arabic, pectin and xanthan gum with different concentration (as encapsulating agents) were studied on the betalain stability. Encapsulated betalains with xanthan gum with maltodextrin showed about 65 % more recovery than the control. Encapsulation showed a higher recovery of betalains during freeze drying by 1.3 times than during spray drying. Spray dried samples has L* (lightness) higher than the freeze dried samples. The variations of maltodextrin with xanthan and guar gum freeze dried have highest chroma value of 21. The stabilization of pure betalain pigments may boost the use of these colouring molecules in the food industry and promote their application.

  9. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, S.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site

  10. Encapsulation of lycopene using spray-drying and molecular inclusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaciara Larroza Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with beta -cyclodextrin ( beta -CD followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- beta -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of beta -CD, were observed after freeze-drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with beta -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.Técnicas de encapsulamento, como "spray-drying" e formação de complexos por inclusão com ciclodextrinas, vêm sendo avaliadas para viabilizar a adição de carotenóides em sistemas hidrofílicos e aumentar a sua estabilidade durante o processamento e estocagem. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi obter licopeno encapsulado na forma de pó, utilizando processos de "spray-drying" ou de inclusão molecular com beta -ciclodextrina (CD seguido de liofilização. A eficiência do encapsulamento utilizando "spray-drying" variou de 94 a 96% e o rendimento médio foi de 51%, com as microcápsulas apresentando indentações superficiais, porém sem falhas ou aberturas na superfície. A formação de complexo licopeno- beta -CD ocorreu apenas quando utilizada razão molar de 1:4, e estruturas irregulares de diferentes tamanhos que eventualmente formaram agregados, similares às da beta -CD, foram observadas após liofilização. O licopeno não complexado neste processo ficou em torno de 50%. A pureza do licopeno (% área do all-trans-licopeno aumentou de 96,4 para 98,1% ap

  11. Quantification of marine macro-debris abundance around Vancouver Island, Canada, based on archived aerial photographs processed by projective transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Isobe, Atsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    The abundance of marine macro-debris was quantified with high spatial resolution by applying an image processing technique to archived shoreline aerial photographs taken over Vancouver Island, Canada. The photographs taken from an airplane at oblique angles were processed by projective transformation for georeferencing, where five reference points were defined by comparing aerial photographs with satellite images of Google Earth. Thereafter, pixels of marine debris were extracted based on their color differences from the background beaches. The debris abundance can be evaluated by the ratio of an area covered by marine debris to that of the beach (percent cover). The horizontal distribution of percent cover of marine debris was successfully computed from 167 aerial photographs and was significantly related to offshore Ekman flows and winds (leeway drift and Stokes drift). Therefore, the estimated percent cover is useful information to determine priority sites for mitigating adverse impacts across broad areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maize Processing Waste Water Upcycling in Mexico: Recovery of Arabinoxylans for Probiotic Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paz-Samaniego

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a major source of food in Mexico. In order to improve its nutritional value, maize kernel is exposed to an alkali treatment that generates large volumes of waste water containing gelling arabinoxylan. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capability of maize waste water arabinoxylans (MWAX to encapsulate probiotics. The rheological, structural, and microstructural characteristics of this bio-based material were also investigated. MWAX gels at 10% (w/v were able to encapsulate Bifidobacterium as probiotic model. The MWAX gel containing 1 × 107 CFU/mL of probiotics presented a storage (G′ and loss (G″ moduli of 50 and 11 Pa, respectively. The average mesh size of the MWAX gel was around 11 times smaller than the Bifidobacterium cell magnitude. MWAX gels with or without probiotics were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The interior of the Bifidobacterium loaded gels was composed of a pore-like network of MWAX through which probiotics were distributed. The probiotic encapsulating MWAX gels appeared to be less porous than the empty gels. MWAX capability to encapsulate Bifidobacterium may be important in designing probiotic encapsulating biodegradable gels and could represent an opportunity in sustainable food waste management and utilization through upcycling to value-added products.

  13. Dynamic encapsulation of hydrophilic nisin in hydrophobic poly (lactic acid) particles with controlled morphology by a single emulsion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shaowen; Lu, Jue; Liu, Zhiguo; Srivastava, Devesh; Song, Anna; Liu, Yan; Lee, Ilsoon

    2014-06-01

    Hydrophilic nisin-loaded hydrophobic poly (lactic acid) (PLA) particles with controlled size and shape were successfully produced utilizing a one-step single emulsification method. Preliminary shear stress and temperature tests showed that there was no significant loss in the nisin inhibition activity during this process. PLA/nisin composite particles were prepared into solid nanocomposite spheres (50-200 nm) or hollow microcomposite spheres (1-5 μm) under the operative conditions developed in our previous study, in which the hydrophilic nisin in the aqueous phase solution could be entrapped in the hydrophobic polymer in the emulsification process generating either single or multiple emulsions. The incorporation of nisin in PLA had little effect on key processing conditions, which allows the dynamic control of the morphology and property of resulting particles. Microscopic and surface analyses suggested that nisin was dispersed uniformly inside the polymer matrix and adsorbed on the particle surface. The encapsulation amount and efficiency were enhanced with the increase in nisin loading in the aqueous solution. Unique reversible control of particle size and shape by this process was successfully applied in the nisin encapsulation. Alternating temperature in the repeating emulsification steps improved the encapsulation efficiency while generated particles in desired size and shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Encapsulation of Active Compounds in Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing: Current State and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Barbara; Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Gallo, Mariangela; Campaniello, Daniela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    The production of value-added and/or functional juices has increased significantly in recent years, following an increased consumer demand to promote health and/or prevent disease through diet and nutrition. Micro and nano-encapsulation are promising technologies to protect and deliver sensitive compounds, allowing a controlled release in the target sites. This paper offers an overview of current applications, limits and challenges of encapsulation technologies in the production of fruit and vegetable juices, with a particular emphasis on products derived from different botanical sources. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Volume reduction and encapsulation process for water containing low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.P.; Fox, D.W.; Weech, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    In encapsulating solutions or slurries of radio-active waste within polymeric material for disposal, the water is removed therefrom by adding a water insoluble liquid forming a low boiling azeotrope and evaporating the azeotrope, and then a polymerisable composition is dispersed throughout the dewatered waste and allowed to set. (author)

  16. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles: Effect of Various Process Parameters on Reaction Yield, Encapsulation Efficiency, and Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Derman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CAPE loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using the oil in water (o/w single emulsion solvent evaporation methods. Five different processing parameters including initial CAPE amount, initial PLGA amount, PVA concentration in aqueous phase, PVA volume, and solvent type were screened systematically to improve encapsulation of hydrophobic CAPE molecule, simultaneously minimize particle size, and raise the reaction yield. Obtained results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles significantly increased with the increase of the initial CAPE amount (p<0.05 and particle size (p<0.05. Furthermore, the particle size is significantly influenced by initial polymer amount (p<0.05 and surfactant concentration (p<0.05. By the optimization of process parameters, the nanoparticles produced 70±6% reaction yield, 89±3% encapsulation efficiency, -34.4±2.5 mV zeta potential, and 163±2 nm particle size with low polydispersity index 0.119±0.002. The particle size and surface morphology of optimized nanoparticles were studied and analyses showed that the nanoparticles have uniform size distribution, smooth surface, and spherical shape. Lyophilized nanoparticles with different CAPE and PLGA concentration in formulation were examined for in vitro release at physiological pH. Interestingly, the optimized nanoparticles showed a high (83.08% and sustained CAPE release (lasting for 16 days compared to nonoptimized nanoparticle.

  17. Enhancement of the skin-protective activities of Centella asiatica L. Urban by a nano-encapsulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min Chul; Choi, Woon Yong; Seo, Yong Chang; Kim, Ji Seon; Yoon, Chang Soon; Lim, Hye Won; Kim, Hack Soo; Ahn, Ju hee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of Centella asiatica L. Urban were encapsulated by an edible biopolymer, gelatin, which has no effect on their cosmetic activities. The nanoparticles were w/o-type spherical liposomes that had an average diameter of 115.0nm. The encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be approximately 67%, which was relatively high for these aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles showed lower cytotoxicity (10%) in human skin fibroblast cells than the unencapsulated crude extract (15%) at 1.0mg/ml, this was possibly because a smaller amount of the extract was present in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles efficiently reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in UV-irradiated cells from 136.1% to 77.6% (UV-irradiated control) and inhibited hyaluronidase expression (>60%) at a concentration of 0.5mg/ml, which was higher than the levels produced by the unencapsulated crude extracts. The nanoparticles had a very high flux through mouse skin and also remained at relatively large concentrations in the derma when compared to the unencapsulated crude extracts. These results clearly indicate that the skin-protective activities of C. asiatica were significantly improved through the nano-encapsulation process. These findings also imply that a crude extract can be used and have the same efficacy as purified compounds, which should reduce the purification process and production costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of thin film encapsulation process for piezoresistive MEMS gyroscope with wide gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanoor-Vitikkate, Vipin

    The gyroscope is an inertial sensor used to measure the angular rate of a rotating object. This helps to determine the pitch and yaw rate of any moving body. A number of applications have been developed for consumer and automotive markets, for e.g. vehicle stability control, navigation assist, roll over detection. These are primarily used in high-end cars, where cost is not a major factor. Other areas where a MEMS Gyro can be used are robotics, camcorder stabilization, virtual reality, and more. Primarily due to cost and the size most of these applications have not reached any significant volume. One reason for this is the relatively high cost of MEMS gyros compared to other MEMS sensors like accelerometers or pressure sensors. Generally the cost of packaging a MEMS sensor is about 85-90% of the total cost. Currently most MEMS based gyroscopes are made using bulk or surface micromachining, after which they are packaged using wafer bonding. This unfortunately leads to wastage of silicon and increase in the package size, thus reducing the yield. One way to reduce the cost of packaging is by wafer scale thin film encapsulation of MEMS gyroscopes. The goal of the present work is to fabricate a rate grade MEMS gyroscope and encapsulate it by modifying an existing thin-film encapsulation technique. Packaging is an important step towards commercialization of the device and we plan to use thin wafer scale encapsulation technique developed previously in our group to package these devices. The silicon micro machined gyroscope will be fabricated on SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) wafers using Bosch DRIE etching techniques. The encapsulation of the device is carried out using epitaxial polysilicon in order to provide a high vacuum inside the device chamber. The advantages offered by this technique are the reduction in area of the die and thus less silicon surface is wasted. In addition to this the encapsulation technique helps in creating a vacuum inside the micro device, which

  19. Improving ultraviolet photodetection of ZnO nanorods by Cr doped ZnO encapsulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2018-04-01

    Encapsulated ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different Cr concentration (0-4.5 at.%) were prepared in two different steps. First, ZnO NRs were grown by hydrothermal method. Then, they were encapsulated by dip coating method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analyses. XRD analysis proved that Cr incorporated into the ZnO structure successfully. Based on optical analysis, band gap changes in the range of 2.74-3.84 eV. Finally, UV responses of all samples were deeply investigated. It revealed 0.5 at.% Cr doped sample had the most photocurrent (0.75 mA) and photoresponsivity (0.8 A/W) of all which were about three times greater than photocurrent and photoresponsivity of the undoped sample.

  20. Application of image processing technology to problems in manuscript encapsulation. [Codex Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Korsmo, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    The long term effects of encapsulation individual sheets of the Codex Hammer were investigated. The manuscript was simulated with similar sheets of paper which were photographed under repeatable raking light conditions to enhance their surface texture, encapsulated in plexiglas, cycled in an environmental test chamber, and rephotographed at selected intervals. The film images were digitized, contrast enhanced, geometrically registered, and apodized. An FFT analysis of a control sheet and two experimental sheets indicates no micro-burnishing, but reveals that the ""mesoscale'' deformations with sizes 8mm are degrading monotonically, which is of no concern. Difference image analysis indicates that the sheets were increasingly stressed with time and that the plexiglas did not provide a sufficient environmental barrier under the simulation conditions. The relationship of these results to the Codex itself is to be determined.

  1. Ultra-thin film encapsulation processes for micro-electro-mechanical devices and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoldt, Conrad R; Bright, Victor M

    2006-01-01

    A range of physical properties can be achieved in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) through their encapsulation with solid-state, ultra-thin coatings. This paper reviews the application of single source chemical vapour deposition and atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the growth of submicron films on polycrystalline silicon microstructures for the improvement of microscale reliability and performance. In particular, microstructure encapsulation with silicon carbide, tungsten, alumina and alumina-zinc oxide alloy ultra-thin films is highlighted, and the mechanical, electrical, tribological and chemical impact of these overlayers is detailed. The potential use of solid-state, ultra-thin coatings in commercial microsystems is explored using radio frequency MEMS as a case study for the ALD alloy alumina-zinc oxide thin film. (topical review)

  2. Encapsulation task of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; White, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an investigation of solar module encapsulation systems applicable to the Low-Cost Solar Array Project 1986 cost and performance goals are presented. Six basic construction elements were identified and their specific uses in module construction defined. A uniform coating basis was established for each element. The survey results were also useful in revealing price ranges for classes of materials and estimating the cost allocation for each element within the encapsulating cost goal. The six construction elements were considered to be substrates, superstrates, pottants, adhesives, outer covers and back covers.

  3. A Macro-Level Analysis of SRL Processes and Their Relations to the Acquisition of a Sophisticated Mental Model of a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used think-aloud verbal protocols to examine how various macro-level processes of self-regulated learning (SRL; e.g., planning, monitoring, strategy use, handling of task difficulty and demands) were associated with the acquisition of a sophisticated mental model of a complex biological system. Numerous studies examine how…

  4. Co-encapsulation of human serum albumin and superparamagnetic iron oxide in PLGA nanoparticles: Part II. Effect of process variables on protein model drug encapsulation efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shubhra, Q. T. H.; Feczkó, T.; Kardos, A. F.; Tóth, J.; Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Dósa, G.; Gyenis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2014), s. 156-165 ISSN 0265-2048 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : encapsulation efficiency * experimental design * human serum albumin Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2014

  5. From self psychology to selves in relationship: a radical process of micro and macro expansion in conceptual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Steven H

    2009-04-01

    This article traces four shifts in conceptualization marking the theoretical/clinical journey of this author's developmental movement from a self psychologist to a selves-in-relationship psychoanalyst. It commences with a recognition that the analyst's conceptualizations, building blocks of organizing activity, are actions that impact self and other. Psychoanalysis was initiated as a practice in open-systems thinking, the hallmark of scientific observation and meaning making. Continuing in this tradition requires careful attention to clinical experiences anomalous to what a particular conceptualization might lead one to expect or to how that conceptualization might inform one's response. Such anomalous experiences, as Kohut demonstrated, can require expansion or emendation in conceptualization as central to the analyst's clinical activity. Four key concepts emerging in the self-psychological tradition are revisited for conceptual expansion: mirroring, self, attunement, and rupture repair. Each reformulation impacts on and is constituted, in part, by the other, hence the nonlinear relationship between these concepts. Each reformulation is grounded in a clinical illustration and marks a shift from structural conceptualization to process conceptualization characterized by attention to, and narration of, the analyst's as well as the analysand's subjective experience and contribution to the clinical interaction. Furthermore, clinical attention is expanded to the micro dimensions of nonsymbolic-embodied experiences and the macro dimensions of how different cultural beliefs and customs, shaped by both local as well as professional identifications, can influence the meaning-making process of the analyst's subjective organizations of self, other, and intersubjective processes. In the clinical illustrations narrated, these reconceptualizations are demonstrated to have significant impact on how analyst and analysand interact.

  6. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Encapsulation task of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array project. Thirteenth quarterly progress report, May 12, 1979-August 12, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Springborn Laboratories is engaged in a study of evaluating potentially useful encapsulating materials for Task 3 of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array project (LSA) funded by DOE. The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the product of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Current technical activities are directed primarily towards the development of a solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer as the pottant. Due to the surface tack of EVA, a slip sheet of release paper is required between each layer to prevent the plies from adhering. Manufacturers were surveyed and a source for inexpensive release paper in roll form was identified. A survey of separator materials was also conducted. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test were used to determine the degree of protection offered to a variety of metals by encapsulation in EVA pottant. Due to the low surface hardness of EVA and the remaining sensitivity to ultraviolet light, outer covers are required to prevent soiling and improve the weatherability. Two candidate films (Korad 212 and Tedlar UT) have been identified for this function. These films are somewhat scratch and abrasion sensitive, however, and their useful life can be prolonged with the application of thin layers of abrasion resistant hard coats. A survey of manufacturers of these coatings was performed and the products compared. Field trials of outdoor performance must be performed to fully assess the durability of these coatings.

  7. Process and Material Design for Micro-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids in Post-Combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bo [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Brennecke, Joan F [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); McCready, Mark [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Stadtherr, Mark [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion (AHA) Ionic Liquids (ILs) have been identified as promising new solvents for post-combustion carbon capture due to their high CO2 uptake and the high tenability 1,2 of their binding energy with CO2. Some of these compounds change phase (solid to liquid) on absorption of CO2; these Phase Change ILs (PCILs)3 offer the additional advantage that part of the heat needed to desorb the CO2 from the absorbent is provided by the heat of fusion as the PCIL solidifies upon release of CO2. However, the relatively high viscosity of AHA ILs and the occurrence of a phase change in PCILs present challenges for conventional absorption equipment. To overcome these challenges we are pursuing the use of new technology to micro-encapsulate the AHA ILs and PCILs. Our partners at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have successfully demonstrated this technology in the application of post-combustion carbon capture with sodium and potassium carbonate solutions,4 and have recently shown the feasibility of micro-encapsulation of an AHA IL for carbon capture.5 The large effective surface area and high CO2 permeability of the micro-capsules is expected to offset the drawback of the high IL viscosity and to provide for a more efficient and cost-effective mass transfer operation involving AHA ILs and PCILs. These opportunities, however, present us with both process and materials design questions. For example, what is the target CO2 absorption strength (enthalpy of chemical absorption) for the tunable AHA IL? What is the target for micro-capsule diameter in order to obtain a high mass transfer rate and good fluidization performance? What are the appropriate temperatures and pressures for the absorber and stripper? In order to address these and other questions, we have developed a rate-based model of a post-combustion CO2 capture process using micro-encapsulated ILs. As a performance baseline

  8. Economical recycling process for spent lithium-ion batteries and macro- and micro-scale mechanistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bian, Yifan; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xue, Qing; Fan, Ersha; Wu, Feng; Chen, Renjie

    2018-02-01

    An economical effective method is developed for recycling spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes, where more than 98% Li, Co, Ni and Mn can be leached out with different organic acids, and resynthesized to LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. The leaching mechanism is investigated at macro- and micro-scales. The particles undergo a loosening-breaking-shrinking change for two acids, while the FTIR and UV-vis spectra indicate different coordination reactions. The performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 resynthesized from the leachate of the acetic acid leaching (NCM-Ac) and maleic acid leaching (NCM-Ma) are compared. The first discharge capacity of NCM-Ma and NCM-Ac at 0.2C are 151.6 and 115.0 mA h g-1, respectively. The much better performance of NCM-Ma than NCM-Ac results from the different coordination of the two acids in the sol-gel process, where the maleic acid can esterify to establish a stable network to chelate metal ions, while the weak chelation of acetic acid leads to the formation of impurities. The economics analysis including the cost of leaching acid and energy consumption shows that the price of organic acids and reducing agents, short leaching time, low temperature and high-valued products are the effective way to increase recycling and environmental benefits, which shows advantages in terms of resources cost and added value.

  9. Removal of macro-pollutants in oily wastewater obtained from soil remediation plant using electro-oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mehdi; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François

    2018-03-01

    difficult to remove by physical and biological processes. Current treatment facility was modified by applying the electro-chemical oxidation process. The kinetic models of each macro-pollutant included carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and metals were developed to investigate their oxidation mechanism (graphical abstract). The efficiency of treatment was monitored in order to optimize the decisive operating parameters of electro-oxidation process. The result of this article could pave the way of future investigation on efficient treatment of variety of oily wastewater.

  10. Optimisation of rosemary oil encapsulation in polycaprolactone and scale-up of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephrem, Elissa; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary essential oil (REO) has many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, cognition-enhancing, analgesic and antimicrobial activities. The aim of this study was to prepare, at laboratory scale and larger scale, nanoencapsulating REO in order to reduce its volatilisation, light sensitivity and to enhance its water solubility. The nanoprecipitation method was applied to prepare polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanocapsules loaded with REO at laboratory scale and then the optimal formulation obtained was scaled-up (×6) using the membrane contactor technique. The effect of several parameters, such as the evaporation method, the type of emulsifiers and the amount of the formulation products (PCL, REO, emulsifiers, etc.) on the REO-loaded nanocapsules properties (mean size, polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential and REO loss) was evaluated at laboratory scale in order to obtain the optimal formulation. REO-loaded nanocapsules obtained from nanoprecipitation presented a nanometric mean size (220 ± 10 nm) with a PdI below 0.25, indicating an adequate homogeneity of the system, a negative zeta potential (-19.9 ± 4.6 mV) and a high encapsulation efficiency (∼99% for the major components). In addition, the membrane contactor technique gave similar results using an adequate pressure of the organic phase (0.8-1.2 bar). It is then suggested that the nanoprecipitation method can be suitable for the preparation of essential oil-loaded nanocapsules.

  11. Development of a non-toxic and non-denaturing formulation process for encapsulation of SDF-1α into PLGA/PEG-PLGA nanoparticles to achieve sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Mansor, Muhammad; Najberg, Mathie; Contini, Aurélien; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Garcion, Emmanuel; Jérôme, Christine; Boury, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Chemokines are known to stimulate directed migration of cancer cells. Therefore, the strategy involving gradual chemokine release from polymeric vehicles for trapping cancer cells is of interest. In this work, the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) was encapsulated into nanoparticles composed of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PLGA co-polymer to achieve sustained release. SDF-1α, and lysozyme as a model protein, were firstly precipitated to promote their stability upon encapsulation. A novel phase separation method utilising a non-toxic solvent in the form of isosorbide dimethyl ether was developed for the individual encapsulation of SDF-1α and lysozyme precipitates. Uniform nanoparticles of 200-250 nm in size with spherical morphologies were successfully synthesised under mild formulation conditions and conveniently freeze-dried in the presence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as a stabiliser. The effect of PLGA carboxylic acid terminal capping on protein encapsulation efficiency and release rate was also explored. Following optimisation, sustained release of SDF-1α was achieved over a period of 72 h. Importantly, the novel encapsulation process was found to induce negligible protein denaturation. The obtained SDF-1α nanocarriers may be subsequently incorporated within a hydrogel or other scaffolds to establish a chemokine concentration gradient for the trapping of glioblastoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  13. Use of Electrohydrodynamic Processing for Encapsulation of Sensitive Bioactive Compounds and Applications in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    technologies such as electrospraying and electrospinning have received increasing attention. This review presents the principles of electrohydrodynamic processes for the production of nano-microstructures (NMSs) containing bioactive compounds. It provides an overview of the current use of this technology...

  14. POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene microencapsulation physically homogenizes and incorporates mixed waste particles within a molten polymer matrix, forming a solidified final waste form upon cooling. Each individual particle of waste is embedded within the polymer block and is surrounded by a durable, leach-resistant coating. The process has been successfully applied for the treatment of a broad range of mixed wastes, including evaporator concentrate salts, soil, sludges, incinerator ash, off-gas blowdown solutions, decontamination solutions, molten salt oxidation process residuals, ion exchange resins, granular activated carbon, shredded dry active waste, spill clean-up residuals, depleted uranium powders, and failed grout waste forms. For waste streams containing high concentrations of soluble toxic metal contaminants, additives can be used to further reduce leachability, thus improving waste loadings while meeting or exceeding regulatory disposal criteria. In this configuration, contaminants are both chemically stabilized and physically solidified, making the process a true stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement grouts or thermosetting polymers, thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene require no chemical. reaction for solidification. Thus, a stable, solid, final waste form product is assured on cooling. Variations in waste chemistry over time do not affect processing parameters and do not require reformulation of the recipe. Incorporation of waste particles within the polymer matrix serves as an aggregate and improves the mechanical strength and integrity of the waste form. The compressive strength of polyethylene microencapsulated waste forms varies based on the type and quantity of waste encapsulated, but is typically between 7 and 17.2 MPa (1000 and 2500 psi), well above the minimum strength of 0.4 MPa (160 psi) recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste forms in support of 10 CFR 61

  15. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  16. Synthesis of silica nanoparticles for encapsulation of oncology drugs with low water solubility: effect of processing parameters on structural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan [Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Palacký University Olomouc, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Bartlett, John R., E-mail: JBartlett@usc.edu.au [University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Silica nanoparticles with tailored properties have been developed for a variety of biomedical applications, with particular emphasis on their use as carriers for the encapsulation and controlled release of bioactive species. Among the various strategies described, silica nanoparticles with uniform mesoporosity (MSN) prepared in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template have a range of desirable properties. However, the processing windows available to control the dimensions and other key properties of such nanoparticles prepared using fluoride salts as catalysts have not been elucidated, with mixed products containing gel fragments and non-uniform products obtained under many conditions. Here, we present a parametric study of the synthesis of MSN under fluoride-catalysed conditions using tetraethylorthosilicate as silica precursor. The processing conditions required to produce uniform nanoparticles with controlled dimensions are elucidated, together with the conditions under which dried powders can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution after long-term storage to regenerate unaggregated nanospheres with dimensions (as measured by dynamic light scattering) comparable to those measured via scanning electron microscopy analysis of the dried material. The ability to dry and store such powders for extended periods of time is an important requirement for the use of such materials in drug delivery applications. Preliminary results demonstrating the use of such MSNs as hosts for oncology drugs [substituted 3-hydroxyquinolinones (3-HQ)] with low water solubility (≪1 µg/g H{sub 2}O) are presented, with loadings of several wt% demonstrated. The ability of the silica host to protect the 3-HQ from oxidative degradation during impregnation and release is discussed.

  17. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Encapsulation task of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    During this quarter, flat-plate solar collector systems were considered and six basic construction elements were identified: outer coatings, superstrates, pottants, substrates, undercoats, and adhesives. Materials surveys were then initiated to discover either generic classes or/and specific products to function as each construction element. Cost data included in the surveys permit ready evaluation of each material. Silicones, fluorocarbons, glass, and acrylic polymers have the highest inherent weatherability of materials studied to date. Only acrylics, however, combine low costs, environmental resistance, and potential processability. This class will receive particular emphasis.

  18. Types of organic materials present in CEGB waste streams and possible encapsulation processes for organic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haighton, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The organic composition of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes is discussed. Work underway in the development of immobilising binders for organic ion exchange resins found in radioactive wastes and in the encapsulation of these ion exchangers is presented. (U.K.)

  19. Parser Macros for Scala

    OpenAIRE

    Duhem, Martin; Burmako, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Parser macros are a new kind of macros that allow developers to create new language constructs and to define their own syntax for using them. In this report, we present why parser macros are useful and the kind of problems that they help to solve. We will also see how they are implemented and gain insight about how they take advantage from scala.meta, the new metaprogramming toolkit for Scala. Finally, we will discuss what are the current limitations of parser macros and what is left for futu...

  20. Investigation of test methods material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Fifteenth quarterly progress report, November 12, 1979-February 12, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1980-03-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Work performed during this quarter included the development of anti-blocking treatments for EVA sheet intended for use as a lamination pottant. Initial evaluation studies were begun on a new pottant compound, polybutyl acrylate, to assess its preparation and handling characteristics. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test wre conducted to determine the degree of protection afforded to a number of metals when encapsulated in candidate pottant compounds. Pottants and outer cover candidates were exposed to intervals of accelerated uv stress aging using the RS/4 fluorescent sunlamp. Results are discussed. (WHK)

  1. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  2. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree ...

  3. Why Macro Practice Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article asserts that macro practice is increasingly important in today's rapidly changing and complex practice environment. It briefly explores the history of macro practice in U.S. social work, summarizes its major contributions to the profession and to U.S. society, and provides some suggestions for how social work programs can expand…

  4. Population attributable fractions for colorectal cancer and red and processed meats in Colombia - a macro-simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Esther; Quintero, Doris C; Henríquez-Mendoza, Giana; Herrán, Oscar Fernando

    2017-06-30

    to estimate the population attributable risk of consumption of red and processed meat for colorectal cancer in Colombia. to model the expected incidence of colorectal cancer in the hypothetical situation of no red and processed meat consumption in Colombia, for the year 2010. A dynamic macrosimulation model, PREVENT 3.01, was used to integrate available cancer incidence, meat consumption prevalence and associated risk data and to evaluate the impact of eliminating red and processed meat from the Colombian diet on national colorectal cancer incidence. Eliminating consumption of red meat altogether from the Colombian diet resulted in reductions in age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence, translating in reductions of 331 males (PAF 13%) and 297 female cases (PAF 10%). Eliminating processed meats had slightly stronger effects, with decreases of 362 males (PAF 14%) and 388 female cases (PAF 13%). A substantial proportion of the burden of colorectal cancer in Colombia can be attributed to the consumption of red and processed meat.

  5. The influence of rock strength on erosion processes and river morphology in central Arizona: the accumulation of damage from macro-abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, J. E.; Yanites, B.

    2017-12-01

    River morphology reflects the interaction between the driving forces of erosion and the resisting properties of bedrock that limit erosion. Changes in energy dissipation at the riverbed are indicated by differences in channel geometry. To erode at the same rate, stronger rocks require more energy, and thus, an adjustment in river slope or width is necessary to accomplish this work. Therefore, morphological changes should reflect differences in the rock strength properties most relevant to the dominant erosion process. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing river morphology and rock-strength properties of reaches subject to different processes. Streams in Prescott National Forest, AZ expose bedrock through a variety of lithologies, which provides a natural testing ground. Measurements include channel geometry, surface P-wave velocity, fracture spacing, and bedload grain size distribution of 150 individual reaches, as well as 260 tensile and compressive-strength tests and P-wave velocity of cores up to depths of 20 cm. Based on observations, we infer that fluvial erosion processes in this region generally fall into three domains: (1) grain by grain abrasion, (2) progressive failure by damage accumulation due to bedload impacts or `macro-abrasion', and (3) `plucking' of jointed rocks. We focus analyses on the accumulation of damage from sub-critical stresses that weakens the surface of the bedrock, potentially leading to macroscopic fractures, fatigue, and rock failure. This plays a dual role facilitating the ease with which abrasion removes material and increasing the rate of production of pluck-able particles. We estimate the `damage potential' of saltating bedload using water discharge time-series, sediment transport models and grain size distribution. To determine the resistance to damage accumulation among different rocks, we measure the evolution of damage in core samples under uniaxial loading using strain energy and inherent flaw theory. Preliminary

  6. New functionalities of Maillard reaction products as emulsifiers and encapsulating agents, and the processing parameters: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Non-enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry, ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever-debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to the Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavour, taste and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction products as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifiers as well as superior encapsulating matrices for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform the Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that need to be taken into consideration when conducting the Maillard reaction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. 85Kr storage by zeolite encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Hoza, M.; Knecht, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    The technology of 85 Kr storage by zeolite encapsulation is described. The prcess of encapsulation takes place at high temperatures and pressures, and involves the activated diffusion of krypton into zeolite cages. Experimental results for krypton encapsulation in various zeolites are reviewed and discussed. Activated diffusion parameters determined by measuring krypton leakage rates from zeolites at high temperatures and low pressures are used to estimate leakage rates of 85 Kr during long-term storage. The potential safety benefits are determined for krypton-85 storage by encapsulation in sodalite. Requirements for pilot-scale and process-scale development are discussed briefly

  8. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  9. Nanoparticulate delivery systems for alkyl gallates: Influence of the elaboration process on particle characteristics, drug encapsulation and in-vitro release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebil, Asma; Léonard, Michèle; Six, Jean-Luc; Nouvel, Cécile; Durand, Alain

    2018-02-01

    PLA nanoparticles loaded with n-alkyl gallates (AGs) were prepared either by nanoprecipitation (NP) or by O/W emulsion/solvent evaporation (E/SE). A nonionic hydrophobically modified polysaccharide was used for surface coverage and for ensuring colloidal stability. Different parameters were systematically assessed to enhance the drug incorporation, with the aim of obtaining monomodal and narrow particle size distributions. The nanoparticles were characterized by 1 H NMR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser light scattering granulometry. The colloidal stability of suspensions was evaluated after incubation in NaCl solutions and was maintained up to 1M NaCl. The mean particle diameter and the width of size distribution were found very similar for both processes (slightly lower diameters when using E/SE) with various drug loadings. The amount of encapsulated AG by E/SE was about twice that encapsulated by NP. The in-vitro release of AG was evaluated under sink conditions and no burst effect was observed. Release curves were successfully modeled using the Fick diffusion model with a constant diffusion coefficient and assuming non-swellable particles. Diffusion coefficients of AG loaded in nanoparticles prepared by NP were higher than those found in nanoparticles elaborated by E/SE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Two approaches to portable macros

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fengyun; Burmako, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    For any programming language that supports macros and has multiple implementations (each with different AST definitions), there is a common problem: how to make macros that operate on ASTs portable among different compiler implementations? Implementing portable macros is especially important for statically typed languages like Scala, as IDE vendors usually have different implementations of the language in order to support rich IDE features. Unportable macros compromise IDE fe...

  11. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  12. Encapsulation by Janus spheroids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ya; Brett, Genevieve; Gunton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The micro/nano encapsulation technology has acquired considerable attention in the fields of drug delivery, biomaterial engineering, and materials science. Based on recent advances in chemical particle synthesis, we propose a primitive model of an encapsulation system produced by the self-assembly of Janus oblate spheroids, particles with oblate spheroidal bodies and two hemi-surfaces coded with dissimilar chemical properties. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate the encapsulation sys...

  13. Macro-Micro Interlocked Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Simulation Science is now standing on a turning point. After the appearance of the Earth Simulator, HEC is struggling with several severe difficulties due to the physical limit of LSI technologies and the so-called latency problem. In this paper I would like to propose one clever way to overcome these difficulties from the simulation algorithm viewpoint. Nature and artificial products are usually organized with several nearly autonomously working internal systems (organizations, or layers). The Earth Simulator has gifted us with a really useful scientific tool that can deal with the entire evolution of one internal system with a sufficient soundness. In order to make a leap jump of Simulation Science, therefore, it is desired to design an innovative simulator that enables us to deal with simultaneously and as consistently as possible a real system that evolves cooperatively with several internal autonomous systems. Three years experience of the Earth Simulator Project has stimulated to come up with one innovative simulation algorithm to get rid of the technological barrier standing in front of us, which I would like to call 'Macro-Micro Interlocked Algorithm', or 'Macro-Micro Multiplying Algorithm', and present a couple of such examples to validate the proposed algorithm. The first example is an aurora-arc formation as a result of the mutual interaction between the macroscopic magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the microscopic field-aligned electron and ion system. The second example is the local heavy rain fall resulting from the interaction between the global climate evolution and the microscopic raindrop growth process. Based on this innovative feasible algorithm, I came up with a Macro-Micro Multiplying Simulator

  14. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  15. Encapsulation of Probiotics: Proper Selection of the Probiotic Strain and the Influence of Encapsulation Technology and Materials on the Viability of Encapsulated Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipailienė, Aušra; Petraitytė, Sigita

    2018-03-01

    Probiotic encapsulation is an entire system that not only involves but also depends on many factors. Elements such as the encapsulation method itself, materials, environmental conditions, and last, but not least, the strain; all play an important role in the encapsulation process. The current paper focuses on the right selection of probiotics, the various stress factors that impact the survival capacity of probiotics during and after encapsulation, and the rational selection of appropriate protection strategies to overcome these factors and achieve the highest possible encapsulation efficiency under optimal conditions. This review discusses the effects of temperature, moisture content, and water activity as well as pH, oxygen, and pressure on the viabilities of microorganisms. The effect of the surface and structure of the capsules on the encapsulated microorganisms and the impact of the materials used for the encapsulation are discussed as well. Last, but not least, the importance of choosing the right bacteria is reviewed.

  16. Micro vs Macro Planning: Achieving a Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Judith J.; Gallagher, Jo D.

    1994-01-01

    The process of developing program evaluation models for Florida International University's college of education is described. One lesson learned was that a combination of macro- and microlevel planning is necessary for purposeful evaluation. A grid to aid decision making is also presented. (Author/MSE)

  17. Micro/macro prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Nold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While urban computing has often been envisaged as bridging place, technology and people, there is a gap between the micro-level of urban computing which focuses on the solitary user with technological solutions and the macro-level which proposes grand visions of making better cities for the public. The gap is one of scale of audience as well as scale of normative ambition. To bridge this gap the paper proposes a transdisciplinary approach that brings together actor–network theory with critica...

  18. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  19. Qualidade de sementes de algodão submetidas aos processos de encapsulamento com e sem corante. = Quality of cotton seeds submitted to encapsulation process with and without dye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paula Queiroga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de algodão quando submetidas aos processos de encapsulamento com e sem corante em comparação com as sementes apenas tratadas com fungicidas (carboxin e thiran 200 Sc e inseticida (pirimiphos methyl - testemunha. A betoneira grande (capacidade de 40 L recebeu sementes deslintadas +tratadas para serem submetidas ao processo de encapsulação (coating e finishing com e sem corante, além de uma testemunha não encapsulada, estabelecendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: 1- sementes deslintadas e tratadas com fungicidas (carboxin e thiran 200 Sc e inseticidas (pirimiphos methyl (testemunha; 2- sementes deslintadas, tratadas e encapsuladas (coating e finishing sem corante; e 3- sementes deslintadas, tratadas e encapsuladas com corante. Foi adotado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram percentagem de germinação, comprimento de plântulas e massa de 100 sementes. Observou-se que o processo de recobrimento de sementes de algodão deslintadas,tratadas com fungicidas e inseticida e encapsuladas não ocasiona redução na qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e o uso de corante em sementes encapsuladas não altera a sua qualidade. = This study evaluated the physiological quality of cotton seeds when subjected to encapsulation with and without dye compared with seeds treated only with fungicides (carboxin and thiran 200 Sc and insecticide (pirimiphos methyl - control. The larger mixer (capacity 40 L received delinted seeds + treated to undergo the process of encapsulation (coating and finishing with and without dye, and non-encapsulated served as control. The following treatments were established: 1 - delinted seeds and treated with fungicides (carboxin and 200 thiran Sc and insecticides (pirimiphos methyl (control, 2 - delinted seeds, processed and encapsulated (coating and finishing without dye, and 3 - delinted seeds

  20. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  1. Liposome encapsulation of the internal control for whole process quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E S; Skaug, K

    2003-10-01

    A system intended for whole process quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification assays was developed based on the use of liposomes as cell-mimicking vehicles for the internal control, allowing introduction of the internal control directly into the crude biological specimens. By the proof of principle testing, the Roche Cobas Amplicor CT assay was chosen as model system and the Roche CT/NG Internal Control was thus loaded into the liposomes. The liposome/DNA particles were spiked into a Chlamydia trachomatis-positive urine specimen. A quantitative "in-house" duplex real-time C. trachomatis PCR assay showed that liposomes having Blue Dextran 2000 polysaccharide co-entrapped were the most suited particles as they were efficiently deposited by the centrifugation carried out according to the Roche urine specimen preparation procedure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the liposome/DNA particles might be used for whole process quality assurance of Amplicor assay without major modifications of the assay protocol. An additional feature of the use of these liposomes was that the pellet became blue coloured and that might facilitate a thorough removal of the urine supernatant without increasing the risk of disturbance of the pellet. Principally, the liposome/internal control system is versatile and seems to be applicable for whole process quality control of amplification-based assays for detection of various pathogens.

  2. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  3. Elliptic Curved Component Macro-Programming and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibo; Hu, Junchen; Li, Kaiqiang; Zhang, Shiyu; Liu, Aiju

    2017-10-01

    Most conventional numerical control systems do not have the function of noncircular curve interpolation instruction. Manual programming is extremely challenging, automatic programming by computer-aided manufacturing software is highly sophisticated, and processing parameters cannot be easily modified. Therefore, macro-programs, which possess powerful parametric programming, are applied for the processing of noncircular curved components. The values of arguments were determined using transfer and loop statements (IF and WHILE), and elliptic curved macro-programs were achieved using normal and parameter equations in this study. The elliptic curved components were fitted using micro-sized segments or arcs. The numerical control machining tests verified the validity and viability of the macro-programs, and elliptic curved components were processed. The results indicated that the elliptic curved components processed using macro-programs met the design requirements.

  4. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Eighteenth quarterly progress report, August 12-November 12, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Davis, M.

    1980-12-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. A survey was made of elastomers for use as gaskets for the photovoltaic module. Of the wide variety of materials examined EPDM offered the optimum combination of low compression set and low cost. The preference for EPDM is borne out by its long history of use as an automobile gasket. The commercial availability of materials that would be useful for sealants between the edge of the module and the gasket was investigated. Butyl sealants have the best combination of physical properties, low cost and a well-documented history of performance. A preferred composition has not yet been identified. One laminating type pottant ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), and two casting polymers, polybutyl acrylate and polyurethane, have been under investigation this past quarter. An EMA formulation has been developed which is easily extrudable and cures to a high gel content. So far only one commercial US source (Quinn) of aliphatic polyurethane has been located. Work is continuing to improve reaction rate as well as to eliminate source(s) of bubble formation during module fabrication. Considerable effort was spent in developing an improved polybutyl acrylate casting formulation providing high gel. Many viable curing systems are now available: however, the best formulation considering physical properties, freedom from bubbles as well as cure time utilizes Lupersol II (aliphatic peroxide) initiator. This initiator gives the desired gel after 20 minute cure at 45/sup 0/C or 12 minute cure at 55/sup 0/C.

  5. Co-encapsulation of human serum albumin and superparamagnetic iron oxide in PLGA nanoparticles: Part I. Effect of process variables on the mean size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shubhra, Q. T. H.; Kardos, A. F.; Feczkó, T.; Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Tóth, J.; Dósa, G.; Gyenis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2014), s. 147-155 ISSN 0265-2048 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : albumin * encapsulation * PLGA (poly d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2014

  6. Effect drug loading process on dissolution mechanism of encapsulated amoxicillin trihydrate in hydrogel semi-IPN chitosan methyl cellulose with pore forming agent KHCO3 as a floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fithawati, Garnis; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Common treatment for Helicobacter pylori by repeated oral consumption of amoxicillin trihydrate is not effective. Amoxicillin trihydrate has a very short residence time in stomach which leads into its ineffectiveness. Residence time of amoxicillin trihydrate can be improved by encapsulating amoxicillin trihydrate into a floating drug delivery system. In this study, amoxicillin trihydrate is encapsulated into hydrogel semi-IPN chitosan methyl cellulose matrix as a floating drug delivery system and then treated with 20% KHCO3 as pore forming agent. Drug loading process used are in-situ loading and post loading. In-situ loading process has higher efficiency percentage and dissolution percentage than post loading process. In-situ loading process resulted 100% efficiency with 92,70% dissolution percentage. Post loading process resulted 98,7% efficiency with 90,42% dissolution percentage. Mechanism of drug dissolution study by kinetics approach showed both in-situ loading process and post loading process are diffusion and degradation process (n=0,4913) and (n=0,4602) respectively. These results are supported by characterization data from optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data from optical microscope showed both loading process resulted in coarser hydrogel surface. Characterization using SEM showed elongated pores in both loading process after dissolution test.

  7. CATIA V5 macro programming with Visual Basic Script

    CERN Document Server

    Ziethen, Dieter R

    2013-01-01

    CATIA V5 Macro Programming with Visual Basic Script shows you, step by step, how to create your own macros that automate repetitive tasks, accelerate design procedures, and automatically generate complex geometries. Filled with full-color screenshots and illustrations, this practical guide walks you through the entire process of writing, storing, and executing reusable macros for CATIA® V5. Sample Visual Basic Script code accompanies the book’s hands-on exercises and real-world case studies demonstrate key concepts and best practices.

  8. Review of encapsulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.

    1996-09-01

    The use of encapsulation technology to produce a compliant waste form is an outgrowth from existing polymer industry technology and applications. During the past 12 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been researching the use of this technology to treat mixed wastes (i.e., containing hazardous and radioactive wastes). The two primary encapsulation techniques are microencapsulation and macroencapsulation. Microencapsulation is the thorough mixing of a binding agent with a powdered waste, such as incinerator ash. Macroencapsulation coats the surface of bulk wastes, such as lead debris. Cement, modified cement, and polyethylene are the binding agents which have been researched the most. Cement and modified cement have been the most commonly used binding agents to date. However, recent research conducted by DOE laboratories have shown that polyethylene is more durable and cost effective than cements. The compressive strength, leachability, resistance to chemical degradation, etc., of polyethylene is significantly greater than that of cement and modified cement. Because higher waste loads can be used with polyethylene encapsulant, the total cost of polyethylene encapsulation is significantly less costly than cement treatment. The only research lacking in the assessment of polyethylene encapsulation treatment for mixed wastes is pilot and full-scale testing with actual waste materials. To date, only simulated wastes have been tested. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site had planned to conduct pilot studies using actual wastes during 1996. This experiment should provide similar results to the previous tests that used simulated wastes. If this hypothesis is validated as anticipated, it will be clear that polyethylene encapsulation should be pursued by DOE to produce compliant waste forms

  9. Controlling Particle Morphologies at Fluid Interfaces: Macro- and Micro- approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa Naidu

    The controlled generation of varying shaped particles is important for many applications: consumer goods, biomedical diagnostics, food processing, adsorbents and pharmaceuticals which can benefit from the availability of geometrically complex and chemically inhomogeneous particles. This thesis presents two approaches to spherical and non-spherical particle synthesis using macro and microfluidics. In the first approach, a droplet microfluidic technique is explored to fabricate spherical conducting polymer, polyaniline, particles with precise control over morphology and functionality. Microfluidics has recently emerged as an important alternate to the synthesis of complex particles. The conducting polymer, polyaniline, is widely used and known for its stability, high conductivity, and favorable redox properties. In this approach, monodisperse micron-sized polyaniline spherical particles were synthesized using two-phase droplet microfluidics from Aniline and Ammonium persulfate oxidative polymerization in an oil-based continuous phase. The morphology of the polymerized particles is porous in nature which can be used for encapsulation as well as controlled release applications. Encapsulation of an enzyme, glucose oxidase, was also performed using the technique to synthesize microspheres for glucose sensing. The polymer microspheres were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis and EDX to understand the relationship between their microstructure and stability. In the second approach, molten drop impact in a cooling aqueous medium to generate non-spherical particles was explored. Viscoelastic wax based materials are widely used in many applications and their performance and application depends on the particle morphology and size. The deformation of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface was investigated. Spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath, then deformed and as a result of solidification were arrested into various

  10. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  11. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  12. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  13. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help f...

  14. Events and Macros in Microsoft Access 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Emil

    2013-01-01

    With interface macros you can perform actions such as opening another view, applying a filter, or creating a new record. There are two kinds: “embedded” UI macros, which attach directly to user interface objects such as command buttons, combo boxes, or the Action Bar button object, and “standalone” UI macros, contained in macro objects. To avoid duplicating code, reuse standalone UI macros by calling them from other macros. You can see the standalone UI macros in the Navigation Pane, under Ma...

  15. Encapsulation of Natural Polyphenolic Compounds; a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Edwards-Lévy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols are valuable compounds possessing scavenging properties towards radical oxygen species, and complexing properties towards proteins. These abilities make polyphenols interesting for the treatment of various diseases like inflammation or cancer, but also for anti-ageing purposes in cosmetic formulations, or for nutraceutical applications. Unfortunately, these properties are also responsible for a lack in long-term stability, making these natural compounds very sensitive to light and heat. Moreover, polyphenols often present a poor biodisponibility mainly due to low water solubility. Lastly, many of these molecules possess a very astringent and bitter taste, which limits their use in food or in oral medications. To circumvent these drawbacks, delivery systems have been developed, and among them, encapsulation would appear to be a promising approach. Many encapsulation methods are described in the literature, among which some have been successfully applied to plant polyphenols. In this review, after a general presentation of the large chemical family of plant polyphenols and of their main chemical and biological properties, encapsulation processes applied to polyphenols are classified into physical, physico-chemical, chemical methods, and other connected stabilization methods. After a brief description of each encapsulation process, their applications to polyphenol encapsulation for pharmaceutical, food or cosmetological purposes are presented.

  16. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  17. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  18. Suitability of cement encapsulated ILW for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1989-01-01

    ILW arising during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel is to be encapsulated in cement in nominal 500-litre drums. It is important that the waste package produced can be safely transported to a deep repository. Preliminary assessments of the performances of waste packages during transport for a number of the ILW streams to be generated at Sellafield have been carried out. The results show that the proposed encapsulation process produces a waste package which can be transported to an acceptable standard of safety and which does not prejudice any aspects of transport. (author)

  19. Encapsulation Efficiency, Oscillatory Rheometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mohammad Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid-based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using a modified thermal method. Only one melting peak in DSC curve of gamma oryzanol bearing liposomes was observed which could be attributed to co-crystallization of both compounds. The addition of gamma oryzanol, caused to reduce the melting point of 5% (w/v lecithin-based liposome from 207°C to 163.2°C. At high level of lecithin, increasing of liposome particle size (storage at 4°C for two months was more obvious and particle size increased from 61 and 113 to 283 and 384 nanometers, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of gamma oryzanol increased from 60% to 84.3% with increasing lecithin content. The encapsulation stability of oryzanol in liposome was determined at different concentrations of lecithin 3, 5, 10, 20% (w/v and different storage times (1, 7, 30 and 60 days. In all concentrations, the encapsulation stability slightly decreased during 30 days storage. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed relatively spherical to elliptic particles which indicated to low extent of particles coalescence. The oscillatory rheometry showed that the loss modulus of liposomes were higher than storage modulus and more liquid-like behavior than solid-like behavior. The samples storage at 25°C for one month, showed higher viscoelastic parameters than those having been stored at 4°C which were attributed to higher membrane fluidity at 25°C and their final coalescence.Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using modified thermal method. Only one

  20. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  1. 101 Ready-To-Use Excel Macros

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Save time and be more productive with this helpful guide to Excel macros! While most books about Excel macros offer only minor examples, usually aimed at illustrating a particular topic, this invaluable resource provides you with the tools needed to efficiently and effectively program Excel macros immediately. Step-by-step instructions show you how to create VBA macros and explain how to customize your applications to look and work exactly as you want them to. By the end of the book, you will understand how each featured macro works, be able to reuse the macros included in the book and online,

  2. Dough processing in a Coutte-type device with varying eccentricity: effect on glutenin macro-polymer properties and dough microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peighambardoust, S.H.; Brenk, van S.; Goot, van der A.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dough mixing involves a combination of different deformation flows, e.g. shear and elongation. The complicated nature of mixing process makes it difficult to understand dough processing at a mechanistic level. A new Couette device allowed the effects of shear flow on the physical properties of

  3. Macro-elementwise preconditioning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2012), s. 1952-1963 ISSN 0378-4754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : heterogeniety * elementwise preconditioning * block matrix partitioning * macro-elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784754

  4. Selection of High Strength Encapsulant for MEMS Devices Undergoing High Pressure Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah, A.A.; Husaini, Y.; Majlis, B.Y.; Ahmad, I.

    2007-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/EDA-Publishing); International audience; Deflection behavior of several encapsulant materials under uniform pressure was studied to determine the best encapsulant for MEMS device. Encapsulation is needed to protect movable parts of MEMS devices during high pressure transfer molded packaging process. The selected encapsulant material has to have surface deflection of less than 5 ?m under 100 atm vertical loading. Deflec...

  5. On the analysis of international migration processes. Macro-quantitative perspectives and a comparative case study on the situation of the Turkish Community in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2010-01-01

    The present article presents at first a German language summary about recent quantitative studies by the author and his associates about global development since the end of Communism in up to 175 nations of the world, using 26 predictor variables to evaluate the determinants of 30 processes of development on a global scale. As correctly predicted by quantitative dependency and world system research of the 1980s and 1990s, core capital penetration (MNC penetration) has very significant negativ...

  6. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  7. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  8. Can uranyl complexes encapsulate to carbon nanotubes? A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K SRINIVASU

    novel nanomaterials for nuclear waste management processes. Keywords. Carbon nanotubes; density functional theory; uranyl encapsulation; uranyl functionalization. 1. Introduction. Presently, the energy demands are exponentially increas- ing, thus alternative energy resources such as nuclear energy are unavoidable ...

  9. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program is developing NET Shape components from Encapsulated Powders. Significant advances in Phase I for various materials and in net shape processing...

  10. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Wang

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1 the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2 the domestication rate of cereals, and (3 the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia.

  11. Scala Macros, a Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Burmako, Eugene; Odersky, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Metaprogramming is a powerful technique of software development, which allows to automate program generation. Applications of metaprogramming range from improving expressiveness of a programming language via deep embedding of domain-specific languages to boosting performance of produced code by providing programmer with finegrained control over compilation. In this report we introduce macros, facility that enables compile-time metaprogramming in the Scala programming language.

  12. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  13. Encapsulated scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepke, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation detector crystal is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a glass window. The window may be mounted in a ring by a compression seal formed during cooling of the ring and window after heating. The window may be chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The ring is welded to the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thin section is provided to resist the flow of welding heat to the seal between the ring and the window thereby forming a thermal barrier. The thin section may be provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of PTFE between the tubular body and the crystal minimizes friction created by thermal expansion. Spring washers urge the crystal towards the window. (author)

  14. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  15. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  16. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui

    2018-01-16

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  17. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy

  18. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.R.

    1976-06-01

    The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of 137 Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of 90 Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment

  20. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman O. Machado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%, distension (44.9% or a mass (30.5%. Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2% without postoperative complications (88.1%.

  1. Encapsulated subdural empyema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yoshiharu; Inoue, Masaru; Ishizaka, Hiroaki; Koga, Hiroaki; Kawano, Teruaki; Mori, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    A case of encapsulated subdural empyema was reported. This 1.5-year-old boy was admitted with the increasing confusion and convulsion. Eight months prior to admission, he had craniotomy for traumatic acute epidural hematoma on the left side. Following a coagulation of the middle meningeal artery which was the bleeding source, the dura was opened but no cortical damage was noted at that time. The computed tomographic (CT) scan on admission revealed a large subdural collection with a thin enhancing rim on the left side. Emergency craniotomy revealed a collection of subdural pus, which was irrigated and a catheter was put for continuous drainage. Postoperatively, the patient did well, however, following removal of the catheter, three weeks after the first operation, the subdural empyema was reexpanded with a very thick enhancing rim on CT scan. Ultrasonography also clearly demonstrated the formation of the thick membranes. The large craniotomy was performed and empyema with the outer and inner memberanes of 8mm thick was totally excised. Post-operative CT scan did not show any enhancing rim, indicating that enchancement was caused by newly formed vessels within the membranes per se. This findings are totally different from those observed in the brain abscess in which ring enhancement on CT continues months to years following so-called extracapsular excision of abscess. In the brain abscess, surrounding glial tissue with plenty neovascularization is left intact, even after the operation. (author)

  2. Macro-Micro Simulation for Polymer Crystallization in Couette Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Ruan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer crystallization in manufacturing is a process where quiescent crystallization and flow-induced crystallization coexists, and heat/mass transfer on a macroscopic level interacts with crystal morphology evolution on a microscopic level. Previous numerical studies on polymer crystallization are mostly concentrated at a single scale; they only calculate macroscale parameters, e.g., temperature and relative crystallinity, or they only predict microstructure details, e.g., crystal morphology and mean size of crystals. The multi-scale numerical works that overcome these disadvantages are unfortunately based on quiescent crystallization, in which flow effects are neglected. The objective of this work is to build up a macro-micro model and a macro-micro algorithm to consider both the thermal and flow effects on the crystallization. Our macro-micro model couples two parts: mass and heat transfer of polymeric flow at the macroscopic level, and nucleation and growth of spherulites and shish-kebabs at the microscopic level. Our macro-micro algorithm is a hybrid finite volume/Monte Carlo method, in which the finite volume method is used at the macroscopic level to calculate the flow and temperature fields, while the Monte Carlo method is used at the microscopic level to capture the development of spherulites and shish-kebabs. The macro-micro model and the macro-micro algorithm are applied to simulate polymer crystallization in Couette flow. The effects of shear rate, shear time, and wall temperature on the crystal morphology and crystallization kinetics are also discussed.

  3. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  4. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  5. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree

  6. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  7. Development of an automated encapsulation system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gllaher, J.B.

    1977-07-01

    Early development failures in two types of high voltage electronic assemblies pointed out the inadequacies of the current encapsulation process. Voids in the mass encapsulant resulted in the destruction of the units during electrical testing in vacuum. An automated material processing system was conceived after a literature search and after new equipment with increased capabilities was observed in operation at GE's Neutron Devices Department in Florida. A prototype machine was designed and fabricated at Bendix implementing this concept. Environmental controls and new capabilities were incorporated to provide the complete process control necessary to assure void-free encapsulation of densely packaged electronic products. Machine performance was extensively evaluated to assure that all existing material specifications and quality control provisions would be met. Measurements of various material and machine characteristics showed that the operation not only is superior to the one presently being used but also provides the required additional capabilities. Material processing was also simplified which in turn made the encapsulation process more economical. In most cases, a 25 percent decrease in encapsulation costs can be anticipated.

  8. Micro-Encapsulation of non-aqueous solvents for energy-efficient carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolaroff, Joshua K; Ye, Congwang; Oakdale, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, Sarah; Nugyen, Du; Smith, William; Aines, Roger

    2016-11-14

    Here, we demonstrate micro-encapsulation of several promising designer solvents: an IL, PCIL, and CO2BOL. We develop custom polymers that cure by UV light in the presence of each solvent while maintaining high CO2 permeability. We use several new process strategies to accommodate the viscosity and phase changes. We then measure and compare the CO2 absorption rate and capacity as well as the multi-cycle performance of the encapsulated solvents. These results are compared with previous work on encapsulated sodium carbonate solution. The prospects for designer solvents to reduce the cost of post-combustion capture and the implications for process design with encapsulated solvents are discussed.

  9. Critical factors affecting cell encapsulation in superporous hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Esha S; Tang, Mary Y; Gemeinhart, Richard A; Ross, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within the SPH matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, an initiator, and sodium bicarbonate, the gas-generating compound, were the two components having significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells at the concentrations necessary for SPH fabrication. Cell survival rates were 55.7% ± 19.3% and 88.8% ± 9.4% after 10 min exposure to ammonium persulfate and sodium bicarbonate solutions, respectively. In addition, solution pH change via the addition of sodium bicarbonate had significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells with cell survival of only 50.3% ± 2.5%. Despite toxicity of chemical components and the SPH fabrication method, cells still exhibited significant overall survival rates within SPHs of 81.2% ± 6.8% and 67.0% ± 0.9%, respectively, 48 and 72 h after encapsulation. This method of cell encapsulation holds promise for use in vitro and in vivo as a scaffold material for both hydrogel matrix encapsulation and cell seeding within the pores. (paper)

  10. Modeling Macro-Cognitive Influence on Information Sharing between Joint Team Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnett, Steve

    2006-01-01

    .... The exploration extends to include the development of Human Behavior Representation (HBR) within agent-based models to assist in describing and understanding those macro-cognitive influential characteristics on information processing. Cebrowski (2005...

  11. Residual Stress Induced Mechanical Property Enhancement in Steel Encapsulated Light Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudger, Sean James

    Macro hybridized systems consisting of steel encapsulated light metal matrix composites (MMCs) were produced with the goal of creating a low cost/light weight composite system with enhanced mechanical properties. MMCs are frequently incorporated into advanced material systems due to their tailorable material properties. However, they often have insufficient ductility for many structural applications. The macro hybridized systems take advantage of the high strength, modulus, and damage tolerance of steels and high specific stiffness and low density of MMCs while mitigating the high density of steels and the poor ductility of MMCs. Furthermore, a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch induced residual compressive stress method is utilized as a means of improving the ductility of the MMCs and overall efficiency of the macro hybridized systems. Systems consisting of an A36, 304 stainless steel, or NitronicRTM 50 stainless steel shell filled with an Al-SiC, Al-Al2O3, or Mg-B4C MMC are evaluated in this work. Upon cooling from processing temperatures, residual strains are generated due to a CTE mismatch between each of the phases. The resulting systems offer higher specific properties and a more structurally efficient system can be attained. Mechanical testing was performed and improvements in yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and ductility were observed. However, the combination of these dissimilar materials often results in the formation of intermetallic compounds. In certain loading situations, these typically brittle intermetallic layers can result in degraded performance. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) are utilized to characterize the intermetallic layer formation at the interface between the steel and MMC. As the residual stress condition in each phase has a large impact on the mechanical property improvement, accurate quantification of these strains/stresses is

  12. Compressed digital holography: from micro towards macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretter, Colas; Bettens, Stijn; Blinder, David; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Cagnazzo, Marco; Dufaux, Frédéric; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-09-01

    signal processing methods from software-driven computer engineering and applied mathematics. The compressed sensing theory in particular established a practical framework for reconstructing the scene content using few linear combinations of complex measurements and a sparse prior for regularizing the solution. Compressed sensing found direct applications in digital holography for microscopy. Indeed, the wave propagation phenomenon in free space mixes in a natural way the spatial distribution of point sources from the 3-dimensional scene. As the 3-dimensional scene is mapped to a 2-dimensional hologram, the hologram samples form a compressed representation of the scene as well. This overview paper discusses contributions in the field of compressed digital holography at the micro scale. Then, an outreach on future extensions towards the real-size macro scale is discussed. Thanks to advances in sensor technologies, increasing computing power and the recent improvements in sparse digital signal processing, holographic modalities are on the verge of practical high-quality visualization at a macroscopic scale where much higher resolution holograms must be acquired and processed on the computer.

  13. Financial Imbalances and Macro-prudential Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikarpova Olga S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The credit crisis and its transformation into a sovereign debt crisis have illustrated the limited character of the traditional macro financial politics. The financial crisis has shown that the priority of price stability does not guarantee macroeconomic stability. Revision of the goals and objectives of the monetary and credit policy is being carried out in many countries. In order to ensure macroeconomic stability, central banks have to use new instruments considering financial stability as an additional object. Since 2009 the IMF recommends central banks to use macro-prudential instruments for reducing macro-financial risks and imbalances in the financial system structure. The effectiveness of macro-prudential policy depends on its calibration with the monetary and credit policy. The growth of financial imbalances in the first decade after the adoption of the euro, presence of contradictory fiscal policies, deployment of a spiral of rapid crediting and price inflation have led to apraxia in the monetary and credit policy, and fiscal policy was limited by institutional arrangements. Accumulating funds during the budget surplus the countries-members of the European Monetary System (EMS attempted to reduce asymmetric shocks. The priority of price stability in the EMS had been achieved but the economies of these countries suffered from financial imbalances. Macro-prudential policy is aimed at prevention and mitigation of systemic risk, plays a significant role in reforming the new policy of central banks. That is why European countries are developing new methods and an institutional framework for the implementation of a new macro-prudential policy. Problems of structural arbitration and the possibility of emergence of new financial imbalances in the EMS are becoming increasingly real. The flow of financial capitals and financial institutions to more lenient jurisdictions is connected with the establishment of macro-prudential policy. The macro

  14. Ultrafast pulse lasers jump to macro applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Martin; Lutze, Walter; Scheller, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast Lasers have been proven for several micro applications, e.g. stent cutting, for many years. Within its development of applications Jenoptik has started to use ultrafast lasers in macro applications in the automotive industry. The JenLas D2.fs-lasers with power output control via AOM is an ideal tool for closed loop controlled material processing. Jenoptik enhanced his well established sensor controlled laser weakening process for airbag covers to a new level. The patented process enables new materials using this kind of technology. One of the most sensitive cover materials is genuine leather. As a natural product it is extremely inhomogeneous and sensitive for any type of thermal load. The combination of femtosecond pulse ablation and closed loop control by multiple sensor array opens the door to a new quality level of defined weakening. Due to the fact, that the beam is directed by scanning equipment the process can be split in multiple cycles additionally reducing the local energy input. The development used the 5W model as well as the latest 10W release of JenLas D2.fs and achieved amazing processing speeds which directly fulfilled the requirements of the automotive industry. Having in mind that the average cycle time of automotive processes is about 60s, trials had been done of processing weakening lines in genuine leather of 1.2mm thickness. Parameters had been about 15 cycles with 300mm/s respectively resulting in an average speed of 20mm/s and a cycle time even below 60s. First samples had already given into functional and aging tests and passed successfully.

  15. Adding user-friendliness and ease of implementation to continuous speech recognition technology with speech macros: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harrison D

    2004-01-01

    Continuous Speech Recognition Technology implementation is expensive, and the failure of leading companies in this niche can hamper usefulness. C-SRT, if deployed and used with speech macros, experiences vastly improved implementations and drastically reduces medical transcription costs.A speech macro is a short phrase that is automatically translated into a block of text or a graphic display. A more powerful form of speech macro can bring up predefined templates and insert spoken text into the proper position automatically, based on its interpretation. Cases from the author's consulting experiences and from medical journals emphasize the need for speech macros from a cost-benefit standpoint. A prototype program is introduced that facilitates the process of creating macros. The need for macro management software is reconciled with current research on speech recognition and technology adoption. A planned experiment is discussed.

  16. Separation of rubidium from irradiated aluminum-encapsulated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schmitz, F.J.; Rokop, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure was developed for separating rubidium from irradiated aluminum encapsulated uranium. The separations procedure produces a final ultra-high purity RbCl product for subsequent high performance mass spectrometric analysis. The procedure involves first removing most of the macro-components and fission products by strong base anion exchange using, first, concentrated HCl, then oxalic acid media and second, selectively separating rubidium from alkaline-earth ions and other alkali-metal ions, including cesium, using Bio-Rex-40 cation-exchange resin. The resultant RbCl is then put through a final vacuum sublimation step. Ultra-pure reagents and specially clean glassware are used throughout the procedure to minimize contamination by naturally-occurring rubidium

  17. Development of the Macro Command Editing Executive System for Factory Workers-Oriented Programless Visual Inspection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Wakitani, Kouichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kubo, Hiroyasu

    Because visual inspection systems are difficult to tune, they create many problems for the kaizen process. This results in increased development costs and time to assure that the inspection systems function properly. In order to improve inspection system development, we designed an easy-tuning system called a “Program-less” visual inspection system. The ROI macro command which consisted of eight kinds of shape recognition macro commands and decision, operation, control commands was built. Furthermore, the macro command editing executive system was developed by the operation of only the GUI without editing source program. The validity of the ROI macro command was proved by the application of 488 places.

  18. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  19. Encapsulated Curcumin for Transdermal Administration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a proniosomal carrier system of curcumin for transdermal delivery. Methods: Proniosomes of curcumin were prepared by encapsulation of the drug in a mixture of Span 80, cholesterol and diethyl ether by ether injection method, and then investigated as a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS).

  20. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1994-01-01

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  1. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already

  2. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  3. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  4. Macro scale models for freight railroad terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The project has developed a yard capacity model for macro-level analysis. The study considers the detailed sequence and scheduling in classification yards and their impacts on yard capacities simulate typical freight railroad terminals, and statistic...

  5. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    "From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions of program......"From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions...... of programming languages. Our syntax macro language is designed to guarantee type safety and termination.A concept of metamorphisms allows the arguments of a macro to be inductively defined in a meta level grammar and morphed into the host language. We also show how the metamorphisms can be made to operate...

  6. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Mathor, M.B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M.S.S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  7. Recent trends and applications of encapsulating materials for probiotic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Qurat Ul Ain; Masud, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The importance of probiotics and their live delivery in the gastrointestinal tract has gained much importance in the recent past. Many reports have indicated that there is poor viability of probiotic bacteria in dairy based products, both fermented and non-fermented, and also in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. In this case, microencapsulation is the most significant emerging and efficient technology that is being used for the preservation of probiotics against adverse environmental conditions. Apart from different techniques of microencapsulation, various types of encapsulating materials are also used for the process, namely, alginate, chitosan, carrageenan, gums (locust bean, gellan gum, xanthan gum, etc.), gelatin, whey protein, starch, and compression coating. Each one of the encapsulating materials has its own unique characteristics of capsule formation and provision of shape, appearance, and strength to microbeads. The type of encapsulating material also influences the viability of probiotics during storage, processing, and in the gastrointestinal tract. The effectiveness of any material depends not upon its capsule forming capability, strength, and enhancing viability but also on its cheapness, availability, and biocompatibility. So, added convenience and reduced packaging costs may also be used to offset the cost of encapsulating one or more ingredients. Encapsulated forms of ingredients provide a longer shelf life for the product.

  8. Encapsulation of bacteria and viruses in electrospun nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salalha, W; Kuhn, J; Dror, Y; Zussman, E

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses were encapsulated in electrospun polymer nanofibres. The bacteria and viruses were suspended in a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water and subjected to an electrostatic field of the order of 1 kV cm -1 . Encapsulated bacteria in this work (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) and bacterial viruses (T7, T4, λ) managed to survive the electrospinning process while maintaining their viability at fairly high levels. Subsequently the bacteria and viruses remain viable during three months at -20 and -55 deg. C without a further decrease in number. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of living biological material

  9. Macro-Economic Instability and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaumont, Patrick; Puech, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    This paper adds to the literature on the economic determinants of crime by examining the impact of macro-economic instability. Instability increases the frustration level of individuals and incites them to smooth their income by using illegal earnings. Results from a panel of developed and developing countries for the period 1980-97 suggests that macro-economic instability had a significant impact on crime, both homicide and robbery. However, homicide and robbery do not react to instability i...

  10. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the reflective...... outcomes, as providers of explanations and observations. The expression `technological strategy as macro-actor' summarizes these findings and the associated implications for research and practice....

  11. The Role of Macros in Tractable Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents several new tractability results for planning based on macros. We describe an algorithm that optimally solves planning problems in a class that we call inverted tree reducible, and is provably tractable for several subclasses of this class. By using macros to store partial plans that recur frequently in the solution, the algorithm is polynomial in time and space even for exponentially long plans. We generalize the inverted tree reducible class in several ways and describe ...

  12. CRYOPRESERVATION EFFECTS ON RECOMBINANT MYOBLASTS ENCAPSULATED IN ADHESIVE ALGINATE HYDROGELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hajira F.; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    Cell encapsulation in hydrogels is widely used in tissue engineering applications, including encapsulation of islets or other insulin-secreting cells in pancreatic substitutes. Use of adhesive, bio-functionalized hydrogels is receiving increasing attention, as cell-matrix interactions in 3-D can be important for various cell processes. With pancreatic substitutes, studies have indicated benefits of 3-D adhesion on the viability and/or function of insulin-secreting cells. As long-term storage of microencapsulated cells is critical for their clinical translation, cryopreservation of cells in hydrogels is actively being investigated. Previous studies have examined the cryopreservation response of cells encapsulated in non-adhesive hydrogels using conventional freezing and/or vitrification (ice-free cryopreservation), however, none have systematically compared the two cryopreservation methods with cells encapsulated within an adhesive 3-D environment. The latter would be significant, as evidence suggests adhesion influences cellular response to cryopreservation. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the response to conventional freezing and vitrification of insulin-secreting cells encapsulated in an adhesive biomimetic hydrogel. Recombinant insulin-secreting C2C12 myoblasts were encapsulated in oxidized RGD-alginate and cultured 1 or 4 days post-encapsulation, cryopreserved, and assessed up to 3 days post-warming for metabolic activity and insulin secretion, and one day post-warming for cell morphology. Besides certain transient differences of the vitrified group relative to the Fresh control, both conventional freezing and vitrification maintained metabolism, secretion and morphology of the recombinant C2C12 cells. Thus, due to a simpler procedure and slightly superior results, conventional freezing is recommended over vitrification for the cryopreservation of C2C12 cells in oxidized RGD-modified alginate. PMID:23499987

  13. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received...

  14. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Encapsulated magnetite particles for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Landfester, K

    2003-01-01

    The process of miniemulsification allows the generation of small, homogeneous, and stable droplets containing monomer or polymer precursors and magnetite which are then transferred by polymer reactions to the final polymer latexes, keeping their particular identity without serious exchange kinetics involved. It is shown that the miniemulsion process can excellently be used for the formulation of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can further be used for biomedical applications. The use of high shear, appropriate surfactants, and the addition of a hydrophobe in order to suppress the influence of Ostwald ripening are key factors for the formation of the small and stable droplets in miniemulsion and will be discussed. Two different approaches based on miniemulsion processes for the encapsulation of magnetite into polymer particles will be presented in detail.

  16. The possible nomenclature of encapsulated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Idrees Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    The field of encapsulation is being explored widely and new information is not uncommon. However, the basic principles remain the same. Highlighting the importance of the variables in encapsulated products could help improve them for different applications. A separate nomenclature for encapsulated products would not only highlight important variables for producing better encapsulated products but might be helpful from their marketing point-of-view. Nomenclature of encapsulated products has potential in the production, properties, applications, economy, etc. of the final product. It could also help the general public understand more about what they are purchasing, and choose between options claiming the same or similar properties. The nomenclature proposed here is based on four variables (size, wall material, active ingredients and techniques for developing the encapsulated product) employed in the preparation of encapsulated products for different applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple encapsulation of LANL waste using polymers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Polymer encapsulation of lead shielding/blasting grit (surrogate) mixed waste was optimized at bench scale using melamine formaldehyde, polyurethane, and butadiene thermosetting polymers. Three pellet-based intermediate waste forms, and a final waste form, were prepared, each providing an additional level of integrity. Encapsulated waste integrity was measured by chemical and physical techniques. Compliance was established using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Equipment appropriate to pilot-scale demonstration of program techniques was investigated. A preliminary equipment list and layout, and process block flow diagram were prepared

  18. Multiple encapsulation of LANL waste using polymers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.L.

    1994-08-12

    Polymer encapsulation of lead shielding/blasting grit (surrogate) mixed waste was optimized at bench scale using melamine formaldehyde, polyurethane, and butadiene thermosetting polymers. Three pellet-based intermediate waste forms, and a final waste form, were prepared, each providing an additional level of integrity. Encapsulated waste integrity was measured by chemical and physical techniques. Compliance was established using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Equipment appropriate to pilot-scale demonstration of program techniques was investigated. A preliminary equipment list and layout, and process block flow diagram were prepared.

  19. Charge transfer in conjugated oligomers encapsulated into carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almadori, Y.; Alvarez, L.; Michel, T.; Le Parc, R.; Bantignies, J.L.; Hermet, P.; Sauvajol, J.L. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier (France); Arenal, R. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures, CNRS-ONERA, 92322 Chatillon (France); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, U. Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Babaa, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology PETRONAS, UTP, Ipoh-Perak (Malaysia); Jouselme, B.; Palacin, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with a hybrid system consisting in quaterthiophene derivative encapsulated inside single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Investigations of the encapsulation step are performed by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy data point out different behaviors depending on the laser excitation energy with respect to the optical absorption of quaterthiophene. At low excitation energy (far from the oligomer resonance window) there is no significant modification of the Raman spectra before and after encapsulation. By contrast, at high excitation energy (close to the oligomer resonance window), Raman spectra exhibit a G-band shift together with an important RBM intensity loss, suggesting a significant charge transfer between the inserted molecule and the host nanotubes. Those results suggest a photo induced process leading to a significant charge transfer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Encapsulation of health-promoting ingredients: applications in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolve, Roberta; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio; Zhang, Zhibing

    2016-12-01

    Many nutritional experts and food scientists are interested in developing functional foods containing bioactive agents and many of these health-promoting ingredients may benefit from nano/micro-encapsulation technology. Encapsulation has been proven useful to improve the physical and the chemical stability of bioactive agents, as well as their bioavailability and efficacy, enabling their incorporation into a wide range of formulations aimed to functional food production. There are several reviews concerning nano/micro-encapsulation techniques, but none are focused on the incorporation of the bioactive agents into food matrices. The aim of this paper was to investigate the development of microencapsulated food, taking into account the different bioactive ingredients, the variety of processes, techniques and coating materials that can be used for this purpose.

  1. Enhanced structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures by graphene encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matković, Aleksandar; Vasić, Borislav; Pešić, Jelena; Gajić, Radoš; Prinz, Julia; Bald, Ilko; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single-layer graphene replicates the shape of DNA origami nanostructures very well. It can be employed as a protective layer for the enhancement of structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures. Using the AFM based manipulation, we show that the normal force required to damage graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures is over an order of magnitude greater than for the unprotected ones. In addition, we show that graphene encapsulation offers protection to the DNA origami nanostructures against prolonged exposure to deionized water, and multiple immersions. Through these results we demonstrate that graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures are strong enough to sustain various solution phase processing, lithography and transfer steps, thus extending the limits of DNA-mediated bottom-up fabrication. (paper)

  2. Encapsulant materials and associated devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D [Littleton, CO; Thapa, Prem [Lima, OH

    2011-03-08

    Compositions suitable for use as encapsulants are described. The inventive compositions include a high molecular weight polymeric material, a curing agent, an inorganic compound, and a coupling agent. Optional elements include adhesion promoting agents, colorants, antioxidants, and UV absorbers. The compositions have desirable diffusivity properties, making them suitable for use in devices in which a substantial blocking of moisture ingress is desired, such as photovoltaic (PV) modules.

  3. Encapsulant materials and associated devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D [Littleton, CO; Thapa, Prem [Lima, OH

    2012-05-22

    Compositions suitable for use as encapsulants are described. The inventive compositions include a high molecular weight polymeric material, a curing agent, an inorganic compound, and a coupling agent. Optional elements include adhesion promoting agents, colorants, antioxidants, and UV absorbers. The compositions have desirable diffusivity properties, making them suitable for use in devices in which a substantial blocking of moisture ingress is desired, such as photovoltaic (PV) modules.

  4. Zeolite encapsulation of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.; Lakner, J.F.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments with H 2 have shown that it is possible to encapsulate gases in the structure of certain molecular sieves. This method may offer a better means of temporarily storing and disposing of tritium over some others presently in use. The method may also prove safer, and may enable isotope separation, and removal of 3 He. Initial experiments were performed with H 2 to screen potential candidates for use with tritium

  5. Encapsulation of thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) aqueous extract in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Radoslava; Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana; Manojlovic, Verica; Komes, Drazenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2012-02-01

    Encapsulation of Thymus serpyllum L. aqueous extract within calcium alginate beads was studied in order to produce dosage formulations containing polyphenolic compounds. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for encapsulation of thyme aqueous extract in alginate gel beads. In addition to hydrogel beads, heat-dried and freeze-dried forms of beads were examined. Encapsulation systems were examined and compared in order to choose the optimal one with respect to entrapment efficiency, preservation of antioxidant activity and thermal behaviour under heating conditions simulating the usual food processing. The beads obtained with approximately 2 mg g⁻¹ of gallic acid equivalents encapsulated in 0.015 g mL⁻¹ of alginate were spheres of a uniform size of about 730 µm. Encapsulation efficiency varied in the range 50-80% depending on the encapsulation method. Besides, the analysis reveals that the encapsulation process and the material used did not degrade the bioactive compounds, as the total antioxidant content remained unchanged. This was verified by Fourier transform infrared analysis, which proved the absence of chemical interactions between extracted compounds and alginate. Addition of a filler substance, such as sucrose and inulin, in the dried product reduced its collapse and roundness distortion during drying process. This study demonstrates the potential of using hydrogel material for encapsulation of plant poplyphenols to improve their functionality and stability in food products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  7. Tutorial: simulating chromatography with Microsoft Excel Macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadjo, Akinde; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2013-04-22

    Chromatography is one of the cornerstones of modern analytical chemistry; developing an instinctive feeling for how chromatography works will be invaluable to future generation of chromatographers. Specialized software programs exist that handle and manipulate chromatographic data; there are also some that simulate chromatograms. However, the algorithm details of such software are not transparent to a beginner. In contrast, how spreadsheet tools like Microsoft Excel™ work is well understood and the software is nearly universally available. We show that the simple repetition of an equilibration process at each plate (a spreadsheet row) followed by discrete movement of the mobile phase down by a row, easily automated by a subroutine (a "Macro" in Excel), readily simulates chromatography. The process is readily understood by a novice. Not only does this permit simulation of isocratic and simple single step gradient elution, linear or multistep gradients are also easily simulated. The versatility of a transparent and easily understandable computational platform further enables the simulation of complex but commonly encountered chromatographic scenarios such as the effects of nonlinear isotherms, active sites, column overloading, on-column analyte degradation, etc. These are not as easily simulated by available software. Views of the separation as it develops on the column and as it is seen by an end-column detector are both available in real time. Excel 2010™ also permits a 16-level (4-bit) color gradation of numerical values in a column/row; this permits visualization of a band migrating down the column, much as Tswett may have originally observed, but in a numerical domain. All parameters of relevance (partition constants, elution conditions, etc.) are readily changed so their effects can be examined. Illustrative Excel spreadsheets are given in the Supporting Information; these are easily modified by the user or the user can write his/her own routine. Copyright

  8. A Query System for Texts with Macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Keehang; Kang, Dae-Seong; Kim, Jinsoo

    We propose a query language based on extended regular expressions. This language extends texts with text-generating macros. These macros make it possible to define languages in a compressed, elegant way. This paper also extends queries with linear implications and additive (classical) conjunctions. To be precise, it allows goals of the form D _??_ G and G1 & G2 where D is a text or a macro and G is a query. The first goal is solved by adding D to the current text and then solving G. This goal is flexible in controlling the current text dynamically. The second goal is solved by solving both G1 and G2 from the current text. This goal is particularly useful for internet search.

  9. Single muon physics with the MACRO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The first supermodule (12 m x 12 m x 5 m) of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory has been operating since the end of February 1989. About 245,000 muon triggers have been collected in the first three months of data taking in ∼1890 hours of live-time. In this paper we describe the detection features of MACRO as a muon and as a high energy muon neutrino telescope to search for high energy point sources of cosmic rays. A preliminary analysis of the collected data is presented. 10 refs., 6 figs

  10. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental ampersand Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control

  11. Perspective of metal encapsulation of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual flow sheet is presented for encapsulating solid, stabilized calcine (e.g., supercalcine) in a solid lead alloy, using existing or developing technologies. Unresolved and potential problem areas of the flow sheet are outlined and suggestions are made as how metal encapsulation might be applied to other solid wastes from the fuel cycle. It is concluded that metal encapsulation is a technique applicable to many forms of solid wastes and is likely to meet future waste isolation criteria and regulations

  12. Next-generation ionomer encapsulants for thin film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzewicz, Robin; Smith, C. Anthony

    2011-09-01

    The characteristic properties of newly developed ionomer-based encapsulants are highlighted along with an in-depth analysis of moisture ingress, electrical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of these encapsulants with their high stiffness and strength have been found to allow the use of thinner glass and a possible shift from tempered to annealed glass. Lower-cost mounting options may be explored through full-module stress/deflection measurement capability and competencies developed in world-class finite-element modeling of system parameters. The superior electrical and moisture properties may allow modules to be produced without the use of an additional edge seal. These new materials have improved melt flow properties when compared to other encapsulant families such as EVA or PVB. This allows for faster processing which reduces production cost by shortening the lamination cycle. During the lamination process the sheets show excellent dimensional stability and low shrinkage behavior; and there is no need for curing, thus energy costs are lower due to lower lamination temperature. As advancement of technology proceeds across the entire PV industry, next generation ionomer encapsulants have been developed to keep up with the pace.

  13. Micro-Macro Paradoxes of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i det såkaldte micro-macro paradox fra Aids-Efficiency litteraturen og argumenterer for, at en tilsvarende problemstilling bør inddrages i vurderingen af f.eks. de beskæftigelsesmæssige konsekvenser af entrepreneuriel virksomhed. Den påviser også i en gennemgang af litteratur...

  14. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender

  15. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender

  16. Description and performances of MACRO TRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellotti, R.; Barbarito, E.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino', A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the applications of a transition radiation detector (TRD) to measure the residual energy of cosmic rays muons in underground laboratories and present the first MACRO TRD module. Results from prototypes operated in a test beam at CERN PS are also given. (orig.)

  17. Micro-Macro Paradoxes of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i det såkaldte micro-macro paradox fra Aids-Efficiency litteraturen og argumenterer for, at en tilsvarende problemstilling bør inddrages i vurderingen af f.eks. de beskæftigelsesmæssige konsekvenser af entrepreneuriel virksomhed. Den påviser også i en gennemgang af litteraturen...

  18. Teaching Macro Principles "after" the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Recent events should force everyone who teaches macroeconomics (or finance, for that matter) to reconsider their curriculums. In this short article, the author shares his thoughts about what should and should not be changed in the way economists teach macro principles to beginning students. Two tradeoffs are paramount and must be faced by every…

  19. Encapsulation and handling of spent nuclear fuel for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerberg, B.; Larker, H.; Ageskog, L.

    1983-05-01

    The handling and embedding of those metal parts which arrive to the encapsulation station with the fuel is described. For the encapsulation of fuel two alternatives are presented, both with copper canisters but with filling of lead and copper powder respectively. The sealing method in the first case is electron beam welding, in the second case hot isostatic pressing. This has given the headline of the two chapters describing the methods: Welded copper canister and Pressed copper canister. Chapter 1, Welded copper canister, presents the handling of the fuel when it arrives to the encapsulation station, where it is first placed in a buffer pool. From this pool the fuel is transferred to the encapsulation process and thereby separated from fuel boxes and boron glass rod bundles, which are transported together with the fuel. The encapsulation process comprises charging into a copper canister, filling with molten lead, electron beam welding of the lid and final inspection. The transport to and handling in the final repository are described up to the deposition and sealing in the deposition hole. Handling of fuel residues is treated in one of the sections. In chapter 2, Pressed copper canister, only those parts of the handling, which differ from chapter 1 are described. The hot isostatic pressing process is given in the first sections. The handling includes drying, charging into the canister, filling with copper powder, seal lid application and hot isostatic pressing before the final inspection and deposition. In the third chapter, BWR boxes in concrete moulds, the handling of the metal parts, separated from the fuel, are dealt with. After being lifted from the buffer pool they are inserted in a concrete mould, the mould is filled with concrete, covered with a lid and after hardening transferred to its own repository. The deposition in this repository is described. (author)

  20. In situ encapsulation of liquids by means of crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Anne; Ulrich, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The in situ encapsulation process is due to its few process steps an innovative and cost effective alternative to common encapsulation techniques. It combines the well-known processes of pastillation and crystallization. This concept is proven with case studies of three xylitol capsules which vary in composition and size. It could be shown that the knowledge concerning the solubility of the components is essential to determine the suitable production conditions. The application of seed crystals and the temperatures during the process have major effects on the capsules quality. A fast crystallization of the capsules results in an instable shell. However, with increasing layer thickness of the shell, the crushing force that needs to be applied to break the capsules is increasing as well. But the stability which is related to the capsules size is decreasing with increasing diameter, even though layer thickness and crushing force are increasing, too.

  1. Macro- to microscale heat transfer the lagging behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzou, D Y

    2014-01-01

    Physical processes taking place in micro/nanoscale strongly depend on the material types and can be very complicated. Known approaches include kinetic theory and quantum mechanics, non-equilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics, molecular dynamics, and/or fractal theory and fraction model. Due to innately different physical bases employed, different approaches may involve different physical properties in describing micro/nanoscale heat transport. In addition, the parameters involved in different approaches, may not be mutually inclusive. Macro- to Microscale Heat Transfer: The Lagging Behav

  2. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This Macro-economic Impact Study (MES) provides quantitative insights into the macro-economic effects of introducing green, palmbased alternatives for electricity, fuels, chemicals and materials industries in Malaysia between now and 2030.

  3. Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Drvenica, Ivana; Ilić, Vesna; Stančić, Ana; Mišić, Danijela; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Vučetić, Dušan; Kiekens, Filip; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-12-20

    The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary Amyloidosis Presenting as Small Bowel Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jones

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a pathological process which encompasses a spectrum of diseases that result from extracellular deposition of pathological fibrillar proteins. Clinical presentations vary depending on the organs involved. There is no documented case of amyloidosis presenting as small bowel encapsulation. A previously healthy 62-year-old man developed a small bowel obstruction in 1997. At surgery, a peculiar membrane encasing his entire small bowel was discovered. This appeared to have no vascularity and was removed without difficulty, exposing a grossly normal bowel. Histopathology revealed thick bands of collagen overlying the peritoneal surface, which was congo red positive and showed apple green birefringence. The findings were consistent with encapsulating peritonitis due to amyloidosis. There was no history or symptoms of any chronic inflammatory condition and he became symptom-free postoperatively. An abdominal fat pad biopsy failed to demonstrate amyloidosis. Endoscopic duodenal biopsies revealed classical primary amyloidosis. Quantitative immunoglobulins, lactate dehydrogenase, C3, C4 and beta-2 microglobulin were normal. Protein electrophoresis identified monoclonal paraprotein, immunoglobulin G lambda 3.7 g/L. Bone marrow biopsy and aspirate revealed only a mild plasmacytosis (5% to 10%. Echocardiogram and skeletal survey were normal. He had mild proteinuria. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, calcium, albumin and total protein were normal. No specific therapy was instituted. In January of 1998 the patient remained asymptomatic with no gastrointestinal, cardiovascular or constitutional symptoms. He had developed nephrotic range proteinuria (3.95 g/24 h, microalbuminuria, hypoalbuminemia and a renal biopsy consistent with renal amyloidosis. In 1999 there was an increase in the monoclonal paraprotein (6.2 g/L. The remaining investigations were normal except for an echocardiogram which showed left ventricular hypertrophy but a normal

  5. Encapsulation of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Using Viscoelastic Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Der-Song; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Wong, Serena H.; Kupnik, Mario; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The packaging of a medical imaging or therapeutic ultrasound transducer should provide protective insulation while maintaining high performance. For a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT), an ideal encapsulation coating would therefore require a limited and predictable change on the static operation point and the dynamic performance, while insulating the high dc and dc actuation voltages from the environment. To fulfill these requirements, viscoelastic materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), were investigated for an encapsulation material. In addition, PDMS, with a glass-transition temperature below room temperature, provides a low Young's modulus that preserves the static behavior; at higher frequencies for ultrasonic operation, this material becomes stiffer and acoustically matches to water. In this paper, we demonstrate the modeling and implementation of the viscoelastic polymer as the encapsulation material. We introduce a finite element model (FEM) that addresses viscoelasticity. This enables us to correctly calculate both the static operation point and the dynamic behavior of the CMUT. CMUTs designed for medical imaging and therapeutic ultrasound were fabricated and encapsulated. Static and dynamic measurements were used to verify the FEM and show excellent agreement. This paper will help in the design process for optimizing the static and the dynamic behavior of viscoelastic-polymer-coated CMUTs. PMID:21170294

  6. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Graham, Alan Lyman (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Noble, David F. (David Frederick) (.; )); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-06-01

    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  7. Preliminary investigation of cryopreservation by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star, a new commercial ornamental orchid hybrid, were cryopreserved by an encapsulation-dehydration technique. The effects of PLB size, various sucrose concentrations in preculture media and sodium alginate concentration for encapsulation were the main ...

  8. Time reduction and automation of routine planning activities through the use of macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, C. del; Osorio, J. L.; Almansa, J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of macros in scheduler automates Adac Pinnacle3 much of the routine activities in the planning process, from the display options and placement of beams, to, among other possibilities, systematic naming them and export of the physical and clinical dosimetry. This automation allows reduction of the times associated with the planning process and an error reduction.

  9. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A 4-kbit low-cost antifuse one-time programmable memory macro for embedded applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Zhong Huicai; Jia Cheng; Li Xin

    2014-01-01

    A 4-kbit low-cost one-time programmable (OTP) memory macro for embedded applications is designed and implemented in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. The area of the proposed 1.5 transistor (1.5T) OTP cell is 2.13 μm 2 , which is a 49.3% size reduction compared to the previously reported cells. The 1.5T cell is fabricated and measured and shows a large programming window without any disturbance. A novel high voltage switch (HVSW) circuit is also proposed to make sure the OTP macro, implemented in a standard CMOS process, works reliably with the high program voltage. The OTP macro is embedded in negative radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The full chip size, including the analog front-end, digital controller and the 4-kbit OTP macro, is 600 × 600 μm 2 . The 4-kbit OTP macro only consumes 200 × 260 μm 2 . The measurement shows a 100% program yield by adjusting the program time and has obvious advantages in the core area and power consumption compared to the reported 3T and 2T OTP cores. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Design for manufacturability of macro and micro products: a case study of heat exchanger design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, F.; Weng Feng, L.; Hansen, H. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology in designing a micro heat exchanger is proposed by modifying a conventional design methodology for macro products with the considerations of differences between design of a micro and a macro product. The methodology starts with the identification of differences...... by designers/engineers in design of the same category of micro products. Furthermore, through utilization of the proposed methodology by designers/engineers for design of other micro products, the RTC unit can be enriched with micro-oriented design principles and accordingly provide a basic guideline...... in design considerations for micro scale products compared to the macro scale. These design considerations consist of material selection, manufacturing process, physical phenomena and shape and geometry design. Manufacturability criteria are defined and various potential manufacturing processes...

  12. Macro-institutional Complexity in Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, Frederic; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    structure and transactional costs, the concept of environmental complexity is applied to the logistics management perspective. Thereby, the impacts which a given framework on a macro-institutional level might have on the situation and leeway in decision-making at the firm (micro) or the supply chain (meso......In this paper, the interlink between the concept of macro-institutional complexity in logistics and the dynamics in the logistics practice of Eastern Europe will be examined. Referring to the importance of different authors having ascribed to the external environmental uncertainty on organizational......) levels will be analysed. Furthermore, a quantitative modelling approach will be presented and exemplified by using the case of logistics infrastructure in Eastern Europe....

  13. Macro factors in oil futures returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the macro factors that can explain the monthly oil futures return for the NYMEX WTI futures contract for the time period 1993:11 to 2010:03. We build a new database of 187 real and nominal macro-economic variables from developed and emerging countries and resort to the large factor approximate model to extract 9 factors from this dataset. We then regress crude oil return on several combinations of these factors. Our best model explains around 38% of the variability of oil futures return. More interestingly, the factor which has the largest influence on crude oil price is related to real variables from emerging countries. This result confirms the latest finding in the literature that the recent evolution in oil price is attributable to change in supply and demand conditions and not to the large increase in trading activity from speculators. (authors)

  14. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  15. Optimization of Solar Module Encapsulant Lamination by Optical Constant Determination of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Mau Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation elucidates the physical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA used in the lamination process of module encapsulation and the module performance from the optical transmission to the photoelectric power. In module encapsulation, the effects of the lamination parameters on the module performance, transmittance, and stack adhesion have been considered as they were found to influence the reliability of the module. The determination of the optical constants of EVA may serve as a nondestructive analytical method for optimizing the module encapsulation, on the basis of its effects on the optical transmittance, gel content, peel strength, and performance power.

  16. The encapsulation of Magnox type fuel elements for extended storage in cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.W.C.; Burt, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A method of encapsulating spent fuel elements in a protective plastics medium to enable them to be stored for protracted periods under water, without risk of further significant corrosion, has been developed. It is visualised that the elements after discharge from the reactor would be allowed to cool under water for a period of at least 100 days and would then be encapsulated while remaining immersed. A suitable two pack system based on a solvent free epoxy resin cured with an aromatic amine adduct has been identified. The equipment and processes which have been developed for handling, conditioning and encapsulating the fuel are described. (author)

  17. [Egg-shaped macro-lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, T; Hauzeur, C; Vanhaeverbeek, M

    2017-01-01

    We report a 76 years-old female patient who consults for left flank pain and inflammatory biology, due to the presence of an egg-shaped 5 cm diameter macro-lithiasis. Because of the presence of a Proteus bacteriuria, the patient receives a 7 days levofloxacin treatment, before a laparoscopic resection of the kidney stone is performed. The analysis reveals a struvite lithiasis with a disorganized radial-section nuclear structure (type IVc).

  18. Interface Between Macro and Nano Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zapusek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a nanorobotic application which includes: nanorobotic arm, Akiyama sensor system, a vacuum chamber, and an interface tools for the nanorobotic hardware developed using C++ and VRML languages in order to create a desktop virtual-reality environment which improves visualisation and prevents collision of the nanomanipulator hardware with the associated workspace. The presented experiment shows how the used man-machine interface could be used for communication between macro and micro/nano worlds.

  19. Hydrogen-bonded encapsulation complexes in protic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Toru; Rebek, Julius

    2004-11-03

    We describe here the behavior of the hydrogen-bonded capsule 1.1 and its complexes in protic solvents. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the encapsulation process were determined through conventional (1)H NMR methods. The enthalpies and entropies of encapsulation are both positive, indicating a process that liberates solvent molecules. The rates of dissociation-association of the capsule were comparable to the rates for the in-out exchange of large guests, which suggests that guest exchange occurs by complete dissociation of the capsule in protic solvents. The stability of the hydrogen-bonded capsule 1.1 toward protic solvents depends strongly on the guests, with the best guest being dimethylstilbene 8. The results establish guidelines for the properties of capsules that could be accessed in water.

  20. Some thermal analysis aspects of metal encapsulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is to summarize two waste management schemes: (1) packaging for extended storage of LWR spent fuel assemblies, with the capability for simple conversion either to terminal storage if a ''throwaway'' fuel cycle is ultimately adopted or to a form that can be reprocessed and (2) packaging for the terminal storage of solidified high-level wastes when the reprocessing of spent fuel is initiated. Only concepts utilizing metals or metal alloys to encapsulate either spent fuel or solidified high-level waste forms have been considered. Conceptual process flow sheets have been constructed to allow potential advantages and disadvantages of encapsulation alternatives to be identified in comparison with more conventional reference processes. Identification is also made of uncertainties of the analysis due to a lack of fundamental data required to perform evaluations. 3 tables

  1. Magnetic separation of carbon-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles from thermally-treated wood char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Wood char,a by-product from the fast-pyrolysis process of southern yellow pine wood for bio-oil production, was carbonized with Fenano particles (FeNPs) as a catalyst to prepare carbon-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles. A magnetic separation method was tested to isolate carbon-encapsulated Fe nano particles from the carbonized char. X-ray diffraction pattern clearly shows...

  2. Note: Automated optical focusing on encapsulated devices for scanning light stimulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitzer, L. A.; Benson, N.; Schmechel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a scanning light stimulation system with an automated, adaptive focus correction during the measurement was introduced. Here, its application on encapsulated devices is discussed. This includes the changes an encapsulating optical medium introduces to the focusing process as well as to the subsequent light stimulation measurement. Further, the focusing method is modified to compensate for the influence of refraction and to maintain a minimum beam diameter on the sample surface

  3. Note: Automated optical focusing on encapsulated devices for scanning light stimulation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, L A; Benson, N; Schmechel, R

    2014-08-01

    Recently, a scanning light stimulation system with an automated, adaptive focus correction during the measurement was introduced. Here, its application on encapsulated devices is discussed. This includes the changes an encapsulating optical medium introduces to the focusing process as well as to the subsequent light stimulation measurement. Further, the focusing method is modified to compensate for the influence of refraction and to maintain a minimum beam diameter on the sample surface.

  4. Determination of the Macro Elements Content of Some Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducu Sandu Ştef

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The metals contents of plants are variable, due to the factors like differences between the plants species, geographical area, conditions of drying process. Metals contents in soil are a great importance for their effect of animals and humans, through the biologic chain: soil – plant – feed and food. Analysis of metals content was made with ContrAA-300, Analytik-Jena device, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FASS in air/acetylene flame. It were analyzed the macro elements content for 33 medicinal plants. The main macro elements (Ca, Mg K and Na were quantified for each sample. The contents in macroelements for analysed samples were in range: 3.763 % (Plantago major – 0.442 % (Hippophae rhamnoides, for Ca; 0.718% (Urtica dioica – 0.107% (Hippophae rhamnoides and Pinus, for Mg; 1.417% (Chelidonium majus – 0.319% (Rhamnus frangula, for K and 1.945% (Cynara scolymus – 0.021% (Pinus, for Na.

  5. Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdes, Greg A.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a 'dirty bomb'. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

  6. On the Application of Macros to the Automation of different Dating Models Using ''210 Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Ampudia, J.

    2002-01-01

    Different Dating models based on 210 Pb measurements, used for verifying recent events are shown in this report as well as, models that describe different processes affecting the vertical distribution of radionuclides in lacustrine and marine sediments. Macro-Commands are programmes included in calculation work sheets that allow automatised operations to run. In this report macros are used to: a) obtain 210 Pb results from a data base created from different sampling campaigns b) apply different dating models automatically c) optimise the diffusion coefficient employed by models through standards deviation calculations among experimental values and those obtained by the model. (Author) 21 refs

  7. Impact of Macro-economic Factors on Deposit Formation by Ukrainian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevaldina Valentyna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is detection of interconnections between the common economic processes and formation of bank deposits by population. The article builds a correlation and regression model of complex assessment of interconnection between macro-economic factors, savings behaviour of population and level of deposits of population in banks for two hour horizons: short-term, which is characterised with deployment of crisis phenomena both in global economy and in Ukrainian economy and the medium-term one. The article characterises the most significant common macro-economic factors. In the result of the study the article establishes that Ukrainian population is oriented at short-term horizon when forming savings due to the uncertainty in future. In the medium-term prospective, savings of the population are formed basically under influence of macro-economic factors, while formation of deposits by Ukrainian population is mostly influenced by socio-psychological factors.

  8. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  9. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Zhang, Xuejun; Surma, Jan; Fitzpatrick, Lilly; Montgomery, Eliza; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts are under way to replace current corrosion inhibitors with more environmentally friendly alternatives. However, problems with corrosion inhibition efficiency, coating compatibility and solubility have hindered the use of many of these materials as simple pigment additives.This paper will present technical details on how the Corrosion Technology Lab at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has addressed these issues by encapsulating environmentally friendly inhibitors into organic and inorganic microparticles and microcapsules. The synthetic process for polymer particles was characterized and post-synthesis analysis was performed to determine the interactions between the inhibitors and the encapsulation material. The pH-controlled release of inhibitors from various particle formulations in aqueous base was monitored and compared to both electrochemical and salt immersion accelerated corrosion experiment. Furthermore, synergistic corrosion inhibition effects observed during the corrosion testing of several inhibitor combinations will be presented.

  10. Nanotechnology Applied to Bio-Encapsulation of Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made towards the application of nanotechnology in sustainable food production. In this context, the bio-encapsulation process has taken prominence in particular as an ecofriendly method for pest control while reducing the pesticide load in the environment considerably. By taking into consideration, here we are presenting an overview regarding the prospects for the development of nanoencapsulated pesticides in sustainable agriculture and highlight some challenges to be addressed in order to develop efficient nano-carrier systems that may arise as an alternative for conventional pesticide application. However, much research has to be done in this area in order to develop safe and promising pesticide delivery systems for increasing global food production by enhancing the selectivity, specificity and longevity of the encapsulated pesticides while reducing the negative environmental impacts to ecosystem and human beings.

  11. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Paula de Castro Menezes; Werner, Andrea de Freitas; Pereira, Izabela Machado Flores; Matos, Breno Assuncao; Pfeilsticker, Rudolf Moreira; Silva Filho, Raul, E-mail: paulacmcandido@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Felicio Rocho, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, a rare cause of bowel obstruction, was described as a complication associated with peritoneal dialysis which is much feared because of its severity. The authors report a case where radiological findings in association with clinical symptoms have allowed for a noninvasive diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, emphasizing the high sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography to demonstrate the characteristic findings of such a condition. (author)

  12. Encapsulated Thermoelectric Modules for Advanced Thermoelectric Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Jinushi, Takahiro; Ishijima, Zenzo

    2014-06-01

    An encapsulated thermoelectric (TE) module consists of a vacuum-tight stainless-steel container in which an SiGe or BiTe TE module is encapsulated. This construction enables maximum performance and durability because: the thermal expansion mismatch between the hot and cold sides of the container can be accommodated by a sliding sheet in the container; the TE module inside is always kept in a vacuum environment, therefore no oxidation can occur; and the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the container reduces thermal contact resistance inside the container. Our encapsulated SiGe module features higher operating temperature—up to 650°C for both hot and cold sides. Other high-temperature modules and conventional BiTe modules, including both-sides and one-side skeleton types, have been encapsulated. Several variants of the encapsulated module are available. Encapsulated thermoelectric modules with integrated coolers contain cooling panels through which water can pass. If the module hot side is heated by a radiating heat source (radiation coupling) or convection of a hot gas or fluid (convection coupling), no pressing force on the module is necessary. It therefore features minimum contact resistance with the cooling duct, because no pressure is applied, maximum TE power, and minimum installation cost. Another, larger, variant is a quadruple flexible container in which four modules (each of maximum size 40 mm × 40 mm) are encapsulated. These encapsulated modules were used in a powder metallurgy furnace and were in use for more than 3000 h. Application to cryogenic temperatures simulating the liquid nitrogen gas vaporizer has been also attempted.

  13. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  14. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Paiffer, F.; Mathor, M.B.; Lopes, P.S.; Rogero, S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients which were submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through nanoencapsulation with cyclodextrins, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  15. Macro-Integration for Solving Large Data Reconciliation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Mushkudiani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Macro-integration technique is a well established method forreconciliation of large, high-dimensional tables, especially applied to macroeconomic data at national statistical oces (NSO. This technique is mainly used when data obtained from dierent sources should be reconciled on a macro level. New areas of applications for this technique arise as new data sources become available to NSO's. Often these new data sources cannot be combined on a micro level, while macro integration could provide a solution for such problems. Yet, more research should be carried out to investigate if in such situations macro integration could indeed be applied. In this paper we propose two applications of macro-integration techniques in other domains than the traditional macro-economic applications. In particular: reconciliation of tables of a virtual census and reconciliation of monthly series of short term statistics gures with the quarterly gures of structural business statistics.

  16. Plastic encapsulated, dye sensitised photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.J.; Otley, L.C.; Durrant, J.R.; Haque, S.; Xu, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Holmes, A.B.; Park, T.; Schulte, N. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The report presents the results of a collaborative project that aimed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a plastic-encapsulated, solid state, dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) with an energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of at least 3%. DSSCs offer a possible 'step change' in photovoltaic technology resulting in lower costs compared with existing technologies. The project involved a series of eight main tasks: the development of first and second generation HTM electrolytes; the development of polymer-supported electrolytes; the development of low temperature electrode coating procedures; dye development; cell assembly and testing; component integration; and overall process development. A wide range of innovative HTMs have been synthesised, including materials incorporating both hole-transporting and ion-chelating functional groups. The ruthenium-based dye, N3, remained the preferred sensitising component. The project has produced a system that can routinely achieve over 5% ECE at 0.1 Sun illumination on 1 cm{sup 2} cells using polymer-supported electrolytes.

  17. A comparison between MARKAL-MACRO and MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepers, E.

    1995-11-01

    Differences between CO 2 -reduction scenarios of the MARKAL-MACRO model and the MARKAL model are studied. Also attention is paid to the rebound effect, i.e. the effect on a price decrease leads to an increase of the energy demand, and energy savings will result in a redistribution of saved income over other goods and services. MARKAL is an energy supply model and MACRO is a macro-economic model. The combination of the two is an example of a hard-linked model between a top-down model (MACRO) and a bottom-up model (MARKAL). 15 figs., 5 tabs., 18 refs., 2 appendices

  18. Cellular Silica Encapsulation for Development of Robust Cell Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert; Rogelj, Snezna; Harper, Jason; Tartis, Michaelann

    2014-03-01

    In order to detect chemical and biological threats both on the battlefield and in civilian life, development of portable, robust detection systems capable of real-time identification of the chemical and biological agents are needed. Living cell-based sensors have proven effective as sensitive, specific, near real-time detectors; however, living cell-based sensors require frequent cell replenishment due to cell sensitivity to the ex-vivo environment, which limits sensor stability. Incorporation of living cells within a biocompatible matrix that provides mechanical protection and maintains access to the external environment may facilitate the development of long-term stable cell-based biosensors. We are exploring the use of a novel Chemical Vapor into Liquid (CViL) deposition process for whole cell encapsulation in silica. In CViL, the high vapor pressure of common silica alkoxides is utilized to deliver silica into an aqueous medium, creating a silica sol. Mixing of cells with the resulting silica sol facilitates encapsulation of cells in silica while minimizing cell contact with the cytotoxic products of silica generating reactions. Using fluorescence microscopy analysis with multiple silica specific markers, encapsulation of multiple eukaryotic cell types (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Jurkat, HeLa, and U87 cells) with CViL generated silica is shown, providing a foundation for development of long -term stable cell-based biosensors with diverse sensing capabilities.

  19. Macro and micro minerals: are frozen fruits a good source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Patricia D S; Bortolin, Giovana V; Prá, Daniel; Santos, Carla E I; Dias, Johnny F; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian

    2010-12-01

    Fruits are rich in minerals, which are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. The use of frozen fruits has greatly spread in the last years not only in the preparation of juices, but also as raw material for yogurts, candies, cookies, cakes, ice creams, and children's food. However, up to now there is no data about the mineral profile of frozen fruits. This is the first database to quantify the levels of minerals in 23 samples of frozen fruits, including the most used around the world and some native fruits from the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Considering the Dietary Reference Intakes, 100g of frozen fruits can provide 0.2 to 2.8% of macro and 2.5 to 100% of microminerals for adults (31-50 years old). Although geographical differences should be considered, these data can help to plan diets and to develop population interventions aiming to prevent chronic diseases.

  20. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  1. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their

  2. Synthesis of alumina ceramic encapsulation for self-healing materials on thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golim, O. P.; Prastomo, N.; Izzudin, H.; Hastuty, S.; Sundawa, R.; Sugiarti, E.; Thosin, K. A. Z.

    2018-03-01

    Durability of Thermal Barrier Coating or TBC can be optimized by inducing Self-Healing capabilities with intermetallic materials MoSi2. Nevertheless, high temperature operation causes the self-healing materials to become oxidized and lose its healing capabilities. Therefore, a method to introduce ceramic encapsulation for MoSi2 is needed to protect it from early oxidation. The encapsulation process is synthesized through a simple precipitation method with colloidal aluminum hydroxide as precursor and variations on calcination process. Semi-quantitative analysis on the synthesized sample is done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Meanwhile, qualitative analysis on the morphology of the encapsulation was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) equipped with dual Focus Ion Beam (FIB). The result of the experiment shows that calcination process significantly affects the final characteristic of encapsulation. The optimum encapsulation process was synthesized by colloidal aluminum hydroxide as a precursor, with a double step calcination process in low pressure until 900 °C.

  3. Emergence of DNA-encapsulating liposomes from a DNA-lipid blend film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobayashi, Shunsuke; Hishida, Mafumi; Kurimura, Tomo; Ichikawa, Masatoshi

    A Micro-scale giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) densely encapsulating molecular systems is one of the simplest life-mimicking model systems. The dehydration-rehydration process proposed by Deamer et al. more than 30 years ago generates vesicles to satisfy the constraints of micro-scale size, unilamellarity and densely polymer-encapsulation. Nevertheless, the physico-chemical mechanism of a set of dehydration-rehydration process has been poorly understood. The present study reveals crucial factors on the process through fluorescent microscopic observation and small angle x-ray scattering. From the results, we propose a plausible physical mechanism for the process, making it possible to optimize the encapsulation of any agent This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows Grant (No. 25-1270) and by KAKENHI (Nos. 26707020, 25103012, and 26115709).

  4. Encapsulation of noble gas in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorea, A.

    1987-04-01

    The noble gases neon, argon, krypton and xenon were encapsulated hydrothermally as pure gases as well as in the form of mixtures in type A zeolite of various cationic compositions. As opposed to the starting material the encapsulates are X-ray amorphous and posess a very small specific surface area. Irrespective of the thermal pretreatment of the zeolites the optimal loading occured within a certain temperature window. The amount of gas trapped was essentially a function of the fixation pressure. Within the pressure range 50-2200 bar the obtained loading was independent from the type of noble gas. When mixtures of noble gases were encapsulated a small enrichment of the heavier noble gas, caused by kinetic and thermodynamic effects, was observed. The thermal stability of the encapsulates was found to be very high. Even at temperatures as high as 750 0 C a recrystallization to anorthite was only observed after practically all the trapped gas had been released. Experiments destined to clarify the mechanism of gas leckage at temperatures below 750 0 C suggest a diffusion controlled mechanism described by a √t law. Even at loadings of 45 ml/(STP) Kr/g the leckage predicted under conditions as expected during longterm storage of Kr-85 is extremely small. Kinetic data demonstrate that the gas is not trapped in the form of agglomerates but rather exists homogeneously distributed within the encapsulate. This result is substantiated by electron beam microanalysis. (orig./RB) [de

  5. Elementary study of encapsulation of radioisotope battery prototype based on 63Ni radio-voltaic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Zhang Huaming; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi; Fu Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    For isotope battery application, it is necessary to encapsulate in a certain method. After having accomplished selection of material composing and proportion, procedure and encapsulating process based on GD3217Y detector. the different types of device come from untouched, loaded by slip of stainless steel with or without 63 Ni isotope were encapsulated respectively. Despite necessary reliability of package has been evaluated in the previous work. in view of specialty due to the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into device, the reliability issue must be further taken into account for actual application. Hence, we emphasize on the comparison about electrical capability of types of devices under the different situations, namely, before and after encapsulation, the natural aging and artificial accelerated aging. The results of the comparison indicate that the adoption of the method of the encapsulation supply effectively stable electrical capability at the condition of ensuring safety of radioactive source besides improving environmental adaptability for device. Further, it offers technological support for the encapsulation of radioisotope battery based on β radio-voltaic effect. (authors)

  6. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen.

  7. Encapsulated arrays of self-assembled microtissues: an alternative to spherical microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Adam P; Chai, Peter R; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2009-02-01

    Micro-encapsulation and immuno-isolation of allogenic and xenogenic tissues and cells is a promising method for the treatment of a variety of metabolic disorders. Many years have been spent optimizing spherical microcapsules, yet micro-encapsulation has not achieved its full clinical potential. As an alternative to spherical microcapsules, this study presents an alginate-encapsulated array of self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) microtissues. Monodispersed HepG2 cells were seeded onto a micro-molded agarose gel. Cells settled to the bottom of the mold recesses and self-assembled 3D microtissues (n = 822) within 24 h. This array of densely packed microtissues was encapsulated in situ using alginate. When separated from the agarose micro-mold, the encapsulated array had HepG2 microtissues in close proximity to its surface. This surface could be further modified by a simple dipping process. Microtissue size, viability, and albumin secretion were all controllable by the number of cells seeded onto the original agarose micro-mold, and microtissue shape and spacing were controllable by the design of the micro-mold. This approach to encapsulation and the use of self-assembled/self-packing 3D microtissues offers new design possibilities that may help to address certain limitations of conventional microcapsules.

  8. Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrul Azlan Hamzah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level.

  9. Macro-environmental policy: Principles and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The central theme of this book is how macro-environmental policy can be developed, which does not prescribe or suggest specific technologies and products bu realizes the environmental quality desired by changing the general context. The publication is composed of four main parts. The framework for analysis and the normative principles for policy design and evaluation, the first two parts, form the analytic core. The framework for analysis gives a classification of instruments in terms of permutations of a limited number of defining elements. The normative principles guide choices in instrument design and, as the flexible response strategy, guide their application in specific policies. Detailing two main new instruments (the standard method for life cycle analysis and the substance deposit, and applying the instrument strategy as developed to the cases make up the next two parts

  10. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  11. Micro-macro analysis of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a "classic" approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail ("micro") to a different scale level ("macro"), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability.

  12. Foliar application of macro- and micronutrients on the yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and flower yield of roses are directly dependent on the balanced application of macro and micronutrients. In the present study, foliar application of macro- and micronutrients was done after every 15 days when new emerging leaves had sprouted after pruning. The results reveal that plants treated with foliar ...

  13. Macro Invertebrate Fauna of Udu-Ughievwen Wetlands, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macro invertebrate fauna of Udu-Ughievwen wetlands, Southern Nigeria with emphasis on the species composition, diversity and distribution is discussed. A total of 62 macro-invertebrate taxa distributed into 27 families were recorded. Coleoptera and Odonata made up 16.13% by species respectively, while Arachnida and ...

  14. Degradation of Silicone Encapsulants in CPV Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Can; Miller, David C.; Tappan, Ian A.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-11-21

    High efficiency multijunction solar cells in terrestrial concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules are becoming an increasingly cost effective and viable option in utility scale power generation. As with other utility scale photovoltaics, CPV modules need to guarantee operational lifetimes of at least 25 years. The reliability of optical elements in CPV modules poses a unique materials challenge due to the increased UV irradiance and enhanced temperature cycling associated with concentrated solar flux. The polymeric and thin film materials used in the optical elements are especially susceptible to UV damage, diurnal temperature cycling and active chemical species from the environment. We used fracture mechanics approaches to study the degradation modes including: the adhesion between the encapsulant and the cell or secondary optical element; and the cohesion of the encapsulant itself. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of materials degradation under elevated stress conditions is critical for commercialization of CPV technology and can offer unique insights into degradation modes in similar encapsulants used in other photovoltaic modules.

  15. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  16. Protein Encapsulation via Polypeptide Complex Coacervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Katie A.; Priftis, Dimitrios; Perry, Sarah L.; Yip, Jeremy; Byun, William Y.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2014-10-21

    Proteins have gained increasing success as therapeutic agents; however, challenges exist in effective and efficient delivery. In this work, we present a simple and versatile method for encapsulating proteins via complex coacervation with oppositely charged polypeptides, poly(L-lysine) (PLys) and poly(D/L-glutamic acid) (PGlu). A model protein system, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was incorporated efficiently into coacervate droplets via electrostatic interaction up to a maximum loading of one BSA per PLys/PGlu pair and could be released under conditions of decreasing pH. Additionally, encapsulation within complex coacervates did not alter the secondary structure of the protein. Lastly the complex coacervate system was shown to be biocompatible and interact well with cells in vitro. A simple, modular system for encapsulation such as the one presented here may be useful in a range of drug delivery applications.

  17. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  18. Macro-economic impact of loss of health; Macro-economische impact van gezondheidsverlies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchimon, F. [BAM Techniek, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Ament, H.J.A. [Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Knies, J.; Pernot, C.E.E. [Pernot Consulting, Heeze (Netherlands); Van Bronswijk, J.M.H. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    More healthy life years are achievable by dwelling improvements. This article computes the healthy life years that may be gained by increased ventilation rates. It concerns the diseases Asthma, COPD en lung cancer. Increased ventilation removes house dust mites and their allergens, as well as tobacco smoke, which are associated with these diseases. Costs and savings are computes and compared in order to test the macro-economical feasibility of increased ventilation in dwellings. [Dutch] Door verbetering van woningen zijn veel gezonde levensjaren te behalen. In dit artikel worden de gewonnen gezonde levensjaren uitgerekend door meer ventileren voor de ziekten astma, COPD en longkanker. Zowel huisstofmijtallergeen als tabaksrook zijn geassocieerd met astma, COPD en longkanker. De kosten en de opbrengsten van meer ventileren worden met elkaar vergeleken om de macro-economische haalbaarheid te toetsen.

  19. Verification and Validation of Encapsulation Flow Models in GOMA, Version 1.1; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONDY, LISA ANN; RAO, REKHA R.; SCHUNK, P. RANDALL; SACKINGER, PHILIP A.; ADOLF, DOUGLAS B.

    2001-01-01

    Encapsulation is a common process used in manufacturing most non-nuclear components including: firing sets, neutron generators, trajectory sensing signal generators (TSSGs), arming, fusing and firing devices (AF and Fs), radars, programmers, connectors, and batteries. Encapsulation is used to contain high voltage, to mitigate stress and vibration and to protect against moisture. The purpose of the ASCI Encapsulation project is to develop a simulation capability that will allow us to aid in the encapsulation design process, especially for neutron generators. The introduction of an encapsulant poses many problems because of the need to balance ease of processing and properties necessary to achieve the design benefits such as tailored encapsulant properties, optimized cure schedule and reduced failure rates. Encapsulants can fail through fracture or delamination as a result of cure shrinkage, thermally induced residual stresses, voids or incomplete component embedding and particle gradients. Manufacturing design requirements include (1) maintaining uniform composition of particles in order to maintain the desired thermal coefficient of expansion (CTE) and density, (2) mitigating void formation during mold fill, (3) mitigating cure and thermally induced stresses during cure and cool down, and (4) eliminating delamination and fracture due to cure shrinkage/thermal strains. The first two require modeling of the fluid phase, and it is proposed to use the finite element code GOMA to accomplish this. The latter two require modeling of the solid state; however, ideally the effects of particle distribution would be included in the calculations, and thus initial conditions would be set from GOMA predictions. These models, once they are verified and validated, will be transitioned into the SIERRA framework and the ARIA code. This will facilitate exchange of data with the solid mechanics calculations in SIERRA/ADAGIO

  20. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostadinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid (PAA and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA and n-butyl acrylate (BA with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II and aluminium(III intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH. At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA, the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  1. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  2. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramly, Mohammad Rizal; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rahman, Safura Abd; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-01-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes

  3. Higher Education in the Ural Macro-Region: Possibilities for Nonlinear Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garold E. Zborovsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article shows that the optimisation and restructuring of the higher education system in Russia and especially in the regions (subjects of Federation and the macro-regions (federal districts do not lead to the expected results, primarily at the regional level. The authors prove the necessity of searching for ways of nonlinear development of the higher education, that helps to minimise the risks and negative consequences of this process. The purpose of the article is to identify the opportunities for nonlinear development of the higher education system in the macro-region through the formation of network interaction between the higher educational institutions of the federal district as a key factor in solving economic, social and cultural problems. Materials and Methods: the interdisciplinary methodology is used, which includes the principles of the theory of nonlinearity, network, system and institutional analysis, exchange theory, theories of stakeholders and resource dependence. The empirical base of the research includes the statistic data, and the results of a semi-formalised in-depth expert interview. Results: the research on the processes taking place in the higher education of the Ural Federal District shows contradictions and difficulties caused by liquidation of separate higher education institutions, by the disunity and distancing of educational organisations, science, business, authority, the absence of a higher school system in the macro-region that could successfully promote the development of the district. The article deals with a new, nonlinear understanding of universities network interaction between the main educational communities, academic mobility within the macro-region, university relations with science, economy, authority, stakeholders. The necessity for normative regulation of these relations within the subjects of the Federation and federal districts is underlined. Discussion and Conclusions: the results

  4. Review of world experience and properties of materials for encapsulation of terrestrial photovoltaic arrays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, D.C.; Gaines, G.B.; Sliemers, F.A.; Kistler, C.W.; Igou, R.D.

    1976-07-21

    Available information defining the state of the art of encapsulation materials and processes for terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications were collected and analyzed. Based on criteria of properties, processability, availability, and cost, candidate materials were identified which have potential for use in encapsulation systems for low-cost, long-life terrestrial photovoltaic arrays manufactured by automated, high-volume processes. The criteria for consideration of the encapsulation systems were based on the goals for arrays with a lifetime of over 20 years high reliability, an efficiency greater than 10 percent, a total array price less than $500/kW, and a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. (WDM)

  5. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  6. Time reduction and automation of routine planning activities through the use of macros; Reduccion de tiempo y automatizacion de las actividades rutinarias de planificacion mediante el uso de macros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, C. del; Osorio, J. L.; Almansa, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of macros in scheduler automates Adac Pinnacle3 much of the routine activities in the planning process, from the display options and placement of beams, to, among other possibilities, systematic naming them and export of the physical and clinical dosimetry. This automation allows reduction of the times associated with the planning process and an error reduction.

  7. Plastic molds reduce cost of encapsulating electric cable connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, D.

    1964-01-01

    Resin casting of the aluminum master pattern forms a plastic mold for encapsulating a cable connector. An elastomer is injected into the mold and cured. The mold is disassembled leaving an elastomeric encapsulation around the connector.

  8. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant cap...

  9. Mold-filling experiments for validation of modeling encapsulation. Part 1, "wine glass" mold.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Altobelli, Stephen A. (New Mexico Resonance, Albuquerque, NM); Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2005-06-01

    The C6 project 'Encapsulation Processes' has been designed to obtain experimental measurements for discovery of phenomena critical to improving these processes, as well as data required in the verification and validation plan (Rao et al. 2001) for model validation of flow in progressively complex geometries. We have observed and recorded the flow of clear, Newtonian liquids and opaque, rheologically complex suspensions in two mold geometries. The first geometry is a simple wineglass geometry in a cylinder and is reported here in Part 1. The results in a more realistic encapsulation geometry are reported in Part 2.

  10. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G

    2010-01-01

    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory

  11. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  12. A problem encapsulated Б role of CT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... 1Department of Radiology, National Organ Transplant Program, Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya;. 2Department of Surgery, Central Hospital, AlFatah University of Medical Sciences, Tripoli, Libya. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare but serious complication of abdominal surgery, recurrent.

  13. Encapsulation of thermal energy storage media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhau, Jaspreet; Goswami, Dharendra; Jotshi, Chand K.; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2017-09-19

    In one embodiment, a phase change material is encapsulated by forming a phase change material pellet, coating the pellet with flexible material, heating the coated pellet to melt the phase change material, wherein the phase change materials expands and air within the pellet diffuses out through the flexible material, and cooling the coated pellet to solidify the phase change material.

  14. Encapsulation, the Curriculum, and Third World Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Elaine M.; Dhawan, Gita

    1982-01-01

    The global desire to educate the whole person is validated by interviews with Third World faculty and students concerning curriculums in India, Cameroon and Kenya to determine whether encapsulation--a partial and distorted image of external reality--is present and affects studies in their countries. (Author/CM)

  15. Stability of lipid encapsulated ferulic acid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encapsulation of bioactive compounds by a solid lipid matrix provides stability and a mechanism for controlled release in formulated products. Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and have applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a common pheno...

  16. Stability of lipid encapsulated phenolic acid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric acids are potential bioactive additives for use in animal feeds to replace current antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. These compounds are ubiquitous in plants and may be obtained from commodity grain crops and waste biomass. Encapsulation...

  17. Bioactive Compounds And Encapsulation Of Yanang ( Tiliacora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, this paper reports the design of the experimental method for optimization of Yanang encapsulation using three independent variables: the ratio of core material (Yanang), to wall material (gum Arabic), gum Arabic concentration and inlet temperature of spray drying on bioactive compounds stability. The stability ...

  18. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ca nanostructures for DNA encapsulation studies and observed a loading capacity of ∼8 μg mg−1 of the sample. On functionalizing the pores of silica with amine group, the amount of DNA loaded on the rods decreases which is due to a reduction in the pore size upon grafting of amine groups. Keywords. Surfactant; reverse ...

  19. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with ...

  20. Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saspen Case Study: Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with intradialytic parenteral nutrition. 2014;27(1). S Afr J Clin Nutr. Kriel J, BSc(Dietetics); Clinical Dietitian; Esau N, MSc(Dietetics), Clinical Dietitian. Tygerberg Academic Hospital; Department of Health. Correspondence: Janine Kriel, e-mail: ...

  1. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou; Gammelgaard, Lene; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Timothy J.

    2017-07-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error to the rms vibrational amplitudes of carbon atoms in bulk graphite. Our first-principles calculations of the phonon bands in graphene/hBN heterostructures show that the flexural acoustic phonon mode is localized predominantly in the hBN layer. Consequently, the flexural displacement of the atoms in the graphene layer is strongly suppressed when it is supported by hBN, and this effect increases when graphene is fully encapsulated.

  2. Pulsed EPR characterization of encapsulated atomic hydrogen in octasilsesquioxane cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrikas, George

    2012-03-21

    Hydrogen atoms encapsulated in molecular cages are potential candidates for quantum computing applications. They provide the simplest two-spin system where the 1s electron spin, S = 1/2, is hyperfine-coupled to the proton nuclear spin, I = 1/2, with a large isotropic hyperfine coupling (A = 1420.40575 MHz for a free atom). While hydrogen atoms can be trapped in many matrices at cryogenic temperatures, it has been found that they are exceptionally stable in octasilsesquioxane cages even at room temperature [Sasamori et al., Science, 1994, 256, 1691]. Here we present a detailed spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation study of atomic hydrogen encapsulated in Si(8)O(12)(OSiMe(2)H)(8) using X-band pulsed EPR spectroscopy. The spin-lattice relaxation times T(1) range between 1.2 s at 20 K and 41.8 μs at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate shows that for T 100 K a thermally activated process with activation energy E(a) = 753 K (523 cm(-1)) prevails. The phase memory time T(M) = 13.9 μs remains practically constant between 200 and 300 K and is determined by nuclear spin diffusion. At lower temperatures T(M) decreases by an order of magnitude and exhibits two minima at T = 140 K and T = 60 K. The temperature dependence of T(M) between 20 and 200 K is attributed to dynamic processes that average inequivalent hyperfine couplings, e.g. rotation of the methyl groups of the cage organic substituents. The hyperfine couplings of the encapsulated proton and the cage (29)Si nuclei are obtained through numerical simulations of field-swept FID-detected EPR spectra and HYSCORE experiments, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of existing phenomenological models based on the spherical harmonic oscillator and compared to those of endohedral fullerenes.

  3. Oil encapsulation techniques using alginate as encapsulating agent: applications and drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Poncelet, Denis; Rodrigues, Ramila Cristiane; Renard, Denis

    2017-12-01

    Oils are used in agriculture, nutrition, food and cosmetics; however, these substances are oxidisable and may readily lose their properties. To reduce their degradation or to mask certain undesirable aspects, one strategy consists in encapsulating the oil in inert structures (capsules). The capsules are classified according to the morphology, the number of cores and size, can be produced by several techniques: jet-cutting, vibrating jet, spray-drying, dispersion and milli-microfluidic. Among the polymers used as a membrane in the capsules, alginates are used in oil encapsulation because of their high gelling capacity, biocompatibility and low toxicity. In the presence of calcium ions, the alginate macromolecules crosslink to form a three-dimensional network called hydrogel. The oil encapsulation using alginate as encapsulating material can be carried out using technologies based on the external, internal or inverse gelation mechanisms. These capsules can found applications in areas as cosmetics, textile, foods and veterinary, for example.

  4. Polyethylene encapsulation of simulated blowdown waste for SEG treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental and Waste Technology Center is a participating subcontractor in the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) Treatability Study for Westinghouse Savannah River Co.'s Blowdown Waste. This waste will be generated at the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) and will consist of the neutralized aqueous scrubber solution from the incinerator. Since the facility is designed to burn low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes, the blowdown waste will likely be a mixed waste. Polyethylene encapsulation is an improved treatment method that has been developed at BNL over the last 10 years. Polyethylene is an inert, thermoplastic polymer with a melt temperature of 120 C. The BNL process is a modification of standard plastics extrusion technology that has been utilized successfully by the plastics industry for over 50 years. Polyethylene binder and dry waste material are fed through separate calibrated feeders to the extruder, where the materials are thoroughly mixed, heated to a molten condition, and then extruded into a suitable mold. A monolithic solid waste form results on cooling. The objective of the Phase 1 screening effort was to prepare test specimens of CIF surrogate waste encapsulated in polyethylene for leach testing using EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). BNL received aqueous CIF surrogate from SEG, pretreated the stimulant for processing, and fabricated TCLP test specimens for analysis at an independent laboratory. Laboratory and processing procedures are described in this letter report

  5. Thermoplastic encapsulation of waste surrogates by high-shear mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Patel, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a robust, extrusion-based polyethylene encapsulation process applicable to a wide range of solid and aqueous low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. However, due to the broad range of physical and chemical properties of waste materials, pretreatment of these wastes is often required to make them amenable to processing with polyethylene. As part of the scope of work identified in FY95 open-quotes Removal and Encapsulation of Heavy Metals from Ground Water,close quotes EPA SERDP No. 387, that specifies a review of potential thermoplastic processing techniques, and in order to investigate possible pretreatment alternatives, BNL conducted a vendor test of the Draiswerke Gelimat (thermokinetic) mixer on April 25, 1995 at their test facility in Mahwah, NJ. The Gelimat is a batch operated, high-shear, high-intensity fluxing mixer that is often used for mixing various materials and specifically in the plastics industry for compounding additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers

  6. Whey microbeads as a matrix for the encapsulation and immobilisation of riboflavin and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Graham J; Egan, Thelma; Jacquier, Jean Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dolores O'Riordan, E

    2014-10-01

    Whey microbeads manufactured using a cold-set gelation process, have been used to encapsulate bioactives. In this study whey microbeads were used to encapsulate riboflavin using 2 methods. Riboflavin was added to the microbead forming solution however diffusional losses of riboflavin occurred during the subsequent bead preparation. To overcome riboflavin loss, a second approach to 'load' whey microbeads by soaking in riboflavin was assessed. Significantly (p⩽0.05) higher concentrations of riboflavin were obtained in 'loaded' microbeads (361 mg/L) compared to riboflavin added to the microbead forming solution (48 mg/L). Riboflavin uptake by the microbeads was shown to be via a partition process. As partitioning is often driven by hydrophobic interactions the uptake of amino acids and peptides of varying hydrophobicities by the microbeads was examined. The % encapsulation increased with increasing molecule hydrophobicity with a maximum of 89% encapsulation. Whey microbeads are well suited to act as sorbents for encapsulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acceleration of Amide Bond Rotation by Encapsulation in the Hydrophobic Interior of a Water-Soluble Supramolecular Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-04-08

    The hydrophobic interior cavity of a self-assembled supramolecular assembly exploits the hydrophobic effect for the encapsulation of tertiary amides. Variable temperature 1H NMR experiments reveal that the free energy barrier for rotation around the C-N amide bond is lowered by up to 3.6 kcal/mol upon encapsulation. The hydrophobic cavity of the assembly is able to stabilize the less polar transition state of the amide rotation process. Carbon-13 labeling studies showed that the {sup 13}C NMR carbonyl resonance increases with temperature for the encapsulated amides which suggests that the assembly is able to favor a twisted for of the amide.

  8. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alexander H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  9. Opportunistic Relay Selection with Cooperative Macro Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a fully opportunistic relay selection scheme to study cooperative diversity in a semianalytical manner. In our framework, idle Mobile Stations (MSs are capable of being used as Relay Stations (RSs and no relaying is required if the direct path is strong. Our relay selection scheme is fully selection based: either the direct path or one of the relaying paths is selected. Macro diversity, which is often ignored in analytical works, is taken into account together with micro diversity by using a complete channel model that includes both shadow fading and fast fading effects. The stochastic geometry of the network is taken into account by having a random number of randomly located MSs. The outage probability analysis of the selection differs from the case where only fast fading is considered. Under our framework, distribution of the received power is formulated using different Channel State Information (CSI assumptions to simulate both optimistic and practical environments. The results show that the relay selection gain can be significant given a suitable amount of candidate RSs. Also, while relay selection according to incomplete CSI is diversity suboptimal compared to relay selection based on full CSI, the loss in average throughput is not too significant. This is a consequence of the dominance of geometry over fast fading.

  10. Muon astronomy with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlen, S P; Antolini, R; Auriemma, G; Baldini, A; Bam, B B; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, P; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiera, C; Cobis, A; Cormack, R; Corona, A; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Diehl, E; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Ficenec, D; Forti, C; Foti, L; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giubellino, P; Grassi, M; Green, P; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Heinz, R; Hong, J T; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Kearns, E T; Klein, S; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Lee, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Liu, G; Liu, R; Longo, M J; Ludlam, G; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta-Neri, A; Marin, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Martellotti, G; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Matteuzzi, P; Michael, D; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nutter, S L; Okada, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Parlati, S; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Petrakis, J; Petrera, S; Pignatano, N D; Pistilli, P; Predieri, F; Ramello, L; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rosa, G; Satriano, C; Satta, L; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra-Lugaresi, P; Severi, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steele, J V; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarlé, G; Togo, V; Valente, V; Verdone, G R; Walter, C W; Webb, R; Worstell, W

    1993-01-01

    Summary form only given. An all-sky survey for cosmic point sources yielding a DC excess of cosmic ray muons above the expected background has been performed using the single plus double muon events collected between June 1991 and 20 September 2000 by the streamer tube system of MACRO. A total of 45.192 million selected muons, single plus double, were collected in 60775.5 h of effective livetime. No statistically significant DC excess has been found. For selected sources we made a search for DC excesses, and upper flux limits were established; they are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Periodicity (AC) analyses have been performed for Cygnus X-3 and Hercules X-1; the AC limits are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Searches for bursts were made for CygX-3, Mrk 421, Mrk 501 and the Crab. (1 refs).

  11. Micro and Macro Causes of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Collins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The dominant emotion in violence-threatening situations is confrontational tension/fear (ct/f, which causes most violence to abort, or to be carried out inaccurately and incompetently. For violence to be successful, there must be a pathway around the barrier of ct/f. These pathways include: attacking the weak; audience-oriented staged and controlled fair fights; confrontation-avoiding remote violence; confrontation-avoiding by deception; confrontation-avoiding by absorption in technique. Successfully violent persons, on both sides of the law, are those who have developed these skilled interactional techniques. Since successful violence involves dominating the emotional attention space, only a small proportion of persons can belong to the elite which does most of each type of violence. Macro-violence, including victory and defeat in war, and in struggles of paramilitaries and social movements, is shaped by both material resources and social/emotional resources for maintaining violent organizations and forcing their opponents into organizational breakdown. Social and emotional destruction generally precedes physical destruction.

  12. Methods for macro concentration speciation (>106 M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The range of topics covered by the term 'speciation' varies from the determination of isotopic composition, through whether an element or nuclide is present and under which form, to the full identification of the molecular compound present or the isolation of species. Therefore, it is quite understandable that a rather large range of techniques may be applicable for speciation purposes and that none may be sufficient by itself to cover all purposes. We tried in this report to review on technologies available for speciation purposes in nuclear fuel cycle activities and to provide a reference document to guide researchers in choosing the most useful technique for his purposes by summarizing their characteristics. Particular attention was given to highlight the advantages and disadvantages/limitations of a given technique as well as, when suitable, expected or necessary future improvements. It was also attempted to indicate a 'recommended' application field, though this was not an easy task. In the present part, we concentrate on techniques available for macro concentration speciation with an arbitrary limit fixed around 10 -6 M. However, one should be aware that some of the techniques discussed in the present may be also applicable for lower concentration (overlap with over Partim. of the whole report) and vice-versa. Then, we consider that the scope of the present can only be achieved considering the whole parts discussed at the OECD/NEA Workshop on evaluation of speciation technology held in October 1999 at JAERI/Tokai-mura. (author)

  13. Artificial tissue sensitized with encapsulated methylene blue encapsulated by silica nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhadmeh, Ghaseb Naser; Abdul Aziz, Azlan; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of methylene blue (MB) encapsulated in silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as an application for photodynamic therapy is reported in this study. Semi-rigid tissues with optical properties similar to that of human tissues were used as sample materials to determine the applicability of MB encapsulated in SiNPs. The changes in optical properties of the tissue treated with encapsulated MB under light exposure (Intensity at 664 nm ∼11.9 mW/cm(2)) were observed. The optimal exposure time required for naked MB and MB-SiNP to destroy red blood cells (RBCs) in the artificial tissue was also determined. The comparative analysis between the results of applying naked MB and MB encapsulated in SiNPs in the treatment of artificial tissue confirmed that the encapsulated MB is 62 percent higher in efficacy than naked MB. The results established the applicability of MB encapsulated in SiNP on artificial tissue and possible application on human tissue.

  14. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 10 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 10 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  15. Thermal-Conductivity Studies of Macro-porous Polymer-Derived SiOC Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Li, Y. M.; Zheng, X. H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W.; Wu, J. Q.; Xu, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional reticular macro-porous SiOC ceramics structure, made of spherical agglomerates, has been thermally characterized using a freestanding sensor-based method. The effective thermal conductivity of the macro-porous SiOC ceramics, including the effects of voids, is found to be to at room temperature, comparable with that of alumina aerogel or carbon aerogel. These results suggest that SiOC ceramics hold great promise as a thermal insulation material for use at high temperatures. The measured results further reveal that the effective thermal conductivity is limited by the low solid-phase volume fraction for the SiOC series processed at the same conditions. For SiOC ceramics processed under different pyrolysis temperatures, the contact condition between neighboring particles in the SiOC networks is another key factor influencing the effective thermal conductivity.

  16. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  17. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE POLISH INSURANCE SECTOR ON MACRO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Treder, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The insurance sector in Poland has been developing in certain conditions of macro-economic environment. The process in which the phenomena in the insurance market takes place is determined by the speed of development of the whole economy. The dynamics of the development may be seen in the size of GDP, in the size of foreign trade and in the level of foreign investments. The macroeconomic indicators confirm the continuing economic growth. This affects the development of the market in a favoura...

  19. Method of encapsulating a phase change material with a metal oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Manoj Kumar; Jotshi, Chand K.; Stefanakos, Elias K.; Goswami, Dharendra Yogi

    2016-11-15

    Storage systems based on latent heat storage have high-energy storage density, which reduces the footprint of the system and the cost. However, phase change materials (PCMs), such as NaNO.sub.3, NaCl, KNO.sub.3, have very low thermal conductivities. To enhave the storage of PCMs, macroencapsulation of PCMs was performed using a metal oxide, such as SiO.sub.2 or a graphene-SiO.sub.2, over polyimide-coated or nickel-embedded, polyimide-coated pellets The macro encapsulation provides a self-supporting structure, enhances the heat transfer rate, and provides a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage for use in solar thermal power plants. NaNO.sub.3 was selected for thermal storage in a temperature range of 300.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. The PCM was encapsulated in a metal oxide cell using self-assembly reactions, hydrolysis, and simultaneous chemical oxidation at various temperatures.

  20. Using network metrics in soccer: a macro-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Couceiro, Micael Santos; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of a team. These metrics were organised at macro-analysis levels. The interactions between teammates were collected and then processed following the analysis levels herein announced. Overall, 577 offensive plays were analysed from five matches. The network density showed an ambiguous relationship among the team, mainly during the 2nd half. The mean values of density for all matches were 0.48 in the 1st half, 0.32 in the 2nd half and 0.34 for the whole match. The heterogeneity coefficient for the overall matches rounded to 0.47 and it was also observed that this increased in all matches in the 2nd half. The centralisation values showed that there was no 'star topology'. The results suggest that each node (i.e., each player) had nearly the same connectivity, mainly in the 1st half. Nevertheless, the values increased in the 2nd half, showing a decreasing participation of all players at the same level. Briefly, these metrics showed that it is possible to identify how players connect with each other and the kind and strength of the connections between them. In summary, it may be concluded that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches understand team's specific properties and support decision-making to improve the sports training process based on match analysis.

  1. Revolutionary Transformation in the Macro-Regional Modernities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2015), s. 79-91 ISSN 1841-0464 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : macro-regional * modernities * revolutionary transformations * intercultural * global Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Macro- and Microstructural Issues in Mazuna Lexicography1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    cf. Nyangone Assam and Mavoungou 2000). In this article the attention will mainly focus on the macro- and micro- structure of three contributions, namely Largeau (1901), Martrou (1924) and. Galley (1964). This paper implicitly works with the ...

  3. The Generalist Model: Where do the Micro and Macro Converge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari E. Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although macro issues are integral to social work, students continue to struggle with the acquisition of knowledge and skills pertaining to larger systems. Educators have developed innovative methods to integrate learning across systems of various sizes however it appears an imbalance persists. This challenge is supported by baccalaureate student responses to a social work program evaluation. Four years of data from 295 undergraduate students revealed that they felt less prepared to practice with larger, macro systems. Changes in curriculum to reflect collaboration and holism, and more research are needed to adequately provide macro learning and macro practice opportunities within the generalist model and in the context of the current socio-economic-political environment.

  4. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-08-31

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  5. Isolation and Identification of an Indigenous Probiotic Lactobacillus Strain: Its Encapsulation with Natural Branched Polysaccharids to Improve Bacterial Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiseh Sadat Foroutan; Fatemeh Tabandeh; Mahvash Khodabandeh; Naheed Mojgani; Amir Maghsoudi; Meisam Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Probiotics have to reach their site of action in certain numbers in order to exhibit positive health effects. Encapsulation has shown remarkable enhancing effects on probiotic survival in simulated gastric conditions compared to free bacteria. The purpose of this study was identification and evaluation of a potential probiotic strain using encapsulation process by new carriers in order to improve probiotic viability during in vitro simulated conditions.Material and M...

  6. pH Reversible Encapsulation of Oppositely Charged Colloids Mediated by Polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Evers, Chris H J; Kegel, Willem K

    2017-05-09

    We report the first example of reversible encapsulation of micron-sized particles by oppositely charged submicron smaller colloids. The reversibility of this encapsulation process is regulated by pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) present in solution. The competitive adsorption between the small colloids and the poly(acrylic acid) on the surface of the large colloids plays a key role in the encapsulation behavior of the system. pH offers an experimental knob to tune the electrostatic interactions between the two oppositely charged particle species via regulation of the charge density of the poly(acrylic acid). This results in an increased surface coverage of the large colloids by the smaller colloids when decreasing pH. Furthermore, the poly(acrylic acid) also acts as a steric barrier limiting the strength of the attractive forces between the oppositely charged particle species, thereby enabling detachment of the smaller colloids. Finally, based on the pH tunability of the encapsulation behavior and the ability of the small colloids to detach, reversible encapsulation is achieved by cycling pH in the presence of the PAA polyelectrolytes. The role of polyelectrolytes revealed in this work provides a new and facile strategy to control heteroaggregation behavior between oppositely charged colloids, paving the way to prepare sophisticated hierarchical assemblies.

  7. Complexation/encapsulation of green tea polyphenols in mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate micro-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier P; Ouali, Lahoussine

    2011-01-01

    We used a double-jet mixer to encapsulate water-soluble polyphenols, green tea extract (GTE), with calcium-based inorganic materials. The device mixed calcium chloride solutions with a solution of carbonate and phosphate in the presence of a GTE solution, and formed micro-particles which capture the GTE molecules. The micro-particles were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the encapsulation yield and loading of the different GTE components. We established correlations between (1) the efficiency of the GTE encapsulation and the composition of the mixed anion solutions and (2) the protonation degree of the ions and the molar ratio of calcium cations and carbonate/phosphate anions. An optimal and reproducible GTE loading of about 40% with an encapsulation yield of 65% was observed for a carbonate/phosphate molar composition of 4 : 1. In addition, our experimental results showed that the process is selective and favours the encapsulation of gallated species which form stronger complexes with calcium cations.

  8. Impact of culture conditions on β-carotene encapsulation using Yarrowia lipolytica cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Hai; Minh, Ho Thi Thu; Van Nhi, Tran Nguyen; Ngoc, Ta Thi Minh

    2017-09-01

    Yeast cell was reported as an effective natural preformed material for use in encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds. The encapsulation process was normally considered as passive transfer through cellular wall and cellular membrane. Beside solubility of hydrophobic compound in phospholipid membrane or plasmolysis, membrane characteristics of yeast cell which are differed between strains and influenced by culture conditions are main factors involving the accumulation of hydrophobic compound into yeast cell. In this study, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was used as micro-container shell to encapsulate a high hydrophobic compound - β-carotene. Yeast cell was cultured under different conditions and wet yeast biomass was incubated with β-carotene which was dissolved in soybean oil overnight. β-carotene accumulation was then extracted and evaluated by UV-VIS spectrometry. Optimization of culture condition was investigated using the Box-Behnken model. β-carotene encapsulation efficiency in Y. lipolytica was showed to be affected by both pH of medium and agitation conditions. The highest β-carotene encapsulation efficiency was optimized at 42.8 μg/g with Y. lipolytica cultured at pH 4.5, medium volume equal to 115 ml and agitation speed at 211 rpm.

  9. Defining C Preprocessor Macro Libraries with Functional Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Boldizsár Németh; Máté Karácsony; Zoltán Kelemen; Máté Tejfel

    2017-01-01

    The preprocessor of the C language provides a standard way to generate code at compile time. However, writing and understanding these macros is difficult. Lack of typing, statelessness and uncommon syntax are the main reasons of this difficulty. Haskell is a high-level purely functional language with expressive type system, algebraic data types and many useful language extensions. These suggest that Haskell code can be written and maintained easier than preprocessor macros. Functional languag...

  10. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Fa-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  11. Hybrid chip-on-board LED module with patterned encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter Anthon; Helbing, Rene; Huang, Guan

    2018-02-27

    Different wavelength conversion materials, or different concentrations of a wavelength conversion material are used to encapsulate the light emitting elements of different colors of a hybrid light emitting module. In an embodiment of this invention, second light emitting elements (170) of a particular color are encapsulated with a transparent second encapsulant (120;420;520), while first light emitting elements (160) of a different color are encapsulated with a wavelength conversion first encapsulant (110;410;510). In another embodiment of this invention, a particular second set of second and third light emitting elements (170,580) of different colors is encapsulated with a different encapsulant than another first set of first light emitting elements (160).

  12. Formulation, stabilisation and encapsulation of bacteriophage for phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Danish J; Sokolov, Ilya J; Vinner, Gurinder K; Mancuso, Francesco; Cinquerrui, Salvatore; Vladisavljevic, Goran T; Clokie, Martha R J; Garton, Natalie J; Stapley, Andrew G F; Kirpichnikova, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Against a backdrop of global antibiotic resistance and increasing awareness of the importance of the human microbiota, there has been resurgent interest in the potential use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes, known as phage therapy. A number of phage therapy phase I and II clinical trials have concluded, and shown phages don't present significant adverse safety concerns. These clinical trials used simple phage suspensions without any formulation and phage stability was of secondary concern. Phages have a limited stability in solution, and undergo a significant drop in phage titre during processing and storage which is unacceptable if phages are to become regulated pharmaceuticals, where stable dosage and well defined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are de rigueur. Animal studies have shown that the efficacy of phage therapy outcomes depend on the phage concentration (i.e. the dose) delivered at the site of infection, and their ability to target and kill bacteria, arresting bacterial growth and clearing the infection. In addition, in vitro and animal studies have shown the importance of using phage cocktails rather than single phage preparations to achieve better therapy outcomes. The in vivo reduction of phage concentration due to interactions with host antibodies or other clearance mechanisms may necessitate repeated dosing of phages, or sustained release approaches. Modelling of phage-bacterium population dynamics reinforces these points. Surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the effect of formulation on phage therapy outcomes, given the need for phage cocktails, where each phage within a cocktail may require significantly different formulation to retain a high enough infective dose. This review firstly looks at the clinical needs and challenges (informed through a review of key animal studies evaluating phage therapy) associated with treatment of acute and chronic infections and the drivers for phage encapsulation. An important driver

  13. Nano- and micro-structured assemblies for encapsulation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Hemar, Yacine

    2009-04-01

    This tutorial review provides an overview of the science of food materials and encapsulation techniques that underpin the development of delivery vehicles for functional food components, nutrients and bioactives. Examples of how the choice of materials, formulation and process affect the structure of micro- and nano-encapsulated ingredients and the release of the core are provided. The review is of relevance to chemists, material scientists, food scientists, engineers and nutritionists who are interested in addressing delivery challenges in the food and health industries.

  14. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam

    2017-07-11

    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  15. A esportivização do skate (1960-1990: relações entre o macro e o micro La deportivización del skate (1960-1990: relaciones entre lo macro y micro The sportivization of skateboarding (1960-1990: relations between the macro and the micro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Honorato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar elementos da esportivização da prática cultural skate (1960-1990, como conhecimento para o entendimento da relação entre o micro e o macro processo sócio-histórico do skate. Como fonte de pesquisa histórica para a esportivização do skate no Brasil, dimensão macro, utilizamos a Revista Tribo Skate e para a de Piracicaba/SP, dimensão micro, entrevistamos dois colaboradores a partir do método da história oral. Os resultados evidenciaram que o skate surgiu para gerar fortes tensões agradáveis, suas formas de lazer precedem as formas esportivas e, guardadas as particularidades, os seus processos macro e micro-históricos são interdependentes.El objetivo del estudio fue presentar elementos de la deportivización de la práctica cultural skate (1960-1990, como conocimiento para el entendimiento de la relación entre el micro y macro proceso socio-histórico del mismo. Como fuente de investigación histórica para la deportivización del skate en Brasil, dimensión macro, utilizamos la Revista Tribo Skate y para la de Piracicaba/SP, dimensión micro, entrevistamos dos colaboradores a partir del método de historia oral. Los resultados evidenciaron que el skate surgió para generar fuertes tensiones agradables, sus formas de ocio preceden a sus formas deportivas y, salvando las particularidades, los procesos macro y micro-históricos son interdependientes.The objective of this study is to present the elements of the sportivization of the cultural practice of skateboarding (1960-1990, as knowledge for the understanding of the relation between the micro and the macro social and historical processes of skateboarding. We used the magazine Revista Tribo Skate as source of historical research for the sportivization of skateboarding in Brazil, the macro dimension, and for the micro dimension, the city of Piracicaba/SP, where we interviewed two collaborators based on the method of oral history. The results

  16. One step effective removal of Congo Red in chitosan nanoparticles by encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Erol; Bulut, Mehmet; Metin, Ayşegül Ülkü; Çiftçi, Hakan

    2017-01-15

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared with ionotropic gelation between chitosan and tripolyphosphate for the removal of Congo Red. The production of chitosan nanoparticles and the dye removal process was carried out in one-step. The removal efficiency of Congo Red by encapsulation within chitosan from the aqueous solution and its storage stability are examined at different pH values. The influence of some parameters such as the initial dye concentration, pH value of the dye solution, electrolyte concentration, tripolyphosphate concentration, mixing time and speed on the encapsulation is examined. Congo Red removal efficiency and encapsulation capacity of chitosan nanoparticles were determined as above 98% and 5107mg Congo Red/g chitosan, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines

  18. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  19. Use of encapsulated bacteriophages to enhance farm to fork food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Malik A; Liu, Huan; Wang, Qi; Zhong, Fang; Guo, Qian; Balamurugan, Sampathkumar

    2017-09-02

    Bacteriophages have been successfully applied to control the growth of pathogens in foods and to reduce the colonization and shedding of pathogens by food animals. They are set to play a dominant role in food safety in the future. However, many food-processing operations and the microenvironments in food animals' guts inactivate phages and reduce their infectivity. Encapsulation technologies have been used successfully to protect phages against extreme environments, and have been shown to preserve their activity and enable their release in targeted environments. A number of encapsulation technologies have shown potential for use with bacteriophages. This review discusses the current state of knowledge about the use of encapsulation technologies with bacteriophages to control pathogens in foods and food animals.

  20. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  1. EXTRACELLULAR MIMETICS: A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CELL ENCAPSULATION UTILIZING HYDROGELS AND SCAFFOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vieira Grinet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro encapsulation platform utilizing hydrogels and bone matrix (BM scaffolds to investigate the effects of microenvironmental parameters on encapsulated goat mesenchymal stem cells (gMSC was presented. The base encapsulation matrix was composed of a biocompatible hydrogel formed through a photoinitiated polymerization process. Different polymer concentrations were used to compare the effects of hydrogel crosslinking density on physical properties, as well as on cell viability. The potential of BM to support the growth and differentiation of gMSC was also analyzed. Both methods were compared in order to analyze viability. Structures that better allow flow of oxygen showed more promising results, whereas BM structures require a better evaluation method for concrete results.

  2. The preparation and the sustained release of titanium dioxide hollow particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yoko; Kadota, Kazunori; Shimosaka, Atsuko; Yoshida, Mikio; Oshima, Kotaro; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of the titanium dioxide hollow particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid via sol-gel process using inkjet nozzle has been performed, and the sustained release and the effect protecting against degradation of L-ascorbic acid in the particles were investigated. The morphology of titanium dioxide particles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The sustained release and the effect protecting against degradation of L-ascorbic acid were estimated by dialysis bag method in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (pH = 7.4) as release media. The prepared titanium dioxide particles exhibited spherical porous structures. The particle size distribution of the titanium dioxide particles was uniform. The hollow titanium dioxide particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid showed the sustained release. It was also found that the degradation of L-ascorbic acid could be inhibited by encapsulating L-ascorbic acid in the titanium dioxide hollow particles.

  3. Mobile encapsulated adipose tissue (MEAT) of cows and humans: a distinct nonneoplastic entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hurt, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Mobile encapsulated adipose tissue can be found in both the subcutis and peritoneal cavity. The cutaneous lesions are more common and better described; they are usually designated as "mobile encapsulated lipoma" or "nodular-cystic fat necrosis." The clinical name of abacus tumor describes best the small marble-like nodules that often can be moved freely through the subcutaneous tissue planes. Histopathologically, the nodules are composed of a dense fibrous capsule surrounding fat that may show varying degrees of necrosis, calcification, and lipomembranous changes. The peritoneal nodules are thought to originate from detached epiploic appendices. They are described occasionally in humans but more commonly in cows. Because these bovine mobile peritoneal bodies are clinically and histopathologically identical to the nodules in human subcutaneous tissue, the authors suggest that one can better understand both processes by comparing them. Because the lesions are reactive, not neoplastic, and necrosis is not an invariable feature, the authors suggest the neutral designation of mobile encapsulated adipose tissue.

  4. Preliminary Hazards Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) systematically examines the K-Basin facilities and their supporting systems for hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) which have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. The operational activities examined are fuel encapsulation, fuel storage and cooling. Encapsulation of sludges in the basins is not examined. A team of individuals from Westinghouse produced a set of Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) tables documenting their examination of abnormal process conditions in the systems and activities examined in K-Basins. The purpose of this report is to reevaluate and update the HAZOP in the original Preliminary Hazard Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage originally developed in 1991

  5. Co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants improves the stability of protein-loaded PLGA nanoparticles upon lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Seabra, Vítor

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles, on the stability of the protein and nanoparticles upon lyophilization. Different lyoprotectants were used, namely trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol......-12%, respectively. The lyophilization process increased the colloidal stability of nanoparticles, and maintained their spherical shape and smooth surface, particularly in presence of lyoprotectants. XRPD revealed that the lyophilizates of nanoparticles with co-encapsulated lyoprotectants were amorphous, whereas...... formulations with externally added lyoprotectants, except trehalose, showed crystallinity. FTIR assessment showed that co-encapsulating lyoprotectants better preserved insulin structure upon lyophilization with a spectral area overlap of 82-87%, compared to only 72% in lyoprotectant absence. These results were...

  6. [The cell micro-encapsulation techniques and its advancement in the field of gene therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Cai, Shaohui

    2006-12-01

    It is no doubt that the gene therapy using recombinant engineering cells provides a novel approach to many refractory diseases. However, the transplant rejection from the host's immune system against heterogeneous cells has been the main handicap of its clinical application. The modern cell micro-encapsulation technique with good immune isolation makes it possible to overcome this problem and has shown potential application foreground in clinical therapies for a lot of diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Hemophiliac disease. This article reviews mainly the relative materials and techniques in processing micro-encapsulation, the host cells used to construct the recombinant genetic engineering cells and application of cell micro-encapsulation technique in the field of gene therapy.

  7. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...... in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug......-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium...

  8. Encapsulation in a sol-gel matrix of lipase from Aspergillus niger obtained by bioconversion of a novel agricultural residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiolo, Claudia; Santos, Rafaela Cristiane Andrade; Carvalho, Nayara Bezerra; Soares, Cleide Mara Faria; Lima, Alvaro Silva; de Aquino Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins

    2014-09-01

    Lipase from Aspergillus niger was obtained from the solid-state fermentation of a novel agroindustrial residue, pumpkin seed flour. The partially purified enzyme was encapsulated in a sol-gel matrix, resulting in an immobilization yield of 71.4 %. The optimum pH levels of the free and encapsulated enzymes were 4.0 and 3.0, respectively. The encapsulated enzyme showed greater thermal stability at temperatures of 45 and 60 °C than the free enzyme. The positive influence of the encapsulation process was observed on the thermal stability of the enzyme, since a longer half-life t 1/2 and lower deactivation constant were obtained with the encapsulated lipase when compared with the free lipase. Kinetic parameters were found to follow the Michaelis-Menten equation. The K m values indicated that the encapsulation process reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and the V max was about 31.3 % lower than that obtained with the free lipase. The operational stability was investigated, showing 50 % relative activity up to six cycles of reuse at pH 3.0 at 37 °C. Nevertheless, the production of lipase from agroindustrial residue associated with an efficient immobilization method, which promotes good catalytic properties of the enzyme, makes the process economically viable for future industrial applications.

  9. Concrete encapsulation for spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1981-01-01

    Concrete systems, mixtures and methods for encapsulating and storing spent nuclear fuel. Fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies is completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete having incorporated therein metallic fibers to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. The metallic fibers and the polymers can be distributed in a single concrete layer, or separate contiguous layers can be utilized for the conductivity and impermeability characteristics

  10. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  11. Development of nanostructures for encapsulation of vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Bioengenharia Vitamins are sensitive and unstable when exposed to inappropriate temperature, oxygen, light and humidity conditions. For the food industry it is important to reduce some of these limitations and being with nanosystems arise a promising solution. This work aims at the development of nanosystems for the encapsulation of riboflavin (watersoluble) and α-tocopherol (liposoluble) using biopolymer and their further characterization. For enc...

  12. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Moon, Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyangi University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of the patients with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). Thirteen patients with surgically confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were involved in this study. Because of intestinal obstruction, all patients had received operations. Among 13 patients, 12 cases had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 2 months-12 years and 4 months from (mean; 6 years and 10 months), owing to chronic renal failure and one patient had an operation due to variceal bleeding caused by liver cirrhosis. On ultrasonographic examination, all patients showed loculated ascites which were large (n=7) or small (n=6) in amount with multiple separations. The small bowel loops were tethered posteriorly perisaltic movement and covered with the thick membrane. The ultrasonographic of findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were posteriorly tethered small bowels covered with a thick membrane and loculated ascites with multiple septa. Ultrasonographic examination can detect the thin membrane covering the small bowel loops in the early phase of the disease, therefore ultrasonography would be a helpful modality to diagnose SEP early.

  14. The histone variant macroH2A is an epigenetic regulator of key developmental genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschbeck, Marcus; Uribesalgo, Iris; Wibowo, Indra

    2009-01-01

    The histone variants macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 are associated with X chromosome inactivation in female mammals. However, the physiological function of macroH2A proteins on autosomes is poorly understood. Microarray-based analysis in human male pluripotent cells uncovered occupancy of both macroH2A ...

  15. Macro and micro minerals: are frozen fruits a good source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D.S. Spada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are rich in minerals, which are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. The use of frozen fruits has greatly spread in the last years not only in the preparation of juices, but also as raw material for yogurts, candies, cookies, cakes, ice creams, and children's food. However, up to now there is no data about the mineral profile of frozen fruits. This is the first database to quantify the levels of minerals in 23 samples of frozen fruits, including the most used around the world and some native fruits from the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Considering the Dietary Reference Intakes, 100g of frozen fruits can provide 0.2 to 2.8% of macro and 2.5 to 100% of microminerals for adults (31-50 years old. Although geographical differences should be considered, these data can help to plan diets and to develop population interventions aiming to prevent chronic diseases.As frutas são ricas em minerais, sendo estes essenciais para uma grande variedade de processos metabólicos e fisiológicos no corpo humano. A utilização de frutas congeladas tem se ampliado nos últimos anos, não só na preparação de sucos, mas também como matéria-prima para iogurtes, doces, biscoitos, bolos, sorvetes e alimentos infantis. No entanto, até o momento não há dados sobre o perfil mineral de frutas congeladas. Este trabalho é o primeiro banco de dados para quantificar os níveis de minerais em 23 amostras de frutas congeladas, bastante consumidas em todo o mundo e de algumas frutas nativas da floresta amazônica, Brasil. Considerando-se as Referências de Ingestão Diárias, 100g de frutas congeladas podem fornecer 0,2-2,8% de macro e de 2,5 a 100% dos mi-crominerais para adultos (31-50 anos. Embora as diferenças geográficas devam ser consideradas, estes dados ajudam para o plano de dietas e desenvolvimento de intervenções junto à população co o objetivo de prevenir doenças crônicas.

  16. Combined micro and macro geodynamic modelling of mantle flow: methods, potentialities and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenda, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last few years, geodynamic simulations aiming at reconstructing the Earth's internal dynamics have increasingly attempted to link processes occurring at the micro (i.e., strain-induced lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of crystal aggregates) and macro scale (2D/3D mantle convection). As a major outcome, such a combined approach results in the prediction of the modelled region's elastic properties that, in turn, can be used to perform seismological synthetic experiments. By comparison with observables, the geodynamic simulations can then be considered as a good numerical analogue of specific tectonic settings, constraining their deep structure and recent tectonic evolution. In this contribution, I will discuss the recent methodologies, potentialities and current limits of combined micro- and macro-flow simulations, with particular attention to convergent margins whose dynamics and deep structure is still the object of extensive studies.

  17. Macro Photography for Reflectance Transformation Imaging: A Practical Guide to the Highlights Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI is increasingly being used for art documentation and analysis and it can be successful also for the examination of features on the order of hundreds of microns. This paper evaluates some macro scale photography methods specifically for RTI employing the Highlights method for documenting sub-millimeter details. This RTI technique consists in including one reflective sphere in the scene photographed so that the processing software can calculate for each photo the direction of the light source from its reflection on the sphere. RTI documentation can be performed also with an RTI dome, but the Highlights method is preferred because is more mobile and more affordable. This technique is demonstrated in the documentation of some prints ranging from the XV to the XX century from to the Ingels collection in Sweden. The images are here examined and discussed, showing the application of macro RTI for identifying features of prints.

  18. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  19. Food and Health Safety: a Macro-policy Approach in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Losurdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Food safety could be considered as a representative case of „market failure”. This would justify State regulatory intervention. Unfortunately, the lack of an organically policy framework is causing large loopholes specially in the quality control system which normally developed on the whole production process of value, including supply chain. The Common Agriculture Policy for 2014-2020 looks to be once again based on a partial and micro-economic approach while the growing interdependences between agriculture, industry and services are suggesting a different „macro-policy” method in theoretical, technical and political settings. An industrial macro-policy is more „holistic” than micro and sectoral one able to intervene on market in order to contribute to a stronger governance and control system of food safety and consumers choices.

  20. A macro-economic and sectoral evaluation of carbon taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callonnec, Gael; Reynes, Frederic; Yeddir-Tamsamani, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the macro-economic and sectoral impact of a carbon tax in France using the Three-ME model that combines two important features: (1) The model has a detailed industrial structure and detailed description of the French tax system, particularly the taxation applied to energy. (2) It has the main properties of the neo-Keynesian models because it takes into account the slow process adjustment of prices and quantifies. Our results show under certain conditions the possibility of a double economic and environmental dividends resulting from carbon taxation, for both the short and long term. Carbon tax. Neo-Keynesian macro-economic model. Sectoral analysis. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE / Debats et politiques' No. 120

  1. Biodegradation of phenol by free and encapsulated cells of a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Encapsulated filamentous fungus Aspergillus sp. LEBM2 showed a promising application in bioaugmentation processes, reaching maximum phenol degradation rate of 7.71 ± 0.21 mg/l.h for an initial phenol concentration of 500 mg/l. Key words: Bioremediation, bioaugmentation, immobilization, phenol, filamentous fungi.

  2. Encapsulation and solid state sequestration of gases by calix[6]arene-based molecular containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavendomme, Roy; Ajami, Daniela; Moerkerke, Steven; Wouters, Johan; Rissanen, Kari; Luhmer, Michel; Jabin, Ivan

    2017-06-13

    Two calix[6]arene-based molecular containers were synthesized in high yields. These containers can encapsulate small guests through a unique "rotating door" complexation process. The sequestration of greenhouse gases is clearly demonstrated. They can be stored in the solid state for long periods and released via dissolution of the inclusion complex.

  3. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...

  4. Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Review of Encapsulation, Safety and Thermal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been identified as potential candidates for building energy optimization by increasing the thermal mass of buildings. The increased thermal mass results in a drop in the cooling/heating loads, thus decreasing the energy demand in buildings. However, direct incorporation of PCMs into building elements undermines their structural performance, thereby posing a challenge for building integrity. In order to retain/improve building structural performance, as well as improving energy performance, micro-encapsulated PCMs are integrated into building materials. The integration of microencapsulation PCMs into building materials solves the PCM leakage problem and assures a good bond with building materials to achieve better structural performance. The aim of this article is to identify the optimum micro-encapsulation methods and materials for improving the energy, structural and safety performance of buildings. The article reviews the characteristics of micro-encapsulated PCMs relevant to building integration, focusing on safety rating, structural implications, and energy performance. The article uncovers the optimum combinations of the shell (encapsulant and core (PCM materials along with encapsulation methods by evaluating their merits and demerits.

  5. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, Dennis J.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Turner, Timothy Shawn; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Walker, Charles A.; Ho, Clifford K..; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-03-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application of LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.

  6. Granular suspension avalanches. I. Macro-viscous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancey, Christophe; Andreini, Nicolas; Epely-Chauvin, Gaël

    2013-03-01

    We experimentally studied the flow behavior of a fixed volume of granular suspension, initially contained in a reservoir and released down an inclined flume. Here "granular suspension" refers to a suspension of non-Brownian particles in a viscous fluid. Depending on the solids fraction, density mismatch, and particle size distribution, a wealth of behaviors can be observed. Here we report and interpret results obtained with granular suspensions, which consisted of neutrally buoyant particles with a solids fraction (ϕ = 0.575-0.595) close to the maximum random packing fraction (estimated at ϕm = 0.625). The particles had the same refractive index as the fluid, which made it possible to measure the velocity profiles inside the moving bulk and far from the sidewalls. Additional information such as the front position and the flow depth was also recorded. Three regimes were observed. At early times, the flow features were reminiscent of homogeneous Newtonian fluids (e.g., the same dependence of the front position on time). At later times, the free surface became more and more bumpy as fractures developed within the bulk. This fracture process ultimately gave rise to a stick-slip regime, in which the suspension moved intermittently. In this paper, we focus on the first regime referred to as the macro-viscous regime. Although the bulk flow properties looked like those of Newtonian fluids, the internal dynamics were much richer.

  7. Feasibility of metallurgical waste encapsulation in a clay formed matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhnevica, I; Kucinska, J; Sardiko, A; Mezinskis, G

    2011-01-01

    As a result of Joint Stock Company 'Liepajas Metalurgs' production process there are produced certain quantity of substances that are harmful for environment and have to be encapsulated into stable structures. Company's target is modification of these substances into products that form stable compounds in order to avoid metal release in environment. Geopolymers can be synthesized from many materials with a high concentration of aluminosilicates such as metakaolin or fly ash. Heavy metal immobilization in geopolymeric structures is not thought to be caused by physical encapsulation alone, but also through adsorption of the metal ions into the geopolymer structure and possibly even bonding of the metal ions into the structure. All samples have been analyzed with X-Ray, FTIR spectroscopy; chemical analysis and compressive strength tests have been performed. Chemical analysis of geopolymeric samples shows that the main component leached from samples during the boiling in water is Na 2 O that can be explained by more alkaline components nature – Na 2 SiO 3 , NaOH, and SO 3 . Fe 2 O 3 and ZnO are not detected in water extracts at all samples.

  8. Technological Challenges for Spray Chilling Encapsulation of Functional Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray chilling technology (also known as spray cooling and spray congealing technology has been widely studied and used in the pharmaceutical field. In the food industry, this technique is gaining interest and can become useful because functional food formulations can be developed. Spray chilling is a fat-based system, which involves the addition of the component of interest to a molten lipid carrier, and the resulting mixture is fed through an atomiser nozzle. When the nebulised material is put into contact with the environment, which is cooled below the melting point of the matrix material, the vehicle solidifies (due to heat exchange between the molten material and cold air, and solid lipid microparticles are formed at the same time. This technology is fat based, and lipid carriers, such as wax and oil (e.g. palm oil, beeswax, cocoa butter, and kernel oil can be used. This encapsulation technique can potentially change the functionality, reduce the hygroscopicity, mask taste or odour, change solubility, and provide physical protection in addition to allowing the controlled release of these ingredients. This low-cost technology is relatively simple to apply and scale up, and it does not require the use of organic solvents and the application of high temperatures in the process. Therefore, spray chilling encapsulation may facilitate the development and production of functional and enriched foods as it may solve some technological problems associated with the use of certain ingredients, such as those that have high reactivity and low stability.

  9. Chitosan microbeads for encapsulation of thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifković, Kata T; Milašinović, Nikola Z; Djordjević, Verica B; Krušić, Melina T Kalagasidis; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D; Nedović, Viktor A; Bugarski, Branko M

    2014-10-13

    In this work chitosan microbeads were prepared by emulsion technique and loaded with thyme polyphenols by diffusion from an external aqueous solution of Thymus serpyllum L. The effects of concentrations of chitosan (1.5-3% (w/v)) and GA (glutaraldehyde) (0.1-0.4% (v/v)), as a crosslinking agent on the main properties of microbeads were assessed. The obtained microgel beads from ∼ 220 to ∼ 790 μm in diameter were exposed to controlled drying process at air (at 37 °C) after which they contracted to irregular shapes (∼ 70-230 μm). The loading of dried microbeads with polyphenols was achieved by swelling in the acidic medium. The swelling rate of microbeads decreased with the increase in GA concentration. Upon this rehydration, thyme polyphenols were effectively encapsulated (active load of 66-114 mg GAE g(beads)(-1)) and the microbeads recovered a spherical shape. Both, the increase in the amount of the crosslinking agent and the presence of polyphenols, contributed to a more pronounced surface roughness of microbeads. The release of encapsulated polyphenols in simulated gastrointestinal fluids was prolonged to 3h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Encapsulation of ILW raffinate in the Dounreay cementation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Dounreay Cementation Plant has been designed and constructed to encapsulate the first cycle liquid raffinate arising from the reprocessing of irradiated Research Reactor fuel into a cementitious matrix. The acidic liquid waste is conditioned with sodium hydroxide prior to mixing with the cement powders (a 9:1 ratio of Blast Furnace Slag / Ordinary Portland Cement with 5% Lime). The complete cement mixing process is performed within the 500-liter drum, which provides the waste package primary containment. The plant has recently been commissioned and has commenced routine operation, processing stocks of existing raffinate that has been stored at Dounreay for up to 30 years. The waste loading per drum has been optimised within the constraints of the chemical composition of the raffinate, with an expected plant throughput of 2.5 m 3 /week. (author)

  11. Automating the Fireshed Assessment Process with ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ager; Klaus Barber

    2006-01-01

    A library of macros was developed to automate the Fireshed process within ArcGIS. The macros link a number of vegetation simulation and wildfire behavior models (FVS, SVS, FARSITE, and FlamMap) with ESRI geodatabases, desktop software (Access, Excel), and ArcGIS. The macros provide for (1) an interactive linkage between digital imagery, vegetation data, FVS-FFE, and...

  12. Development, testing, and demonstration of geotechnical and cement-based encapsulant materials for the stabilization of radioactive and hazardous waste disposal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Cammann, J.W.; Benny, H.L.; Serne, R.J.; Martin, P.F.; Ames, L.L.

    1991-09-01

    A zeolite fluidized-bed treatment system is being developed and tested for the treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste-contaminated subsurface disposal structures. Formulations of cement, fly ash, and slag slurries and sequestering agents also are being tested and evaluated. Leach resistance of radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous inorganic compounds in the solidified cement-based encapsulant has been determined. These results simulate the resistance to water leaching of the solidified product after it has been injected an open and interstitial void volume in and proximal to liquid waste disposal structures. Micro- and macro-encapsulation of contaminants within and geologic media surrounding subsurface disposal structures is being demonstrated as an alternative technology for waste site remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Evaluation of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole encapsulated biomimetic nanomatrix gel onEnterococcus faecalisandTreponema denticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sagar N; Scoffield, Jessica; Andukuri, Adinarayana; Alexander, Grant C; Walker, Taneidra; Kim, Seokgon; Choi, Sung Chul; Brott, Brigitta C; Eleazer, Paul D; Lee, Jin-Yong; Wu, Hui; Childers, Noel K; Jun, Ho-Wook; Park, Jae-Hong; Cheon, Kyounga

    2015-06-01

    A triple antibiotic mixture (ciprofloxacin; CF, metronidazole; MN, and minocycline; MC) has been used for dental root canal medicaments in pulp regeneration therapy. However, tooth discolorations, cervical root fractures, and inadequate pulp-dentin formation have been reported due to the triple antibiotic regimen. Therefore, an antibiotic encapsulated biomimetic nanomatrix gel was developed to minimize the clinical limitations and maximize a natural healing process in root canal infections. In this study, minimal bacterial concentrations (MBC) of the selected antibiotics (CF and MN) were tested in 14 representative endodontic bacterial species. Then MBC of each CF and MN were separately encapsulated within the injectable self-assembled biomimetic nanomatrix gel to evaluate antibacterial level on Enterococcus faecalis and Treponema denticola . Antibiotic concentrations lower than 0.2 µg/mL of CF and MN demonstrated antibacterial activity on the 14 endodontic species. Furthermore, 6 different concentrations of CF and MN separately encapsulated with the injectable self-assembled biomimetic nanomatrix gel demonstrated antibacterial activity on Enterococcus faecalis and Treponema denticola at the lowest tested concentration of 0.0625 µg/mL. These results suggest that each CF and MN encapsulated within the injectable self-assembled biomimetic nanomatrix gel demonstrated antibacterial effects, which could be effective for the root canal disinfection while eliminating MC. In the long term, the antibiotic encapsulated injectable self-assembled biomimetic nanomatrix gel can provide a multifunctional antibiotic delivery method with potential root regeneration. Further studies are currently underway to evaluate the effects of combined CF and MN encapsulated within the injectable self-assembled biomimetic nanomatrix gel on clinical samples.

  14. Performance evaluation of macro lens in digital close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2009-08-01

    Recently, the documentation and visualization of various cultural heritages have been receiving attention, and a small Buddha such as less than 10 cm tall which was stored in the womb of Buddha is also included in cultural heritages. Zoom lenses are generally used to document these small objects and thus conserve the cultural heritage. However, there exist certain issues pertaining to the use of zoom lenses for such digital documentation. These issues include image sharpness and distortions that occur with changes in focal length setting, and in particular, the depth of field is issue from application standpoint such as documentation of the small cultural heritage. On the other hand, macro lenses can be used to capture sharp images of small objects from the view point of working distance, and its depth of field is related to the aperture of the camera. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of macro lenses in digital close range photogrammetry, macro lens and zoom lens were mounted on a digital single lens reflex camera (Canon EOS20D, 8.2 Mega pixels). This paper deals in a first part with comparative evaluations for both lenses with respect to their lens distortion, imaging mode, and calibration aspects. The results indicated that macro lenses were more suitable for digital close range photogrammetry. Calibration tests are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of macro lens in close range photogrammetic applications.

  15. Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pala, S.A.; Wana, A.H.; Boda, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

  16. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  17. Performance of macro clay on the porous asphalt mixture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, C. M.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Haryati, Y.; Norhidayah, A. H.; Abdullah, M. E.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt pavement already well known as one type of pavement since many decades, however due to lack in strength it is not been widely used in road construction especially in high stresses areas. Many research had been conducted by researchers in order to improve the durability and increase the service life of the road. One of the methods that commonly used is through asphalt modification. Objectives of this study are to discuss influence of macro-clay in terms of physical and rheological properties and their effect on performance of porous asphalt mixture. Various percentage of macro-clay (starting from 2% to 8%) was blended in an asphalt binder and compacted using the Marshall compactor. The blended asphalt was characterized using penetration, softening point test and penetration index compared with unmodified binder. Performance tests of asphalt mixture were carried out such as Los Angeles Abrasion Value (LAAV) and Stability and Flow test in order to determine the strength and durability. The results show that the addition of macro-clay would increase in softening point but decrease in binder penetration. Based on the results, while macro-clay changes physical and rheological properties of bitumen and increase stiffness, it also improves strength and durability resistance, as well. Generally, the best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 4% of macro-clay.

  18. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  19. Development and validation of logistic prognostic models by predefined SAS-macros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler, Christoph

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In medical decision making about therapies or diagnostic procedures in the treatment of patients the prognoses of the course or of the magnitude of diseases plays a relevant role. Beside of the subjective attitude of the clinician mathematical models can help in providing such prognoses. Such models are mostly multivariate regression models. In the case of a dichotomous outcome the logistic model will be applied as the standard model. In this paper we will describe SAS-macros for the development of such a model, for examination of the prognostic performance, and for model validation. The rational for this developmental approach of a prognostic modelling and the description of the macros can only given briefly in this paper. Much more details are given in. These 14 SAS-macros are a tool for setting up the whole process of deriving a prognostic model. Especially the possibility of validating the model by a standardized software tool gives an opportunity, which is not used in general in published prognostic models. Therefore, this can help to develop new models with good prognostic performance for use in medical applications.

  20. Impacts of macro - and microplastic on macrozoobenthos abundance in intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangun, A. P.; Wahyuningsih, H.; Muhtadi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Plastics pollution in coastal areas is one of the topics that have received more attention over the past few years. The intertidal zone is a waters area that is directly affected by contamination of plastic waste from land and sea. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types and abundance of plastic waste in the intertidal zone and its impact on macrozoobenthos abundance. This research was conducted at Pesisir Desa Jaring Halus in February-April 2017. Macrozoobenthos and macro - micro plastic were collected by using quadratic transect. Sediments were collected with a core, to a depth of 30 cm. Microplastic and macroplastic abundances were analyzed using separation of sediment density and hand sorting. The dominant micro plastic types were film (52.30%), fiber (24.88%), fragments (22.74%), followed by pellets (0.1%). The total number of microplastics were 326,33 items and macro plastic were 308 items. Macroplastic abundance is positively correlated with microplastic (0.765). The abundance of macrozoobenthos is negatively correlated with microplastic abundance (-0.368) and with macro plastic abundance (-0.633). The management strategies were suggested clean up marine debris, decrease plastic using and built up the station of debris processing.

  1. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Wene, C.O.

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ''top-down macroeconomic'' and ''bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization

  2. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. Hydrogels for in situ encapsulation of biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibragimova, Sania; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic, porous polymer networks that can absorb up to thousands of times their own weight in water. They have many potential applications, one of which is the encapsulation of freestanding black lipid membranes (BLMs) for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications....... membranes retained their integrity and functionality after encapsulation with hydrogel. Our results show that hydrogel encapsulation is a potential means to provide stability for biomimetic devices based on functional proteins reconstituted in biomimetic membrane arrays....

  4. Investigations into encapsulation of intermediate level wastes containing organic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.

    1988-01-01

    A product evaluation programme was set up to investigate the properties of a variety of matrix-waste formulations prior to their encapsulation. The waste/matrix forms were defined and characterised and waste pretreatments studied. Potential encapsulation matrices were investigated for their suitability for individual waste streams. The physical, chemical and thermal properties, radiation stability and leaching behaviour of the formulations were studied. Operational and design limits for the encapsulation plant were defined. (U.K.)

  5. Spin transport studies in encapsulated CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Ahmet; You Tan, Jun; Ho, Yuda; Koon, Gavin; Oezyilmaz, Barbaros

    2013-03-01

    Spin transport studies in exfoliated graphene on SiO2/Si substrates have shown spin relaxation times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the theoretical predictions. Similar to the charge transport case, the underlying substrate is expected to be the limiting factor. The recent work Zomer, P. J. et al. shows that spin transport over lengths up to 20um is possible in high mobility exfoliated graphene devices on boron nitride (BN) substrates. Here we discuss our initial attempts to repeat such spin transport experiments with CVD graphene on BN substrates. The effect of encapsulation of such devices with an extra BN layer will be also discussed.

  6. Method of encapsulating waste radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.A.; Rootham, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    When encapsulating radioactive waste including radioactive liquid having a retardant therein which retards the setting of cements by preventing hydration at cement particles in the mix, the liquid is mixed with ordinary Portland cement and subjected, in a high shear mixer, to long term shear far in excess of that needed to form ordinary grout. The controlled utilization of the retardants plus shear produces a thixotropic paste with extreme moldability which will not bleed, and finally sets more rapidly than can be expected with normal cement mixtures forming a very strong product. (author)

  7. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  8. Stabilization and encapsulation of magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawni, Issmat Al; Garcia, Ricardo; Youssef, Sami; Abboud, Maher; Podlecki, Jean; Habchi, Roland

    2016-12-01

    The goal is to stabilize magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) in order to prepare them for encapsulation and to obtain a core-shell structure. Magnetite NPs were obtained by a co-precipitation method and then treated with different stabilizing agents in order to get a full dispersion in an aqueous medium. The dispersed particles were then coated with silica using a TEOS solution. The samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, TEM, EDX analysis, and FTIR measurements. The particles are the basis of a core-shell structure where a potential polymer or drug could be anchored on the surface.

  9. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  11. Methods for improving the lifetime performance of organic photovoltaics with low-costing encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Myrsini; Drakonakis, Vasileios M; Savva, Achilleas; Eleftheriou, Polyvios; Florides, Georgios; Choulis, Stelios A

    2015-04-27

    Recent years have seen considerable advances in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), most notably a significant increase in their efficiency, from around 4 % to over 10 %. The stability of these devices, however, continues to remain an issue that needs to be resolved to enable their commercialization. This review discusses the main degradation processes of OPVs and recent methods that help to increase device stability and lifetime. One of the most effective steps that can be taken to increase the lifetime of OPVs is their encapsulation, which protects them from atmospheric degradation. Efficient encapsulation is essential for long-term device performance, but it is equally important for the commercialization of OPVs to strike a balance between achieving the maximum device protection possible and using low-cost processing for their encapsulation. Various encapsulation techniques are discussed herein, with emphasis on their cost effectiveness and their overall suitability for commercial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. MORTRAN-2, FORTRAN Language Extension with User-Supplied Macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A. James; Shustek, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: MORTRAN2 is a FORTRAN language extension that permits a relatively easy transition from FORTRAN to a more convenient and structured language. Its features include free-field format; alphanumeric statement labels; flexible comment convention; nested block structure; for-by-to, do, while, until, loop, if-then-else, if-else, exit, and next statements; multiple assignment statements; conditional compilation; and automatic listing indentation. The language is implemented by a macro-based pre-processor and is further extensible by user-defined macros. 2 - Method of solution: The MORTRAN2 pre-processor may be regarded as a compiler whose object code is ANSI Standard FORTRAN. The MORTRAN2 language is dynamically defined by macros which are input at each use of the pre-processor. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The pre-processor output must be accepted by a FORTRAN compiler

  13. A Macro for Reusing Abstract Functions and Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J. C. Joosten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though the ACL2 logic is first order, the ACL2 system offers several mechanisms providing users with some operations akin to higher order logic ones. In this paper, we propose a macro, named instance-of-defspec, to ease the reuse of abstract functions and facts proven about them. Defspec is an ACL2 book allowing users to define constrained functions and their associated properties. It contains macros facilitating the definition of such abstract specifications and instances thereof. Currently, lemmas and theorems derived from these abstract functions are not automatically instantiated. This is exactly the purpose of our new macro. instance-of-defspec will not only instantiate functions and theorems within a specification but also many more functions and theorems built on top of the specification. As a working example, we describe various fold functions over monoids, which we gradually built from arbitrary functions.

  14. Noninvasive encapsulated fiber optic probes for interferometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboril, O.; Cubik, J.; Kepak, S.; Nedoma, J.; Fajkus, M.; Zavodny, P.; Vasinek, V.

    2017-10-01

    This article focuses on the sensitivity of encapsulated interferometric probes. These probes are used mainly for BioMed and security applications. Fiber-optic sensors are interesting for these applications, as they are resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and that also do not affect the surrounding medical and security equipment. Using a loop of the optical fiber with is not a suitable for these measurements. The optical fiber should be fixed to one position, and should not significantly bend. For these reasons, the optical fiber is encapsulated. Furthermore, it is necessary that the encapsulated measuring probes were flexible, inert, water resistant and not toxic. Fiber-optic sensors shouldn't be magnetically active, so they can be used for example, in magnetic resonance environments (MR). Probes meeting these requirements can be widely used in health care and security applications. Encapsulation of interferometric measuring arm brings changes in susceptibility of measurements in comparison with the optical fiber without encapsulation. To evaluate the properties of the encapsulated probes, series of probes made from different materials for encapsulation was generated, using two types of optical fibers with various degrees of protection. Comparison of the sensitivity of different encapsulated probes was performed using a series of measurements at various frequencies. The measurement results are statistically compared in the article and commented. Given the desired properties polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer has been proven the most interesting encapsulating material for further research.

  15. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María G; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  16. Elementary study on encapsulation reliability of radioisotope battery prototype based on 63Ni Radio-Voltaic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Zhang Huaming; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi

    2012-01-01

    For isotope battery application, it is necessary to encapsulate in a certain method. After having accomplished selection of material composing and proportion, procedure and encapsulating process based on GD3217Y detector, the different types of device come from untouched, loaded by slip of stainless steel with or without 63 Ni isotope were encapsulated respectively. Despite necessary reliability of package was evaluated in the previous work, in view of specialty due to the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into device, the reliability issue must be further taken into account for actual application. Hence, we emphasize on the comparison about electrical capability of types of devices under the different situations, namely, before and after encapsulation, the natural aging and artificial accelerated aging. The results of the comparison indicate that the adoption of the method of the encapsulation supplies effectively stable electrical capability at the condition of ensuring safety of radioactive source besides improving environmental adaptability for device. Further, it offers technological support for the encapsulation of radioisotope battery based on β radio-voltaic effect. (authors)

  17. Influence of the degree of inulin polymerization on the ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Keven; Meireles, M Angela A

    2015-11-20

    The effect of the degree of polymerization (DP) of inulin was evaluated on its encapsulant characteristics. We assessed the influence of the average inulin DP (DP ≥10 and DP ≥23) in the ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil using the freeze-drying technique for particle formation. The intensification of the homogenization process with ultrasound did not improve the characteristics of the emulsions due to the physicochemical limitations of the inulin molecular chain (molecules do not exhibit surface activity). The particle morphology, oil entrapment efficiency, encapsulation efficiency, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and Rancimat analyses proved the effectiveness of inulin as a wall material. The properties influenced by the DP were the surface oil, encapsulation efficiency, water activity, particle size and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil because the highest DP promoted the formation of microparticles with lower surface oil content, greater encapsulation efficiency, low water activity, larger size and greater protection against oil oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical optimization of bambara groundnut protein isolate-alginate matrix systems on survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyanat Kaewiad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation may protect viable probiotic cells. This study aims at the evaluation of a bambara groundnut protein isolate (BGPI-alginate matrix designed for encapsulating a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The response surface methodology was employed to gain the optimal concentrations of BGPI and alginate on encapsulation efficiency and survival of encapsulated cells. The capsules were prepared at the optimal combination by the traditional extrusion method composed of 8.66% w/v BGPI and 1.85% w/v alginate. The encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%, whereas the survival rates in an acidic condition and after the freeze-drying process were 95.56% and 95.20%, respectively—higher than those using either BGPI or alginate as the encapsulating agent individually. The designed capsules increased the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG survival relative to free cells in a simulated gastric fluid by 5.00 log cfu/ml after 3 h and in a simulated intestinal fluid by 8.06 log cfu/ml after 4 h. The shelf-life studies of the capsules over 6 months at 4 °C and 30 °C indicated that the remaining number of viable cells in a BGPI-alginate capsule was significantly higher than that of free cells in both temperatures. It was demonstrated that the BGPI-alginate capsule could be utilized as a new probiotic carrier for enhanced gastrointestinal transit and storage applied in food and/or pharmaceutical products.

  19. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  20. Cryopreservation of 'Nabali' olive (Olea europea l.) somatic embryos by encapsulation-dehydration and encapsulation-vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibli, R A; Al-Juboory, K H

    2000-01-01

    Olive (Olea europea L.) somatic embryos were successfully cryopreserved using encapsulation-dehydration and encapsulation-vitrification. In the encapsulation-dehydration procedure, a maximum of 48% embryo survival was obtained when bead moisture content was decreased to 21.1% after 4 h dehydration. Preculture of embryos for 4 d in medium containing 0.75 to 1.25 M sucrose produced higher (40 to 34 %, respectively) regrowth after cryopreservation using encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Dehydration of beads for 3 h in PVS2 ensured higher survival (64%) of encapsulated-vitrified and cryopreserved (EVN) somatic embryos. Thermal treatment of embryogenic callus for 1 d at 30 degree C was very effective to increase survival of encapsulated-dehydrated and cryopreserved (EDN) (58%) and EVN (68%) embryos. Plantlets produced from control and cryopreserved embryos were phenotypically similar.

  1. Thermal degradation kinetics of phycocyanin encapsulation as an antioxidant agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilamsari, A. M.; Yunanda, A.; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a blue-light pigment that found in Cyanobacteria and two Eukaryotics algae such as Rhodophyta and Crytophyta. Phycocyanin is soluble in water and has a strong fluorescent properties as an antioxidant and normally used in food industry, cosmetic, biotechnology, and drug. However, Phycocyanin is easily damaged by a heating process. The aim of this study is to obtain the optimal condition of phycocyanin encapsulation with different coating materials, Chitosan and Carrageenan, by the calculation of heat resistance of antioxidant activity (D), range of temperature that increase the rate of degradation (Z), rate constant of degradation (k), and activation energy (Ea). The ratio of phycocyanin and the coating material are 2% (w/v) and 2 % (w/v).

  2. Encapsulated boron as an osteoinductive agent for bone scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Tunçay, Ekin Ö; Kaynak, Gökçe; Demirtaş, Tolga T; Aydın, Seda Tığlı; Hakkı, Sema S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop boron (B)-releasing polymeric scaffold to promote regeneration of bone tissue. Boric acid-doped chitosan nanoparticles with a diameter of approx. 175 nm were produced by tripolyphosphate (TPP)-initiated ionic gelation process. The nanoparticles strongly attached via electrostatic interactions into chitosan scaffolds produced by freeze-drying with approx. 100 μm pore diameter. According to the ICP-OES results, following first 5h initial burst release, fast release of B from scaffolds was observed for 24h incubation period in conditioned medium. Then, slow release of B was performed over 120 h. The results of the cell culture studies proved that the encapsulated boron within the scaffolds can be used as an osteoinductive agent by showing its positive effects on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Soluto-capillary convection in micro-encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, P.; Zebib, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by micro-encapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluoro-benzene, FB) and a solute (polystyrene, PAMS) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number soluto-capillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made. (authors)

  4. El debate micro-macro: dilemas y contextos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Salles

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the general terms of the sociological debate on the micro macro question. Not only the main trends organizing the debate are examined, but also some ways to solve the dichotomies present in some proposals. It is held that contemporary theoretical practice produces —after the classics and with different focuses— a reflexivecorpus and research practices rooted in the blurring of the micro macro as polar questions, by the way of offering integrating proposals and overcoming reducing positions.

  5. Trivariate Local Lagrange Interpolation and Macro Elements of Arbitrary Smoothness

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, Michael Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Michael A. Matt constructs two trivariate local Lagrange interpolation methods which yield optimal approximation order and Cr macro-elements based on the Alfeld and the Worsey-Farin split of a tetrahedral partition. The first interpolation method is based on cubic C1 splines over type-4 cube partitions, for which numerical tests are given. The second is the first trivariate Lagrange interpolation method using C2 splines. It is based on arbitrary tetrahedral partitions using splines of degree nine. The author constructs trivariate macro-elements based on the Alfeld split, where each tetrahedron

  6. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients...... was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1 257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans...

  7. Effecting Organizational Change at the Macro Level of Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert Anthony

    Much has been written in academic and popular publications about organizational change. Topics have ranged from case studies to anecdotal stories of how leaders can change an organization. There is little written on changing the culture and vision of a profession at the macro level. This dissertation shows that one key to effecting change within a profession is to educate those at the entrant level and thereby effect change with the profession. Over time, these new entrants to the profession will rise to senior positions and be able to effect greater change through the hiring, training, and mentoring processes inherent in the professions and the organizations for which they work. One way to effect change in these entrants is through education in college and professional schools. This study is specifically focused on effecting change in the interdisciplinary field of engineering and public policy. Public policy involves countless infrastructure issues at all levels of government. Engineers are well-versed in dealing with the technical issues of infrastructure but their voice is often lacking at the policy level. Similarly, political scientists are well-versed in policy but are often lacking in a thorough understanding of the technical aspects of the policy. Through an introductory course in engineering and public policy, undergraduate students from the seemingly disparate fields of engineering and political science were placed in a common classroom and through lectures, writings, presentations, and guided discussions their attitudes on key areas were changed. Areas studied were professional interest, legitimacy, deference, the public policy process, and education outside of a specific field. Through the process of education, changes in each of these areas was possible. Further, the movement was towards making students in each discipline more open to the input, opinions, and attitudes of others, and specifically in shifting engineers toward a more positive view of

  8. Encapsulation of Nicardipine Hydrochloride and Release from Biodegradable Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid Microparticles by Double Emulsion Process: Effect of Emulsion Stability and Different Parameters on Drug Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopparuj Soomherun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA is an important material used in drug delivery when controlled release is required. The purpose of this research is to design and characterize PLGA microparticles (PLGA MPs implants for the controlled release of nicardipine hydrochloride (NCH in vitro. This study used the water-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/w2 double emulsion and solvent diffusion/evaporation approach to prepare PLGA MPs. Optimal processing conditions were found, such as polymer content, surfactant type, stabilizer concentration, inner and outer aqueous phase volumes, and stirring speed. The PLGA MPs for use as nicardipine hydrochloride (NCH loading and release had spherical morphology, and the average diameter was smaller than 5.20±0.25 μm. The release kinetics were modeled to elucidate the possible mechanism of drug release. In vitro release studies indicated that the NCH release rate is slow and continuous. PLGA MPs are an interesting alternative drug delivery system, especially for use with NCH for biomedical applications.

  9. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  10. Stabilization of reactive species by supramolecular encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Albano; Ballester, Pablo

    2016-03-21

    Molecular containers have attracted the interest of supramolecular chemists since the early beginnings of the field. Cavitands' inner cavities were quickly exploited by Cram and Warmuth to construct covalent containers able to stabilize and assist the characterization of short-lived reactive species such as cyclobutadiene or o-benzyne. Since then, more complex molecular architectures have been prepared able to store and isolate a myriad of fleeting species (i.e. organometallic compounds, cationic species, radical initiators…). In this review we cover selected examples of the stabilization of reactive species by encapsulation in molecular containers from the first reports of covalent containers described by Cram et al. to the most recent examples of containers with self-assembled structure (metal coordination cages and hydrogen bonded capsules). Finally, we briefly review examples reported by Rebek et al. in which elusive reaction intermediates could be detected in the inner cavities of self-folding resorcin[4]arene cavitands by the formation of covalent host-guest complexes. The utilization of encapsulated reactive species in catalysis or synthesis is not covered.

  11. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  12. An Interpretation of Fluctuating Macro Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Leeper; Troy Davig

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates simple regime-switching rules for monetary policy and tax policy over the post-war period in the United States and imposes the estimated policy process on a standard dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with nominal rigidities. The estimated joint policy process produces a unique stationary rational expectations equilibrium in a simple New Keynesian model. We characterize policy impacts across regimes

  13. Silver nanowires network encapsulated by low temperature sol-gel ZnO for transparent flexible electrodes with ambient stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Wonjung; Cho, Wonki; Baik, Seung Jae

    2018-01-01

    As a geometrically engineered realization of transparent electrode, Ag nanowires network is promising for its superior characteristics both on electrical conductivity and optical transmittance. However, for a potential commercialization of Ag nanowires network, further investigations on encapsulation materials are necessary to prevent degradation caused by ambient aging. In addition, the temperature range of the coating process for the encapsulation material needs to be low enough to prevent degradation of polymer substrates during the film coating processes, when considering emerging flexible device application of transparent electrodes. We present experimental results showing that low temperature sol-gel ZnO processed under 130 °C is an effective encapsulation material preventing ambient oxidation of Ag nanowires network without degrading electrical, optical, and mechanical properties.

  14. Long-term mechanical properties of smart cable based on FBG desensitized encapsulation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Zhou, Min

    2014-09-01

    In order to ensure the testing range and long-term reliability of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) used for the smart cable, a smart cable embedded with FBG strain sensors based on the desensitized encapsulation structure was designed. For a smart cable specimen, the fatigue loading experiments with the cycle from 100 thousands to 2 million and 0.95 times nominal breaking cable force ( P b ) were carried out, which tested the long-serving effects of the smart cable. The test results of the static tension loading and unloading during the stepwise fatigue cycle process showed that the encapsulated FBG strain sensors had the good linearity and repeatability. Also all sensors survived after 2 million times fatigue cycle. 0.95 P b static tension test showed that the encapsulated FBG strain sensors embedded inside the cable reached 4.5% testing accuracy in the 0.86 P b working range. After 0.95 P b static tension test, the dissection test was carried out by breaking the force tension. The results showed that the appearances of the encapsulated sensors were good, and the design structures were not changed and damaged.

  15. Effects of dissolving microneedle fabrication parameters on the activity of encapsulated lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraei Lahiji, Shayan; Jang, Yoojung; Ma, Yonghao; Dangol, Manita; Yang, Huisuk; Jang, Mingyu; Jung, Hyungil

    2018-05-30

    Dissolving microneedle (DMN) is referred to a microscale needle that encapsulates drug(s) within a biodegradable polymer matrix and delivers it into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. Although vast majority of studies have emphasized DMN as an efficient drug delivery system, the activity of DMN-encapsulated proteins or antigens can be significantly affected due to a series of thermal, physical and chemical stress factors during DMN fabrication process and storage period. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of DMN fabrication parameters including polymer type, polymer concentration, fabrication and storage temperature, and drying conditions on the activity of the encapsulated therapeutic proteins by employing lysozyme (LYS) as a model protein. Our results indicate that a combination of low temperature fabrication, mild drying condition, specific polymer concentration, and addition of protein stabilizer can maintain the activity of encapsulated LYS up to 99.8 ± 3.8%. Overall, findings of this study highlight the importance of optimizing DMN fabrication parameters and paves way for the commercialization of an efficient delivery system for therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. First-principles calculations of the indigo encapsulation and adsorption by MgO nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ochoa, F.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Canto, Gabriel I.; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2014-06-01

    We have performed ab-initio calculations to investigate the structural and electronic properties of (m,m) chiral magnesium oxide nanotubes, (m,m)MgONTs, to explore the encapsulation, inclusion, and adsorption of dyes (organic molecules) such as Indigo (IND). Studies start by determining the structural parameters of the MgO nanotubes with different diameters and the IND. The indigo encapsulation into the MgONT is studied considering four (m,m) chiralities which yield 4 different NT diameters. In the endohedral functionalization, the indigo is within the NT at a tilt angle as in previous theoretical studies of organic molecules inside carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes. Results show that the encapsulation is a strong exothermic process with the m = 6 case exhibiting the largest encapsulation energy. It is also explored the indigo adsorption on the NT surface in the parallel and perpendicular configurations. The perpendicular configuration of the IND adsorption on the (8,8)MgONT exhibits the largest energy. The indigo inclusion within the NTs meets a potential barrier when m < 6, however this barrier diminishes as the index increases. Additionally, we have determined the total density of states (DOS), partial DOS, electron charge redistributions, and the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels for the NTs with m = 6. Very strong binding energies and electron charge transfer from the IND to NTs is present in the atomic structures.

  17. First-principles calculations of the indigo encapsulation and adsorption by MgO nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Ochoa, F.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Canto, Gabriel I.; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    We have performed ab-initio calculations to investigate the structural and electronic properties of (m,m) chiral magnesium oxide nanotubes, (m,m)MgONTs, to explore the encapsulation, inclusion, and adsorption of dyes (organic molecules) such as Indigo (IND). Studies start by determining the structural parameters of the MgO nanotubes with different diameters and the IND. The indigo encapsulation into the MgONT is studied considering four (m,m) chiralities which yield 4 different NT diameters. In the endohedral functionalization, the indigo is within the NT at a tilt angle as in previous theoretical studies of organic molecules inside carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes. Results show that the encapsulation is a strong exothermic process with the m = 6 case exhibiting the largest encapsulation energy. It is also explored the indigo adsorption on the NT surface in the parallel and perpendicular configurations. The perpendicular configuration of the IND adsorption on the (8,8)MgONT exhibits the largest energy. The indigo inclusion within the NTs meets a potential barrier when m < 6, however this barrier diminishes as the index increases. Additionally, we have determined the total density of states (DOS), partial DOS, electron charge redistributions, and the highest occupied molecular orbital–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels for the NTs with m = 6. Very strong binding energies and electron charge transfer from the IND to NTs is present in the atomic structures.

  18. Encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods and microrods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional single crystal incorporating functional nanoparticles of other materials could be an interesting platform for various applications. We studied the encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods by exploiting the crystal growth of ZnO in aqueous solution. Two types of nanodiamonds with mean diameters of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively, and polymer nanobeads with size of 200 nm have been used to study the encapsulation process. It was found that by regrowing these ZnO nanorods with nanoparticles attached to their surfaces, a full encapsulation of nanoparticles into nanorods can be achieved. We demonstrate that our low-temperature aqueous solution growth of ZnO nanorods do not affect or cause degradation of the nanoparticles of either inorganic or organic materials. This new growth method opens the way to a plethora of applications combining the properties of single crystal host and encapsulated nanoparticles. We perform micro-photoluminescence measurement on a single ZnO nanorod containing luminescent nanodiamonds and the spectrum has a different shape from that of naked nanodiamonds, revealing the cavity effect of ZnO nanorod.

  19. Encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods and microrods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinzhang; Notarianni, Marco; Rintoul, Llew; Motta, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional single crystal incorporating functional nanoparticles of other materials could be an interesting platform for various applications. We studied the encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods by exploiting the crystal growth of ZnO in aqueous solution. Two types of nanodiamonds with mean diameters of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively, and polymer nanobeads with size of 200 nm have been used to study the encapsulation process. It was found that by regrowing these ZnO nanorods with nanoparticles attached to their surfaces, a full encapsulation of nanoparticles into nanorods can be achieved. We demonstrate that our low-temperature aqueous solution growth of ZnO nanorods do not affect or cause degradation of the nanoparticles of either inorganic or organic materials. This new growth method opens the way to a plethora of applications combining the properties of single crystal host and encapsulated nanoparticles. We perform micro-photoluminescence measurement on a single ZnO nanorod containing luminescent nanodiamonds and the spectrum has a different shape from that of naked nanodiamonds, revealing the cavity effect of ZnO nanorod.

  20. Polyethylene encapsulation of mixed wastes: Scale-up feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    A polyethylene process for the improved encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Improvements in waste loading and waste form performance have been demonstrated through bench-scale development and testing. Maximum waste loadings of up to 70 dry wt % mixed waste nitrate salt were achieved, compared with 13--20 dry wt % using conventional cement processes. Stability under anticipated storage and disposal conditions and compliance with applicable hazardous waste regulations were demonstrated through a series of lab-scale waste form performance tests. Full-scale demonstration of this process using actual or surrogate waste is currently planned. A scale-up feasibility test was successfully conducted, demonstrating the ability to process nitrate salts at production rates (up to 450 kg/hr) and the close agreement between bench- and full-scale process parameters. Cored samples from the resulting pilot-scale (114 liter) waste form were used to verify homogeneity and to provide additional specimens for confirmatory performance testing

  1. Reverse micelle-loaded lipid nano-emulsions: new technology for nano-encapsulation of hydrophilic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Nicolas; Mojzisova, Halina; Porcher, Emilien; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Saulnier, Patrick

    2010-10-15

    This study presents novel, recently patented technology for encapsulating hydrophilic species in lipid nano-emulsions. The method is based on the phase-inversion temperature method (the so-called PIT method), which follows a low-energy and solvent-free process. The nano-emulsions formed are stable for months, and exhibit droplet sizes ranging from 10 to 200 nm. Hydrophilic model molecules of fluorescein sodium salt are encapsulated in the oily core of these nano-emulsion droplets through their solubilisation in the reverse micellar system. As a result, original, multi-scaled nano-objects are generated with a 'hydrophilic molecule in a reverse-micelles-in-oil-in-water' structure. Once fluorescein has been encapsulated it remains stable, for thermodynamic reasons, and the encapsulation yields can reach 90%. The reason why such complex objects can be formed is due to the soft method used (PIT method) which allows the conservation of the structure of the reverse micelles throughout the formulation process, up to their entrapment in the nano-emulsion droplets. In this study, we focus the investigation on the process itself, revealing its potential and limits. Since the formulation of nanocarriers for the encapsulation of hydrophilic substances still remains a challenge, this study may constitute a significant advance in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAGERRAAEN, P.R.; KALB, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined

  3. Micro and macro contact mechanics for interacting asperities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The motivation for modelling the asperities at micro scales comes from the preliminary results obtained from photoelastic experiments. Numerical results are presented based on the analytical results available for Hertzian contacts. The motivation for modelling the asperities at macro scales comes from the results available ...

  4. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovacs, I.Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kurner, T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic

  5. A Calculus of Macro-Events: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    1410, USA iliano@itd.nrl.navy.mil Angelo Montanari Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica Universita di Udine Via delle Scienze, 206 { 33100 Udine...nition of ECTD-structure only by the following points: M MT is a set of macro-events over T . The codomain of [jji and hjj] are rede ned to be

  6. Macro-invertebrate predatorsof freshwater pulmonate snails in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A range of African and alien macro-invertebrates has been reported preying on freshwater pulmonate snails, including those that serve as intermediate hosts for bloodflukes of the genus Schistosoma. Predation by five molluscivorous taxa is reviewed here: indigenous leeches (Glossiphoniidae), marsh fly larvae ...

  7. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government...

  8. South African tourism: An historic evaluation of macro tourism policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... namely Rugby, Cricket and Soccer, and numerous other sporting, cultural and business events have successfully been hosted in the country. Macro policies governing tourism at the national level have been introduced to stimulate and guide tourism growth in such a way that the public at large can benefit. Furthermore ...

  9. The Impact of Macro-adjustment Programmes on Housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Macro-adjustment Programmes on Housing Investment in Kampala City, Uganda: Shelter Implications for the Urban Poor. ... Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... The adjustment methodology has side-lined and gravely undermined the housing sector thereby aggravating the shelter problem.

  10. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  11. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  12. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    - Takes a new approach to understanding Europe’s fertility gap - Demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making - Provides new insights into how people make decisions about having children as well as how policies affect fertility This book provides new insights into

  13. Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

  14. Exploring the Macro-Micro Dynamic in Data Use Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    In their opening comments to this special issue on data use, Coburn and Turner point to "one of the most central questions in social theory: the interrelationship between macro-social structure and micro-level action." Questions about data use--which entail social phenomena that range from federal policy to moment-to-moment interactions…

  15. Effecting Organizational Change at the Macro Level of Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written in academic and popular publications about organizational change. Topics have ranged from case studies to anecdotal stories of how leaders can change an organization. There is little written on changing the culture and vision of a profession at the macro level. This dissertation shows that one key to effecting change within a…

  16. Development of an automated desktop procedure for defining macro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods (Von Neumann mean square error, CUSUM plots or unweighted values and the Worsley Likelihood Ratio Test (WLRT)) were used to define macro-reach breaks for four South African rivers (Crocodile, Olifants, Mhlathuze and Seekoei Rivers) and were compared to ... Water SA Vol.32 (3) 2006: pp.395-402 ...

  17. Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Globalization and trade liberalization are likely to have a major impact on the lives of poor children and their families. To date, however, few attempts have been made to differentiate the impact of ...

  18. Restoration of Benthic Macro-endofauna after Reforestation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Recovery of Rhizophora mucronata mangrove ecosystems was investigated by assessing the physical characteristics of their sediments and the forest densities, community composition and diversity of macro-endofauna. This was done in 5- and 10-year reforested mangroves and natural and degraded controls.

  19. The MARKAL-MACRO model and the climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1996-07-01

    MARKAL-MACRO and its extensions is a model appropriate to study partial and general equilibrium in the energy markets and the implications of the carbon dioxide mitigation policy. The main advantage of MM is the explicit treatment of energy demand, supply and conversion technologies, including emission control and conservation options, within a general equilibrium framework. The famous gap between top-down and bottom-up models is resolved and the economic implications of environmental and supply policy constraints can be captured either in an aggregated (Macro) or in a sectorial (Micro) level. The multi-regional trade version of the model allows to study questions related to efficient and equitable allocation of cost and benefits associated with the climate change issue. Finally, the stochastic version of the model allows to assess policies related to uncertain and even catastrophic effects and define appropriate hedging strategies. The report is divided in three parts: - the first part gives an overview of the new model structure. It describes its macro economic part and explains its calibration, - the second part refers to the model applications for Switzerland when analyzing the economic implications of curbing CO 2 emissions or policies related to the introduction of a carbon tax, including a hedging strategy, - the last part is organized in form of Appendices and gives a mathematical description and some potential extensions of the model. It describes also a sensitivity analysis done with MARKAL-MACRO in 1992. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  20. Bridging the Micro-Macro Gap in Population Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIDI, .

    2011-01-01

    MicMac - Bridging the micro-macro gap in population forecasting: a study funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme "Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area". In an ageing population, the demand for adequate health care services, pension systems and other

  1. Macro-regions : regional integration within and beyond the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three European macro-regions: the Baltic Sea Region (BSR), the –revamped- Benelux, and the Danube Region (DR). It makes a comparative analysis of these three schemes of regional integration within (and in some cases beyond) the EU. The paper discusses literature on

  2. Collaboration potentials in micro and macro politics of audience creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brites, Maria José; Chimirri, Niklas Alexander; Amaral, Inês

    2017-01-01

    In our stakeholder consultation following up on trends concerning the micro and macropolitics of audience action, we explore the potential impact of audiences’ micro-participation and connection to macro-actions. We address this issue taking into consideration intrinsic continuities and discontin...

  3. Macro-System Model Project #AN011 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M.

    2010-06-08

    A review of the Macro-System Model for hydrogen production pathways analysis, including objectives, accomplishments, collaborations, and future work. Presented at the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  4. Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.

    2015-01-01

    This book provides new insights into the significant gap that currently exists between desired and actual fertility in Europe. It examines how people make decisions about having children and demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making. Written by an international

  5. Survey of Zooplanktons and Macro-Invertebrates of Gbedikere Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zooplankton and macro-invertebrates samples were collected weekly from three sampling stations at the Gbedikere Lake, Bassa Local Government Area, Kogi state, Nigeria from July to September 2008. Prior to sampling, Temperature of surface water, Secchi disc transparency, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were ...

  6. Heralded generation of a micro-macro entangled state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2013-01-01

    Using different optical setups based on squeezed state and photon subtraction we show how optical entanglement between a macroscopic and a microscopic state-the so-called Schro¨dinger cat state or micro-macro state-can be generated. The entangled state is heralded and is thus produced a priori...

  7. Reclaiming and Reimagining Macro Social Work Education: A Collective Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, F. Ellen; O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Cole, Portia L.; Hopkins, Karen; Jones, Jenny L.; Kim, Youngmi; Leisey, Monica; Mulroy, Elizabeth A.; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Thomas, M. Lori; Weil, Marie O.; Wike, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors focus on a collective biography of 12 women social work educators, all either tenured or in tenure lines, from five different universities at the time of the study. The participants represent several aspects of macro practice including administration, planning, community practice, and policy. Beginning with reflections about coming…

  8. Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows the importance of understanding the labour market to understand the policy propagation mechanism through which macro policy is expected to affect poverty. The study has show that although there seem to be limited change in poverty and inequality at aggregate level, there is significant change within and ...

  9. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  10. Permian macro-and miofloral diversity, palynodating and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coal-bearing sequences of Barakar and Raniganj formations exposed in Bina and Jhingurdah open-cast collieries, respectively, are analysed for their macro- and miofloral content. The sediment successions primarily comprise of sandstones, shales, claystones and coal seams. In addition to the diverseglossopterid ...

  11. The interpretation of encapsulating anaphors in Spanish and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulating anaphors differ from other types of anaphor by having one or more situations - not an entity - as its referent. The main aim of the article is to propose a hypothesis for how anaphoric encapsulation is resolved. The hypothesis builds on the cognitive linguistic theory of instruction...

  12. Biodegradation Potential of Oil-based Drill Cuttings Encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    equally divided into 5 plastic containers. Cement encapsulated oil-based drill cuttings were prepared by ... Into each of the plastic containers containing the soil sample, one slab each of the cement encapsulated drill cuttings was ..... Estimating biodegradable municipal solid waste diversion from landfill. Phase 1 Review of ...

  13. Spin transport in fully hexagonal boron nitride encapsulated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurram, M.; Omar, S.; Zihlmann, S.; Makk, P.; Schoenenberger, C.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    We study fully hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene spin valve devices at room temperature. The device consists of a graphene channel encapsulated between two crystalline hBN flakes: thick-hBN flake as a bottom gate dielectric substrate which masks the charge impurities from SiO2/Si

  14. Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants

  15. Considerations for successful transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Hamel, AF; Tatarkiewicz, K

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets allows for transplantion in the absence of immunosuppression. The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical

  16. Accelerated ripening of Kashar cheese with encapsulated protease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, protease enzymes were encapsulated in Κ-carragenan, gellan and sodium alginate using emulsion and extrusion techniques and were then added in cheese milk together with rennet. The effects of the encapsulating material and ripening period on the chemical, textural and sensory characteristics of Kashar ...

  17. Comparative assessment of plasmid DNA delivery by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the gene delivery effectiveness of plasmid DNA (pDNA) encapsulated within poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with that adsorbed on PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using solvent-evaporation method. To encapsulate pDNA within the particles, ...

  18. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santagata, F.

    2011-01-01

    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film

  19. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes

  20. Board task performance: An exploration of micro- and macro-level determinants of board effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Huse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions. The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes and board task performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23365485

  1. Stacked macro fiber piezoelectric composite generator for a spinal fusion implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaben, Eric J.; Goetzinger, Nathan C.; Domann, John P.; Barrett-Gonzalez, Ronald; Arnold, Paul M.; Friis, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    A manufacturing method was developed to create a piezoelectric 3-layer stacked, macro fiber composite generator operating in d33 mode to promote bone growth in spinal fusion surgeries. A specimen of 9 × 17 × 9 mm thick was constructed from 800 μm diameter PZT fibers and medical grade epoxy. Electromechanical testing was performed at three stages of manufacturing to determine the influence of these processes on power generation. An average peak power of over 335 μW was generated in the heat-treated specimen during simulated human body loads. The work provides insights into manufacturing methods for lowered source impedance power generation for a variety of applications.

  2. STRCMACS: An extensive set of Macros for structured programming in OS/360 assembly language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two techniques are discussed that have been most often referred to as structured programming. One is that of programming with high level control structures (such as the if and while) replacing the branch instruction (goto-less programming); the other is the process of developing a program by progressively refining descriptions of components in terms of more primitive components (called stepwise refinement or top-down programming). In addition to discussing what these techniques are, it is shown why their use is advised and how both can be implemented in OS assembly language by the use of a special macro instruction package.

  3. Method of producing zeolite encapsulated nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention therefore relates to a method for producing zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype encapsulated metal nanoparticles, the method comprises the steps of: 1) Adding one or more metal precursors to a silica or alumina source; 2) Reducing the one or more metal precursors to form metal...... nanoparticles on the surface of the silica or alumina source; 3) Passing a gaseous hydrocarbon, alkyl alcohol or alkyl ether over the silica or alumina supported metal nanoparticles to form a carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition; 4a) Adding a structure directing agent...... to the carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition thereby creating a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition; 4b) Crystallising the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition by subjecting said composition to a hydrothermal treatment; 5) Removing the carbon...

  4. Leaching behavior of polyethylene encapsulated nitrate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The leaching behavior of sodium nitrate salts (simulating wastes from the Hanford single-shell tanks) encapsulated in polyethylene was investigated. These wastes are sufficiently radioactive that they may be self-heating. Laboratory scale waste forms prepared for leach tests were mixtures of NaNO 3 and low-density polyethylene, with nominal salt loadings of 50, 60 and 70 wt%. In this study the authors determined: (1) leach rates of NaNO 3 /polyethylene waste forms at several waste loadings; (2) leach rates at temperatures as high as 70 C which is the maximum projected temperature of this self-heating waste; and (3) leaching mechanism of NaNO 3 /polyethylene waste forms and predicted releases. The Accelerated Leach Test (ALT) used for this study was recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). It is particularly well suited for this application since it was designed to be run at elevated temperatures

  5. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  6. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  7. Materials Testing for PV Module Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T.

    2003-05-01

    Important physical properties of materials used in PV module packaging are presented. High-moisture-barrier, high-resistivity, adhesion-promoting coatings on polyethyl-ene terephthalate (PET) films have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module application and com-pared to standard polymer backsheet materials. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and an encapsulant replacement for EVA are studied for their water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and adhesion properties. WVTR, at test conditions up to 85C/100% relative humidity (RH), and adhesion val-ues are measured before and after filtered xenon arc lamp ultraviolet (UV) exposure and damp heat exposure at 85C/85% RH. Water ingress is quantified by weight gain and embedded humidity sensors.

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  9. Visual compression of workflow visualizations with automated detection of macro motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eamonn; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Davies, Jim; Chen, Min

    2013-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the creation of 'macros' in workflow visualization as a support tool to increase the efficiency of data curation tasks. We propose computation of candidate macros based on their usage in large collections of workflows in data repositories. We describe an efficient algorithm for extracting macro motifs from workflow graphs. We discovered that the state transition information, used to identify macro candidates, characterizes the structural pattern of the macro and can be harnessed as part of the visual design of the corresponding macro glyph. This facilitates partial automation and consistency in glyph design applicable to a large set of macro glyphs. We tested this approach against a repository of biological data holding some 9,670 workflows and found that the algorithmically generated candidate macros are in keeping with domain expert expectations.

  10. PROGRESS IN CLINICAL ENCAPSULATED ISLET XENOTRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David K.C.; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Abalovich, Adrian; Itoh, Takeshi; Mourad, Nizar I.; Gianello, Pierre R; Wolf, Eckhard; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    At the 2015 combined congress of the CTS, IPITA, and IXA, a symposium was held to discuss recent progress in pig islet xenotransplantation. The presentations focused on 5 major topics – (i) the results of 2 recent clinical trials of encapsulated pig islet transplantation, (ii) the inflammatory response to encapsulated pig islets, (iii) methods to improve the secretion of insulin by pig islets, (iv) genetic modifications to the islet-source pigs aimed to protect the islets from the primate immune and/or inflammatory responses, and (v) regulatory aspects of clinical pig islet xenotransplantation. Trials of microencapsulated porcine islet transplantation to treat unstable type 1 diabetic patients have been associated with encouraging preliminary results. Further advances to improve efficacy may include (i) transplantation into a site other than the peritoneal cavity, which might result in better access to blood, oxygen, and nutrients; (ii) the development of a more biocompatible capsule and/or the minimization of a foreign body reaction; (iii) pig genetic modification to induce a greater secretion of insulin by the islets, and/or to reduce the immune response to islets released from damaged capsules; and (iv) reduction of the inflammatory response to the capsules/islets by improvements in the structure of the capsules and/or in genetic-engineering of the pigs and/or in some form of drug therapy. Ethical and regulatory frameworks for islet xenotransplantation are already available in several countries, and there is now a wider international perception of the importance of developing an internationally-harmonized ethical and regulatory framework. PMID:27482959

  11. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  12. Encapsulación de un filtro solar (avobenzona en liposomas Encapsulation of a sunscreen (avobenzone in liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pinillos Madrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue comprobar la optimización de la encapsulación de avobenzona en liposomas, y evaluar si constituye una barrera física de protección contra la fotodegradación de avobenzona en presencia de octilmetoxicinnamato. Se aplicó un diseño experimental para optimizar los procesos de encapsulación. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron un aumento significativo en la eficiencia de encapsulación al encontrar una relación óptima del agente encapsulante con el agente a encapsular y las interacciones apropiadas entre los factores evaluados. Los valores obtenidos en la eficiencia de encapsulación están alrededor de un 90,00 % y el tamaño logrado fue de 9,156 mm. La fotoestabilidad de la avobenzona en presencia del filtro solar UVB, octilmetoxicinnamato, mejoró al estar encapsulado en liposomas con un porcentaje de degradación del 22,07 % contra un 32,96 % de la avobenzona sin encapsular, y la estabilización coloidal de la dispersión de liposomas mejoró con la utilización de carbopol 940 al 1,00 %. En conclusión, la encapsulación de avobenzona en liposomas al usar isolecitina se logra con alta eficiencia, y se comproba que la degradación de la avobenzona promovida por la luz disminuye al estar encapsulada, aun en presencia de octilmetoxicinnamato.This study was aimed at confirming the optimization of Avobenzone encapsulation in liposomes, and at evaluating whether this is a physical barrier to protect AVO from photodegradation in presence of octylmetoxycinnamate or not. An experimental design served to optimize the processes of encapsulation. The results showed a significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency since optimal relationship between the encapsulating agent and the agent to be encapsulated, as well as adequate interactions among the studied factors were found. The values of encapsulation efficiency were roughly 90.00 % and the particle size obtained was 9.156 mm. The Avobenzone photostability in

  13. Degradation mechanism of AlInGaP light emitting diodes during PMMA encapsulation and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, S.

    2007-11-15

    In this thesis we investigate the degradation mechanism of AlInGaP light emitting diodes (LEDs) during encapsulation and operation. The AlInGaP LEDs are encapsulated using an injection moulding tool. The molded part acts as physical housing as well as tailors the radiation pattern. Thus a narrow light beam with a spread angle of {alpha}=10 has been observed. The LED temperature has been measured by the voltage variation of the LED which is caused by the temperature change at a constant current. Thus the thermal load of the LED chips during the encapsulation process is investigated. To verify the temperature measurement a simulation based on the finite element method has been carried out. The experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement. The LED properties are investigated before and after the encapsulation. The results are compared and we found a reduction of the serial resistance and an enhanced luminous efficiency. The peak emission energy remained constant, but a peak broadening of {delta}E=9meV has been observed. A slight polarisation of the emitted light is an indication for a polarization effect of the polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) housing. Accelerated degradation experiments using high forward currents are performed to estimate the lifetime of the PMMA encapsulated LEDs. A diffusion model is presented to explain the decay in luminous flux versus degradation time and degradation current. We believe that the reduction of quantum efficiency is caused by p-type dopant diffusion into the active layer where it acts as a non-radiative recombination centre. Using this model we determine the lifetime under the recommended drive current of I=20mA. The resulting lifetime is t=1.5.10{sup 6}h using a reduction of 50% in the luminous flux as failure criteria. (orig.)

  14. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Cheng, Shan-hui Hsu Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50–60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3] or (9-(methylaminomethylanthracene [MAMA] could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95% without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers. Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide, polyurethane, drug release, hybrid nanoparticles

  15. Acute Toxicity of Silver Free and Encapsulated in Nanosized Zeolite for Eukaryotic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfray, Clément; Dong, Biao; Komaty, Sarah; Mintova, Svetlana; Valable, Samuel

    2017-04-26

    The potential toxicity of encapsulated silver in EMT-type nanosized zeolites on prokaryotic cells, human tumor cell lines from various origins, and primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes was investigated. Silver in cationic form (Ag + ) was encapsulated in EMT-type nanosized zeolites via an ion exchange process (Ag + -EMT) and compared with the reduced silver (Ag 0 ) in the zeolite (Ag 0 -EMT). As reference samples for the toxicity measurements, pure EMT-type zeolite and silver perchlorate were used. Cells were exposed to silver-containing zeolites (50, 100, and 400 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. After exposure to Ag + -EMT (50 μg/mL) for 24 h, a loss in cell viability independent of the cell type was observed, ranging from -34.37 ± 23.90% for astrocytes to -99.5 ± 0.24% for U87-MG cells. These results were comparable with the toxicity for silver perchlorate. The Ag 0 -EMT sample showed lower toxicity on human cell lines in comparison to that of Ag + -EMT. A decrease in cell viability, i.e., -73.46 ± 20.78% and -62.3 ± 17.96% for U87-MG and HEK 293 cells, respectively, under exposure only to high concentration of Ag 0 -EMT (400 μg/mL) for 24 h was measured. However, the Ag 0 -EMT was as toxic as the Ag + -EMT for astrocytes and neurons (-97.95 ± 3.31% and -100 ± 1.11%, respectively, after exposure to 50 μg/mL for 24 h). No decrease in cell viability exposed to pure EMT zeolite was found. The results demonstrate the severe toxicity of silver cations, either free or encapsulated, in comparison to reduced silver encapsulated in zeolite nanocrystals. Therefore, silver cations, either free or encapsulated, must be used with great caution regarding their toxicity on eukaryotic cells.

  16. Improving gas sensor properties of encapsulated ZnO nanorods for ethanol detection using ZnO:Cr layer as an encapsulated layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, encapsulated ZnO nanorods with different amount of chromium (Cr dopant (0-4.5 at.% were prepared with hydrothermal method, and their sensitivities as gas sensors against ethanol vapor were investigated. Morphologies of samples were explored by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM which showed that encapsulation process increased the diameter of ZnO nanorods. Existence of Cr in ZnO nanorods structures was confirmed by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, the ZnO:Cr nanorods had wurtzite crystal structure, and adding Cr did not alter the crystal structure of ZnO. Electrical measurements revealed that current levels of samples were decreased by adding Cr, while the current level of the sample with 4.5 at.% was increased. This reduction could be attributed to the presence of Cr3+ ions, which led to decrease of charge carriers. Besides, due to the catalytic properties of Cr and its lower ionization energy than Zn, it was observed that Cr dopant improved the detection sensitivity of samples, and decreased the optimum operating temperature of samples. Among all samples, the most sensitivity (14 was obtained based on the sample with 1.5 at.% of Cr for 500 ppm ethanol vapor at the optimum temperature (250 . In fact, by encapsulating the samples, they became rougher, so the appropriate places to absorb and decompose of gas molecules are increased.

  17. Macro-Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Focus on Programmes and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This overview identifies some common features of macro-level language planning and briefly summarises the changing approaches to the analysis of macro-planning in the field. It previews six cases of language-in-education planning in response to linguistic diversity presented by the contributors to this issue. The cases show how macro-planning can…

  18. Des macros Excel pour exporter et importer des modules de code VBA

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, Jean Baptiste

    2008-01-01

    Cet article présente un outil Excel qui permet de gérer facilement l’exportation et l’importation de macros VBA, en sauvegardant les programmes des macros dans des fichiers textes. Les macros d’importation et d’exportation de code peuvent être facilement utilisées dans d’autres programmes.

  19. Dynamics of macro- and microscopic neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    During my Ph.D. I have worked on two different projects, both related to the brain. This is mirrored in the structure of this thesis, in that it has been separated into two independent parts. In the first part, a method to analyze and classify time series of brain scans (so-called ``BOLD f......GN), which is a class of signals with a non-trivial low-frequency component. It is assumed that certain characteristica about the low-frequency component can yield information about the neural processes behind the signal. The method has been used in a range of different studies over the course of the past 10...... of the connections. It is demonstrated that the effect is due to a feedback between the synchronization and the connection strengths, and existence criteria for the mechanism are presented. Finally, observations of temporal clustering of the neurons are presented. In such clustering, the neurons form together...

  20. Automation of the Weighting and its Register Using Macros; Automatizacion de la Pesada y su Registro mediante el Uso de Macro-Instrucciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Ampudia, J.

    2005-07-01

    Macros automate a repetitive or complex task that oneself otherwise would have to execute manually. Macros have been implemented (based on Visual Basic Applications) on the laboratory calculation sheets to obtain automatically the weight-registers from the Balances. The combined utilization of the programme Balint (trademark Precisa) and macros has allowed us to transfer in real time the weight data to the sheets and later information storage. The method for using these macros has been summarised in this report. This way of working permits: to register the data of all the laboratory samples and to be available for auditory purposes. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Ultrasound assisted methods for enhanced extraction of phycobiliproteins from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rochak; Tavanandi, Hrishikesh A; Mantri, Vaibhav A; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of phycobiliproteins (R-phycoerythrin, R-PE and R-phycocyanin, R-PC) from macro-algae is difficult due to the presence of large polysaccharides (agar, cellulose etc.) present in the cell wall which offer major hindrance for cell disruption. The present study is aimed at developing most suitable methodology for the primary extraction of R-PE and R-PC from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum(Stackhouse) Le Jolis. Such extraction of phycobiliproteins by using ultrasonication and other conventional methods such as maceration, maceration in presence of liquid nitrogen, homogenization, and freezing and thawing (alone and in combinations) is reported for the first time. Standardization of ultrasonication for different parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude (60, 90 and 120µm) and ultrasonication time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mins) at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40°C) was carried out. Kinetic parameters were estimated for extraction of phycobiliproteins by ultrasonication based on second order mass transfer kinetics. Based on calorimetric measurements, power, ultrasound intensity and acoustic power density were estimated to be 41.97W, 14.81W/cm 2 and 0.419W/cm 3 , respectively. Synergistic effect of ultrasonication was observed when employed in combination with other conventional primary extraction methods. Homogenization in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 9.3% over homogenization alone. Similarly, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 31% over maceration alone. Among all the methods employed, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in the highest extraction efficiency of 77 and 93% for R-PE and R-PC, respectively followed by homogenization in combination with ultrasonication (69.6% for R-PE and 74.1% for R-PC). HPLC analysis was carried out in order to ensure that R-PE was present in the extract and remained intact even after processing

  2. Priority setting at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels in Canada, Norway and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the process of healthcare priority setting in Ontario-Canada, Norway and Uganda at the three levels of decision-making; (2) to evaluate the description using the framework for fair priority setting, accountability for reasonableness; so as to identify lessons of good practices. We carried out case studies involving key informant interviews, with 184 health practitioners and health planners from the macro-level, meso-level and micro-level from Canada-Ontario, Norway and Uganda (selected by virtue of their varying experiences in priority setting). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a modified thematic approach. The descriptions were evaluated against the four conditions of "accountability for reasonableness", relevance, publicity, revisions and enforcement. Areas of adherence to these conditions were identified as lessons of good practices; areas of non-adherence were identified as opportunities for improvement. (i) at the macro-level, in all three countries, cabinet makes most of the macro-level resource allocation decisions and they are influenced by politics, public pressure, and advocacy. Decisions within the ministries of health are based on objective formulae and evidence. International priorities influenced decisions in Uganda. Some priority-setting reasons are publicized through circulars, printed documents and the Internet in Canada and Norway. At the meso-level, hospital priority-setting decisions were made by the hospital managers and were based on national priorities, guidelines, and evidence. Hospital departments that handle emergencies, such as surgery, were prioritized. Some of the reasons are available on the hospital intranet or presented at meetings. Micro-level practitioners considered medical and social worth criteria. These reasons are not publicized. Many practitioners lacked knowledge of the macro- and meso-level priority-setting processes. (ii) Evaluation

  3. Effect of Glycerol, as Cryoprotectant in the Encapsulation and Freeze Drying of Microspheres Containing Probiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that probiotics provide several health benefits as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. Ensuring adequate dosages of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants. In this study, probiotic cells (Bifidobacterium lactis 300B were entrapped in alginate/pullulan microspheres. In the encapsulation formula glycerol was used as cryoprotectant in the freeze drying process for long time storage. It was observed that the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B when encapsulated without cryoprotectant was higher than the formula with glycerol in the fresh obtained microspheres. The addition of glycerol was in order to reduce the deep freezing and freeze drying damages. In the chosen formulations, glycerol did not proved protection for the entrapped probiotic cells in the freeze drying process, for which the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant for alginate/pullulan Bifidobacterium lactis 300B entrapment is not recommended.

  4. Micro channels in macro thermal management solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosoy Boris V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress in electronics is associated with increase in computing ability and processing speed, as well as decrease in size. Future applications of electronic devices in aviation, aero space and high performance consumer products’ industry demand on very stringent specifications concerning miniaturization, component density, power density and reliability. Excess heat produces stresses on internal components inside the electronic device, thus creating reliability problems. Thus, a problem of heat generation and its efficient removal arises and it has led to the development of advanced thermal control systems. Present research analyses a thermodynamic feasibility of micro capillary heat pumped net works in thermal management of electronic systems, considers basic technological constrains and de sign availability, and identifies perspective directions for the further studies. Computer Fluid Dynamics studies have been per formed on the laminar convective heat transfer and pressure drop of working fluid in silicon micro channels. Surface roughness is simulated via regular constructal, and stochastic models. Three-dimensional numerical solution shows significant effects of surface roughness in terms of the rough element geometry such as height, size, spacing and the channel height on the velocity and pressure fields.

  5. Relationship between encapsulation barrier performance and organic solar cell lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Stéphane; Guillerez, Stéphane; de Bettignies, Rémi; Lemaître, Noëlla; Bailly, Severine; Maisse, Pascal

    2008-08-01

    This article describes a method to have a better knowledge of barrier performances needed for encapsulating materials, particularly in the case of organic solar cells devices. We have developed a high sensitivity permeameter which enables simultaneous measurements of water and oxygen permeation. Various polymers and inorganic coatings on polymer substrates have been measured. Experimental barrier parameters have been plotted considering the steady and transient states of permeation curves and compared to theoretical values. In addition, we have performed ageing experiments on encapsulated organic solar cells to establish a barrier requirement directly related to the device. Finally, we have performed such experiments using different cathode materials and encapsulating materials.

  6. The third population boom and corresponding macro-policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1990-01-01

    China's birth peak between 1962-1973, and the expected 3rd peak beginning in 1986 has and will create a need for better, stable family planning measures; economic planning between 1990 and 2020 needs to accommodate the working population which in 2010 is expected to be 71.4% of the population (956 million); and a macro-strategic policy needs to be developed of the elderly who may constitute 17.44% of the population. The aging trend in China's working age population is expected to rise so rapidly that in 48 years, between 1982 and 2040, the over 65 population will quadruple ( a process in developed countries usually taking 80 years), thus creating a significant impact on a society with a low level of economic development. It is suggested that along with the growth in the national economy should come a state-provided welfare and retirement system, with reforms necessary to generate the additional income for elderly support; it is important that the cultural pattern of family care of the elderly remain intact. Assisting the able elderly in earning income in the service sector is encouraged. China's population has historically undergone 2 peak growth periods, between 1685 and 1830 with a 1% growth rate and between 1949-89 with an annual growth rate of 1.8%. The 2nd period is marked by 2 smaller peaks, one between 1953- 1957 with a growth rate of 2.38% and 1962-73 with a growth rate of 2.56%. A decline after 1974 changed to another upward cycle in 1986 with an increase to a 1.43 % growth rate expected to continue to 1996. The 1st peak between 1953-57 has already affected population control and the job market, and the fecund population is of concern because of the absolute size of the population, and because the planned limit for population growth of 1.2 billion by the year 2000 may be exceeded; and the projected rates, which have been increasing as expected, mean a population of 1.5 billion by 2050.

  7. Effects of radiotherapy on corticotrophic macro-tumors in dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornel, Pauline Marie-Josephe de

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate efficacy of low dose radiotherapy for treatment of pituitary corticotrophic macro-tumors in dogs. Twelve dogs with pituitary-dependent hyper-adrenocorticism and a large pituitary tumor treated with 36 Gy of radiation were included in this report. Radiation was delivered in twelve fractions of 3 Gy during a 4- week period. Effects of radiation therapy on tumor size were assessed by CT scans and a decrease was observed in ten dogs (decrease > 50% in four dogs). The mean and median survival times following the initiation of radiotherapy were 21,6 and 18 months, respectively. These cases support previous findings, based on high dose radiation, that radiotherapy is a valuable option in the treatment of pituitary corticotrophic macro-tumors in the dog. Use of smaller total dose and smaller dose fractions remains effective providing a cure with minimal side effects and allowing a second irradiation if necessary. (author) [fr

  8. Clinimetrics and clinical psychometrics: macro- and micro-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Elena; Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    Clinimetrics was introduced three decades ago to specify the domain of clinical markers in clinical medicine (indexes or rating scales). In this perspective, clinical validity is the platform for selecting the various indexes or rating scales (macro-analysis). Psychometric validation of these indexes or rating scales is the measuring aspect (micro-analysis). Clinical judgment analysis by experienced psychiatrists is included in the macro-analysis and the item response theory models are especially preferred in the micro-analysis when using the total score as a sufficient statistic. Clinical assessment tools covering severity of illness scales, prognostic measures, issues of co-morbidity, longitudinal assessments, recovery, stressors, lifestyle, psychological well-being, and illness behavior have been identified. The constructive dialogue in clinimetrics between clinical judgment and psychometric validation procedures is outlined for generating developments of clinical practice in psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Discrete-element method simulations: from micro to macro scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D M; Baxter, J; Tüzün, U; Qin, R S

    2004-09-15

    Many liquid systems encountered in environmental science are often complex mixtures of many components which place severe demands on traditional computational modelling techniques. A meso scale description is required to account adequately for their flow behaviour on the meso and macro scales. Traditional techniques of computational fluid dynamics and molecular simulation are not well suited to tackling these systems, and researchers are increasingly turning to a range of relatively new computational techniques that offer the prospect of addressing the factors relevant to multicomponent multiphase liquids on length- and time-scales between the molecular level and the macro scale. In this category, we discuss the off-lattice techniques of 'smooth particle hydrodynamics' (SPH) and 'dissipative particle dynamics' (DPD), and the grid-based techniques of 'lattice gas' and 'lattice Boltzmann' (LB). We highlight the main conceptual and technical features underpinning these methods, their strengths and weaknesses, and provide a few examples of the applications of these techniques that illustrate their utility.

  10. Macro Trends and the Future of Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-03-20

    Public health practice in the twenty-first century is in a state of significant flux. Several macro trends are impacting the current practice of governmental public health and will likely have effects for many years to come. These macro trends are described as forces of change, which are changes that affect the context in which the community and its public health system operate. This article focuses on seven such forces of change: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, and globalized travel. Following the description of each of these, this article then turns to possible approaches to measuring, tracking, and understanding the impact of these forces of change on public health practice, including the use of evidence-based public health, practice-based research, and policy surveillance.

  11. Macro and micro challenges for talent retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kerr-Phillips

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the challenges presented in retaining South Africa’s talent at both macro (country and micro (organisational levels. Using a web-based survey placed on eight New Zealand sites, the reasons for emigration of South African talent during the period 1994–2006 were explored with 84 respondents. Utilising a purposive sampling technique, 20 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with identified ‘top talent’ in two financial services companies. Content analysis of the responses from both samples was employed. Reasons for emigration (macro issues included uncertainty about the future of the country, job insecurity and fears regarding both corruption and violent crime. Reasons for talent loss amongst identified top talent (micro issues were found to be linked to leadership, organisational culture and employment equity.

  12. Biplot and Singular Value Decomposition Macros for Excel©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Lipkovich

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The biplot display is a graph of row and column markers obtained from data that forms a two-way table. The markers are calculated from the singular value decomposition of the data matrix. The biplot display may be used with many multivariate methods to display relationships between variables and objects. It is commonly used in ecological applications to plot relationships between species and sites. This paper describes a set of Excel macros that may be used to draw a biplot display based on results from principal components analysis, correspondence analysis, canonical discriminant analysis, metric multidimensional scaling, redundancy analysis, canonical correlation analysis or canonical correspondence analysis. The macros allow for a variety of transformations of the data prior to the singular value decomposition and scaling of the markers following the decomposition.

  13. Macro and micro challenges for talent retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kerr-Phillips

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the challenges presented in retaining South Africa’s talent at both macro (country and micro (organisational levels. Using a web-based survey placed on eight New Zealand sites, the reasons for emigration of South African talent during the period 1994–2006 were explored with 84 respondents. Utilising a purposive sampling technique, 20 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with identified ‘top talent’ in two financial services companies. Content analysis of the responses from both samples was employed. Reasons for emigration (macro issues included uncertainty about the future of the country, job insecurity and fears regarding both corruption and violent crime. Reasons for talent loss amongst identified top talent (micro issues were found to be linked to leadership, organisational culture and employment equity.

  14. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwine W. Barasa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1 Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a Stakeholder satisfaction, (b Stakeholder understanding, (c Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources, and (d Implementation of decisions. (2 Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a Stakeholder engagement, (b Stakeholder empowerment, (c Transparency, (d Use of evidence, (e Revisions, (f Enforcement, and (g Being grounded on community values. Conclusion Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from

  15. Charge dependent condensation of macro-ions at air-water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Mrinal; Antonio, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Ordering of ions at and near air-water interfaces is a century old problem for researchers and has implications on a host of physical, chemical and biological processes. The dynamic nature of water surface and the surface fluctuations created by thermally excited capillary waves have always limited measurement of near surface ionic-distributions. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by using macro-ions of sizes larger than the capillary wave roughness ~3Å. Our attempts to measure distributions of inorganic macro-ions in the form of Keggin heteropolyanions (HPAs) of sizes ~10Å have unraveled novel charge-dependent condensation of macro-ions beneath air-water interfaces. Our results demonstrate that HPAs with -3 charges condense readily beneath air-water interfaces. This is in contrast to the absence of surface preference for HPAs with -4 charges. The similarity of HPA-HPA separations near air-water interfaces and in bulk crystal structures suggests the presence of the planar Zundel ions (H5O2+), which interact with HPAs and the water surface to facilitate the charge dependent condensation beneath the air-water interfaces.This work and the use of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, under contract No DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. Network Interaction of Universities in Higher Education System of Ural Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garold Efimovich Zborovsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the analysis are the characteristics and forms of cooperation between universities of Ural Federal District on the basis of their typology. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the necessity and possibility of network interaction between universities of the macro-region. We prove the importance and potential effectiveness of universities network interaction in the terms of socio-economic uncertainty of the development of Ural Federal District and its higher education. Networking interaction and multilateral cooperation are considered as a new type of inter-universities relations, which can be activated and intensified by strengthening the relations of universities with stakeholders. The authors examine certain concrete forms and formats of network interaction and cooperation between universities and discuss selected cases of new type of relations. In it, they see the real and potential innovation of higher school nonlinear development processes. The statements of the article allow to confirm the hypothesis about the reality of strengthening the network interaction in macro-region. It can transform higher education in the driver of socio-economic development of Ural Federal District; ensure the competitiveness of higher education of the macro-region in the Russian and global educational space; enhance its role in the society; become one of the most significant elements of nonlinear models of higher education development in the country. The authors’ research is based on the interdisciplinary methodology including the potential of theoretical sociology, sociology of higher education, economic sociology, management theory, regional economics. The results of the study can form the basis for the improvement of the Ural Federal District’s educational policy.

  17. In-situ one-step synthesis of carbon-encapsulated naked magnetic metal nanoparticles conducted without additional reductants and agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jun; Kim, Yeonwon; Kim, Hye-min; Hu, Xiulan; Saito, Nagahiro; Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Myeong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    C-encapsulated highly pure Ni, Co, and Fe magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs/C) were synthesized by an innovative one-step in-situ plasma in liquid method (solution plasma processing, SPP) without any additional reductants, agents, or treatment. Successful encapsulation of MNPs was demonstrated by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy images corresponded to MNPs wi...

  18. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal myceli...

  19. Macro-residual strains due to cyclic loading of composites

    CERN Document Server

    Hashin, Z

    1999-01-01

    Macro-residual strains produced by load cycles on elastic-brittle composites are analytically expressed in terms of the effective thermal expansion coefficients of the composite as affected by the damage states developing during the $9 cycling. Limiting values of residual strain are evaluated for unidirectional fiber composites and cross-ply laminates. Frictional losses due to internal sliding are not considered. (17 refs).

  20. Understanding co-movements in macro and financial variables

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agostino, Antonello

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, the growing availability of large datasets and the improvements in the computational speed of computers have further fostered the research in the fields of both macroeconomic modeling and forecasting analysis. A primary focus of these research areas is to improve the models performance by exploiting the informational content of several time series. Increasing the dimension of macro models is indeed crucial for a detailed structural understanding of the economic environmen...

  1. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hye Jung; Ko, Jeong Huy; Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hye Jin; BAe, Yoon Ju; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  2. Dynamics of Soil Nutrient and Macro-organism Population Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of soil physical and chemical features as well as the species richness of macro-organisms was carried out in a 2-year cultivated farm, 3-year fallow,8-year fallow and a 50 –year undisturbed relic forest all located within 1 km radius within Umudike. The 3-year cultivated plot had the lowest levels of N, P, k, Ca ...

  3. Macro System Model (MSM) User Guide, Version 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.

    2011-09-01

    This user guide describes the macro system model (MSM). The MSM has been designed to allow users to analyze the financial, environmental, transitional, geographical, and R&D issues associated with the transition to a hydrogen economy. Basic end users can use the MSM to answer cross-cutting questions that were previously difficult to answer in a consistent and timely manner due to various assumptions and methodologies among different models.

  4. Multiple muon physics with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The first supermodule of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory has been operating since the end of February 1989. About 245,000 muon triggers have been collected in the first three months of data taking corresponding to ∼1890 hours of live-time. Presented here are the measured vertical muon flux as well as the lateral spread and multiplicity distribution of muon bundles. 4 refs., 5 figs

  5. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government bonds, investment grade corporate bonds, and high-yield corporate bonds. The CSR method performs well in predicting bond betas, especially in-sample, and, mainly high-yield bond betas when the focus i...

  6. %HPGLIMMIX: A High-Performance SAS Macro for GLMM Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs comprise a class of widely used statistical tools for data analysis with fixed and random effects when the response variable has a conditional distribution in the exponential family. GLMM analysis also has a close relationship with actuarial credibility theory. While readily available programs such as the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS and the lme4 package in R are powerful tools for using this class of models, these progarms are not able to handle models with thousands of levels of fixed and random effects. By using sparse-matrix and other high performance techniques, procedures such as HPMIXED in SAS can easily fit models with thousands of factor levels, but only for normally distributed response variables. In this paper, we present the %HPGLIMMIX SAS macro that fits GLMMs with large number of sparsely populated design matrices using the doubly-iterative linearization (pseudo-likelihood method, in which the sparse-matrix-based HPMIXED is used for the inner iterations with the pseudo-variable constructed from the inverse-link function and the chosen model. Although the macro does not have the full functionality of the GLIMMIX procedure, time and memory savings can be large with the new macro. In applications in which design matrices contain many zeros and there are hundreds or thousands of factor levels, models can be fitted without exhausting computer memory, and 90% or better reduction in running time can be observed. Examples with a Poisson, binomial, and gamma conditional distribution are presented to demonstrate the usage and efficiency of this macro.

  7. Biplot and Singular Value Decomposition Macros for Excel©

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkovich, Ilya A.; Smith, Eric P.

    2002-01-01

    The biplot display is a graph of row and column markers obtained from data that forms a two-way table. The markers are calculated from the singular value decomposition of the data matrix. The biplot display may be used with many multivariate methods to display relationships between variables and objects. It is commonly used in ecological applications to plot relationships between species and sites. This paper describes a set of Excel macros that may be used to draw a biplot display based ...

  8. Encapsulation of ferulic acid ethyl ester in caseinate to suppress off-flavor formation in UHT milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds can principally suppress the off-flavor development in ultrahigh temperature (UHT) treated milk, but little has been studied for lipophilic phenolic compounds that are to be encapsulated for even distribution in milk. The objective of this work was to study physicochemical properties of ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) encapsulated in sodium caseinate and the inhibition of volatile formation after UHT processing. The capsules had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 246.2±10.9nm, a polydispersity index of 0.26±0.01, and a zeta-potential of -31.72±0.74mV. The capsules and the encapsulated FAEE were stable after heating at 138°C for 16min and UV radiation at 365nm for 32h. The encapsulated FAEE at a level of 0.18-1.42mg/mL suppressed the formation of 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline in model UHT milk by 32.8-63.2% after 30-day storage at 30°C. Therefore, FAEE encapsulated in caseinate can be potentially used to improve the quality of UHT milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expanded beam (macro-imaging) ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, M.; Juhasz, G.; Major, C.; Petrik, P.; Polgar, O.; Horvath, Z.; Nutsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to make possible to use spectroscopic ellipsometry for mapping purposes during one measuring cycle (minimum one rotation period of polarizer or analyzer) on many sample points. Our new technique uses non-collimated (non-parallel, mostly diffuse) illumination with an angle of incidence sensitive pinhole camera detector system and it works as an unusual kind of imaging ellipsometry. Adding multicolour supplemets, it provides spectral (a few wavelengths on a 2D image or a full spectrum along a line) information from rapid measurements of many points on a large (several dm2) area. This technique can be expanded by upscaling the geometry (upscaling the dimensions of the instrument, and characteristic imaging parameters such as focal lengths, distances, etc.). The lateral resolution is limited by the minimum resolved-angle determined by the detector system, mainly by the diameter of the pinhole. (The diameter of the pinhole is a compromise between the light intensity and the lateral resolution.) Small-aperture (25 mm diameter) polarizers are incorporated into both the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state detection (PSD) components of the instrument. The detection is almost without background because the pinhole serves as a filter against the scattered light. One rapid measuring cycle (less than 10 s) is enough to determine the polarization state at all the points inside the illuminated area. The collected data can be processed very fast (seconds) providing nearly real-time thicknesses and/or refractive index maps over many points of the sample surface even in the case of multilayer samples. The speed of the measuring system makes it suitable for using even on production lines. The necessary (in each sample-point different) angle-of-incidence and the mirror-effect calibration are made via well-known and optimized structures such as silicon/silicon-dioxide samples. The precision is suitable for detecting sub-nanometer thickness and a

  10. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  11. Determinants of The Application of Macro Prudential Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Firano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of macro prudential instruments today gives rise to a major debate within the walls of central banks and other authorities in charge of financial stability. Contrary to micro prudential instruments, whose effects remain limited, macro prudential instruments are different in nature and can affect the stability of the financial system. By influencing the financial cycle and the financial structure of financial institutions, the use of such instruments should be conducted with great vigilance as well as macroeconomic and financial expertise. But the experiences of central banks in this area are sketchy, and only some emerging countries have experience using these types of instruments in different ways. This paper presents an analysis of instruments of macro prudential policy and attempts to empirically demonstrate that these instruments should be used only in specific economic and financial situations. Indeed, the results obtained, using modeling bivariate panel, confirm that these instruments are more effective when used to mitigate the euphoria of financial and economic cycles. In this sense, the output gap, describing the economic cycle, and the Z-score are the intermediate variables for the activation of capital instruments. Moreover, the liquidity ratio and changes in bank profitability are the two early warning indicators for activation of liquidity instruments.

  12. Performance Evaluation Of Macro amp Micro Mobility In HMIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ali Abdelgadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changing the location of mobile node during transmission or receiving of data always caused changing of the address of the mobile node which results in packet loss as well as delay in time taken to locate the new address of the Mobile Node therefore delay of data receiving is caused this problem was known as micro-mobility issue. To resolve this problem and ascurrently mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of mobile IP which supports quality of service minimum packet loss limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of mobile IP and micro mobility protocols where mobile IP handles macro mobility and HMIP cellular IP HAWAII handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed.HIERARCHICAL MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOL is used. To identify the impact of micro-mobility in IP based Wireless Network to implement selected micro-mobility model of Hierarchal Micro Mobility Protocol in network simulator and for more analysis and measurements results and for the purpose of performance comparison between both Macro and Micro mobility Protocol Management.. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2

  13. Micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zenong; Moore, Justin B; Johnson, Maribeth H; Vernon, Marlo M; Grimstvedt, Megan; Gutin, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Recently, studies using a social ecological perspective have identified important micro- and macro-level risk factors for excessive adiposity in youth. Although considerable research exists examining these relationships, few studies have applied a socioecological approach to simultaneously examine both micro- and macro-level factors in young children while objectively assessing adiposity via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To examine race and sex differences in adiposity measured by DXA in a large sample of young children and to identify both micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity. Cross-sectional. Elementary school children (N = 495) from the southeastern United States participated. Anthropometrics, percentage body fat via DXA, and psychosocial variables via questionnaire were assessed in the Fall of 2003. Community-level sociodemographic data and built-environment variables via geographic information system were collected in Spring 2009. Data analyses were completed in the Spring of 2010. Percentage body fat in white children was higher than in nonwhite children. Higher percentage body fat and poorer cardiovascular fitness were found in females compared with males. Percentage body fat was higher in children who had lower athletic competence and lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of minority residents. This study provides preliminary support for the social-ecological model to explain variance in adiposity in children. Developers of health promotion programs for children living in minority neighborhoods should consider factors at multiple levels of the ecological model when designing and implementing programs.

  14. Molecular Analyzer for Complex Refractory Organic-Rich Surfaces (MACROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Cook, Jamie E.; Balvin, Manuel; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Li, Xiang; Grubisic, Andrej; Cornish, Timothy; Ferrance, Jerome; Southard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The Molecular Analyzer for Complex Refractory Organic-rich Surfaces, MACROS, is a novel instrument package being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. MACROS enables the in situ characterization of a sample's composition by coupling two powerful techniques into one compact instrument package: (1) laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDMS) for broad detection of inorganic mineral composition and non-volatile organics, and (2) liquid-phase extraction methods to gently isolate the soluble organic and inorganic fraction of a planetary powder for enrichment and detailed analysis by liquid chromatographic separation coupled to LDMS. The LDMS is capable of positive and negative ion detection, precision mass selection, and fragment analysis. Two modes are included for LDMS: single laser LDMS as the broad survey mode and two step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS). The liquid-phase extraction will be done in a newly designed extraction module (EM) prototype, providing selectivity in the analysis of a complex sample. For the sample collection, a diamond drill front end will be used to collect rock/icy powder. With all these components and capabilities together, MACROS offers a versatile analytical instrument for a mission targeting an icy moon, carbonaceous asteroid, or comet, to fully characterize the surface composition and advance our understanding of the chemical inventory present on that body.

  15. RSM and ANN modeling-based optimization approach for the development of ultrasound-assisted liposome encapsulation of piceid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2017-05-01

    Piceid, a naturally occurring derivative of resveratrol found in many plants, has recently been considered as a potential nutraceutical. However, its poorly water-soluble property could cause a coupled problem of biological activities concerning drug dispersion and absorption in human body, which is still unsolved now. Liposome, a well-known aqueous carrier for water-insoluble ingredients, is commonly applied in drug delivery systems. In this study, a feasible approach for solving the problem is that the targeted piceid was encapsulated into a liposomal formula as aqueous substrate to overcome its poor water-solubility. The encapsulation process was assisted by ultrasound, with investigation of lipid content, ultrasound power and ultrasound time, for controlling encapsulation efficiency (E.E%), absolute loading (A.L%) and particle size (PS). Moreover, both RSM and ANN methodologies were further applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted encapsulation process. The data indicated that the most important effects on the encapsulation performance were found to be of lipid content followed by ultrasound time and ultrasound power. The maximum E.E% (75.82%) and A.L% (2.37%) were exhibited by ultrasound assistance with the parameters of 160mg lipid content, ultrasound time for 24min and ultrasound power of 90W. By methodological aspects of processing, the predicted E.E% and A.L% were respectively in good agreement with the experimental results for both RSM and ANN. Moreover, RMSE, R 2 and AAD statistics were further used to compare the prediction abilities of RSM and ANN based on the validation data set. The results indicated that the prediction accuracy of ANN was better than that of RSM. In conclusion, ultrasound-assisted liposome encapsulation can be an efficient strategy for producing well-soluble/dispersed piceid, which could be further applied to promote human health by increased efficiency of biological absorption, and the process of ultrasound-mediated liposome

  16. Macro Cell Muting Coordination for Non-Uniform Topologies in LTE-A HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2013-01-01

    surrounding macro cells shall use low-power ABS. For such cases, user throughput gains of 30%-40% are still achievable. Moreover, it is demonstrated that if macro muting patterns are not fully time aligned, it causes additional interference fluctuations in the network, resulting in less efficient link......Enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for co-channel deployments of pico cells throughout a macro cell layout is studied. In particular, we analyze a scenario where only some macro cells have picos deployed, while other macro cells have no small cells. The challenge for such highly...... irregular scenarios is how to operate eICIC, and especially how to coordinate macro-cell muting. Our analysis shows that for eICIC to provide gain in such scenarios, it is recommended to use fully time aligned traditional Almost Blank Subframes (ABS) in the macro-cells with picos, while first tier...

  17. Modeling Encapsulated Microbubble Dynamics at High Pressure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Jan F.; Bose, Sanjeeb; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles are commonly used in ultrasound contrast imaging and are of growing interest in therapeutic applications where local cavitation creates temporary perforations in cell membranes allowing for enhanced drug delivery. Clinically used microbubbles are encapsulated by a shell commonly consisting of protein, polymer, or phospholipid; the response of these bubbles to externally imposed ultrasound waves is sensitive to the compressibility of the encapsulating shell. Existing models approximate the shell compressibility via an effective surface tension (Marmottant et al. 2005). We present simulations of microbubbles subjected to high amplitude ultrasound waves (on the order of 106 Pa) and compare the results with the experimental measurements of Helfield et al. (2016). Analysis of critical points (corresponding to maximum and minimum expansion) in the governing Rayleigh-Plesset equation is used to make estimates of the parameters used to characterize the effective surface tension of the encapsulating shell. Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  18. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: experience of a tertiary referral center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-05-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is arguably the most serious complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy with extremely high mortality rates. We aimed to establish the rates of EPS and factors associated with its development in a single center.

  19. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  20. Performance of Deacetyled Glucomannan as Iron Encapsulation Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation protects iron from degradation or oxidation possibilities due to its encapsulation material. Glucomannan (GM is a neutral polysaccharide consist of D-mannose and D-glucose connected with β-1,4 linkage. Deactylation transforms solubility of glucomannan as well as its gel structure. These properties support for excipient application. The aim of this work was to determine performance of deacetylated glucomannan as iron matrix. Deacetylation was conducted heterogeneously. Deacetylation did not change the backbone of GM. Higher alkali concentration has better ability to encapsulate iron. Extended deacetylation time and alkali concentration affect insignificantly on the performance of encapsulation to protect iron from oxidation. The release of iron from the matrix influences by deacetylation degree.