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Sample records for macrhybopsis gelida sturgeon

  1. Early life history of three pelagic-spawning minnows Macrhybopsis spp. in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Starks, Trevor A.; Miller, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history characteristics of age-0 sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, shoal chub Macrhybopsis hyostoma and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki were compared using several methods. AllMacrhybopsis species consumed mostly midge pupae, but M. meeki had the most general diet (Levins' index, B = 0·22) compared with M. hyostoma (B = 0·02) and M. gelida (B = 0·09). Morisita's diet overlap index among species pairs ranged from 0·62 to 0·97 and was highest between M. hyostoma and M. gelida. Daily ages estimated from lapilli otoliths for each species ranged from 15 to 43 days for M. gelida, 19 to 44 for M. hyostoma and from 16 to 64 days for M. meeki. Mean growth rates ranged from 0·79 mm day−1 for M. meeki to 1·39 mm day−1 for M. gelida. Mortality estimates indicated high daily survivorship rates for M. meeki (0·985), but could not be estimated for the other two species. Hatch date histograms were congruent with the belief that M. hyostoma and M. gelida spawn periodically from June to September. Macrhybopsis meeki, however, appeared to respond to a specific spawning cue as hatch dates were unimodal with a peak in July. These results fill a gap in current knowledge of these imperilled species that can be used to guide management decisions.

  2. Cellulose decomposition and associated nitrogen fixation by mixed cultures of Cellulomonas gelida and Azospirillum species or Bacillus macerans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1985-10-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas gelida plus Azospirillum lipoferum or Azospirillum brasilense and C. gelida plus Bacillus macerans were shown to degrade cellulose and straw and to utilize the energy-yielding products to fix atmospheric nitrogen. This cooperative process was followed over 30 days in sand-based cultures in which the breakdown of 20% of the cellulose and 28 to 30% of the straw resulted in the fixation of 12 to 14.6 mg of N per g of cellulose and 17 to 19 mg of N per g of straw consumed. Cellulomonas species have certain advantages over aerobic cellulose-degrading fungi in being able to degrade cellulose at oxygen concentrations as low as 1% O/sub 2/ (vol/vol) which would allow a close association between cellulose-degrading and microaerobic diazotrophic microorganisms. Cultures inoculated with initially different proportions of A. brasilense and C. gelida all reached a stable ratio of approximately 1 Azospirillum/3 Cellulomonas cells.

  3. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  4. Un bou que era una planta (Bounegre : Bu nerzo/nerjo): contribucióal lèxic tamazight dels Gelida (Argelita, Castelló)

    OpenAIRE

    Barceló, Miquel

    1996-01-01

    El nom de la partida rural de Bounegre a Argelita (Castelló), amb un origen desconegut fins ara, és posat en relació amb un terme del lèxic botànic tamazight (berber). El cas concret serveix per començar a caracteritzar la variant dialectal parlada pels Gelida, immigrats a al-Andalus abans del segle X. The place-name of Bounegre (Argelita,Castelló) -up to now without an specific etymologicai identification- is possibly related to a botanichal word of the kabylian boundle of tarnazight. Thi...

  5. Morphological and genetic evolution in eastern populations of the Macrhybopsis aestivalis complex (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with the descriptions of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Carter R; Mayden, Richard L; Powers, Steven L

    2017-03-30

    For many years the North American cyprinid fish Macrhybopsis aestivalis (common name: Speckled Chub) was regarded as a single widespread and morphologically variable species, occurring in rivers throughout much of the Mississippi Valley and geographically adjacent eastern Gulf slope drainages, west to the Rio Grande basin in Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico. Eisenhour (1997) completed a morphological study of western populations of the Speckled Chub, the results of which appeared thereafter in published form (Eisenhour 1999, 2004). He demonstrated the existence of five valid species west of the Mississippi River (aestivalis, marconis, australis, tetranema, hyostoma), of which the name aestivalis was shown to be restricted to the population occurring in the Rio Grande and the geographically adjacent Rio San Fernando system, in northeastern Mexico. Eisenhour (2004) considered populations throughout the middle Mississippi Valley and its major tributaries to be a single morphologically variable species (hyostoma), and he also indicated that populations of Macrhybopsis from eastern Gulf slope drainages may represent a complex of species. Genetic confirmation of Eisenhour's conclusions regarding western species appeared in the publication by Underwood et al. (2003), who also showed that western populations of M. hyostoma, as presently recognized, are genetically much more complex than previously considered.     Meanwhile, the present authors were involved in a companion study of eastern populations of Macrhybopsis, for which a genetic summary of the eastern Gulf coast species was published by Mayden & Powers (2004). Based on their findings, four species were recognized from southeastern drainages (identified as species A-D), although no formal taxonomic descriptions were included. Their genetic data, in combination with meristic, morphometric and other morphological data presented herein, form the basis for a revised classification of eastern Macrhybopsis populations

  6. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  7. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  8. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  9. Contaminants in Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon recovered from the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers, Maine.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In the Gulf of Maine, the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species and the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) is a...

  10. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Street and Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon... the efficient movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is... experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation...

  11. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets... movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles long... significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation season between...

  12. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A.S.; Mosahab, R.

    2008-01-01

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  13. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  14. Chemical characteristics and antithrombotic effect of chondroitin sulfates from sturgeon skull and sturgeon backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Meng; Song, Juyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shun; Wu, Ruiyun; Ma, Changwei; Li, Pinglan

    2015-06-05

    Chondroitin sulfates (CSs) were extracted from sturgeon skull and backbone, and their chemical composition, anticoagulant, anti-platelet and thrombolysis activities were evaluated. The average molecular weights of CS from sturgeon skull and backbone were 38.5kDa and 49.2kDa, respectively. Disaccharide analysis indicated that the sturgeon backbone CS was primarily composed of disaccharide monosulfated in position four of the GalNAc (37.8%) and disaccharide monosulfated in position six of the GalNAc (59.6%) while sturgeon skull CS was primarily composed of nonsulfated disaccharide (74.2%). Sturgeon backbone CS showed stronger antithrombotic effect than sturgeon skull CS. Sturgeon backbone CS could significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation and dissolved platelet plasma clots in vitro. The results suggested that sturgeon backbone CS can be explored as a functional food with antithrombotic function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  16. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  17. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  18. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  19. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, A. brevirostrum, with notes on social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ontogenetic behavior of Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon and Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon early life intervals were similar during laboratory observations. After hatching, free embryos were photonegative and sought cover. When embryos developed into larvae, fish left cover, were photopositive, and initiated downstream migration. Free embryos may remain at the spawning site instead of migrating downstream because the risk of predation at spawning sites is low. The two species are sympatric, but not closely related, so the similarities in innate behaviors suggest common adaptations, not phylogenetlc relationship. Atlantic sturgeon migrated downstream for 12 days (peak, first 6 days), shortnose sturgeon migrated for 3 days, and year-0 juveniles of both species did not resume downstream migration. Short or long migrations of larvae may reflect different styles related to the total migratory distance from spawning sites to juvenile rearing areas. Atlantic sturgeon need to move a short distance to reach rearing areas and they had a long 1-step migration of 6-12 days. In contrast, shortnose sturgeon need to move a long distance to reach all rearing areas. This may be accomplished by a 2-step migration, of which the brief migration of larvae is only the first step. Early migrant Atlantic sturgeon were nocturnal, while late migrants were diurnal, and shortnose sturgeon were diurnal. These diel differences may also be adaptations for long (Atlantic sturgeon) or short (shortnose sturgeon) migrations. Cultured shortnose sturgeon, and possibly Atlantic sturgeon, have a dominance hierarchy with large fish dominant when competing for limited foraging space. Social behavior may be more important in the life history of wild sturgeons than is generally recognized.

  20. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  1. NEW BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR CRYOPRESERVATION OF REPRODUCTIVE CELLS OF STURGEON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ponomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to increase the survivability of reproductive cells of sturgeon at cryopreservation and developing reliable technology suitable for use on an industrial scale.Methods. We have used standard methods of freezing, thawing reproductive cells, fertilization and incubation of eggs and larval rearing of sturgeon. Fundamentally new is cryoprotective composition: for sperm we have adjusted the composition of cryoprotective medium (for beluga 3% of dimethyl sulfoxide, for Russian sturgeon 4% of dimethyl sulfoxide; for freezing the eggs we have used cryoprotective mixture of unrefined vegetable and animal oils.Results. Survivability of defrosted sperm sturgeon has been increased: for Beluga it is up to 20%, for Russian sturgeon - 47%. At insemination of cryopreserved eggs of Russian sturgeon with native sperm the fertilization rate has made 41%.Main conclusions. The research proves the effectiveness of reducing the toxic effect of cryoprotective substances, thus leading to increased survivability of reproductive cells of sturgeon. During the insemination of eggs, stored in liquid nitrogen, the resulting offspring were viable and by the reactivity of the central nervous system and receptor complex it does not differ from the young obtained by conventional technology.

  2. Reproductive physiology of Missouri River gravid pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon during the 2005 and 2006 spawning seasons: Chapter C in Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    In a natural, unaltered river, the location and timing of sturgeon spawning will be dictated by the prevailing environmental conditions to which the sturgeon have adapted. A goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP; see chap. A) at the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center is to identify where, when, and under what conditions shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) spawn in the altered Missouri River so that those conditions necessary for spawning success can be defined. One approach to achieving this goal is to exploit what is known about fish reproductive physiology to develop and apply a suite of diagnostic indicators of readiness to spawn. In 2005 and 2006, gravid shovelnose sturgeon and a limited number of pallid sturgeon were fitted with transmitters and tracked on their spawning migration. A suite of physiological indicators of reproductive state such as reproductive hormones and oocyte development were measured. These same measurements were made on tissues collected from additional fish, presumably migrating to spawn, that were not tagged or tracked. The data presented here indicating the sturgeons’ readiness to spawn are to be evaluated together with their behavior and the environmental conditions. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) Sturgeon Response to Flow Modification (SRFM; see chap. A) study, initiated in 2006, provides additional opportunities to experimentally evaluate the sturgeon reproductive response indicators relative to changes in flow. In this chapter, we report progress made on identifying and developing the physiological indicators and summarize 2 years’ worth of indicator data collected thus far.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report

  4. REFERENCED TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES FOR STURGEON FINGERLING BREEDING IN INTENSIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILENA TALPES

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Work objective is to present an oversight regarding the modality to rearing the descendents of anadromous sturgeon species, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser gueldenstaedti and Huso huso, obtained trough artificial reproduction, indicating successively, the production system, its management, alimentation strategy for sturgeon species and technological performances registered by these. Experiments developed during two phases, respectively the post-embryonary one and sapling rearing during of a 168 days period. Registered performances of sturgeon species material were assessed in conformity with specifically biotechnological indicators.

  5. Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  6. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 1-7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  7. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  8. Biology and control of reproduction of sturgeons in fish farm

    OpenAIRE

    Billard, R.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last century the reproduction of sturgeon has been intensively studied par Russian scientists who established a technology for the ranching of alevins which included artificial fertilization of gametes taken from wild broodfish and larvae rearing. More recently, since 1970, major contributions originated from teams in the USA, the EU, Japan and Iran. A rather good knowledge of the reproductive physiology of sturgeon is now available: gametogenesis, reproductive cycle, ovulation, sper...

  9. Best management practices guide for waterpower projects: lake sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    There are challenges and potential risks inherent in waterpower generation activities and this guide focuses on the fish species of lake sturgeon in Ontario and provides a synthesis of industry-wide knowledge and best available science indicators regarding hydropower impacts. This manual is written as guidance to proponents and practitioners but also to owners and operators, and provides them with tools and approaches to implement management strategies that will minimize potential impacts of waterpower generation installations on lake sturgeon and its habitat.

  10. Population Viability Analysis of the Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ll- 1 ) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Sturgeon ( left ) Prey ( right ) Figure 11. Model-simulated shortnose sturgeon population dynamics and prey dynamics over a...indicate low substrate diversity dominated by silt/sand substrate. ix ACRONYMS DO Dissolved oxygen DOC Dissolved organic carbon EFDC...fewer fish than the largest known population in the Hudson River ( Bain et al. 2007). Population estimates for this population have varied between 75

  11. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National Fish...

  12. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  13. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Bergman

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  14. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  15. The origin and migration of primordial germ cells in sturgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiju Saito

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts.

  16. Management applications of genetic structure of anadromous sturgeon populations in the Lower Danube River (LDR, Romania

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    ONĂRĂ Dalia Florentina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the over-exploitation of sturgeon stocks for caviar production simultaneously with severe habitat deteriorations has led to drastic declines in the natural populations of the Danube River. As a result of (i decrease of sturgeon catches from 37.5 tons in year 2002 to 11.8 tons in year 2005, (ii disrupted age class structure of sturgeon adult cohorts in years 2003 and 2004, and (iii lack or low recruitment in the period 2001 – 2004, in 2005 the Romanian Government started the Supportive Stocking Program of Lower Danube River with hatchery-produced young sturgeons in Romania. Subsequently, in 2006 the commercial sturgeon fishing in Romania was banned for a 10-year period. Genetic investigations were undertaken as an attempt to assess the genetic variability of the sturgeon brood fish, captured from the wild, used in two aquaculture facilities in Romania for obtaining juveniles for supportive stocking of LDR with young sturgeons produced by artificial propagation in year 2007. Our data indicate strong genetic diversity in case of stellate sturgeon and lack of diversity within the batch of beluga sturgeon brood fish captured in 2007, analyzed in the current study. Specific measures that could improve the management plan of sturgeon brood fish in the Romanian part of LDR in the light of recent FAO guidelines regarding the sturgeon hatchery practices and management for release were suggested

  17. The Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee River - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefishes are modern descendants of an ancient group of freshwater fishes, the Chondrostei (a group of bony fishes with mostly cartilaginous skeletons). Sturgeons evolved during the Age of the Dinosaurs, and have prospered in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe and Asia for 200 million years. Together with alligators and crocodiles, they survived the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs and many other groups of animals disappeared forever. They originated prior to the creation of the Atlantic Ocean, when the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent Pangea broke into North America and Eurasia. Most sturgeons are highly specialized to feed in the sediment on small invertebrate prey, a radical evolutionary departure from most of their fish-eating ancestors.

  18. Features oxidative processes in sturgeons fish (Acipenseridae (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Symon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To anayze scientific sources on physiological-biochemical pecularities of reducing-oxidizing processes, including peroxide oxidation of lipids and work of the system of antioxidant protection system in sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. The initiation and process of the oxidative stress have been described. The main products of peroxide oxidation of lipids, antioxidants of natural and artificial origin, organs and tissues for the studies of reducing-oxidizing processes have been examined. Findings. The work generalizes the processes of lipid peroxidation. Briefly outlined the main mechanism of action of antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidant defense system plays one of key role in the life of organism due regulating its series of metabolic processes, use of assessing of its state gives an opportunity obtain quantitative information on the progress of these processes. The products of free radical peroxidation (dien conjugates and malonic dialdehyde can also act as a sort of biomarkers of tissue damage, because their content can judge about the intensity of the flow of free radical processes in the various systems in organism. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. It is shown the most common antioxidants used in the feeding of sturgeon. Organs and tissues, which should be used for studying the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in sturgeon species, have been examined. Practical value. The systematized data regarding peroxide oxidation of lipids, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection system allow finding a balance between these processes. The data on antioxidants, which are used in feeds for sturgeon species, will be useful for sturgeon culturists. The array of the generalized information will be important for scientists who study the pecularities of the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids and antioxidant protection system in

  19. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  20. TO THE ISSUE OF PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF STURGEON STOCKS IN THE VOLGA-CASPIAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasilieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that for the preservation and restoration of natural sturgeon populations it is necessary to increase the eff iciency of reproduction, both natural and artificial Article determines the crucial role of artificial reproduction of sturgeon at the present stage to keep the gene pool of these valuable fish species and restoration of biological resources for commercial fishing.The article contains a set of measures for the conservation, restoration and rational use of natural resources of sturgeon.

  1. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail.

  2. Project overview: Chapter A in Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  3. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W Hondorp

    Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove

  4. Heavy metal bio-accumulation in tissues of sturgeon species of the Lower Danube River, Romania

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    ONĂRĂ Dalia Florentina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates bio-accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of sturgeons of the North-Western Black Sea and Lower Danube River (LDR. Samples (10 – 30 gr of liver, muscle, fat, gonads and skin tissues collected in October 2003 from 21 adult specimens of three sturgeon species: Acipenser stellatus (10, A. gueldenstaedtii (2, and Huso huso (9 were analysed for content in Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe and Ni, using VARIAN Spectra A100. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were found in liver and the smallest in muscles of sturgeons. The highest heavy metal content was detected in tissues of stellate sturgeons, followed by Russian sturgeons. In all three species Cd and Cu content of the liver as well as of the stellate sturgeon muscle surpassed the admitted limits for human consumption (Cd – 0.05; Zn - 50; Cu – 5.0; Pb – 0.3 [mg / kg wet weight]. In view of a future re-opening of the commercial fishing of wild sturgeons it is strongly recommended testing the heavy metal level prior delivering sturgeon products to the market. Avoiding human consumption of liver of sturgeons captured in the LDR is strongly recommended as well. In the case of Cd a bio-accumulation with age of sturgeons was visible. In all species males seem to accumulate more heavy metals in their tissues. We explain this as effect of more frequent spawning migration of males in the LDR, the major contamination source. Beluga sturgeons show less heavy metal bio-accumulation of tissues.

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  8. The Relationship Between Acoustic Target Strength and Body Length for Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    sturgeon feeding portray them as opportunistic benthivores, feeding primar- ily on mollusks, polychaete worms, amphipods, isopods, shrimp and small bottom...dwelling fishes and insect larvae (Gilbert 1989; Smith 1985). The Atlantic sturgeon is anadromous, entering freshwater rivers to spawn at water...bottom (small rubble, gravel, hard clay, and limestone) is required for successful egg attachment and incubation, while also protecting larvae from

  9. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... (Service 1993, p. 3). Current known threats to the pallid sturgeon include habitat modification, small... current maximum harvest size limits for shovelnose sturgeon on the Mississippi River (81.3 cm (32 in... reduction in supply resulted in exponential increase in caviar prices subsequent to the 1978 peak (Bardi and...

  10. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks... hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  11. Mattagami River Lake sturgeon entrainment : Little Long generating station facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyler, J.; Evers, J.; McKinley, S.; Evans, R.R.; Prevost, G.; Carson, R.; Phoenix, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project and publication is the result of a collaborative effort by other Large River Ecosystem Unit of Northeast Science (NEST), Ontario Hydro in Kapuskasing, and the New Post First Nation in Cochrane, Ontario, designed to investigate potential solutions to minimize or eliminate the problem of trapped lake sturgeon in the Adam Creek Diversion. The Adam Creek Dam is used to divert excess water from the Mattagami River hydroelectric complex which consists of the Little Long, Smoky Falls, Harmon and Kipling generating stations. The lake sturgeon entrainment problem in the area was discovered in 1990. Potential solutions to the problem include the redirection of flows to mainstream, the placement of a rope barrier, electrical deterrents, physical/electrical guidance systems, sound deterrents, gate modifications, and the continued relocation of fish. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these potential solutions are discussed. Results of the analysis indicated that perceptual and physical barriers have the greatest potential to minimize lake sturgeon entrainment in Adam Creek. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs., 6 appendices

  12. Main hematological parameters of sturgeon species (Acipenseridae (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific sources on the physiological, biochemical, ecological and genetic features of the main hematological paremeters and patterns of their variability in sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. To examine the fundamental aspects of lipid and protein metabolism in blood serum and the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on them. To highlight the common features of serum enzymes. Findings. A review of scientific papers revealed that although hematological parameters of sturgeons are generally similar to those of teleosts and mammals, there are a number of significant differences. In addition, many hematological parameters are characterized by species specificity, even within a family. Special attention is given to the variability of hematological parameters under the effect of factors of both internal and external environment. The paper describes the effects of sex and age, as well as the seasons of the year on the compositio of sturgeon blood. The fundamentals of the use of serum proteins in genetic and population studies are outlined. The features of the functioning of hemoglobin in sturgeon’s red blood cells are examined. The main hematological parameters involved in the formation and maturation of sexual products, and their effect on fertility are reviewed. For example, the spawners, which hadn’t put reproductive product, are characterized by a low rate of hemoglobin, increase in erythrocyte sedimentation speed and also a rise of the level of crude protein in blood and β-lipoproteid serum.The biochemical parameters (total protein and fractions, glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, the activity of some enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase in serum are examined. Practical value. The systematized data on the main hematological parameters and patterns of their variability in sturgeon species will be useful for both scientits and fish farmers. This is due to the

  13. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  15. Review of BPA funded sturgeon, resident fish and wildlife projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation

  16. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  17. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  18. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16–140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment.

  19. Green sturgeon distribution in the Pacific Ocean estimated from modeled oceanographic features and migration behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Wells, Brian K; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41-51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36-37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information.

  20. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Haas, Justin D.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2010 scope of work primarily address spawning as a probable factor limiting pallid sturgeon survival and recovery, although limited pilot studies also have been initiated to examine the requirements of early life stages. The research is designed to inform management decisions affecting channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2010.

  1. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16–140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment.

  2. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  3. Reconsidering residency: Characterization and conservation implications of complex migratory patterns of shortnose sturgeon (Acispenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Phillip E.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve endangered species usually involve attempts to define and manage threats at the appropriate scale of population processes. In some species that scale is localized; in others, dispersal and migration link demic units within larger metapopulations. Current conservation strategies for endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) assume the species is river resident, with little to no movement between rivers. However we have found that shortnose sturgeon travel more than 130 km through coastal waters between the largest rivers in Maine. Indeed, acoustic telemetry shows that shortnose sturgeon enter six out of the seven acoustically monitored rivers we have monitored, with over 70% of tagged individuals undertaking coastal migrations between river systems. Four migration patterns were identified for shortnose sturgeon inhabiting the Penobscot River, Maine: river resident (28%), spring coastal emigrant (24%), fall coastal emigrant (33%), and summer coastal emigrant (15%). No shortnose sturgeon classified as maturing female exhibited a resident pattern, indicating differential migration. Traditional river-specific assessment and management of shortnose sturgeon could be better characterized using a broader metapopulation scale, at least in the Gulf of Maine, that accounts for diverse migratory strategies and the importance of migratory corridors as critical habitat.

  4. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  5. Genetic differentiation of spring-spawning and fall-spawning male Atlantic sturgeon in the James River, Virginia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations are currently at severely depleted levels due to historic overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution. The importance of biologically correct stock structure for effective conservation and management efforts is well known. Recent improvements in our understanding of Atlantic sturgeon migrations, movement, and the occurrence of putative dual spawning groups leads to questions regarding the true stock structure of this endangered species. In the James River, VA specifically, captures of spawning Atlantic sturgeon and accompanying telemetry data suggest there are two discrete spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon. The two putative spawning groups were genetically evaluated using a powerful microsatellite marker suite to determine if they are genetically distinct. Specifically, this study evaluates the genetic structure, characterizes the genetic diversity, estimates effective population size, and measures inbreeding of Atlantic sturgeon in the James River. The results indicate that fall and spring spawning James River Atlantic sturgeon groups are genetically distinct (overall FST = 0.048, F'ST = 0.181 with little admixture between the groups. The observed levels of genetic diversity and effective population sizes along with the lack of detected inbreeding all indicated that the James River has two genetically healthy populations of Atlantic sturgeon. The study also demonstrates that samples from adult Atlantic sturgeon, with proper sample selection criteria, can be informative when creating reference population databases. The presence of two genetically-distinct spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon within the James River raises concerns about the current genetic assignment used by managers. Other nearby rivers may also have dual spawning groups that either are not accounted for or are pooled in reference databases. Our results represent the second documentation of genetically

  6. Sperm proteins in teleostean and chondrostean (sturgeon) fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Hulak, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Sperm proteins in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of teleostean and chondrostean have evolved adaptations due to the changes in the reproductive environment. Analysis of the composition and functions of these proteins provides new insights into sperm motility and fertilising abilities, thereby creating possibilities for improving artificial reproduction and germplasm resource conservation technologies (e.g. cryopreservation). Seminal plasma proteins are involved in the protection of spermatozoa during storage in the reproductive system, whereas all spermatozoa proteins contribute to the swimming and fertilising abilities of sperm. Compared to mammalian species, little data are available on fish sperm proteins and their functions. We review here the current state of the art in this field and focus on relevant subjects that require attention. Future research should concentrate on protein functions and their mode of action in fish species, especially on the role of spermatozoa surface proteins during fertilisation and on a description of sturgeon sperm proteins.

  7. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  8. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  9. Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Teal, L.R.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Griffioen, A.B.; Houben, B.; Breve, N.W.P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have

  10. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  11. Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, movements in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake, Minnesota-Ontario, contains a native population of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) that has gone largely unstudied. The objective of this descriptive study was to summarize generalized Lake Sturgeon movement patterns through the use of biotelemetry. Telemetry data reinforced the high utilization of the Squirrel Falls geographic location by Lake Sturgeon, with 37% of the re-locations occurring in that area. Other spring aggregations occurred in areas associated with Kettle Falls, the Pipestone River, and the Rat River, which could indicate spawning activity. Movement of Lake Sturgeon between the Seine River and the South Arm of Rainy Lake indicates the likelihood of one integrated population on the east end of the South Arm. The lack of re-locations in the Seine River during the months of September and October may have been due to Lake Sturgeon moving into deeper water areas of the Seine River and out of the range of radio telemetry gear or simply moving back into the South Arm. Due to the movements between Minnesota and Ontario, coordination of management efforts among provincial, state, and federal agencies will be important.

  12. Substrate and flow characteristics associated with White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Parsley, Michael; Barton, Gary; Batt, Thomas; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2018-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify habitat characteristics associated with age 0+ White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) recruitment in three reaches of the Columbia River Basin: Skamania reach (consistent recruitment), John Day reach (intermittent/inconsistent recruitment), and Kootenai reach (no recruitment). Our modeling approach involved numerous steps. First, we collected information about substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics in each reach. Second, we developed a set of spatially explicit predictor variables. Third, we built two habitat (probability) models with Skamania reach training data where White Sturgeon recruitment was consistent. Fourth, we created spawning maps of each reach by populating the habitat models with in-reach physical metrics (substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics). Fifth, we examined model accuracy by overlaying spawning locations in Skamania and Kootenai reaches with habitat predictions obtained from probability models. Sixth, we simulated how predicted habitat changed in each reach after manipulating physical conditions to more closely match Skamania reach. Model verification confirmed White Sturgeon generally spawned in locations with higher model probabilities in Skamania and Kootenai reaches, indicating the utility of extrapolating the models. Model simulations revealed significant gains in White Sturgeon habitat in all reaches when spring flow increased, gravel/cobble composition increased, or embeddedness decreased. The habitat models appear well suited to assist managers when identifying reach-specific factors limiting White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin or throughout its range.

  13. Kootenai River white sturgeon investigations. Chapter 1: Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning and recruitment evaluation; Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paragamian, V.L.; Kruse, G.; Wakkinen, V.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m 3 /s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m 3 /s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m 3 /s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m 3 /s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m 3 /s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake

  14. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  15. Dispersal and survival of stocked juvenile hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-stocking dispersal of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill in the Wis3oka River (southern Poland was investigated using biotelemetry. Thirty-five hatchery-reared juvenile A. oxyrinchus were tagged with radio or acoustic transmitters and tracked using mobile surveys and fixed receivers. Daily movement patterns were similar in 2009 and 2010. The sturgeon migrated with a mean speed of 1.42 km h-1 in 2009 and of 2.06 km h-1 in 2010. Migration rate was not regarded as being dependent on juvenile sturgeon size. The confirmed survival of individuals from the two field seasons differed slightly over the course of this study. Short-term survival of A. oxyrinchus was 86.7 and 90% in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  16. Science information to support Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was commissioned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to develop a foundation of understanding of how pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics are linked to management actions in the Missouri River. The EA consists of several steps: (1) development of comprehensive, conceptual ecological models illustrating pallid sturgeon population dynamics and links to management actions and other drivers; (2) compilation and assessment of available scientific literature, databases, and models; (3) development of predictive, quantitative models to explore the system dynamics and population responses to management actions; and (4) analysis and assessment of effects of system operations and actions on species’ habitats and populations. This report addresses the second objective, compilation and assessment of relevant information.

  17. Simulated Impacts of Juvenile Mortality on Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Tate

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We used an age-structured computer model to assess the impact of changes in juvenile mortality on the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon population in the Suwannee River, Florida. We simulated population trends under four levels of annual juvenile mortality (20, 25, 30, and 35%. As the rate of mortality increased, population size decreased, and rates of population growth shifted from positive to negative. Our models indicated that juvenile survival is important to the success of gulf sturgeon populations, and mortality estimates are needed to predict population viability. We suggest that life history studies in estuaries should be conducted, and bycatch rates for commercial fisheries should be quantified to aid in the management and conservation of gulf sturgeon.

  18. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  19. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  20. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus from the Columbia River during a period when several plutonium-production reactors were operating at the Hanford Site in Washington State and compared these values to those measured several years after reactor shutdown. Studies conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during 1953-1955 indicated that high concentrations of radionuclides (as total beta) were present in some internal organs on the external surface of white sturgeons. Average concentrations were about 1,480 Bq/kg for liver and kidney and exceeded 2,200 Bq/kg for fins and scutes. The principal radionuclides in the tissues of white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach during 1963-1967, the peak reactor operation interval, were 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr. Average concentrations of 32 P in muscle ranged from 925 to 2,109 Bq/kg and were typically two to seven times greater than 65 Zn. Average concentrations of radionuclides were usually in the order of gut contents much-gt carcass > muscle. Studies from 1989 to 1990 showed that radionuclide concentrations had decreased dramatically in white sturgeon tissue since the time of reactor operation. Maximum concentrations for artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 60 Co, 137 Cs) in muscle and cartilage of white sturgeons in the Columbia River had declined to less than 4 Bq/kg. Formerly abundant radionuclides, including 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr, could not be detected in recent tissue samples. Further, radionuclide tissue burden in populations of sturgeons from the Hanford Reach and the upstream or downstream reference locations did not differ significantly. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay / Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26°C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8 μg g-1 selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65 kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval sturgeons

  2. Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyoucos, Ian; Bushnell, Peter; Brill, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) populations have been declared either endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Effective measures to repel sturgeon from fishing gear would be beneficial to both fish and fishers because they could reduce both fishery-associated mortality and the need for seasonal and area closures of specific fisheries. Some chondrostean fishes (e.g., sturgeons and paddlefishes) can detect weak electric field gradients (possibly as low as 5 Μv/cm) due to arrays of electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) on their snout and gill covers. Weak electric fields, such as those produced by electropositive metals (typically mixtures of the lanthanide elements), could therefore potentially be used as a deterrent. To test this idea, we recorded the behavioral responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (31-43 cm fork length) to electropositive metal (primarily a mixture of the lanthanide elements neodymium and praseodymium) both in the presence and absence of food stimuli. Trials were conducted in an approximately 2.5 m diameter × 0.3 m deep tank, and fish behaviors were recorded with an overhead digital video camera. Video records were subsequently digitized (x, y coordinate system), the distance between the fish and the electropositive metal calculated, and data summarized by compiling frequency distributions with 5-cm bins. Juvenile sturgeon showed clear avoidance of electropositive metal but only when food was present. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the electropositive metals, or other sources of weak electric fields, may eventually be used to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear, but further investigation is needed. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, M. J.; Rugg, M.L.; Pegg, M.A.; Patino, Reynaldo; Hammen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi-gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P  0.05). Male shovelnose sturgeon reached FL50 at 579 mm and at a minimum length of 453 mm. The average male spawning cycle was 1–2 years. Reproductively viable male and female sturgeon occurred during the spring (March–May) and autumn (September–October) in both years, indicating spring and potential autumn spawning events. Shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Platte River are maturing at a shorter length and younger age compared to populations elsewhere. Although it is unknown if the change is plastic or evolutionary, unfavorable environmental conditions or over-harvest may lead to hastened declines compared to other systems.

  4. Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; James, Daniel A.; Welker, Timothy L.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2016-07-15

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis was designed to carry out three components of an assessment of how Missouri River management has affected, and will affect, population dynamics of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon): (1) collection of reliable scientific information, (2) critical assessment and synthesis of available data and analyses, and (3) analysis of the effects of actions on listed species and their habitats. This report is a synthesis of the three components emphasizing development of lines of evidence relating potential future management actions to pallid sturgeon population dynamics. We address 21 working management hypotheses that emerged from an expert opinion-based filtering process.The ability to quantify linkages from abiotic changes to pallid sturgeon population dynamics is compromised by fundamental information gaps. Although a substantial foundation of pallid sturgeon science has been developed during the past 20 years, our efforts attempt to push beyond that understanding to provide predictions of how future management actions may affect pallid sturgeon responses. For some of the 21 hypotheses, lines of evidence are limited to theoretical deduction, inference from sparse empirical datasets, or expert opinion. Useful simulation models have been developed to predict the effects of management actions on survival of drifting pallid sturgeon free embryos in the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri River complex (hereafter referred to as the “upper river”), and to assess the effects of flow and channel reconfigurations on habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River, tributaries, and Mississippi River downstream of Gavins Point Dam (hereafter referred to as the “lower river”). A population model also has been developed that can be used to assess sensitivity of the population to survival of specific life stages, assess some hypotheses related to stocking decisions, and explore a limited number of management

  5. Assessment of whether upstream passage for Lake Sturgeon is needed at the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (Winnipeg River)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, T.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviewed Manitoba Hydro's proposal to modernize the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (GS) on the Winnipeg River, with particular reference to the potential impacts on Lake Sturgeon in Management Unit 5 (MU5) where large numbers of the fish spawn at the base of the falls. The modernization will involve replacing the spillway, dam segments and replacing or repairing the powerhouse. The pros and cons of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon and the generating station were outlined. The only spawning area in the MU5 area may be altered considerably due to changes in water flow, depending on the design chosen for modernization. A potential benefit of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon would be to increase genetic diversity within the Winnipeg River. Another potential benefit would be to allow Lake Sturgeon, from the relatively dense population below the GS, to move upstream into MU4 where unfilled habitat may be available and Lake Sturgeon abundance is lower. A potential disadvantage of providing fish passage would be the loss of individual Lake Sturgeon from the healthy population in MU5 with no accompanying benefit to MU4. There would be no net gain to MU4 or MU5 if migrating Lake Sturgeon returned to MU5 rather than proceeding upstream. It was concluded that these current gaps in knowledge must be filled in order to fully assess the environmental impacts. 2 figs.

  6. High-throughput sequencing of microRNA transcriptome and expression assay in the sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yuan

    Full Text Available Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P≤0.01, which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms and pathways (37 KEGG regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05, illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.

  7. High-throughput sequencing of microRNA transcriptome and expression assay in the sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lihong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Li, Linmiao; Jiang, Haiying; Chen, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P≤0.01), which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms) and pathways (37 KEGG) regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05), illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.

  8. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  9. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cai

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1 critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2 active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3 excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4 with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  10. 78 FR 27187 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Green Sturgeon Endangered Species Act Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Green Sturgeon Endangered Species Act Take Exceptions and Exemptions AGENCY...) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) were promulgated for the species on June 2, 2010 (75 FR 30714... information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written comments must be...

  11. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  12. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  13. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  14. Microsatellites variation in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus from the Lower Danube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons represent an ancient group of fish with an important scientific and commercial value. The economical significance of these species is due to their meat and roes that are considered to be a gastronomic delicacy. Unfortunately, precisely due to their economical value the sturgeons have been overexploited by fishing and poaching and nowadays are facing extinction. Currently, in the Ponto-Caspian region is found the greatest diversity of acipenserid species and the Lower Danube is the last refuge for the sturgeons from the Black Sea. Acipenser ruthenus (sterlet is a fresh water sturgeon species which has undergone a large population decline, but local populations are still surviving in most parts of the rivers draining to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. In order to have successful conservation programs of this species is essential to evaluate its genetic diversity. Microsatellites represent valuable markers for genetic analyses aiming the assessment of genetic variability of population. In our study we analyzed the cross-amplification and the polymorphism in A. ruthenus population from the Lower Danube of seven microsatellite loci (LS-19, LS-34, LS-54, LS-57, LS-68, Aox23 and Aox45, originally isolated in North-American sturgeon species. Among the seven loci, three (LS57, Aox23 and Aox45 have showed a tetrasomic profile. The most polymorphic loci were LS-57 with 12 alleles in population, followed by Aox23 and Aox45 with 11 alleles and LS-68 with 10 alleles. Four loci (LS-19, LS-34 and LS-54 presented a lower level of polymorphism, only three alleles being identified for the analyzed individuals.

  15. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  17. Morphology, chemical contents and physiology of chondrostean fish sperm: a comparative study between Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenička, M.; Hadi Alavi, S.M.; Číčová, Zdeňka; Gela, D.; Cosson, J.; Nebesářová, Jana; Linhart, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2008), s. 371-377 ISSN 0175-8659 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0817 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : NORTH-AMERICAN STURGEONS * TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY * CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE * SHOVELNOSE STURGEON * LAKE STURGEON * MOTILITY * SPERMATOZOA * PADDLEFISH * SALMON * OSMOLALITY Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.638, year: 2008

  18. Gonad organochlorine concentrations and plasma steroid levels in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.P.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Yates, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sturgeon are an important fishery resource world-wide, providing food and income through commercial, sport, and tribal fisheries. However, sturgeon populations are imperiled in many areas due to overharvest, habitat loss, and pollution. White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are found along the west coast of North America from San Francisco Bay, USA to British Columbia, Canada. The Columbia River, located in the Pacific Northwest USA, supports active commercial, sport, and tribal white sturgeon fisheries. The white sturgeon fishery in the Columbia River estuary is one of the most productive sturgeon fisheries in the World. Despite the success of the Columbia River estuary white sturgeon fishery, the populations within the impounded sections (i.e. behind the hydroelectric dams) of the Columbia River experience poor reproductive success (Beamesderfer et al. 1995). This poor reproductive success has been attributed to hydroelectric development, but water pollution could also be a significant factor. The bottom dwelling life history and late maturing reproductive strategy for this species may make it particularly sensitive to the adverse effects of bioaccumulative pollutants.The Columbia River receives effluent from bleached-kraft pulp mills, aluminum smelters, municipal sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural. industrial, and urban areas. Bioaccumulative contaminants that have the potential for endocrine disruption have been detected in fish and sediments from the Columbia River (Foster et al. 1999). An integrated system of hormones control reproduction in vertebrates. Plasma steroids direct developmental events essential for reproduction. Disruption of endocrine control by contaminants has been linked to reproductive anomalies and failure in a number of vertebrate species (Guillette et al. 1996; Jobling et al. 1996). Because of this, it is important to understand if organochlorine compounds are accumulating in Columbia River white sturgeon and having

  19. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-20

    This report documents a process of filtering of hypotheses that relate Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population dynamics to management actions including flow alterations, channel reconfigurations, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation. The filtering process was a partnership among U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to contribute to the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan process. The objective of the filtering process was to produce a set of hypotheses with high relevance to pallid sturgeon population dynamics and decision making on the Missouri River. The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team filtered hundreds of potential hypotheses implicit in conceptual ecological models to develop a set of 40 candidate dominant hypotheses that were identified by experts as being important in pallid sturgeon population dynamics. Using a modified Delphi process and additional expert opinion, the team reduced this set of hypotheses to 23 working dominant hypotheses. We then matched the 23 hypotheses with management actions that could influence the biotic outcomes, resulting in as many as 176 potential effects between management actions and pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River. This number was consolidated to a candidate set of 53 working management hypotheses because some management actions applied to multiple life stages of the pallid sturgeon. We used an additional round of expert surveys to identify a set of 30 working management hypotheses. Finally, the set of working management hypotheses was filtered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program for actions that were within the agency’s authority and jurisdiction. This round resulted in a set of 21 hypotheses for initial modeling of linkages from management to pallid sturgeon population responses.

  20. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  1. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—A synthesis of science, 2005 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Albers, Janice L.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B; Haas, Justin D.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    This report is intended to synthesize the state of the scientific understanding of pallid sturgeon ecological requirements to provide recommendations for future science directions and context for Missouri River restoration and management decisions. Recruitment of pallid sturgeon has been low to non-existent throughout its range. Emerging understanding of the genetic structure of pallid sturgeon populations sets a broad framework for species and river management decisions, including decisions about managing the future genetic diversity of the species, but also decisions about where and what type of river restoration actions will be effective for subpopulations of this highly migratory species. Adult pallid sturgeon may migrate hundreds of kilometers (km) to spawn and their progeny may disperse even greater distances downstream as drifting free embryos. As a result of their complex life history pallid sturgeon naturally exploit a wide range of habitats during their life cycles. The construction of dams and reservoirs has fragmented habitats and may have shifted Missouri River subpopulations downstream. Research has not identified one primary biological or ecological constraint that appears to limit populations of the pallid sturgeon. With the present (2013) state of knowledge many life stages and life-stage transitions cannot be ruled out as contributing to recruitment failure.

  3. The evidence of apelin has the bidirectional effects on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jin; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Yuanbing; Zhu, Jieyao; Qi, Jinwen; Tang, Ni; Wang, Shuyao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2017-08-01

    Apelin is a peptide, mainly produced in the brain, which participates in several physiologic effects. However, knowledge about the mechanism of appetite regulation in teleosts, including the role of apelin is not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of feeding status on the expression of apelin mRNA in the whole brain and the effects of injection of apelin on food intake in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). In this study, we first cloned the apelin cDNA sequence of the Siberian sturgeon. We obtained a 1046-bp cDNA fragment, including a 237-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded 78 amino acids. Apelin was widely distributed in 11 tissues related to feeding regulation, with the highest expression in thewhole brain, followed by the spleen and trunk kidney. In addition, we measured the effects of periprandial (preprandial and postprandial) change, fasting and re-feeding on apelin mRNA expression in whole brain. The level of apelin mRNA was significantly decreased 1h after feeding. The results of the fasting experiment showed that the expression of apelin mRNA in the brain was significantly reduced after 1day of fasting but consistently increased throughout the 15-day food deprivation period. When the 15-day fasted fish were re-fed, apelin mRNA expression in the brain was significantly increased as compared to that of the control. These results suggest that apelin may play a bidirectional role in the regulation of food intake in the Siberian sturgeon. In order to further examine the effect of apelin on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons, acute and chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection experiments were performed and food intakes were recorded. Results showed that acute i.p. injection of apelin-13 reduced food intake, however, chronic i.p. injection apelin-13 increased the food intake for 7days in Siberian sturgeons. In conclusion, our results show that apelin has a bidirectional effect on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons

  4. Divergent migration within lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations: Multiple distinct patterns exist across an unrestricted migration corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Steven T.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Boase, James C.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Thomas, Michael V.; Wills, Todd C.; Roseman, Edward; Drouin, Richard; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Population structure, distribution, abundance, and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations is an important aspect of the ecology of highly-mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially- or temporally-distributed food and space resources.This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes.Over six years (2011 – 2016), movements of 268 lake sturgeon in the HEC were continuously monitored across the Great Lakes using acoustic telemetry (10 yr battery life acoustic transmitters). Five distinct migration behaviours were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the phenology and duration of river and lake use.Lake sturgeon in the HEC were found to contain a high level of intraspecific divergent migration, including partial migration with the existence of residents. Specific behaviours included year-round river residency and multiple lake-migrant behaviours that involved movements between lakes and rivers. Over 85% of individuals were assign to migration behaviours as movements were consistently repeated over the study, which suggested migration behaviours were consistent and persistent in lake sturgeon. Differential use of specific rivers or lakes by acoustic-tagged lake sturgeon further subdivided individuals into 14 “contingents” (spatiotemporally segregated subgroups).Contingents associated with one river (Detroit or St. Clair) were rarely detected in the other river, which confirmed that lake sturgeon in the Detroit and St. Clair represent two semi-independent populations that could require separate management consideration for their conservation. The distribution of migration behaviours

  5. PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITION OF EARLY STURGEON (ACIPENSERIDAE FRY TO ARTIFICIAL FORMULATED FEEDS IN RAS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the morphological and ecophysiological peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry (Acipenseridae to artificial formulated feeds. To summarize the biotechnological fundamentals of the use of artificial formulated feeds in the conditions of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. Findings. The transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds is one of the most difficult stages of their rearing, even under controlled conditions of RAS. The review contains the description of the peculiarities of sturgeon embryogenesis, their behavior and morpho-physiological changes at this stage of their development. It contains main requirements for the rearing of sturgeon larvae in RAS. We showed that the ultimate refuse from natural (live or frozen forage organisms is not advisable; the optimum is their combination with artificial feeds with gradual predominance of the latters. We provided the schemes of their feeding based on the combination of natural and artificial feeds. We reviewed the most common biologically active supplements, which contributed to better feed digestion during the periods of the transition to exogenous feeding. We highlighted the effect of feeding with brine shrimp nauplii enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and development of early sturgeon fry. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds in RAS. The data on the biotechnologies of rational feeding of early sturgeon fry in RAS in this period are important in the conditions of continuous search for the most effective replacement of live forage organisms and reduction of fish fry mortality in postembryogenesis.

  6. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  7. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  8. Use of geometric morphometrics to identify ecophenotypic variation of juvenile Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Bakhshalizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of phenotypic variation is essential for identifying discrete phenotypic stocks. We sampled immature Persian sturgeon from the eastern and western portion of the southern Caspian Sea to test for morphological differences that could predict the ecophenotypic variation of Persian sturgeon. Geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify body shape. Configuration of landmark coordinates of fish body were scaled, translated and rotated using generalized Procrustes analysis, followed by univariate analysis of variance of resulting shape coordinates to evaluate potential morphological differences between regions. A principal component analysis was carried out to reduce the number of dimensions without the loss of information. The discriminate function analysis was performed to determine the efficacy of body landmarks for discrimination by geographic variants. Within-group linkage was inferred for dendrogram clusters using Pearson correlation distance on the basis of the average linkage method as a complement for discriminate analysis. Principle component analysis revealed that the largest differences were in body size. Most notable were differences in distance between head landmarks and the dorsal fin between eastern and western regions. Fish from the western region exhibited a longer distance from head landmarks to the dorsal fin than fish from the eastern region. Furthermore, the ventral portion of fish from the western region was longer than that of the eastern individuals. These findings show that juvenile Persian sturgeon already possess morphological traits that can be used to discriminate fish from different regions. Furthermore, these differences are discernible in spite of the volume of artificially-inseminated sturgeon larva that have been released during the past 40 years.

  9. Site heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons are fish species with a complex biology. They are also characterized by complex aspects including polyploidization and easiness of hybridization. As with most of the Ponto-Caspian sturgeons, the populations of Acipenser ruthenus from the Danube have declined drastically during the last decades. This is the first report on mitochondrial point heteroplasmy in the cytochrome b gene of this species. The 1141 bp sequence of the cytb gene in wild sterlet sturgeon individuals from the Lower Danube was determined, and site heteroplasmy evidenced in three of the 30 specimens collected. Two nucleotide sequences were identified in these heteroplasmic individuals. The majority of the heteroplasmic sites are synonymous and do not modify the sequence of amino acids in cytochrome B protein. To date, several cases of point heteroplasmy have been reported in animals, mostly due to paternal leakage of mtDNA. The presence of specific point heteroplasmic sites might be interesting for a possible correlation with genetically distinct groups in the Danube River.

  10. Fall spawning of Atlantic sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Flowers, H. Jared

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) declared Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus to be threatened or endangered throughout its range in U.S. waters. Restoration of the subspecies will require much new information, particularly on the location and timing of spawning. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and sampling with anchored artificial substrates (spawning pads) to detect fall (September–November) spawning in the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This population is included in the Carolina Distinct Population Segment, which was classified by NOAA as endangered. Sampling was done immediately below the first shoals encountered by anadromous fishes, near Weldon. Our collection of 38 eggs during the 21 d that spawning pads were deployed appears to be the first such collection (spring or fall) for wild-spawned Atlantic Sturgeon eggs. Based on egg development stages, estimated spawning dates were September 17–18 and 18–19 at water temperatures from 25.3°C to 24.3°C and river discharge from 55 to 297 m3/s. These observations about fall spawning and habitat use should aid in protecting critical habitats and planning research on Atlantic Sturgeon spawning in other rivers.

  11. Genetic diversity, kinship analysis, and broodstock management of captive Atlantic sturgeon for population restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A.P.; Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    Captive Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus considered for use as broodstock in a restoration program were genotyped using nuclear DNA microsatellites and compared to wild collections from the Hudson River, New York (source of parents of the captive sturgeon) and from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina. Because the potential broodfish were the progeny of a small number of parents, maintaining genetic diversity and minimizing inbreeding is essential to a successful breeding and supplementation program. The microsatellite loci used in this analysis generated unique multilocus genotypes for each of 136 Atlantic sturgeon. Analyses indicated significant genetic separation between the New York and North Carolina collections and correctly identified the potential broodstock as a subset of the Hudson River population. Pairwise genetic distance (-In proportion of shared alleles) between half and full siblings in the potential broodfish was as great as 1.386, a value exceeded by only 36% of the sampled broodfish pairs available for mating. Because the current broodstock population does not seem to have deviated far from their ancestral population in the Hudson River, progeny from that broodstock, or the parents themselves, would seem to be genetically suitable for release back into the Hudson River.

  12. Assessment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning efforts in the lower St. Clair River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Kennedy, Gregory; Crawford, Eric; Allen, Jeffrey; French, John; Black, Glen; Blouin, Marc; Hickey, James P.; Chernyak, Sergei; Haas, Robert; Thomas, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most threatened remaining populations of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes is found in the connecting channels between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Only two spawning grounds are presently known to be active in this region, and both are in the St. Clair River. The spawning reef in the St. Clair River delta has been recently colonized by round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in densities up to 25/m2, raising concerns regarding predation on the benthic-oriented eggs and larvae of the sturgeon. Investigations in 1998–1999 showed that while round goby predation does occur, a number of other factors may be equally affecting sturgeon spawning success, including few spawning adults (noted in either year. There were factors other than predation affecting larval survival in 1999. There was a higher silt load on the reef than in 1998 and large numbers of dead larvae were found. Recruitment success from this site could be improved by utilizing techniques to increase the number of eggs on the reef, such as reducing the illegal take of adult fish and by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers to increase hatch rate.

  13. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  14. Efficacy of iodine for disinfection of Lake Sturgeon eggs from the St. Lawrence River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Optimal fish husbandry to reduce the risk of disease is particularly important when using wild fish as the source for gametes. The propagation and reestablishment of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in New York waters to become a viable self-sustaining population is considered a high priority by managers. While standard hatchery egg disinfection practices have been used to prevent the transmission of diseases, data on the bacterial loads present on egg surfaces following iodine disinfection is lacking. Our study investigated the bacteria present on the outer surface of Lake Sturgeon eggs and the effectiveness of an iodine disinfection treatment in eliminating bacteria that could pose a threat to egg survival and cause hatchery disease outbreaks. During the springs of 2011–2013, 12 to 41 different species of bacteria were recovered from the outer egg surfaces prior to an iodine treatment; Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Chryseobacterium were the most common genera identified. Cohort eggs treated using the standard protocol of a single treatment of 50 mg/L iodine for 30 min resulted in an average of 57.8% reduction in bacterial CFU/g. While this is a significant reduction, bacteria were not completely eliminated and hatchery managers should be aware that pathogens could remain on Lake Sturgeon eggs following the standard iodine disinfection treatment.

  15. Accelerometer-derived activity correlates with volitional swimming speed in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, J.D.; Dawson, J.W.; Gleiss, A.C.; Martins, E.G.; Haro, Alexander J.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Danylchuk, A.J.; Wilson, R.P.; Cooke, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying fine-scale locomotor behaviours associated with different activities is challenging for free-swimming fish.Biologging and biotelemetry tools can help address this problem. An open channel flume was used to generate volitionalswimming speed (Us) estimates of cultured lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) and these were paired withsimultaneously recorded accelerometer-derived metrics of activity obtained from three types of data-storage tags. This studyexamined whether a predictive relationship could be established between four different activity metrics (tail-beat frequency(TBF), tail-beat acceleration amplitude (TBAA), overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), and vectorial dynamic body acceleration(VeDBA)) and the swimming speed of A. fulvescens. Volitional Us of sturgeon ranged from 0.48 to 2.70 m·s−1 (0.51–3.18 bodylengths (BL) · s−1). Swimming speed increased linearly with all accelerometer-derived metrics, and when all tag types werecombined, Us increased 0.46 BL·s−1 for every 1 Hz increase in TBF, and 0.94, 0.61, and 0.94 BL·s−1 for every 1g increase in TBAA,ODBA, and VeDBA, respectively. Predictive relationships varied among tag types and tag-specific parameter estimates of Us arepresented for all metrics. This use of acceleration data-storage tags demonstrated their applicability for the field quantificationof sturgeon swimming speed.

  16. Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peter Klimley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art1The goal of a day-long symposium on March 3, 2015, Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management, was to present new information about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of the green (Acipenser medirostris and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to help guide enhanced management and conservation efforts within the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed. This symposium identified current unknowns and highlighted new electronic tracking technologies and physiological techniques to address these knowledge gaps. A number of presentations, each reviewing ongoing research on the two species, was followed by a round-table discussion, in which each of the participants was asked to share recom-mendations for future research on sturgeon in the watershed. This article presents an in-depth review of the scientific information presented at the sympo-sium with a summary of recommendations for future research.

  17. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  18. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  19. Ontogenetic behavior and dispersal of Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, with a note on body color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the laboratory to develop a conceptual model of ontogenetic behavior and provide insight into probable behavior of wild sturgeon. After hatching, free embryos initiated a low intensity, brief downstream dispersal during which fish swam near the bottom and were photonegative. The weak, short dispersal style and behavior of white sturgeon free embryos contrasts greatly with the intense, long dispersal style and behavior (photopositive and swimming far above the bottom) of dispersing free embryos of other sturgeon species. If spawned eggs are concentrated within a few kilometers downstream of a spawning site, the adaptive significance of the free embryo dispersal is likely to move fish away from the egg deposition site to avoid predation and reduce fish density prior to feeding. Larvae foraged on the open bottom, swam innate fish dispersal and post-dispersal rearing habitat, which is now highly altered by damming and reservoirs. Sacramento River white sturgeon has a two-step downstream dispersal by the free embryo and juvenile life intervals. Diel activity of all life intervals peaked at night, whether fish were dispersing or foraging. Nocturnal behavior is likely a response to predation, which occurs during both activities. An intense black-tail body color was present on foraging larvae, but was weak or absent on the two life intervals that disperse. Black-tail color may be an adaptation for avoiding predation, signaling among aggregated larvae, or both, but not for dispersal. ?? Springer 2005.

  20. Analysis of piscicultural-biological results of works with Russian sturgeon brood fish at the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Kononenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of world stocks of sturgeons is on the edge of catastrophe. These species are either extinct or under threat of extinction under human impacts. At the same time, there are enterprises, fish hatcheries, which deal with restoration and replenishment of natural stocks with of endangered fish species. One of such hatcheries is the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russian Federation. The aim of the study was an analysis of piscicultural-biological features of the Russian sturgeon brood fish. During the study, which was conducted in April–May 2011, 34 Russian sturgeon females were used in two rounds, 17 individuals each. For stimulating gametes maturation, the Derzhavin’s physiological method was used. Caviar was obtained by stripping the eggs under strict hygienic and sanitary norms. Eggs fertilization with the semi-dry method used the male milt that bought at the “Raskat” LLC. Egg stickiness elimination was performed with the aid of talc and apparatuses for the egg stickiness elimination. Eggs incubation was performed in the “Osetr” apparatuses until yolk-sac larvae hatching. The domesticated fish were subjected to bonitation for determining their readiness for spawning. As a result of this bonitation, the brood fish were separated into two groups: first round of rearing works: females with mean weight of 34.8 kg and age of 9 years; second round: females with mean weight of 32.3 kg and the same age. Among injected females of the first round, 100% positive reaction for the stimulating injection was observed, but 95% – among females of the second round. Maturation time of females of both rounds varied from 25 to 30 hours. The maturation state of gametes of sturgeon females or males was determined based on samples obtained. 90.2 kg of eggs were obtained from females of the first round. At the same time, the maximum quantity was observed in the female of 50.5 kg – 9.2 kg of caviar, and the least quantity

  1. Effect of starvation and refeeding on digestive enzyme activities in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furné, Miriam; García-Gallego, Manuel; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Domezain, Alberto; Domezain, Julio; Sanz, Ana

    2008-04-01

    The digestive enzyme activities were determined in Adriatic sturgeon and rainbow trout during starvation and refeeding period. Overall, the digestive enzyme activities are affected in the same sense in both species. The protease and lipase activities were decreased later than amylase activity. Even after 1 month of starvation, both species would be prepared to digest protein and lipids in an effective way. After 72 days of starvation, the digestive machinery of the sturgeon and of the trout shows an altered capacity to digest macronutrients. The capacity to digest proteins and lipids, after 60 days of refeeding, begins to become re-established in sturgeon and trout. In contrast, in this period, the capacity to digest carbohydrates remains depressed in both species.

  2. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  3. The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Piraccini, G; Agnisola, C

    1999-01-01

    as 15% of dry feed weight), with an elevated content of highly unsaturated fatty acids of the co3 series (¿3 HUFA), had a significantly lower standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine oxygen consumption (Mo2) than those fed a diet enriched with the same quantity of hydrogenated coconut oil......This paper reviews evidence that the fatty acid composition of dietary lipids influences the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon {Acipenser naccarii) and, thereby, their tolerance of the stress of hypoxia. Sturgeon fed a commercial diet enriched in fish oil (menhaden oil...

  4. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  5. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  6. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fishereis Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of

  7. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River

  8. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and determine status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from the McNary Dam. Annual progress report, April 1994--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiningen, K.T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1994 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on subadult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of subadult and adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River

  9. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiningen, Kirk T. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (US)

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  10. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam Report C, Annual Progress Report April 2003 - March 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Gadomski, Dena M.; Kofoot, Pete

    2005-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2003 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Although optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for less than two weeks, they coincided with a period of relatively high river discharge. Bottom-trawl sampling in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir, but none were captured in The Dalles Reservoir. A comparison of five years of indices of abundance of YOY sturgeon from sampling done by ODFW with gillnets and the USGS with bottom trawls was completed. Despite obvious differences in gear sampling characteristics (e.g. one gear is actively fished, one passively fished), it appears that either gear can be used to assess relative trends in YOY white sturgeon abundance. The analyses suffered due to poor catches of YOY fish, as YOY were only captured in The Dalles Reservoir during three of the five years of comparison sampling, and during only one of four years in John Day Reservoir. However, both gears detected the presence or absence of YOY white sturgeon within a reservoir equally. That is, if any YOY white sturgeon were captured in any year in a reservoir, both gears captured at least one fish, and if one gear failed to collect any YOY white sturgeon, both gears failed. Concerns have been raised that the Wang et al. (1985) egg development relationships for Sacramento River white sturgeon may not be applicable to Columbia Basin stocks. However, using laboratory experiments with white sturgeon eggs incubated at 10, 12, 15, and 18o C, we found no significant differences in development rates of eggs of Columbia, Kootenai, Snake, and Sacramento river fish.

  11. Physical characteristics of the lower San Joaquin River, California, in relation to white sturgeon spawning habitat, 2011–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.; Whealdon-Haught, Daniel R.; Kinzel, Paul J.

    2017-07-19

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service confirmed that white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recently spawned in the lower San Joaquin River, California. Decreases in the San Francisco Bay estuary white sturgeon population have led to an increased effort to understand their migration behavior and habitat preferences. The preferred spawning habitat of other white sturgeon (for example, those in the Columbia and Klamath Rivers) is thought to be areas that have high water velocity, deep pools, and coarse bed material. Coarse bed material (pebbles and cobbles), in particular, is important for the survival of white sturgeon eggs and larvae. Knowledge of the physical characteristics of the lower San Joaquin River can be used to preserve sturgeon spawning habitat and lead to management decisions that could help increase the San Francisco Bay estuary white sturgeon population.Between 2011 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, assessed selected reaches and tributaries of the lower river in relation to sturgeon spawning habitat by (1) describing selected spawning reaches in terms of habitat-related physical characteristics (such as water depth and velocity, channel slope, and bed material) of the lower San Joaquin River between its confluences with the Stanislaus and Merced Rivers, (2) describing variations in these physical characteristics during wet and dry years, and (3) identifying potential reasons for these variations.The lower San Joaquin River was divided into five study reaches. Although data were collected from all study reaches, three subreaches where the USFWS collected viable eggs at multiple sites in 2011–12 from Orestimba Creek to Sturgeon Bend were of special interest. Water depth and velocity were measured using two different approaches—channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles—and data were collected using an acoustic Doppler current profiler.During the first year of data collection (water

  12. Acoustic tag detections of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay estuaries, Washington and Oregon, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Hal C.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2017-11-08

    The Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, and Coos Bay, in Oregon, are economically important shipping channels that are inhabited by several fishes protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Maintenance of shipping channels involves dredge operations to maintain sufficient in-channel depths to allow large ships to navigate the waterways safely. Fishes entrained by dredge equipment often die or experience delayed mortality. Other potential negative effects of dredging include increased turbidity, reductions in prey resources, and the release of harmful contaminants from the dredged sediments. One species of concern is the ESA-listed green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris; Southern Distinct Population Segment). In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to identify habitat use, arrival and departure timing, and the extent of upstream migration of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay to help inform dredge operations to minimize potential take of green sturgeon. Autonomous acoustic receivers were deployed in Coos Bay from the mouth to river kilometer (rkm) 21.6 from October 2009 through October 2010. In the Columbia River Estuary, receivers were deployed between the mouth and rkm 37.8 from April to November in 2010 and 2011. A total of 29 subadult and adult green sturgeon were tagged with temperature and pressure sensor tags and released during the study, primarily in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington, and the Klamath River, Oregon. Green sturgeon detected during the study but released by other researchers also were included in the study.The number of tagged green sturgeon detected in the two estuaries differed markedly. In Coos Bay, only one green sturgeon was detected for about 2 hours near the estuary mouth. In the Columbia River Estuary, 9 green sturgeon were detected in 2010 and 10 fish were detected in 2011. Green sturgeon entered the Columbia River from May through October during both years, with the greatest numbers of fish being

  13. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefs, Nancy (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over

  15. Sex in the Suwannee, the secretive love life of Gulf Sturgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Mid-February in the Gulf of Mexico and a timeless ritual is about to repeat itself for perhaps the millionth time. Some mysterious signal, possibly increasing day length, flips an internal switch, feeding stops, and the homeward migration begins for the Gulf Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi). From far flung places along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Sturgeons start heading back to their natal rivers – they know the way instinctively. Maybe they seek out the special chemical taste of their home river, imprinted at hatching. Or perhaps the ultrasensitive electric organs decorating the underside of the snout can follow the map of the earth’s magnetic field. Either way, time to make a beeline for the welcoming waters of the Suwannee River, or maybe the Apalachicola, Choctawhatchee, or one of four other spawning rivers. Some of the adults are on a special mission – time to spawn, time to perpetuate the species. Mature males form the first wave in this homebound marathon, eager to get to the spawning grounds, eager to be the first to greet ready females with a series of sharp clicking sounds. Only spawning once each three years, females laden with large black eggs demure, taking their time, arriving in mid to late March, a month behind the early males. But most sturgeons, juveniles and immature adults not ready to spawn, are simply heading home. Not prompted by the spawning urge, they are just following the ancient annual cycle of intense winter feeding in the Gulf, followed by several months of fasting and R&R in the river.

  16. Assessing dorsal scute microchemistry for reconstruction of shortnose sturgeon life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenritter, Matthew E.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Secor, David H.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    The imperiled status of sturgeons worldwide places priority on the identification and protection of critical habitats. We assessed the micro-structural and micro-chemical scope for a novel calcified structure, dorsal scutes, to be used for reconstruction of past habitat use and group separation in shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). Dorsal scutes contained a dual-layered structure composed of a thin multi-layered translucent zone lying dorsally above a thicker multi-layered zone. Banding in the thick multi-layered zone correlated strongly with pectoral fin spine annuli supporting the presence of chronological structuring that could contain a chemical record of past environmental exposure. Trace element profiles (Sr:Ca), collected using both wavelength dispersive electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry, suggest scutes record elemental information useful for tracing transitions between freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, mirror-image like Sr:Ca profiles were observed across the dual-zone structuring of the scute that may indicate duplication of the microchemical profile in a single structure. Additional element:calcium ratios measured in natal regions of dorsal scutes (Ba:Ca, Mg:Ca) suggest the potential for further refinement of techniques for identification of river systems of natal origin. In combination, our results provide proof of concept that dorsal scutes possess the necessary properties to be used as structures for reconstructions of past habitat use in sturgeons. Importantly, scutes may be collected non-lethally and with less injury than current structures, like otoliths and fin spines, affording an opportunity for broader application of microchemical techniques.

  17. Estimating abundance without recaptures of marked pallid sturgeon in the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Nicholas A; Hoover, Jan Jeffrey; Boysen, Krista; Killgore, K Jack

    2018-04-01

    Abundance estimates are essential for assessing the viability of populations and the risks posed by alternative management actions. An effort to estimate abundance via a repeated mark-recapture experiment may fail to recapture marked individuals. We devised a method for obtaining lower bounds on abundance in the absence of recaptures for both panmictic and spatially structured populations. The method assumes few enough recaptures were expected to be missed by random chance. The upper Bayesian credible limit on expected recaptures allows probabilistic statements about the minimum number of individuals present in the population. We applied this method to data from a 12-year survey of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower and middle Mississippi River (U.S.A.). None of the 241 individuals marked was recaptured in the survey. After accounting for survival and movement, our model-averaged estimate of the total abundance of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old in the study area had a 1%, 5%, or 25% chance of being <4,600, 7,000, or 15,000, respectively. When we assumed fish were distributed in proportion to survey catch per unit effort, the farthest downstream reach in the survey hosted at least 4.5-15 fish per river kilometer (rkm), whereas the remainder of the reaches in the lower and middle Mississippi River hosted at least 2.6-8.5 fish/rkm for all model variations examined. The lower Mississippi River had an average density of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old of at least 3.0-9.8 fish/rkm. The choice of Bayesian prior was the largest source of uncertainty we considered but did not alter the order of magnitude of lower bounds. Nil-recapture estimates of abundance are highly uncertain and require careful communication but can deliver insights from experiments that might otherwise be considered a failure. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Movement and habitat studies of chinook salmon and white sturgeon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Acipenser transmontanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    Swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), in relation to hydroelectric dam created gas supersaturation levels in the Snake River, were evaluated using pressure-sensitive radiofrequency transmitters. Gas saturation levels in spring 1976 ranged from 120 to 130% and chinook salmon depth of travel averaged 6.4 m. In fall 1976 and spring 1977, when gas saturation levels were below 108%, average salmon depths of travel were 3.0 and 4.0 m, respectively. In all cases, average depth of travel was below the critical zone (110% effective saturation), but spring 1976 chinook salmon traveled significantly deeper than fall 1976 and spring 1977 salmon. Internal and external radio transmitter attachment techniques were compared and results indicated the methods are equally reliable given proper insertion and attachment procedures. Percent returning and travel times to upstream dams were compared between equal numbers of radiotagged and spaghetti-anchor tagged control salmon. There were no significant differences in percent return or travel times between control and externally tagged salmon, but procedural difficulties involving internally tagged salmon altered their behavior to preclude such comparisons. Presence and operation of hydroelectric dams delayed salmon passage through the river and appeared to alter upstream migratory behavior. Movements of radiotagged white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from 1975 through 1977 were highly seasonal, beginning in June and ending in October. River temperatures apparently influenced both seasonal and diurnal movement activities. Movements began in June after water temperatures passed 13/sup 0/C and ceased when temperatures reached 13/sup 0/C (again) in autumn each year. Information derived from sturgeon carrying temperature sensing transmitters, combined with position determinations, indicated apparent diurnal movement cycles for sturgeon.

  19. Sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseridae) sagittal otoliths are composed of the calcium carbonate polymorphs vaterite and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracheil, B M; Chakoumakos, B C; Feygenson, M; Whitledge, G W; Koenigs, R P; Bruch, R M

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to resolve whether sturgeon (Acipenseridae) sagittae (otoliths) contain a non-vaterite fraction and to quantify how large a non-vaterite fraction is using neutron diffraction analysis. This study found that all otoliths examined had a calcite fraction that ranged from 18 ± 6 to 36 ± 3% by mass. This calcite fraction is most probably due to biological variation during otolith formation rather than an artefact of polymorph transformation during preparation. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Fine-scale habitat preference of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) within three spawning locations in the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T.; Thomas, Michael J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Hearn, Alexander R.; Battleson, Ryan D.; Chapman, Eric D.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Minear, J. Tobey; Mora, Ethan A.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Pagel, Matthew D.; Klimley, A. Peter

    2018-01-01

    Vast sections of the Sacramento River have been listed as critical habitat by the National Marine Fisheries Service for green sturgeon spawning (Acipenser medirostris), yet spawning is known to occur at only a few specific locations. This study reveals the range of physical habitat variables selected by adult green sturgeon during their spawning period. We integrated fine-scale fish positions, physical habitat characteristics, discharge, bathymetry, and simulated velocity and depth using a 2-dimensional hydraulic model (FaSTMECH). The objective was to create habitat suitability curves for depth, velocity, and substrate type within three known spawning locations over two years. An overall cumulative habitat suitability score was calculated that averaged the depth, velocity, and substrate scores over all fish, sites, and years. A weighted usable area (WUA) index was calculated throughout the sampling periods for each of the three sites. Cumulative results indicate that the microhabitat characteristics most preferred by green sturgeon in these three spawning locations were velocities between 1.0-1.1 m/s, depths of 8-9 m, and gravel and sand substrate. This study provides guidance for those who may in the future want to increase spawning habitat for green sturgeon within the Sacramento River.

  1. Broadening the regulated-river management paradigm: A case study of the forgotten dead zone hindering Pallid Sturgeon recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Christopher S.; Treanor, Hilary B.; Kappenman, Kevin M.; Scholl, Eric A.; Ilgen, Jason E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The global proliferation of dams within the last half century has prompted ecologists to understand the effects of regulated rivers on large-river fishes. Currently, much of the effort to mitigate the influence of dams on large-river fishes has been focused on downriver effects, and little attention has been given to upriver effects. Through a combination of field observations and laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that abiotic conditions upriver of the dam are the mechanism for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), an iconic large-river endangered species. Here we show for the first time that anoxic upriver habitat in reservoirs (i.e., the transition zone between the river and reservoir) is responsible for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon. The anoxic condition in the transition zone is a function of reduced river velocities and the concentration of fine particulate organic material with high microbial respiration. As predicted, the river upstream of the transition zone was oxic at all sampling locations. Our results indicate that transition zones are an ecological sink for Pallid Sturgeon. We argue that ecologists, engineers, and policy makers need to broaden the regulated-river paradigm to consider upriver and downriver effects of dams equally to comprehensively mitigate altered ecosystems for the benefit of large-river fishes, especially for the Pallid Sturgeon.

  2. 75 FR 2102 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... receive public comments on the proposal. If you have previously submitted comments, please do not resubmit... on the length of written comments submitted to us. If you have any questions concerning the [[Page...; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance AGENCY: Fish...

  3. The second highest chromosome count among vertebrates is observed in cultured sturgeon and is associated with genome plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, M.; Bytyutskyy, D.; Symonová, R.; Ráb, Petr; Flajšhans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 12 (2016) ISSN 0999-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sturgeon * spontaneous autopolyploidy * image-analysis densitometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.964, year: 2016

  4. The effect of thermal shock on morphological characteristics of blood cells in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Wlasow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thermal shock on morphotic blood elements in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii triploids. The thermal shock (37 °C for 2 min was applied in the 18th min after fertilization. Blood was sampled from parallel cultured ten triploids and ten diploids on day 70 after hatching. Ploidy was assessed with the cytogenetic method and measurements of cellular nuclei. In the blood of triploids, significant dominance of immature red blood cells, erythrocytes with a displaced nucleus, microcytes and erythroplastids were observed. The blood of triploids was also characterized by a reduced number of lymphocytes. The percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes was elevated; increased share of neutrophil granulocytes with a 4-, 5- or 6-segmented nucleus and eosinophil granulocytes with a nucleus consisting of three and more segments was observed. Disturbances in the picture of red blood cells can be considered as an expression of intensification of end-stage changes in triploids. The response to these changes in the blood of triploid Siberian sturgeon is an increase in the share of polymorphonuclear PMN, cells counted as microphages. Frequent presence of immature red blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon is a process that aims at counterbalancing the loss among these blood cells. It is the first report on morphological changes and proportions among blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon.

  5. Effects of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) fingerlings performance and its gastrointestinal tract microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Tran, Tiet Ngoc; Defoirdt, Tom; Marzorati, Massimo; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a natural polymer that can be depolymerized into water-soluble short-chain fatty acid monomers. These monomers can act as microbial control agents. In this study, the effects of partially replacing the diet of Siberian sturgeon fingerlings with 2% and 5% PHB were investigated. Replacing 2% of the diet with PHB improved weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and survival in the sturgeon fingerlings during the 10-week experimental period. Community-level physiological profiling and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used to analyze the microbial community diversity and community organization in the sturgeon gastrointestinal tract. DGGE analysis revealed that PHB affected the intestinal microbial species richness and diversity. The highest species richness was observed with 2% PHB. DNA sequencing of the dominant bands in 2% and 5% PHB treatments revealed that PHB stimulated bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus and Ruminococcaceae. Principal component analysis, Lorenz curves and the Shannon index of Biolog Ecoplate data revealed that aerobic metabolic potential of the bacterial community was different in the PHB-treated fishes as compared with the control situation. Overall, our results indicate that PHB act as microbial control agents and replacement of 2% of Siberian sturgeon fingerling diet with PHB has beneficial effects.

  6. Investigation of some characteristics of enzymes that ensure the process of membrane digestion in paddlefish and Russian sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Nevalennyy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex research of characteristics of some enzymes which are carrying out membrane hydrolysis of food at a spoonbilled cat and Russian sturgeon is carried out. High thermostability enzymes the squirrel of all investigated enzymes is marked.

  7. Divergent migration within lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations: Multiple distinct patterns exist across an unrestricted migration corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Steven T; Hondorp, Darryl W; Holbrook, Christopher M; Boase, James C; Chiotti, Justin A; Thomas, Michael V; Wills, Todd C; Roseman, Edward F; Drouin, Richard; Krueger, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    Population structure, distribution, abundance and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations are an important aspect of the ecology of highly mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially or temporally distributed food and space resources. This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes. Over 6 years (2011-2016), movements of 268 lake sturgeon in the HEC were continuously monitored across the Great Lakes using acoustic telemetry (10 years battery life acoustic transmitters). Five distinct migration behaviours were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the phenology and duration of river and lake use. Lake sturgeon in the HEC were found to contain a high level of intraspecific divergent migration, including partial migration with the existence of residents. Specific behaviours included year-round river residency and multiple lake-migrant behaviours that involved movements between lakes and rivers. Over 85% of individuals were assigned to migration behaviours as movements were consistently repeated over the study, which suggested migration behaviours were consistent and persistent in lake sturgeon. Differential use of specific rivers or lakes by acoustic-tagged lake sturgeon further subdivided individuals into 14 "contingents" (spatiotemporally segregated subgroups). Contingents associated with one river (Detroit or St. Clair) were rarely detected in the other river, which confirmed that lake sturgeon in the Detroit and St. Clair represent two semi-independent populations that could require separate management consideration for their conservation. The distribution of migration behaviours

  8. Status of scientific knowledge, recovery progress, and future research directions for the Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Vladykov, 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Parauka, F; Slack, W. Todd; Ruth, T; Randall, Michael T.; Luke, K; Mette, M. F; Price, M. E

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, is an anadromous species of Acipenseridae and native to North America. It currently inhabits and spawns in the upper reaches of seven natal rivers along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico from the Suwannee River, Florida, to the Pearl River, Louisiana, during spring to autumn. Next to the Alligator Gar (Atractosteus spatula), the Gulf Sturgeon is currently the largest fish species occurring in U.S. Gulf Coast rivers, attaining a length of 2.35 m and weights exceeding 135 kg, but historically attained a substantially larger size. Historically, the spawning populations existed in additional rivers from which the species has been wholly or nearly extirpated, such as the Mobile and Ochlockonee rivers, and possibly the Rio Grande River. Most Gulf Sturgeon populations were decimated by unrestricted commercial fishing between 1895–1910. Subsequently most populations remained unrecovered or extirpated due to continued harvest until the 1970s–1980s, and the construction of dams blocking access to ancestral upriver spawning grounds. Late 20th Century harvest bans and net bans enacted by the several Gulf Coast states have stabilized several populations and enabled the Suwannee River population to rebound substantially and naturally. Hatchery supplementation has not been necessary in this regard to date. Sturgeon are resilient and adaptable fishes with a geological history of 150 million years. Research undertaken since the 1970s has addressed many aspects of Gulf Sturgeon life history, reproduction, migration, population biology, habitat requirements, and other aspects of species biology. However, many knowledge gaps remain, prominently including the life history of early developmental stages in the first year of life. Natural population recovery is evident for the Suwannee River population, but seems promising as well for at least four other populations. The Pascagoula and Pearl River populations face a challenging

  9. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  10. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No

  11. Gender and gonadal maturity stage identification of captive Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, using ultrasound imagery and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Shuhuan; Luo, Jiang; Liu, Zhigang; Qiao, Xingmei; Kynard, Boyd; Wei, Qiwei

    2017-05-01

    Long lifespan and late maturation make it difficult to establish gamete maturity and breeding age of captive endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis. This greatly handicaps timely breeding and future conservation stocking efforts. We used ultrasound imagery and sex steroids to determine the gender and gonadal maturity stage of captive Chinese sturgeon (age, 10-17years old). The echogenicity of the reproductive organs and the respective morphology of the gonads were described and two quantitative parameters p o (proportion of the ovary to the entire reproductive organs) and d (thickness of the reproductive organs) were measured to characterize sex and maturity stage of Chinese sturgeon. Females were accordingly placed fish into several categories: F II (F II - , F II , F II + ), F III (F III , F III + ) and F IV (F IV , F IV + ) and F VI and males as M II , M III , M IV , M V and M VI . The accuracy of gender and maturity stage determination provided by ultrasonographic methods was 72.7% for F II - ovary (n=11) and 76.2% for M II testis (n=42). Accuracy of sex and maturity determination using only serum sex steroid of testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E 2 ) was low (58-73%, depending on maturity stage). However, when the two methods were used together, accuracy increased sharply, especially for immature (II stage) females. In summary, of 151 Chinese sturgeon, whose sex and maturity stage were independently confirmed, 88.1% (n=133), 62.9% (n=95), and 96.7% (n=146) were successfully sexed and staged using ultrasound, sex steroids, or both methods, respectively. The results provide reliable non-invasive techniques for determining sex and gonadal maturation of captive Chinese sturgeon. These methods can track individual gonad characteristics over multi-year reproductive cycles, which will assist captive broodstock management, artificial reproduction, and future conservation stocking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rethinking the influence of hydroelectric development on gene flow in a long-lived fish, the Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A McDougall

    Full Text Available Many hydroelectric dams have been in place for 50 - >100 years, which for most fish species means that enough generations have passed for fragmentation induced divergence to have accumulated. However, for long-lived species such as Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, it should be possible to discriminate between historical population structuring and contemporary gene flow and improve the broader understanding of anthropogenic influence. On the Winnipeg River, Manitoba, two hypotheses were tested: 1 Measureable quantities of former reservoir dwelling Lake Sturgeon now reside downstream of the Slave Falls Generating Station, and 2 genetically differentiated populations of Lake Sturgeon occur upstream and downstream, a result of historical structuring. Genetic methods based on ten microsatellite markers were employed, and simulations were conducted to provide context. With regards to contemporary upstream to downstream contributions, the inclusion of length-at-age data proved informative. Both pairwise relatedness and Bayesian clustering analysis substantiated that fast-growing outliers, apparently entrained after residing in the upstream reservoir for several years, accounted for ~15% of the Lake Sturgeon 525-750 mm fork length captured downstream. With regards to historical structuring, upstream and downstream populations were found to be differentiated (FST = 0.011, and 0.013-0.014 when fast-growing outliers were excluded, and heterozygosity metrics were higher for downstream versus upstream juveniles. Historical asymmetric (downstream gene flow in the vicinity of the generating station was the most logical explanation for the observed genetic structuring. In this section of the Winnipeg River, construction of a major dam does not appear to have fragmented a previously panmictic Lake Sturgeon population, but alterations to habitat may be influencing upstream to downstream contributions in unexpected ways.

  13. Hierarchical Bayesian Markov switching models with application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The timing of spawning in fish is tightly linked to environmental factors; however, these factors are not very well understood for many species. Specifically, little information is available to guide recruitment efforts for endangered species such as the sturgeon. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting the success of spawning of the shovelnose sturgeon which uses both biological and behavioural (longitudinal) data. In particular, we use data that were produced from a tracking study that was conducted in the Lower Missouri River. The data that were produced from this study consist of biological variables associated with readiness to spawn along with longitudinal behavioural data collected by using telemetry and archival data storage tags. These high frequency data are complex both biologically and in the underlying behavioural process. To accommodate such complexity we developed a hierarchical linear regression model that uses an eigenvalue predictor, derived from the transition probability matrix of a two-state Markov switching model with generalized auto-regressive conditional heteroscedastic dynamics. Finally, to minimize the computational burden that is associated with estimation of this model, a parallel computing approach is proposed. ?? Journal compilation 2009 Royal Statistical Society.

  14. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N Popper

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA. The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]. Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3 was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined.

  15. Penicillin improves the milt quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during short-term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Halimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of antibiotic (5000 units of penicillin on sperm quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during 9 days in vitro storage of milt. For this purpose, the milt samples were stored in the presence and absence of 5000 units of penicillin. Freshwater was used as sperm activator. The milt samples were stored at 4°C and the motility indices were measured 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after storage. The sperm duration and percentage of sperm motility decreased after 6 days of storage both in the presence and absence of antibiotic, although this decrease was more significant in the absence of antibiotic. After 9 days of storage, the lowest values of sperm motility indices was recorded for antibiotic receiving milt samples while no motile spermatozoa observed for antibiotic-free milt samples. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that 5000 units of penicillin improve the Persian sturgeon milt quality during short-term storage.

  16. Vegetable Production in an Integrated Aquaponic System with Stellate Sturgeon and Spinach – Matador variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihai Petrea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the performances parameters, both in terms of quantity and quality, for spinach (Spinacia oleracea - Matador variety, growth in an aquaponic integrated system, along with stellate sturgeons (A. stellatus under three crops densities (V1 - 59 crops/m2, V2 – 48 crops/m2 and V3 – 39 crops/m2, by using hydroton as growing substrate, under a continuous flow hydraulic regime. The experiment was run in triplicate for each one of the three variants. The water quality was monitored and a series of growth parameters were determined, as follows: leaf area index (LAI, relative growth rate (RGR, average net assimilation rate (NAR, mean leaf area ratio (LAR and crop growth rate (CGR. Also the concentration of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, ash and dry matter for spinach leaf, from each of the three experimental variants was determined and compared with the one of marketable spinach, growth conventional, in soil. It can be concluded that statistical significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded in terms of growth performance and crops quality, between the experimental variants. Also the quality of spinach grown in aquaponic conditions, by using effluent derived from stellate sturgeon intensive aquaculture is similar to that of the marketable spinach, growth conventional.

  17. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day−1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year−1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  18. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon.

  19. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus strain in Russia: novel North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 strain in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszpoly, A; Kalabekov, I M; Breyta, R; Shchelkunov, I S

    2017-10-01

    Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus (SbSHV) was isolated in Russia for the first time in 2006. Nine SbSHV isolates were recovered from different fish hatcheries producing the same cytopathic effect in cell cultures, the same clinical signs and mortality kinetics in virus-infected fish and the same virus neutralization pattern and shared identical nucleotide sequences. In 2011, a new isolate was recovered from juvenile sturgeon, which caused completely different cytopathic effect. That isolate was not readily neutralized by Siberian sturgeon hyperimmune antisera, and its DNA was not recognized by the routine PCR developed for SbSHV detection. Molecular study of the novel isolate revealed that it was more closely related to North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) isolates from white sturgeon, while the genome sequences of the former SbSHV isolates showed high similarity to the AciHV-2 isolated from shortnose sturgeon. While clinical signs and mortality caused by the novel isolate in infected Siberian sturgeon were similar to those of the formerly described SbSHV isolates, the incubation period and mean time to death produced by the novel isolate were twice as long. The differences between the former isolates and the recent one suggest that a novel SbSHV strain emerged in Europe and the molecular findings imply its North American origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of visible implant elastomer and coded wire tags for tagging young-of-the-year Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the retention rates of visible implant elastomer (VIE and coded wire tags (CWT and the impact tagging had on the growth of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, during an eight-week rearing period under laboratory conditions. Two size groups of young-of-the-year (YOY sturgeon were used in the study. The tagging was not found to have a significant impact on the final total length or body weight or the condition coefficient of the sturgeon from either size group. Sturgeon survival in the different groups ranged from 90.6 to 100%. Mortality was not noted until two (CWT and four (VIE weeks following tagging and was probably not linked to tagging. The retention rate for VIE tags implanted in the rostrum in both size groups was 100%, while for tags implanted at the base of the pectoral fin was 93.5%. The retention of CWT in the smaller fish was 90%, and in the larger sturgeon it was 100%. Tagging small sturgeon with CWT and VIE is minimally invasive, and it did not impact the growth or condition of the tagged fish.

  1. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  2. Inheritance of microsatellite loci in the polyploid lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatskowit, J.D.; Krueger, C.C.; Kincaid, H.L.; May, B.

    2001-01-01

    Inheritance in the expression of amplicons for four microsatellite primer pairs was determined using 10 families created from gametes of wild lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Loci Afu34 and Afu68 expressed a maximum of two even-intensity bands per individual and had progeny genotype ratios that fit disomic inheritance (P > 0.05). Some variation exhibited at Afu34 and Afu68 was attributable to a null allele. Genotype expression at both loci also indicated that one female parent had transmitted unreduced gametes. Primer Afu39 amplified products that exhibited four gene doses, where genotype counts fit expected ratios for disomic inheritance (P > 0.05) indicating amplification of products from two disomic loci that share alleles. Meiotic drive was evident at the Afu39 loci based on a test for random segregation (P inheritance based on a single progeny potentially produced by a double reduction gamete. No evidence for proposed octoploid inheritance was observed.

  3. Evaluating interception of larval pallid sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River- data acquisition, interpolation, and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A., IV; Erwin, S. O.; Anderson, B. J.; Wilson, H.; Jacobson, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    The transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding is an important life-stage transition for many riverine fish larvae. On the Missouri River, U.S., riverine alteration has decreased connectivity between the navigation channel and complex, food-producing and foraging areas on the channel margins, namely shallow side channels and sandbar complexes. A favored hypothesis, the interception hypothesis, for recruitment failure of pallid sturgeon is that drifting larvae are not able to exit the highly engineered navigation channel, and therefore starve. We present work exploring measures of hydraulic connectivity between the navigation channel and channel margins using multiple data-collection protocols with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). As ADCP datasets alone often do not have high enough spatial resolution to characterize interception and connectivity sufficiently at the scale of drifting sturgeon larvae, they are often supplemented with physical and empirical models. Using boat-mounted ADCPs, we collected 3-dimensional current velocities with a variety of driving techniques (specifically, regularly spaced transects, reciprocal transects, and irregular patterns) around areas of potential larval interception. We then used toolkits based in Python to interpolate 3-dimensional velocity fields at spatial scales finer than the original measurements, and visualized resultant velocity vectors and flowlines in the software package Paraview. Using these visualizations, we investigated the necessary resolution of field measurements required to model connectivity with channel margin areas on large, highly engineered river ecosystems such as the Missouri River. We anticipate that results from this work will be used to help inform models of larval interception under current conditions. Furthermore, results from this work will be useful in developing monitoring strategies to evaluate the restoration of channel complexity to support ecological functions.

  4. Characteristics and Significance of Magma Emplacement Horizons, Black Sturgeon Sill, Nipigon, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieg, M. J.; Hone, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial scales strongly control the timescales of processes in igneous intrusions, particularly through the thermal evolution of the magma, which in turn governs the evolution of crystallinity, viscosity, and other important physical and chemical properties of the system. In this study, we have collected a highly detailed data set comprising geochemical (bulk rock composition), textural (size and alignment of plagioclase crystals), and mineralogical (modal abundance) profiles through the central portion of the 250 m thick Black Sturgeon diabase sill. In this data, we have identified characteristic signals in texture (soft and somewhat diffuse chills), composition (reversals in differentiation trends), and mineralogy (olivine accumulations), all coinciding and recurring at roughly 10 meter intervals. Based on these signatures, we are able to map out multiple zones representing discrete pulses of magma that were emplaced sequentially as the intrusion was inflated. Simple thermal calculations suggest that each 10 meters of new crystallization would require repose times on the order of 10-100 years. To build up 250 meters of magma at this rate would only require approximately 250-2500 years, significantly less than the thermal lifetime of the entire sill. The soft chills we observe in the Black Sturgeon sill are therefore consistent with a system that remained warm throughout the emplacement process. Successive pulses were injected into partially crystalline mush, rather than pure liquid (which would result in hybridization) or solid (which would produce sharp hard chills). Episodic emplacement is by now widely recognized as a fundamental process in the formation of large felsic magma chambers; our results suggest that this also may be an important consideration in understanding the evolution of smaller mafic intrusions.

  5. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  6. Identifying temporal bottlenecks for the conservation of large-bodied fishes: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens show highly restricted movement and habitat use over-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnette Thayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species’ size and home range size has been well studied. In practice, home range may provide a good surrogate of broad spatial coverage needed for species conservation, however, many species can show restricted movement during critical life stages, such as breeding and over-wintering. This suggests the existence of either a behavioral or habitat mediated ‘temporal bottleneck,’ where restricted or sedentary movement can make populations more susceptible to harm during specific life stages. Here, we study over-winter movement and habitat use of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the largest freshwater fish in North America. We monitored over-winter movement of 86 fish using a hydro-acoustic receiver array in the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. Overall, 20 fish remained within our study system throughout the winter. Lake Sturgeon showed strong aggregation and sedentary movement over-winter, demonstrating a temporal bottleneck. Movement was highly restricted during ice-on periods (ranging from 0.9 km/day in November and April to 0.2 km/day in mid-November to mid-March, with Lake Sturgeon seeking deeper, slower pools. We also show that Lake Sturgeon have strong aggregation behavior, where distance to conspecifics decreased (from 575 to 313 m in preparation for and during ice-on periods. Although the Lake Sturgeon we studied had access to 1100 kilometers of unfragmented riverine habitat, we show that during the over-winter period Lake Sturgeon utilized a single, deep pool (<0.1% of available habitat. The temporal discrepancy between mobile and sedentary behaviors in Lake Sturgeon suggest adaptive management is needed with more localized focus during periods of temporal bottlenecks, even for large-bodied species.

  7. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Breece

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  8. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  9. How Low Can You Go? Determining a Size Threshold for Implantation of a New Acoustic Transmitter in Age-0 White Sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, Neil K.; Liss, Stephanie A.; Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Klassen, Cheryl; Backhouse, Stephanie; Bates, Phil; Townsend, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Telemetry studies are often used to investigate sturgeon habitat use and movement patterns; however, existing acoustic transmitters are generally too large to implant into age-0 sturgeon without harming the fish. Recent development of a miniaturized acoustic transmitter (cylindrical, 0.7 g in air, 24.2 mm long, 5.0 mm diameter) with up to 365 d battery life has the potential to advance our understanding of age-0 sturgeon ecology in rivers and lakes. Prior to use in field studies, it is essential to conduct experiments evaluating potential adverse transmitter effects on fish. We tested transmitter retention, fish survival, and growth of a broad size range of age-0 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; 158–277 mm fork length; 26–126 g; 0.6–2.6% transmitter burden) in an 84 d laboratory study, with an ultimate goal of determining a minimum size threshold of sturgeon that can be implanted with this acoustic transmitter. At 84 d post-implantation, transmitter retention and fish survival were 100%. Specific growth rates were reduced at 7 and 14 d post-implantation, resulting in minimum fork length thresholds of 250 and 171 mm, respectively. Juveniles implanted with transmitters regained their growth potential by 28 d post-implantation and no size differences were detected in comparisons with unmarked control fish. This study demonstrates the ability to implant small age-0 sturgeon with high transmitter retention and fish survival, and only minor growth effects. Use of new miniaturized acoustic transmitters may give researchers a means to address questions about young-of-the-year fish recruitment, ecological patterns, and potentially advance conservation management of sturgeon populations.

  10. The interactive effects of selenomethionine and methylmercury on their absorption, disposition, and elimination in juvenile white sturgeon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Fadel, James G.

    2013-01-01

    in juvenile white sturgeon, a benthic fish species at high risk to exposures of both contaminants. Selenium and Hg were provided as L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylmercury (MeHg), respectively. Groups of 10 sturgeon were orally intubated with a single dose of either 0 (control), SeMet (500 µg Se/kg body...... weight; BW), MeHg (850 µg Hg/kg BW), or their combination (Se/Hg; 500 µg Se/kg and 850 µg Hg/kg BW). The blood was repeatedly sampled and urine collected from the fish, over a 48 h post intubation period. At 48 h, the fish were sacrificed for Se and Hg tissue concentration and distribution. The co...

  11. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  12. Adaption of egg and larvae sampling techniques for lake sturgeon and broadcast spawning fishes in a deep river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Craig, Jaquelyn; Boase, James; Soper, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe how we adapted two techniques for sampling lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and other fish early life history stages to meet our research needs in the Detroit River, a deep, flowing Great Lakes connecting channel. First, we developed a buoy-less method for sampling fish eggs and spawning activity using egg mats deployed on the river bottom. The buoy-less method allowed us to fish gear in areas frequented by boaters and recreational anglers, thus eliminating surface obstructions that interfered with recreational and boating activities. The buoy-less method also reduced gear loss due to drift when masses of floating aquatic vegetation would accumulate on buoys and lines, increasing the drag on the gear and pulling it downstream. Second, we adapted a D-frame drift net system formerly employed in shallow streams to assess larval lake sturgeon dispersal for use in the deeper (>8 m) Detroit River using an anchor and buoy system.

  13. Ontogeny of salinity tolerance and evidence for seawater-entry preparation in juvenile green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; McEnroe, Maryann; Forostyan, Tetyana; Cole, Stephanie; Nicholl, Mary M; Hodge, Brian; Cech, Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    We measured the ontogeny of salinity tolerance and the preparatory hypo-osmoregulatory physiological changes for seawater entry in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species occurring along the Pacific Coast of North America. Salinity tolerance was measured every 2 weeks starting in 40-day post-hatch (dph) juveniles and was repeated until 100% survival at 34‰ was achieved. Fish were subjected to step increases in salinity (5‰ 12 h(-1)) that culminated in a 72-h exposure to a target salinity, and treatment groups (0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 34‰; and abrupt exposure to 34‰) were adjusted as fish developed. After 100% survival was achieved (134 dph), a second experiment tested two sizes of fish for 28-day seawater (33‰) tolerance, and gill and gastrointestinal tract tissues were sampled. Their salinity tolerance increased and plasma osmolality decreased with increasing size and age, and electron microscopy revealed three types of mitochondria-rich cells: one in fresh water and two in seawater. In addition, fish held on a natural photoperiod in fresh water at 19°C showed peaks in cortisol, thyroid hormones and gill and pyloric ceca Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities at body sizes associated with seawater tolerance. Therefore, salinity tolerance in green sturgeon increases during ontogeny (e.g., as these juveniles may move down estuaries to the ocean) with increases in body size. Also, physiological and morphological changes associated with seawater readiness increased in freshwater-reared juveniles and peaked at their seawater-tolerant ages and body sizes. Their seawater-ready body size also matched that described for swimming performance decreases, presumably associated with downstream movements. Therefore, juvenile green sturgeon develop structures and physiological changes appropriate for seawater entry while growing in fresh water, indicating that hypo-osmoregulatory changes may proceed by multiple routes in sturgeons.

  14. Assessment of the impacts of the Salem and Hope Creek Stations on shortnose sturgeon, 'Acipenser brevirostrum' lesueur. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masnik, M.T.; Wilson, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    Acipenser brevirostrum, a federally recognized endangered species, is known from the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Nuclear Stations. The potential for adverse impact to this species due to the completion of construction and the operation of these stations is assessed. A review of the literature pertaining to the distribution, life history, and tolerance of this species is presented. Both historical records and current status of the shortnose sturgeon population in the Delaware River are discussed

  15. Effects of stocking density on lipid deposition and expression of lipid-related genes in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Ni, Meng

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities (LSD 5.5 kg/m 3 , MSD 8.0 kg/m 3 , and HSD 11.0 kg/m 3 ) for 70 days and then the growth index, lipid content, lipase activities, and the mRNA expressions of lipid-related genes were examined. Results showed that fish subjected to higher stocking density presented lower final body weights (FBW), specific growth ratio (SGR), and gonad adipose tissue index (GAI) (P density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly with increasing stocking density, while no significant change was observed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the cDNAs encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were isolated in Amur sturgeon, respectively. The full-length LPL cDNA was composed of 1757 bp with an open reading frame of 501 amino acids, while the complete nucleotide sequences of HL covered 1747 bp encoding 499 amino acids. In the liver, the activities and mRNA levels of LPL were markedly lower in HSD group, which were consistent with the variation tendency of HL. Fish reared in HSD group also presented lower levels of activities and mRNA expression of LPL in the muscle and gonad. Moreover, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in both the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly upregulated in HSD group. Overall, the results indicated that high stocking density negatively affects growth performance and lipid deposition of Amur sturgeon to a certain extent. The downregulation of LPL and HL and the upregulation of PPARα may be responsible for the lower lipid distribution of Amur sturgeon in higher stocking density.

  16. The relationship between morphological and sexual indices in suitable brood Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (Brandt and Ratzeburg, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Falahatkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to reduction of sturgeon stocks in various water bodies, artificial propagation has become significantly important for stock restoration and appropriate broodstock selection is vital in this process. Selection of suitable broodstocks may influence the quality and quantity of obtained eggs and larva. The present study aimed to examine correlation between some morphometric and reproductive parameters to find suitable brood fish for artificial reproduction in Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Forty fish free of any external disease symptom and abnormality were selected for the study. Following biometric measurements including weight, total length, abdominal girth, PV (distance between pectoral and pelvic fins, LX (distance between anal and caudal fins, polarization index (PI, gonadosomatic index, absolute fecundity, and fertilization rate, correlations between these morphometric and biological characteristics with emphasis on breeding were calculated. There was higher correlation between weight-absolute fecundity and length-PV in fish responded to artificial breeding, while correlation between age-PV, length-PV and weight-abdominal girth were higher in those fish not responded to artificial breeding. The results suggests that it is quite possible to select suitable Russian sturgeon spawners for artificial propagation based on combination of body weight, LX, PV, age, abdominal girth and total length, however the most useful criteria for the selection seems to be precise measurement of the polarization index.

  17. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  18. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  19. Co-infection of Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) and Streptococcus iniae in cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Richey, Christine; Stevens, Brittany; Yun, Susan; Kenelty, Kirsten; Reichley, Stephen; Griffin, Matt; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Camus, Al

    2017-03-30

    A mortality event in cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson, 1836) sub-adults was investigated. After transfer between farms, high mortality was observed in fish, associated with back arching, abnormal swimming, and ulcerative skin lesions. Necropsy of moribund individuals revealed hemorrhagic ascites and petechial hemorrhages in the coelomic peritoneum and serosa of internal organs. Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) was isolated from external tissue samples, then identified and genotyped by sequencing of the terminase and polymerase genes. In addition, Streptococcus iniae was recovered from internal organs of affected fish. Histologic changes were limited to interstitial hematopoietic areas of the kidney and consisted of small foci of necrosis accompanied by fibrin deposition, minimal inflammatory response, and small numbers of bacterial cocci compatible with streptococci. Identity was confirmed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB genes. Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated a genetic profile distinct from S. iniae isolates recovered from previous outbreaks in wild and cultured fish in North America, South America, and the Caribbean. Although the isolates were resistant to white sturgeon complement in serum killing assays, in vivo challenges failed to fulfill Koch's postulates. However, the clinical presentation, coupled with consistent recovery of S. iniae and AciHV-2 from moribund fish, suggests viral and bacterial co-infection were the proximate cause of death. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of AciHV-2 and S. iniae co-infection in cultured white sturgeon.

  20. Relating river discharge and water temperature to the recruitment of age‐0 White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) in the Columbia River using over‐dispersed catch data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Chapman, Colin G.

    2018-01-01

    The goals were to (i) determine if river discharge and water temperature during various early life history stages were predictors of age‐0 White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, recruitment, and (ii) provide an example of how over‐dispersed catch data, including data with many zero observations, can be used to better understand the effects of regulated rivers on the productivity of depressed sturgeon populations. An information theoretic approach was used to develop and select negative binomial and zero‐inflated negative binomial models that model the relation of age‐0 White Sturgeon survey data from three contiguous Columbia River reservoirs to river discharge and water temperature during spawning, egg incubation, larval, and post‐larval phases. Age‐0 White Sturgeon were collected with small mesh gill nets in The Dalles and John Day reservoirs from 1997 to 2014 and a bottom trawl in Bonneville Reservoir from 1989 to 2006. Results suggest that seasonal river discharge was positively correlated with age‐0 recruitment; notably that discharge, 16 June–31 July was positively correlated to age‐0 recruitment in all three reservoirs. The best approximating models for two of the three reservoirs also suggest that seasonal water temperature may be a determinant of age‐0 recruitment. Our research demonstrates how over‐dispersed catch data can be used to better understand the effects of environmental conditions on sturgeon populations caused by the construction and operation of dams.

  1. Responses of heat shock protein 70 and caspase-3/7 to dietary selenomethionine in juvenile white sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the responses of juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to elevated dietary selenium (Se based on the determination of the RNA/DNA ratio in muscle, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, and caspase-3/7 in muscle and/or liver tissues. Four semi-purified test diets were prepared by adding different levels of L-selenomethionine (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg diet. The analytical determinations of total Se were 2.2, 19.7, 40.1, and 77.7 mg/kg diet. The sturgeon (initial body weight: 30 ± 2 g; mean ± SEM were raised in indoor tanks provided with flow through freshwater (18–19 °C. There were three replicates for each dietary treatment with 25 fish per replicate. The liver and muscle tissues were collected at 4 and 8 weeks after feeding the test diets. A significant interaction between duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on RNA/DNA ratio in the muscle tissue was detected (P < 0.05. Although there was no significant main effect due to the duration of dietary Se exposures (i.e., 4 weeks versus 8 weeks on muscle RNA/DNA ratio (P ≥ 0.05, the ratio was significantly decreased with increasing dietary Se levels. Significant main effects were caused by the duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on Hsp70 in both the muscle and liver tissues, with significant increases in Hsp70 due to a longer exposure (8 weeks and higher levels (40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet of dietary Se. The caspase-3/7 activity in the liver were significantly higher in fish fed the diets containing 40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet than those fed the other diets. The toxic thresholds of Se in the muscle were estimated to be 32.2 and 26.6 mg Se/kg for the depressed specific growth rate and the induced Hsp70 response in muscle, respectively. This result indicated that the Hsp70 response in muscle is a more sensitive biomarker than the SGR of sturgeon for evaluating Se toxicity in white sturgeon. Results of the

  2. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Kootenai River white sturgeon have been declining for at least 50 years and extinction of the wild population is now imminent (Paragamian et al. 2005). Only 630 adults were estimated to remain in 2002 from a population ten times that size just 20 years ago. Significant recruitment of young sturgeon has not been observed since the early 1970s and consistent annual recruitment has not been seen since the 1950s. The remaining wild population consists of a cohort of large, old fish that is declining by about 9% per year as fish die naturally and are not replaced. At this rate, the wild population will disappear around the year 2040. Numbers have already reached critical low levels where genetic and demographic risks are acute. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was convened in 1994, provided a draft Recovery Plan in 1996 and the first complete Recovery Plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1999 (USFWS 1996, 1999). The Plan outlined a four part strategy for recovery, including: (1) measures to restore natural recruitment, (2) use of conservation aquaculture to prevent extinction, (3) monitoring survival and recovery, and (4) updating and revising recovery plan criteria and objectives as new information becomes available. Sturgeon recovery efforts are occurring against a backdrop of a broader ecosystem protection and restoration program for the Kootenai River ecosystem. With abundance halving time of approximately 8 years, the Kootenai River white sturgeon population is rapidly dwindling, leaving managers little time to act. Decades of study consistently indicate that recruitment failure occurs between embryo and larval stages. This assertion is based on four key observations. First, almost no recruitment has occurred during the last 30 years. Second, thousands of naturally produced white sturgeon embryos, most viable, have been collected over the past decade, resulting from an estimated 9 to 20 spawning events each year. Third, Kootenai River white

  3. Lake Sturgeon, Lake Whitefish, and Walleye egg deposition patterns with response to fish spawning substrate restoration in the St. Clair–Detroit River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward; Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg deposition and use of restored spawning substrates by lithophilic fishes (e.g., Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis, and Walleye Sander vitreus) were assessed throughout the St. Clair–Detroit River system from 2005 to 2016. Bayesian models were used to quantify egg abundance and presence/absence relative to site-specific variables (e.g., depth, velocity, and artificial spawning reef presence) and temperature to evaluate fish use of restored artificial spawning reefs and assess patterns in egg deposition. Lake Whitefish and Walleye egg abundance, probability of detection, and probability of occupancy were assessed with detection-adjusted methods; Lake Sturgeon egg abundance and probability of occurrence were assessed using delta-lognormal methods. The models indicated that the probability of Walleye eggs occupying a site increased with water velocity and that the rate of increase decreased with depth, whereas Lake Whitefish egg occupancy was not correlated with any of the attributes considered. Egg deposition by Lake Whitefish and Walleyes was greater at sites with high water velocities and was lower over artificial spawning reefs. Lake Sturgeon eggs were collected least frequently but were more likely to be collected over artificial spawning reefs and in greater abundances than elsewhere. Detection-adjusted egg abundances were not greater over artificial spawning reefs, indicating that these projects may not directly benefit spawning Walleyes and Lake Whitefish. However, 98% of the Lake Sturgeon eggs observed were collected over artificial spawning reefs, supporting the hypothesis that the reefs provided spawning sites for Lake Sturgeon and could mitigate historic losses of Lake Sturgeon spawning habitat.

  4. REARING OF PELED (COREGONUS PELED Gmelin IN POLYCULTURE WITH CYPRINIDS (CYPRINIDAE AND STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  5. Evidence of natural reproduction of Atlantic sturgeon in the Connecticut River from unlikely sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Savoy

    Full Text Available Atlantic Sturgeon is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five Distinct Population Segments (DPS. The "endangered" New York Bight (NYB DPS is thought to only harbor two populations; one in the Hudson River and a second smaller one in the Delaware River. Historically, the Connecticut River probably supported a spawning population of Atlantic Sturgeon that was believed extirpated many decades ago. In 2014, we successfully collected pre-migratory juvenile specimens from the lower Connecticut River which were subjected to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequence and microsatellite analyses to determine their genetic relatedness to other populations coastwide. Haplotype and allelic frequencies differed significantly between the Connecticut River collection and all other populations coastwide. Sibship analyses of the microsatellite data indicated that the Connecticut River collection was comprised of a small number of families that were likely the offspring of a limited number of breeders. This was supported by analysis of effective population size (Ne and number of breeders (Nb. STRUCTURE analysis suggested that there were 11 genetic clusters among the coastwide collections and that from the Connecticut River was distinct from those in all other rivers. This was supported by UPGMA analyses of the microsatellite data. In AMOVA analyses, among region variation was maximized, and among population within regions variation minimized when the Connecticut River collection was separate from the other two populations in the NYB DPS indicating the dissimilarity between the Connecticut River collection and the other two populations in the NYB DPS. Use of mixed stock analysis indicated that the Connecticut River juvenile collection was comprised of specimens primarily of South Atlantic and Chesapeake Bay DPS origins. The most parsimonious explanation for these results is that the Connecticut River hosted successful natural reproduction in 2013

  6. Metallothionein as potential biomarker of cadmium exposure in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Fatemeh; Esaili Sari, Abbas; Mashinchian, Ali; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2011-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) concentration in gills, liver, and kidney tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) were determined following exposure to sublethal levels of waterborne cadmium (Cd) (50, 400, and 1,000 μg l(-1)) after 1, 2, 4, and 14 days. The increases of MT from background levels were 4.6-, 3-, and 2.8-fold for kidney, liver, and gills, respectively. The results showed that MT level change in the kidney is time and concentration dependent. Also, cortisol measurement revealed elevation at the day 1 of exposure and followed by MT increase in the liver. Cd concentrations in the cytosol of experimental tissues were measured, and the results indicated that Cd levels in the cytosol of liver, kidney, and gills increased 240.71-, 32.05-, and 40.16-fold, respectively, 14 days after exposure to 1,000 μg l(-1) Cd. The accumulation of Cd in cytosol of tissues is in the order of liver > gills > kidney. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the MT content in kidney is correlated with Cd concentration, the value of which is more than in liver and gills. Thus, kidney can be considered as a tissue indicator in A. persicus for waterborne Cd contamination.

  7. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Cook, Katrina V.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Johnson, Rachelle C.; McLellan, Jason; Linley, Timothy J.; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Dowell, Frederick E.; Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; dph), were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma related injury and mortality were first observed 9 dph, on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 dph (visible from necropsy and x-ray radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 dph. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61-153 mm at 91 dph. The use of a combination of decompression tests and x-ray radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life history stages would help to determine fish susceptibility to hydroturbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  8. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard S; Cook, Katrina V; Pflugrath, Brett D; Rozeboom, Latricia L; Johnson, Rachelle C; McLellan, Jason G; Linley, Timothy J; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J; Dowell, Frederick E; Miller, Erin A; White, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae, and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; d.p.h.) were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma-related injury and mortality were first observed 9 d.p.h., on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma-related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 d.p.h. (visible at necropsy and on radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 d.p.h. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61 to 153 mm at 91 d.p.h. The use of a combination of decompression tests and radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life-history stages would help to determine the susceptibility of fish to hydro turbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  9. Morphometric Characteristics and Length-Weight Relationship of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles Fed with Different Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cristina ANDREI(GURIENCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze some morphometric characteristics and the correlation between them for Russian sturgeon juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii reared in a recirculating aquaculture system fed at different fed with different ratio: 1% body weight (BW, 1.5% BW, 2% BW and ad libitum feeding (which was around 2.8% BW.Fish, with an average body mass around 248.194 ± 1.59 g. Following biometric measurements were made for each fish, including weight (W, total length (TL, standard length (SL, fork length (FL, maximum body depth (last depth of caudal peduncle, H; preanal distance (AD, predorsal distance (PD, length of head (C, preorbital distance (PO, length of pectoral fin (LPF, interorbital distance (ID, maximum width of head (MH, width of mouth (WM, width of the head at the level of the mouth (WHM. The obtained results showed significant differences between all morphometric measurements (p<0.05 for all the experimental variants, emphasizing that in the ad libitum feeding all morphometric measurements were significantly higher than in the other experimental variants. In order to highlight more eloquent these differences, were developed some linear regressions between the morphometric measurements and significant positive correlation (p<0.05 between dependent and independent variables were found.

  10. Understanding the basis of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) partial migration in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenritter, Matthew E.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.

    2018-01-01

    Movement of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) among major river systems in the Gulf of Maine is common and has implications for the management of this endangered species. Directed movements of 61 telemetered individuals monitored between 2010 and 2013 were associated with the river of tagging and individual characteristics. While a small proportion of fish tagged in the Kennebec River moved to the Penobscot River (5%), a much higher proportion of fish tagged in the Penobscot River moved to the Kennebec River (66%), during probable spawning windows. This suggests that Penobscot River fish derive from a migratory contingent within a larger Kennebec River population. Despite this connectivity, fish captured in the Penobscot River were larger (∼100 mm fork length) and had higher condition factors (median Fulton’s K: 0.76) than those captured in the Kennebec River (median Fulton’s K: 0.61). Increased abundance and resource limitation in the Kennebec River may be constraining growth and promoting migration to the Penobscot River by individuals with sufficient initial size and condition. Migrants could experience an adaptive reproductive advantage relative to nonmigratory individuals.

  11. Decision 99-18: Range Petroleum Corporation application for a well licence, Sturgeon Lake Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    Range Petroleum Corporation (Range) applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) pursuant to Section 2.020 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations for a well licence to drill a sour oil well from a surface location in Legal Subdivision 4, Section 34, West of the fifth Meridian, directionally to a bottom-hole location under Sturgeon Lake. The purpose of the proposed well would be to obtain sour oil production from the Leduc Formation. The well would be a Level 1 well because it would have a potential maximum hydrogen sulphide release rate of 0.0412 cubic m/s. The EUB received objections to the application from landowners, cattle ranchers, farmers, residents, and cottage owners in the area of the proposed well. The application and intervention were considered at a public hearing on 26 January 1999 in Grande Prairie, Alberta, and the Board viewed the proposed surface location, the previous Lds 3-2 surface location, and the surrounding area prior to the hearing. Having carefully considered the evidence, the Board believed that it would be possible to drill the proposed well safely and with minimal risk, subject to attached conditions. But in light of the unique setting of the area, including the residences and the road and lake configurations, and the difficulty that would exist preparing an effective environmental review process (ERP), the Board deferred its decision on the well licence application until an approved ERP is in place

  12. Identification of a new mineralized tissue in the notochord of reared Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprévost, Amandine; Azaïs, Thierry; Trichet, Michael; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2017-11-01

    In a study aiming to improve knowledge on the mineralization of the axial skeleton in reared Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869), we discovered a new mineralized tissue within the notochord. To our knowledge, such a structure has never been reported in any vertebrate species with the exception of the pathological mineralization of the notochord remains in degenerative intervertebral disks of mammals. Here, we describe this enigmatic tissue using X-ray microtomography, histological analyses and solid state NMR-spectroscopy. We also performed a 1-year monitoring of the mineral content (MC) of the notochord in relation with seasonal variations of temperature. In all specimens studied from 2-year-old juveniles onwards, this mineralized structure was found within a particular region of the notochord called funiculus. This feature first appears in the abdominal region then extends posteriorly with ageing, while the notochord MC also increases. The mineral phase is mainly composed of amorphous calcium phosphate, a small amount of which changes into hydroxyapatite with ageing. The putative role of this structure is discussed as either a store of minerals available for the phosphocalcic metabolism, or a mechanical support in a species with a poorly mineralized axial skeleton. A pathological feature putatively related to rearing conditions is also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A bibliography of all known publications & reports on the Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melissa; Adler, Jennifer; Littles, Chanda; Randolph, April Norem; Nash, Ursula A.; Gillett, Bethan; Randall, Michael T.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brownell, Prescott

    2013-01-01

    This functional bibliography is meant to be a complete and comprehensive bibliography of all discoverable reports containing information on the Gulf Sturgeon (GS). This bibliography contains all known reports presenting, documenting, summarizing, listing, or interpreting information on the GS through 31 December 2013. Report citations are organized into four sections. Section I includes published scientific journal articles, books, dissertations and theses, published and unpublished technical reports, published harvest prohibitions, and online articles reporting substantive scientific information. Section II includes newspaper, newsletter, magazine, book, agency news releases, and online articles reporting on GS occurrences, mortalities, captures, jumping, boat collisions, aquaculture, historical photographs, and other largely non-scientific or anecdotal issues. Section III consists of books, theses, ecotour-guides, media articles, editorials, and blogs reporting a mix of anecdotal information, historical information, and opinion on GS conservation, habitat issues, exploitation, aquaculture, and human interaction - but presenting very limited or no substantive scientific information. Section IV includes videos, films and audio recordings documenting GS life history and behavior.

  14. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  15. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm

  16. Exposure-related effects of Zequanox on juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The environmental fate, persistence, and non-target animal impacts of traditional molluscicides for zebra, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga, D. bugensis, mussel control led to the development of the biomolluscicide Zequanox. Although previous research has demonstrated the specificity of Zequanox, one study indicated sensitivity of salmonids and lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, following non-label compliant exposures to Zequanox. This study was conducted to evaluate sublethal and lethal impacts of Zequanox exposure on juvenile lake sturgeon and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, following applications that were conducted in a manner consistent with the Zequanox product label. Fish were exposed to 50 or 100 mg/L of Zequanox as active ingredient for 8 h and then held for 33 d to evaluate latent impacts. No acute mortality was observed in either species; however, significant latent mortality (P < 0.01, df = 9; 46.2%) was observed in lake trout that were exposed to the highest dose of Zequanox. Statistically significant (P < 0.03, df = 9), but biologically minimal differences were observed in the weight (range 20.17 to 21.49 g) of surviving lake sturgeon at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05, df = 9) and biologically considerable differences were observed in the weight (range 6.19 to 9.55 g) of surviving lake trout at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Histologic evaluation of lake trout gastrointestinal tracts suggests that the mode of action in lake trout is different from the mode of action that induces zebra and quagga mussel mortality. Further research could determine the sensitivity of other salmonid species to Zequanox and determine if native fish will avoid Zequanox treated water.

  17. Effects of Mitigation Measures on Productivity of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, and Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesdorfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1993-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 1992-March 1993 in research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and progress through 1992 was summarized in a comprehensive report in 2 volumes (Beamesderfer and Nigro 1993a, 1993b). This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, we assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparations for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report.

  18. Effects of lecithin on growth and hematological indices in juveniles of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandet 1869)

    OpenAIRE

    Najafipour Moghadam, E.; Falahatkar, B.; Kalbassi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary lecithin on growth performance and hematological indices in juveniles of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Fish with initial average weight of 32.9±0.3 grams were fed five isoproteic and isolipidic formulated diets with different soybean lecithin levels including 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% in triplicate groups for 8 weeks. Results showed that lecithin supplementation to 7.5% significantly increased some growth indices such as body w...

  19. Status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, annual progress report, July 1986 - March 1987.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Washington Department of Fisheries

    1987-01-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts

  20. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  1. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Jr., George T. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR); Beckman, Lance G. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR); Kreitman, Gayle (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  2. Growth potential and habitat requirements of endangered age-0 pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, USA, determined using a individual-based model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, David; Heironimus, Laura B.; Rapp, Tobias; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    An individual-based model framework was used to evaluate growth potential of the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River. The model, developed for age-0 sturgeon, combines information on functional feeding response, bioenergetics and swimming ability to regulate consumption and growth within a virtual foraging arena. Empirical data on water temperature, water velocity and prey density were obtained from three sites in the Missouri River and used as inputs in the model to evaluate hypotheses concerning factors affecting pallid sturgeon growth. The model was also used to evaluate the impacts of environmental heterogeneity and water velocity on individual growth variability, foraging success and dispersal ability. Growth was simulated for a period of 100 days using 100 individuals (first feeding; 19 mm and 0.035 g) per scenario. Higher growth was shown to occur at sites where high densities of Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae larvae occurred throughout the growing season. Highly heterogeneous habitats (i.e., wide range of environmental conditions) and moderate water velocities (0.3 m/s) were also found to positively affect growth rates. The model developed here provides an important management and conservation tool for evaluating growth hypotheses and(or) identifying habitats in the Missouri River that are favourable to age-0 pallid sturgeon growth.

  3. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  4. Phylogeography of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio): A critically endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Olivier; Desse-Berset, Nathalie; Hänni, Catherine; Hughes, Sandrine; Berrebi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) was once a common species throughout Europe, but the sole remaining natural population presently inhabits the Gironde Estuary in France (Atlantic coast). The species was classified as 'Critically Endangered' in 1996, and the Gironde population is now on the verge of extinction. In this setting, and for the first time, we present the past phylogeographical features of this species throughout Europe along with an assessment of its former genetic diversity. This study was based on a molecular analysis (mtDNA CR sequencing) of 10 living specimens from the Gironde Estuary, 55 museum specimens that had been caught along 19th and 20th centuries, and 59 archaeological remains dating back to 260-5000years BP, from which mitochondrial DNA was extracted and amplified. Although discontinuous, the produced data provided a realistic image of the former structure of A. sturio in Europe. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic trees and haplotypes network led to the identification of several clades. The mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species was found to be much greater at the core (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean and Adriatic regions) than along the margins (Atlantic-Northern Europe, Black Sea) of its range. A series of hypotheses on the dates and causes of changes in the species' major structures are put forward on the basis of these data. Finally, competition with A. oxyrinchus, a sibling species whose presence in Northern Europe was recently reconsidered, is presented as a major factor in the evolution of this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  6. Seasonal variation in plasma nonesterified fatty acids of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the vicinity of hydroelectric facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.; Power, G.; Singer, T.D.; Ballantyne, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the effects of hydroelectric generation on the health of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), seasonal variations in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) upstream and downstream from hydroelectric stations were measured over a 2-y period. Plasma NEFA profiles were also compared up- and downstream of the stations for differences in utilization of individual NEFA species as substrates for lipid oxidation. Significantly higher levels of total plasma NEFA were found in lake sturgeon upstream (2355 ± 395.9 nmole/ml) compared with those downstream (798 ± 133.5 nmole/ml) of the generating stations during the spring. The NEFA profiles for several key fatty acid species differed significantly among seasons up- and downstream of the facilities. In particular, during spring and summer, the levels of oleic acid (18:1n9) were highest upstream of the stations and levels of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), were higher below rather than above the stations. The differences in plasma NEFA concentration may be attributed to altered nutritional status due to the varying flow regime located downstream of the hydroelectric stations. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Effects of multiple collections on spermatozoa quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: motility, density and seminal plasma composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Kalbassi, M R; Gharibi, M R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of multiple collections of sperm on the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in terms of a number of sperm functional parameters (percentage of motile spermatozoa, total time period of motility and sperm concentration) as well as on the ionic composition, protein concentration and osmolality of seminal plasma. Semen samples were collected from 12 induced male fish in three experimental groups that had been injected intramuscularly with LHRH-A2, at dosages of 5 μg/kg body weight, at a number of time regimes: at 12 h, 17 h and 24 h after spawning induction (1); at 24, 29 and 34 h after spawning induction (2); and at 36, 41 and 46 h after spawning induction (3). The percentage of motile spermatozoa and the period of sperm motility decreased significantly (p collections. The concentration of spermatozoa decreased after the third collection, but this decline was not significant. No significant effect of multiple collections on protein concentration and ionic content (with exception of the Cl(-) ion) of seminal plasma was observed. In all experimental groups, a moderate impact of sequential collection on the osmolality (p collections on spermatological characteristics in the Persian sturgeon. Our results confirm that sequential stripping after the third collections has a negative effect on a number of functional parameters associated with sperm. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  9. Determination of hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals for 3 populations of captive Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsche, Mark A; Arnold, Jill; Jenkins, Erin; Townsend, Howard; Rosemary, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    The imperiled status of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus), a large, long-lived, anadromous fish found along the Atlantic coast of North America, has prompted efforts at captive propagation for research and stock enhancement. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals of captive Atlantic sturgeon maintained under different culture conditions. Blood specimens were collected from a total of 119 fish at 3 hatcheries: Lamar, PA (n = 36, ages 10-14 years); Chalk Point, MD (n = 40, siblings of Lamar); and Horn Point, Cambridge, MD (n = 43, mixed population from Chesapeake Bay). Reference intervals (using robust techniques), median, mean, and standard deviations were determined for WBC, RBC, thrombocytes, PCV, HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and absolute counts for lymphocytes (L), neutrophils (N), monocytes, and eosinophils. Chemistry analytes included concentrations of total proteins, albumin, glucose, urea, calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium, chloride, and globulins, AST, CK, and LDH activities, and osmolality. Mean concentrations of total proteins, albumin, and glucose were at or below the analytic range. Statistical comparisons showed significant differences among hatcheries for each remaining plasma chemistry analyte and for PCV, RBC, MCHC, MCH, eosinophil and monocyte counts, and N:L ratio throughout all 3 groups. Therefore, reference intervals were calculated separately for each population. Reference intervals for fish maintained under differing conditions should be established per population. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  11. Defining winter trophic habitat of juvenile Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee and Apalachicola rivermouth estuaries, acoustic telemetry investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, K.J.; Randall, M.T.; Edwards, R.E.; Summers, T.M.; Luke, K.E.; Smith, W.T.; Norem, A.D.; Harden, William M.; Lukens, R.H.; Parauka, F.; Bolden, S.; Lehnert, R.

    2009-01-01

    Three automated listening post-telemetry studies were undertaken in the Suwannee and Apalachicola estuaries to gain knowledge of habitats use by juvenile Gulf Sturgeons (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) on winter feeding grounds. A simple and reliable method for external attachment of small acoustic tags to the dorsal fin base was developed using shrink-tubing. Suspending receivers on masts below anchored buoys improved reception and facilitated downloading; a detection range of 500–2500 m was realized. In the Apalachicola estuary, juvenile GS stayed in shallow water (days at a time. For juvenile sturgeons, the stress and metabolic cost of enduring high salinity (Jarvis et al., 2001; McKenzie et al., 2001; Singer and Ballantyne, 2002) for short periods in deep offshore waters seems adaptively advantageous relative to the risk of cold-event mortality in shallow inshore waters of lower salinity. Thus, while juveniles can tolerate high salinities for days to weeks to escape cold events, they appear to make only infrequent use of open polyhaline waters. Throughout the winter foraging period, juvenile GS stayed primarily within the core area of Suwannee River mouth influence, extending about 12 km north and south of the river mouth, and somewhat seaward of Suwannee Reef (< 5 km offshore). None were detected departing the core area past either of the northern or southern acoustic gates, located 66 and 52 km distant from the river mouth, respectively.

  12. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  13. Fins improve the swimming performance of fish sperm: a hydrodynamic analysis of the Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Eric A; Bondarenko, Volodymyr; Cosson, Jacky; Pacey, Allan A

    2013-02-01

    The flagella of sturgeon sperm have an ultrastructure comprising paddle-like fins extending along most of their length. These fins are seen in several other marine and freshwater fish. The sperm of these fish are fast swimmers and are relatively short lived: it is therefore tempting to think of these fins as having evolved for hydrodynamic advantage, but the actual advantage they impart, at such a small length scale and slow speed, is unclear. The phrase "the fins improve hydrodynamic efficiency" is commonly found in biological literature, yet little hydrodynamic analysis has previously been used to support such conjectures. In this paper, we examine various hydrodynamic models of sturgeon sperm and investigate both swimming velocity and energy expenditure. All of the models indicate a modest hydrodynamic advantage of finned sperm, in both straight line swimming speed and a hydrodynamic efficiency measure. We find a hydrodynamic advantage for a flagellum with fins, over one without fins, of the order of 15-20% in straight line propulsive velocity and 10-15% in a hydrodynamic efficiency measure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Annual variation of hematology and plasma chemistry in shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, during a dam-impeded spawning run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsche, Mark A; Gibbons, Jarrett

    2012-12-01

    Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) spawning migrations on the Cooper River are impeded by Pinopolis Dam, Lake Moultrie, South Carolina. Sturgeon and other species aggregate below the dam in late winter/early spring and are subjected to a variety of stressors stemming from crowding, poor habitat quality, and injuries that appear to be caused by boat propeller or turbine strikes. Spawning has been documented in the tailrace, but reproductive success has not been verified as no juveniles have been captured. Fish within the dam tailrace were captured by gill net during winter, 2005 and 2007-2011, and physiological condition was assessed using a panel of hematologic and biochemical indices. Plasma phosphorus and calcium were significantly higher in females, while PCV and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher in males, indicating sex-specific physiological changes triggered during maturity. A marked leucopenia, accompanied by lymphopenia and neutrophilia, was evident in both sexes and was consistent across years, indicating that these fish were under chronic stress. Testosterone and estradiol levels and hematologic and biochemical reference intervals are provided for comparative purposes.

  15. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish.

  16. Sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) early life stages to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buckler, Justin A.; Nicks, Diane; Candrl, James; Claunch, Rachel; Gale, Robert W.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baker, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The aquatic food web of the Great Lakes has been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) since the mid-20th century. Threats of PCB exposures to long-lived species of fish, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), have been uncertain because of a lack of information on the relative sensitivity of the species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of early–life stage lake sturgeon to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Mortality, growth, morphological and tissue pathologies, swimming performance, and activity levels were used as assessment endpoints. Pericardial and yolk sac edema, tubular heart, yolk sac hemorrhaging, and small size were the most commonly observed pathologies in both TCDD and PCB-126 exposures, beginning as early as 4 d postfertilization, with many of these pathologies occurring in a dose-dependent manner. Median lethal doses for PCB-126 and TCDD in lake sturgeon were 5.4 ng/g egg (95% confidence interval, 3.9–7.4 ng/g egg) and 0.61 ng/g egg (0.47–0.82 ng/g egg), respectively. The resulting relative potency factor for PCB-126 (0.11) was greater than the World Health Organization estimate for fish (toxic equivalency factor = 0.005), suggesting that current risk assessments may underestimate PCB toxicity toward lake sturgeon. Swimming activity and endurance were reduced in lake sturgeon survivors from the median lethal doses at 60 d postfertilization. Threshold and median toxicity values indicate that lake sturgeon, like other Acipenser species, are more sensitive to PCB and TCDD than the other genus of sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus, found in North America. Indeed, lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes and elsewhere are susceptible to PCB/TCDD-induced developmental toxicity in embryos and reductions in swimming performance.

  17. Gluconeogenesis during starvation and refeeding phase is affected by previous dietary carbohydrates levels and a glucose stimuli during early life in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G or a low glucose diet (F from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]. Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H or a low carbohydrate diet (L until 20 wk. In the current study, the fish in 4 groups (GL, FL, GH and FH were experienced to starvation for 21 d following by re-feeding of their corresponding diets for 21 d. Fish were sampled at postprandial 6 and 24 h before starvation (P6h and P24h, starvation 7, 14 and 21 d (S7, S14 and S21 and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d during refeeding (R1, R7, R14 and R21. Plasma samples during refeeding were taken at P6h at each time point. Glycaemia levels, liver and muscle glycogen contents, activities and mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. We found that both dietary carbohydrate levels and early glucose stimuli significantly affected the metabolic responses to starvation and refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (P < 0.05. During prolonged starvation, Siberian sturgeon firstly mobilized the liver glycogen and then improved gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates were abundant, whereas preserved the liver glycogen stores at a stable level and more effectively promoted gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates are absent to maintain glucose homoeostasis. During refeeding, as most teleostean, Siberian sturgeon failed controlling the activities and mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic forms (PEPCK-C, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, but particularly controlled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mitochondrial forms (PEPCK-M activities and mRNA expression

  18. Visual Basic, Excel-based fish population modeling tool - The pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Green, Nicholas S.; Albers, Janice L.

    2016-02-10

    The model presented in this report is a spreadsheet-based model using Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7057D0Z) prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It uses the same model structure and, initially, parameters as used by Wildhaber and others (2015) for pallid sturgeon. The difference between the model structure used for this report and that used by Wildhaber and others (2015) is that variance is not partitioned. For the model of this report, all variance is applied at the iteration and time-step levels of the model. Wildhaber and others (2015) partition variance into parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level and temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations with time) applied at the time-step level. They included implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) within the time-step level.The interface developed for the model of this report is designed to allow the user the flexibility to change population model structure and parameter values and uncertainty separately for every component of the model. This flexibility makes the modeling tool potentially applicable to any fish species; however, the flexibility inherent in this modeling tool makes it possible for the user to obtain spurious outputs. The value and reliability of the model outputs are only as good as the model inputs. Using this modeling tool with improper or inaccurate parameter values, or for species for which the structure of the model is inappropriate, could lead to untenable management decisions. By facilitating fish population modeling, this modeling tool allows the user to evaluate a range of management options and implications. The goal of this modeling tool is to be a user-friendly modeling tool for developing fish population models useful to natural resource

  19. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Nigro, A.A.

    1993-12-01

    This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, the authors assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparation for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report

  20. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  1. Effect of morphological fin curl on the swimming performance and station-holding ability of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, David; Johnston, Ryan; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effect of fin-curl on the swimming and station-holding ability of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (mean fork length = 17 cm; mean weight = 16 g; n = 21) using a critical swimming speed test performed in a small swim chamber (90 L) at 20°C. We quantified fin-curl severity using the pectoral fin index. Results showed a positive relationship between pectoral fin index and critical swimming speed indicative of reduced swimming performance displayed by fish afflicted with a pectoral fin index < 8%. Fin-curl severity, however, did not affect the station-holding ability of individual fish. Rather, fish affected with severe fin-curl were likely unable to use their pectoral fins to position their body adequately in the water column, which led to the early onset of fatigue. Results generated from this study should serve as an important consideration for future stocking practices.

  2. STUDIES REGARDING THE PRESENCE OF THE PATHOGENS BACTERIA INTO A RECIRCULATING SYSTEM OF BELUGA STURGEON INTENSIVE REARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELICA DOCAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating aquaculture offers good potential for successful fish farming since is often independent of environmental conditions. Maintaining healthy fish in a recirculating system involves establishing adequate dissolved oxygen levels, removal of solid wastes, and sufficient ammonia nitrification to assure optimal rearing conditions. Neglecting these, the fish immune system will depress, the facultative pathogen germs will be able to provoke important disease outbreaks into cultured biomass, as was happened in our recirculating pilot system. In this study are presented the pathological aspects registered to the beluga sturgeon of 1 year, reared into our recirculating pilot system, pathological aspects generated by a haemorrhagic bacterial septicaemia which was manifested in the conditions of low concentrations of DO. The disease was diagnosed to the affected fish through anatomopathological and clinical exam, haematological exam and microbiological exam.

  3. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in Bester sturgeon, a cultured hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruthenus, in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hui; Hung, Shao-Wen; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Liu, Pan-Chen; Chang, Chen-Hsuan; Shia, Wei-Yau; Cheng, Ching-Fu; Lin, Shiun-Long; Tu, Ching-Yu; Lin, Yu-Hsing; Wang, Way-Shyan

    2012-10-01

    Approximately 5300 hybrid sturgeons with an average body weight of 600-800 g were farmed in 3 round tankers measuring 3m in diameter each containing 28,000 L of aerated groundwater. According to the owner's description, the diseased fish had anorexia, pale body color, and reddish spots on the abdomen. The morbidity and lethality rates in this outbreak were about 70% (3706/5300) and 100% (3706/3706), respectively. The clinical examination revealed enteritis, enlarged abdomen, and rapid respiration rate. The gross findings revealed a volume of about 4 mL of ascites. The histopathological examination showed multiple massive, hemorrhagic or coagulative necrotic foci in the liver and spleen. Furthermore, there was diffuse infiltration of glycogen in hepatic cells, and a few polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocytes were observed surrounding the spleen. Some bacterial clumps were noted around the necrotic foci. We also observed that there was moderate to severe, acute, multifocal, coagulative necrosis in the renal parenchyma, with some necrotic foci present beneath the margin of the kidney. Additionally, multifocal, coagulative necrosis was found in the pancreas. Results of microbiologic examinations, including biochemical characteristics, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene, sequencing and comparison, and phylogenetic analysis, revealed the pathogen of this infection was Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and based on the results of an antimicrobial agent sensitivity test the bacterium was only sensitive to ampicillin and florfenicol. Additionally, results of in vivo experimental infections in hybrid tilapia showed that 1×10(8) and 1×10(9) CFU/mL of our isolate caused death in all fish and LD(50) values ranged from 10(2) to 10(5) CFU/mL. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in hybrid sturgeon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1990 through March 1991 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from NcNary Dam; to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam; to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams; and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights of results of this work in the Dalles, Bonneville and John Day reservoirs are included in the four pages included in this report

  6. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  7. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  8. Stocking density affects the growth performance and metabolism of Amur sturgeon by regulating expression of genes in the GH/IGF axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang

    2017-07-01

    The effects of stocking density on the growth and metabolism of Amur sturgeon were assessed. Amur sturgeon were grown for 70 days at three different stocking densities (low stocking density, LSD: 5.5 kg/m3; medium stocking density, MSD: 8.0 kg/m3; and high stocking density, HSD: 11.0 kg/m3), and the biometric index, muscle composition, and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. In addition, pituitary, liver, and muscle samples were collected for gene cloning and expression analyses. After 70 days of growth, the fish maintained at HSD had significantly lower final body weight and specific growth rate, and a higher feed conversion ratio than those of the fish in the MSD and LSD groups. The HSD group had the lowest lipid and protein concentrations in serum and muscle. The serum cortisol concentration increased significantly in the HSD group, indicating that the stress-response system was activated in these fish. There was no change in the concentration of serum insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), while the concentrations of serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) decreased in the HSD group. The full-length cDNAs of GH and IGF-2 genes (995-bp and 1 207-bp long, respectively), were cloned and analyzed. In the HSD group, the expressions of GH in the pituitary and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF-1 in the liver were down-regulated at the end of the 70-day experiment. In the HSD group, the transcript level of IGF-2 significantly decreased in the liver, but did not change in muscle. Overall, our results indicated that a HSD negatively affects the growth performance and leads to changes in lipid and protein metabolism in Amur sturgeon. The down-regulated expression of genes related to the GH/IGF axis may be responsible for the poor growth performance of Amur sturgeon under crowding stress.

  9. The structure of the conus arteriosus of the sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) heart: II. The myocardium, the subepicardium, and the conus-aorta transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Cerra, Maria C; Tota, Bruno

    2002-12-01

    Sturgeons constitute a family of living "fossil" fish whose heart is related to that of other ancient fish and the elasmobranches. We have undertaken a systematic study of the structure of the sturgeon heart aimed at unraveling the relationship between the heart structure and the adaptive evolutionary changes. In a related paper, data were presented on the conus valves and the subendocardium. Here, the structure of the conus myocardium, the subepicardial tissue, and the conus-aorta transition were studied by conventional light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, actin localization by fluorescent phalloidin was used. The conus myocardium is organized into bundles whose spatial organization changes along the conus length. The variable orientation of the myocardial cell bundles may be effective in emptying the conus lumen during contraction and in preventing reflux of blood. Myocardial cell bundles are separated by loose connective tissue that contains collagen and elastin fibers, vessels, and extremely flat cells separating the cell bundles and enclosing blood vessels and collagen fibers. The ultrastructure of the myocardial cells was found to be very similar to that of other fish groups, suggesting that it is largely conservative. The subepicardium is characterized by the presence of nodular structures that contain lympho-hemopoietic (thymus-like) tissue in the young sturgeons and a large number of lymphocytes after the sturgeons reach sexual maturity. This tissue is likely implicated in the establishment and maintenance of the immune responses. The intrapericardial ventral aorta shows a middle layer of circumferentially oriented cells and internal and external layers with cells oriented longitudinally. Elastin fibers completely surround each smooth muscle cell, and the spaces between the different layers are occupied by randomly arranged collagen bundles. The intrapericardial segment of the ventral aorta is a true transitional segment

  10. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Volume 2: Supplemental papers and data documentation; Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Nigro, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary

  11. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. A fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model for population viability analysis of fish: Lower Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Albers, Janice; Green, Nicholas; Moran, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model suitable for population viability analysis (PVA) of fish and demonstrate its use with the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) of the Lower Missouri River as an example. The model incorporates three levels of variance: parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level, temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations over time) applied at the time-step level, and implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) applied within the time-step level. We found that population dynamics were most sensitive to survival rates, particularly age-2+ survival, and to fecundity-at-length. The inclusion of variance (unpartitioned or partitioned), stocking, or both generally decreased the influence of individual parameters on population growth rate. The partitioning of variance into parameter and temporal components had a strong influence on the importance of individual parameters, uncertainty of model predictions, and quasiextinction risk (i.e., pallid sturgeon population size falling below 50 age-1+ individuals). Our findings show that appropriately applying variance in PVA is important when evaluating the relative importance of parameters, and reinforce the need for better and more precise estimates of crucial life-history parameters for pallid sturgeon.

  14. Life history and status of Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur, 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, Boyd; Bolden, Stephania; Kieffer, Micah; Collins, Mark; Brundage, Hal; Hilton, Eric; Litvak, Mark; Kinnison, Michael T.; King, Timothy L.; Peterson, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Shortnose Sturgeon = SNS (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a small diadromous species with most populations living in large Atlantic coast rivers and estuaries of North America from New Brunswick, Canada, to GA, USA. There are no naturally landlocked populations, so all populations require access to fresh water and salt water to complete a natural life cycle. The species is amphidromous with use of fresh water and salt water (the estuary) varied across the species range, a pattern that may reflect whether freshwater or saltwater habitats provide optimal foraging and growth conditions. Migration is a dominant behavior during life history, beginning when fish are hatchling free embryos (southern SNS) or larvae (northeastern and far northern SNS). Migration continues by juveniles and nonspawning adult life stages on an individual time schedule with fish moving between natal river and estuary to forage or seek refuge, and by spawning adults migrating to and from riverine spawning grounds. Coastal movements by adults throughout the range (but particularly in the Gulf of Maine = GOM and among southern rivers) suggest widespread foraging, refuge use, and widespread colonization of new rivers. Colonization may also be occurring in the Potomac River, MD–VA–DC (midAtlantic region). Genetic studies (mtDNA and nDNA) identified distinct individual river populations of SNS, and recent rangewide nDNA studies identified five distinct evolutionary lineages of SNS in the USA: a northern metapopulation in GOM rivers; the Connecticut River; the Hudson River; a Delaware River–Chesapeake Bay metapopulation; and a large southern metapopulation (SC rivers to Altamaha River, GA). The Saint John River, NB, Canada, in the Bay of Fundy (north of the GOM), is the sixth distinct genetic lineage within SNS. Life history information from telemetry tracking supports the genetic information documenting extensive movement of adults among rivers within the three metapopulations. However

  15. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in <1min, but most rested in an eddy during ascent. Juveniles swimming through outside wall baffle slots (mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  16. Status of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) throughout the species range, threats to survival, and prognosis for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, L. R.; Drauch Schreier, Andrea; Lepla, K.; McAdam, S. O.; McLellan, J; Parsley, Michael J.; Paragamian, V L; Young, S P

    2016-01-01

    White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (WS), are distributed throughout three major river basins on the West Coast of North America: the Sacramento-San Joaquin, Columbia, and Fraser River drainages. Considered the largest North American freshwater fish, some WS use estuarine habitat and make limited marine movements between river basins. Some populations are listed by the United States or Canada as threatened or endangered (upper Columbia River above Grand Coulee Dam; Kootenai River; lower, middle and, upper Fraser River and Nechako River), while others do not warrant federal listing at this time (Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers; Columbia River below Grand Coulee Dam; Snake River). Threats that impact WS throughout the species’ range include fishing effects and habitat alteration and degradation. Several populations suffer from recruitment limitations or collapse due to high early life mortality associated with these threats. Efforts to preserve WS populations include annual monitoring, harvest restrictions, habitat restoration, and conservation aquaculture. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on WS life history, ecology, physiology, behavior, and genetics and presents the status of WS in each drainage. Ongoing management and conservation efforts and additional research needs are identified to address present and future risks to the species.

  17. Development of polysomic microsatellite markers for characterization of population structuring and phylogeography in the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anne P.; King, Tim L.

    2012-01-01

    Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum is an endangered polyploid fish species for which no nuclear DNA markers previously existed. To address this need, 86 polysomic loci were developed and characterized in 20 A. brevirostrum from five river systems and eight members (parents and six progeny) of a captive-bred family. All markers proved to be polymorphic, polysomic, and demonstrated direct inheritance when tested in a captive family. Eleven loci were included in a range-wide survey of 561 fish sampled from 17 geographic collections. Allelic diversity at these markers ranged from 7 to 24 alleles/locus and averaged 16.5 alleles/locus; sufficient diversity to produce unique multilocus genotypes. In the range-wide survey, a Mantel comparison of an ecological (1-Jaccard’s) and genetic (ΦPT; an analog to FST) distance metrics, identified a strong positive correlation (r = 0.98, P PT represents a viable metric for assessing genetic relatedness using this class of marker.

  18. Establishment and long-term culture of the cell lines derived from gonad tissues of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyung Ryu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To culture germline stem cells in vitro, establishment of the cell lines that can be used as the feeder cells is a prerequisite. In this study, we tried to establish gonad-derived cell lines in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii. Five 1-year-old A. baerii were used as a donor of gonad tissues, and gonad-dissociated cells were cultured in vitro. Subsequently, determination of growth conditions, long-term culture, characterization, and cryopreservation of the cell lines were also conducted. Five gonad-derived cell lines were stably established and cultured continuously over at least the 73th passage and 402 culture days under the media containing 20 % fetal bovine serum at 28 °C. All cell lines consisted of two main cell types based on morphology even if the ratio of the two cell types was different depending on cell lines. Despite long-term culture, all cell lines maintained diploid DNA contents and expression of several genes that are known to express in the A. baerii gonad. After freezing and thawing of the cell lines, post-thaw cell viabilities between 57.6 and 92.9 % depending on cell lines were indentified, suggesting that stable cryopreservation is possible. The results and the cell lines established in this study will contribute to the development of an in vitro system for A. baerii germline stem cell culture.

  19. Seasonal movements among river reaches, migration strategies, and population structure of the divided Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon population: the effects of Holyoke Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, Boyd; Kieffer, Micah; Vinogradov, Phil; Kynard, B.; Bronzi, P.; Rosenthal, H.

    2012-01-01

    Even after 155 years, each population segment seasonally migrates toward the other attempting to maintain the natural connection. Migration timing and style of pre-spawning and post-spawning males and females is discussed, as is homing. The impact of Holyoke Dam on population size and growth is characterized and turbine mortality of adult sturgeon passing through a Kaplan turbine at the dam is estimated. The chapter also identifies a behavioral dysfunction that results when migrations are blocked by a dam and are not completed at the correct stage of life. Many unknown effects of damming on other long-lived riverine fishes are likely captured in this 16-year study.

  20. Simulation of Changes of Activity Level of Some Carbohydrazes of Russian Sturgeon by the Influence of Environmental Osmotic Pressure by Means of Hybrid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tuktarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of simulation of the influence environmental osmotic pressure to the activity level of maltase and α-amilase of intestinal mucous tunic of Russian sturgeon. For the solving of this problem methods of neural networks and fuzzy logic are used. Create models are rated as the category of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems. Regularities of this influence were researched; created models have high approximate property and generalize well.

  1. Simulation of hydrodynamics, water quality, and lake sturgeon habitat volumes in Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Magdalene, Suzanne

    2018-01-05

    Lake St. Croix is a naturally impounded, riverine lake that makes up the last 40 kilometers of the St. Croix River. Substantial land-use changes during the past 150 years, including increased agriculture and urban development, have reduced Lake St. Croix water-quality and increased nutrient loads delivered to Lake St. Croix. A recent (2012–13) total maximum daily load phosphorus-reduction plan set the goal to reduce total phosphorus loads to Lake St. Croix by 20 percent by 2020 and reduce Lake St. Croix algal bloom frequencies. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a two-dimensional, carbon-based, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic and water-quality model, CE–QUAL–W2, that addresses the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of water temperature, oxygen, and chlorophyll a. Distribution is evaluated in the context of habitat for lake sturgeon, including a combination of temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions termed oxy-thermal habitat.The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2 model successfully reproduced temperature and dissolved oxygen in the lake longitudinally (from upstream to downstream), vertically, and temporally over the seasons. The simulated water temperature profiles closely matched the measured water temperature profiles throughout the year, including the prediction of thermocline transition depths (often within 1 meter), the absolute temperature of the thermocline transitions (often within 1.0 degree Celsius), and profiles without a strong thermocline transition. Simulated dissolved oxygen profiles matched the trajectories of the measured dissolved oxygen concentrations at multiple depths over time, and the simulated concentrations matched the depth and slope of the measured concentrations.Additionally, trends in the measured water-quality data were captured by the model simulation, gaining some potential insights into the

  2. Effects of temperature and fatigue on the metabolism and swimming capacity of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xi; Zhou, Yi-Hong; Huang, Ying-Ping; Guo, Wen-Tao; Johnson, David; Jiang, Qing; Jing, Jin-Jie; Tu, Zhi-Ying

    2017-10-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a critically endangered species. A flume-type respirometer, with video, was used to conduct two consecutive stepped velocity tests at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C. Extent of recovery was measured after the 60-min recovery period between trials, and the recovery ratio for critical swimming speed (U crit ) averaged 91.88% across temperatures. Temperature (T) effects were determined by comparing U crit , oxygen consumption rate (MO 2 ), and tail beat frequency (TBF) for each temperature. Results from the two trials were compared to determine the effect of exercise. The U crit occurring at 15 °C in both trials was significantly higher than that at 10 and 25 °C (p swimming temperature 3.28 BL/s at 15.96 °C (trial 1) and 2.98 BL/s at 15.85 °C (trial 2). In trial 1, MO 2 increased rapidly with U, but then declined sharply as swimming speed approached U crit . In trial 2, MO 2 increased more slowly, but continuously, to U crit . TBF was directly proportional to U and the slope (dTBF/dU) for trial 2 was significantly lower than that for trial 1. The inverse slope (tail beats per body length, TB/BL) is a measure of swimming efficiency and the significant difference in slopes implies that the exercise training provided by trial 1 led to a significant increase in swimming efficiency in trial 2.

  3. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  4. Histopathological and bacterial study of Persian sturgeon fry, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Batol; Khara, Hossein; Pazhan, Zabiyollah; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting drug was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our results, a range of histopathological alternations were observed in gills tissue including mucus coagulation and secretion, hyperplasia, lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, thickening of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of supporter cartilage, clubbing of gill lamellae and sliming of primary lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. The bacterial load (CFU/g) of gill, skin and surrounding water was lower in 0.07 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 1 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate have disinfecting effects on bacterial load of gill, skin and surrounding water, although this is along with some histopathological alternations. Also, it seems that the copper sulfate has higher disinfecting power than potassium permanganate.

  5. CRYOPRESERVATION OF REPRODUCTIVE PRODUCTS AS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRESERVING THE BIODIVERSITY OF STURGEON FISH SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kononenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In recent years, cryopreservation of reproductive products has widely been used as one of the accessible and in some cases the only ways of preserving and supporting the number of endangered fish species including sturgeon fish species. Currently, the method of cryopreservation is represented by various techniques and ways using individual and species approaches. Numerous publications on the issue of fish sperm cryopreservation mostly contain inconsistent results and ambiguous data. Thus, the analysis of the existing information about principles and methods of fish sperm cryopreservation is an important issue for further studies. Moreover, summarizing the existing information will enable us to plan the experiment more efficiently and reasonably and to get the desired outcomes with higher reliability. Findings. The study presents main principles of widely used methods of fish sperm cryopreservation, the analysis of main factors of influence on outcomes of freezing or unfreezing as well as the analysis of results received when using various ways and methods of cryopreservation. Besides, the paper shows the importance of forming and full functioning of fish sperm cryobanks. Originality. The paper summarizes the existing information on the issue of fish sperm low temperature cryopreservation. The information is given in the form of successive presentation of the research outcomes received at each point of freezing or unfreezing when using different techniques as well as results of different factors influence on it. Moreover, a review of achievements in the field of cryopreservation and main principles of forming fish sperm cryobanks are given. Practical value. The presented review of traditional and modern literature data in the issue of cryopreservation can be used when planning, redesigning and experimenting fish sperm freezing or unfreezing.

  6. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  7. Reintroduction of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into the St. Regis River, NY: Post-release assessment of habitat use and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Dawn E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; Snyder, James

    2015-01-01

    One of the depleted endemic fish species of the Great Lakes, Acipenser fulvescens (Lake Sturgeon), has been the target of extensive conservation efforts. One strategy is reintroduction into historically productive waters. The St. Regis River, NY, represents one such adaptive-management effort, with shared management between New York and the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 4977 young-of-year Lake Sturgeon were released. Adaptive management requires intermediate progress metrics. During 2004 and 2005, we measured growth, habitat use, and survivorship metrics of the released fish. We captured a total of 95 individuals of all stocked ages. Year-class minimal-survival rates ranged from 0.19–2.1%. The size-at-age and length/biomass relationships were comparable to those reported for juveniles in other Great Lakes waters. These intermediate assessment metrics can provide feedback to resource managers who make restoration-program decisions on a much shorter time-scale than the time-frame in which the ultimate goal of a self-sustaining population can be attained.

  8. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  9. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  10. Assessment of adult pallid sturgeon fish condition, Lower Missouri River—Application of new information to the Missouri River Recovery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Michael T.; Colvin, Michael E.; Steffensen, Kirk D.; Welker, Timothy L.; Pierce, Landon L.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2017-10-11

    During spring 2015, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) biologists noted that pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were in poor condition during sampling associated with the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Project and NGPC’s annual pallid sturgeon broodstock collection effort. These observations prompted concerns that reduced fish condition could compromise reproductive health and population growth of pallid sturgeon. There was a further concern that compromised condition could possibly be linked to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers management actions and increase jeopardy to the species. An evaluation request was made to the Missouri River Recovery Program and the Effects Analysis Team was chartered to evaluate the issue. Data on all Missouri River pallid sturgeon captures were requested and received from the National Pallid Sturgeon Database. All data were examined for completeness and accuracy; 12,053 records of captures between 200 millimeters fork length (mm FL) and 1,200 mm FL were accepted. We analyzed condition using (1) the condition formula (Kn) from Shuman and others (2011); (2) a second Kn formulation derived from the 12,053 records (hereafter referred to as “Alternative Kn”); and (3) an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) approach that did not rely on a Kn formulation. The Kn data were analyzed using group (average annual Kn) and individual (percentage in low, normal, and robust conditions) approaches. Using the Shuman Kn formulation, annual mean Kn was fairly static from 2005 to 2011 (although always higher in the upper basin), declined from 2012 to 2015, then remained either static (lower basin) or increasing (upper basin) in 2016. Under the Alternative Kn formulation, the upper basin showed no decline in Kn, whereas the lower basin displayed the same trend as the Shuman Kn formulation. Using both formulations, the individual approach revealed a more complex situation; at the same times and locations that there are fish in poor condition

  11. Spring habitat use by stocked one year old European sturgeon Acipenser sturio in the freshwater-oligohaline area of the Gironde estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acolas, M. L.; Le Pichon, C.; Rochard, E.

    2017-09-01

    Post release habitat selection was studied on forty eight 10-month-old hatchery reared European sturgeon (mean fork length 31.0 cm ± 3.0) in the tidal part of their native catchment using acoustic telemetry. Most of the fish reached the oligohaline estuary within 2-4 days (70 km downstream the release site). Seventy four percent of the fish migrated rapidly downstream of the estuary into mesohaline waters while 26% selected habitat in the freshwater/oligohaline part of the estuary based on their linearity and residency indices. We focused on individual habitat use of these fish. The home range size (HR) was calculated using two methods: the kernel utilization distribution (KUD) which is driven by the maximum detection location density, and the Brownian Bridge (BB) approach which allows the time component of the trajectory path to be taken into account. The average 50% HR KUD was 5.6 ± 2.7 km2 (range 1.1-10.3 km2) and it was estimated to be 6 times larger using the 50% HR BB method (average reaching 31.9 ± 20.7 km2, range 5.2-77.8 km2). Habitat characterization (available prey, substrate and depth) in the studied area was described and the Ivlev electivity index was calculated using the habitat within the 50% HR BB for each individual. Despite the spatial use of different core areas among the fish tagged, we observed a convergence in habitat preference. For substrates, sturgeons showed avoidance of gravel and large rocks as well as fine and medium gravel. There was a significant preference for sand, silts and clay. For depth, they exhibited a preference firstly for the 5-8 m depth range and secondly for the 2-5 m range, a strong avoidance of depth range 8-20 m and a slight avoidance of shallow (0-2 m) and intertidal areas. For prey, individual variability was high. The most homogenous results were found for annelid polychaeta, with a slight preference for areas with this group of preys which are abundant in the saline estuary. For some individuals, a preference

  12. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-03

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs.

  13. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... changes in growth performance parameters were observed, but only in those groups fed with 1% and 2% prebiotics. Specifically, marked improvements relative to the control group were observed in percentage weight gain, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate in prebiotic-fed fish....... The levels of plasma thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormones were significantly elevated in the group receiving 2% prebiotics. Activities of lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase in skin mucus were significantly enhanced in prebiotics-fed groups, particularly at an inclusion...

  14. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  15. Science to Manage a Very Rare Fish in a Very Large River - Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Colvin, M. E.; Marmorek, D.; Randall, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) seeks to revise river-management strategies to avoid jeopardizing the existence of three species: pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), interior least tern (Sterna antillarum)), and piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Managing the river to maintain populations of the two birds (terns and plovers) is relatively straightforward: reproductive success can be modeled with some certainty as a direct, increasing function of exposed sandbar area. In contrast, the pallid sturgeon inhabits the benthic zone of a deep, turbid river and many parts of its complex life history are not directly observable. Hence, pervasive uncertainties exist about what factors are limiting population growth and what management actions may reverse population declines. These uncertainties are being addressed by the MRRP through a multi-step process. The first step was an Effects Analysis (EA), which: documented what is known and unknown about the river and the species; documented quality and quantity of existing information; used an expert-driven process to develop conceptual ecological models and to prioritize management hypotheses; and developed quantitative models linking management actions (flows, channel reconfigurations, and stocking) to population responses. The EA led to development of a science and adaptive-management plan with prioritized allocation of investment among 4 levels of effort ranging from fundamental research to full implementation. The plan includes learning from robust, hypothesis-driven effectiveness monitoring for all actions, with statistically sound experimental designs, multiple metrics, and explicit decision criteria to guide management. Finally, the science plan has been fully integrated with a new adaptive-management structure that links science to decision makers. The reinvigorated investment in science stems from the understanding that costly river-management decisions are not socially or politically supportable without

  16. Conservation of Native Fishes of the San Francisco Estuary: Considerations for Artificial Propagation of Chinook Salmon, Delta Smelt, and Green Sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Israel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary and its watersheds have reached all-time low abundances. Some of these declining species (e.g., Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha have been under artificial propagation for decades. For others (e.g., delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, and green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, this management option is just beginning to be discussed and implemented. Propagation strategies, in which organisms spend some portion of their lives in captivity, pose well-documented genetic and ecological threats to natural populations. Negative impacts of propagation have been documented for all Central Valley Chinook salmon runs, but limited efforts have been made to adapt hatchery operations to minimize the genetic and ecological threats caused by propagated fishes. A delta smelt propagation program is undergoing intensive design and review for operations and monitoring. However, if limiting factors facing this species in its estuarine habitat are not effectively addressed, captive propagation may not be a useful conservation approach, regardless of how carefully the propagation activity is designed or monitored. Scientifically defensible, ecologically based restoration programs that include monitoring and research aimed at quantifying natural population vital rates should be fully implemented before there is any attempt to supplement natural populations of delta smelt. Green sturgeon are also likely to face risks from artificial propagation if a large–scale program is implemented before this species’ limiting factors are better understood. In each of these cases, restoring habitats, and reducing loss from human actions, are likely to be the best strategy for rebuilding and supporting self–sustaining populations.

  17. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  18. Neomycin damage and regeneration of hair cells in both mechanoreceptor and electroreceptor lateral line organs of the larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunxin; Zou, Sha; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Song, Jiakun

    2016-05-01

    The lateral line found in some amphibians and fishes has two distinctive classes of sensory organs: mechanoreceptors (neuromasts) and electroreceptors (ampullary organs). Hair cells in neuromasts can be damaged by aminoglycoside antibiotics and they will regenerate rapidly afterward. Aminoglycoside sensitivity and the capacity for regeneration have not been investigated in ampullary organs. We treated Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae with neomycin and observed loss and regeneration of sensory hair cells in both organs by labeling with DASPEI and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The numbers of sensory hair cells in both organs were reduced to the lowest levels at 6 hours posttreatment (hpt). New sensory hair cells began to appear at 12 hpt and were regenerated completely in 7 days. To reveal the possible mechanism for ampullary hair cell regeneration, we analyzed cell proliferation and the expression of neural placodal gene eya1 during regeneration. Both cell proliferation and eya1 expression were concentrated in peripheral mantle cells and both increased to the highest level at 12 hpt, which is consistent with the time course for regeneration of the ampullary hair cells. Furthermore, we used Texas Red-conjugated gentamicin in an uptake assay following pretreatment with a cation channel blocker (amiloride) and found that entry of the antibiotic was suppressed in both organs. Together, our results indicate that ampullary hair cells in Siberian sturgeon larvae can be damaged by neomycin exposure and they can regenerate rapidly. We suggest that the mechanisms for aminoglycoside uptake and hair cell regeneration are conserved for mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1443-1456, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  20. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR (US)

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  1. Bend-scale geomorphic classification and assessment of the Lower Missouri River from Sioux City, Iowa, to the Mississippi River for application to pallid sturgeon management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Colvin, Michael E.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Pickard, Darcy; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2018-06-07

    Management actions intended to increase growth and survival of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) age-0 larvae on the Lower Missouri River require a comprehensive understanding of the geomorphic habitat template of the river. The study described here had two objectives relating to where channel-reconfiguration projects should be located to optimize effectiveness. The first objective was to develop a bend-scale (that is, at the scale of individual bends, defined as “cross-over to cross-over”) geomorphic classification of the Lower Missouri River to help in the design of monitoring and evaluation of such projects. The second objective was to explore whether geomorphic variables could provide insight into varying capacities of bends to intercept drifting larvae. The bend-scale classification was based on geomorphic and engineering variables for 257 bends from Sioux City, Iowa, to the confluence with the Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri. We used k-means clustering to identify groupings of bends that shared the same characteristics. Separate 3-, 4-, and 6-cluster classifications were developed and mapped. The three classifications are nested in a hierarchical structure. We also explored capacities of bends to intercept larvae through evaluation of linear models that predicted persistent sand area or catch per unit effort (CPUE) of age-0 sturgeon as a function of the same geomorphic variables used in the classification. All highly ranked models that predict persistent sand area contained mean channel width and standard deviation of channel width as significant variables. Some top-ranked models also included contributions of channel sinuosity and density of navigation structures. The sand-area prediction models have r-squared values of 0.648–0.674. In contrast, the highest-ranking CPUE models have r-squared values of 0.011–0.170, indicating much more uncertainty for the biological response variable. Whereas the persistent sand model documents that

  2. Bathymetric and Velocimetric Survey and Assessment of Habitat for Pallid Sturgeon on the Mississippi River in the Vicinity of the Proposed Interstate 70 Bridge at St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    the large dune features in mid-channel and a shift in the channel thalweg from the Illinois bank to the Missouri bank. The near-bottom velocities acquired with the acoustic Doppler current profiler ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 feet per second (0.09 to 2.13 meters per second), and the effects of the large dune features were apparent in the more random scattering of the velocity vectors, the low velocities downstream from the dunes, and higher velocities near the crests of the dunes. Despite the considerable physical complexity of this site because of the arrangement of large sand dunes in the middle of the channel, existing studies do not document persistent use of these deep, fast, main-channel habitats by pallid sturgeon. Narrow channel-margin areas on both banks having relatively low velocity, high depth slope, and high velocity gradients are similar to adult migration habitats as documented on the Missouri River downstream from Kansas City, Missouri. Although the reach generally lacks features associated with sturgeon habitat selection on the Middle Mississippi River, the barge mooring areas on the right descending bank have topographic complexity and contain large woody debris and small patches of probable gravel-cobble substrate that may have positive habitat value for sturgeon or other species. Furthermore, telemetry studies have documented sturgeon migrating upstream and downstream through this reach as adults, and they probably drift downstream through this reach as free-embryo larvae. Successful upstream migration may depend on availability of areas with hydraulic complexity and relatively low velocities, as presently exist on the margins of the site. Additionally, complexity at the channel margin may provide areas where larvae settle out from drifting in the main current or may act to slow bulk drift rates. Construction of bridge piers close to the banks will likely alter hydraulics and sediment transport on the channel margins and may result in substanti

  3. Effect of novel bioactive edible coatings based on jujube gum and nettle oil-loaded nanoemulsions on the shelf-life of Beluga sturgeon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadnabi, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Effect of jujube gum (JG; 4, 8 and 12% wt)-based nanoemulsions (NEs) containing nettle essential oil (NEO; 2, 3.5 and 5% wt) as new edible coatings was investigated to preserve Beluga sturgeon fillets (BSFs) during 15 day-refrigerated storage at 4°C. Physical (weight loss, cooking loss, color and texture), chemical (pH, FFA, PV, TBARS and TVB-N), microbiological (total and psychrotrophic bacterial counts), and sensorial characteristics of BSFs were kinetically analyzed. Preliminary studies showed that the NEs formulated with NEO lower than 5% at all JG concentrations were able to form stable coating solutions owing to the highest short-term stability (>90%) and entrapment efficiency (94.4-98.3%). Edible NE coating formulated with 12% JG and 3.5% NEO as a novel antimicrobial and antioxidant biomaterial exhibited the lowest weight and cooking losses, pH changes, textural and color deterioration, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in BSFs refrigerated over a period of 15days (P<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  5. Effects of cortisol and salinity acclimation on Na+/K+/2Cl–- cotransporter gene expression and Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khodabandeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Na+, K+-ATPase activity and Na+/K+/2Cl–- cotransporter (NKCC gene expression in the gills of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fry (2-3 g, 3.30-8.12 cm total body length in freshwater (control group, diluted Caspian Sea water (5 ppt and after treatment with cortisol in freshwater were studied. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was lower in the 5 ppt-acclimated fish (1.07±0.05 _mol Pi/mg protein/h than in the control fish (1.19±0.05 μmol Pi/mg protein/h but this difference was not significant. nKCC gene expression in the 5 ppt-acclimated fish (1.6±0.07 was significantly higher than in the control fish (0.8±0.00. In the cortisol treated fish, Na+, K+-ATPase activity (1.91±0.05 μmol Pi/mg protein/h and NKCC gene expression (3.2±0.1 were significantly higher than in the control group. our results show that Persian sturgeon fry (2-3 g can tolerate 5 ppt salinity by changing their enzymatic content and activity, and that exogenous cortisol application can increase the osmoregulatory capacity of fry before release into brackish water and can reduce their mortality.

  6. Hydrodynamic simulations of physical aquatic habitat availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6–263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6–673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9–748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8–808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities.A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties.To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach

  7. Age estimations of wild pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus, Forbes & Richardson 1905) based on pectoral fin spines, otoliths and bomb radiocarbon: inferences on recruitment in the dam-fragmented Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Campana, S. E.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Bruch, R. M.; Jordan, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    An extant stock of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus persists in the fragmented upper Missouri River basin of Montana and North Dakota. Although successful spawning and hatch of embryos has been verified, long-term catch records suggest that recruitment has not occurred for several decades as the extant stock lacks juvenile size classes and is comprised exclusively of large, presumably old individuals. Ages of 11 deceased (death years 1997–2007) wild S. albus (136–166 cm fork length) were estimated based on pectoral fin spines, sagittal otoliths and bomb radiocarbon (14C) assays of otoliths to test the hypothesis that members of this stock are old and to provide inferences on recruitment years that produced the extant stock. Age estimations based on counts of presumed annuli were about 2 years greater for otoliths (mean = 51 years, range = 43–57 years) than spines (mean = 49 years, range = 37–59 years). Based on 14C assays, confirmed birth years for all individuals occurred prior to 1957, thus establishing known longevity of at least 50 years. Estimated age based on presumed otolith annuli for one S. albus was validated to at least age 49. Although 14C assays confirmed pre-1957 birth years for all S. albus, only 56% of estimated ages from spines and 91% of estimated ages from otoliths depicted pre-1957 birth years. Both ageing structures were subject to under-ageing error (up to 15 years). Lack of or severe curtailment of S. albus recruitment in the upper Missouri River basin since the mid-1950s closely parallels the 1953–1957 timeframe when a mainstem reservoir was constructed and started to fill. This reservoir may function as a system-wide stressor to diminish recruitment success of S. albus in the upper Missouri River basin.

  8. Fertility of a spontaneous hexaploid male Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, M.; Hulák, M.; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Lieckfeldt, D.; Ludwig, A.; Rodina, M.; Gela, D.; Pšenička, M.; Bytyutskyy, D.; Flajšhans, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2014) ISSN 1471-2156 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0049; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/01.0024; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/08/0824 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Acipenseridae * polyploidy determination * sperm quality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2014

  9. 50 CFR 226.214 - Critical habitat for Gulf sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.214... Sound or the Gulf of Mexico. The Withlacoochee River main stem from Florida State Road 6, Madison and...) Unit 11: Florida Nearshore Gulf of Mexico Unit in Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, and Gulf...

  10. Assessing Impacts of Navigation Dredging on Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    are known to be opportunistic benthivores, feeding primarily on mollusks, polychaete worms, amphipods, isopods, shrimps and small bottom-dwelling...fishes and insect larvae (Smith 1985, Dadswell 2006). Shallow water shoals located adjacent to both sides of the Federal navigation channel, provide a...and J. Hoeman (1982). Distribution and abundance of the Dungeness crab and Crangon shrimp , and dredging-related mortality of invertebrates and fish

  11. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Take does not involve artificial spawning or enhancement activities; (vii) A description of the study... restoration project, or, for ongoing studies, by August 31, 2010, which includes: the geographic area affected... will not jeopardize the continued existence of the threatened Southern DPS. (c) Exemptions via ESA 4(d...

  12. The North West Sturgeon Upgrader: Good Money after Bad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Ted Morton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The North West Upgrader (NWU project illustrates the risks of government-led efforts to diversify Alberta’s economy. What began as a low-risk, low-cost project to encourage domestic bitumen upgrading has morphed into a multi-billion dollar boondoggle with high risks for Alberta taxpayers. Originally, the Government of Alberta (GOA intended to collect bitumen from producers in lieu of royalties and sell it to provincial upgraders, adding value to the commodity and creating jobs and revenues in Alberta. The private sector was to build and finance the new upgraders, as well as assume the market risks of low margins. The 2008 financial collapse effectively killed that plan. With just one prospect (NWU remaining, the Stelmach government decided to be more than the middleman. The GOA committed to retain ownership of the bitumen up to the point of sale, pay NWU a toll for the processing, and then sell the upgraded product. Under a new “take or pay” arrangement, the GOA assumed liabilities estimated at $19 billion over the 30-year contract with NWU, as well as the market risk of having to sell the upgraded product at below costs. As four different premiers and six different energy ministers cycled through Edmonton, construction costs soared to over $8 billion. The original $6.5 billion cap on the GOA’s liability for construction costs disappeared, and the GOA—and by extension, Alberta taxpayers— are now on the hook for $26 billion in processing payments — the equivalent of $63 per barrel. Falling oil prices are further undermining the prospects for the investment to break even. Written from a rare insider’s perspective, this paper analyzes the lack of effective government oversight and due diligence surrounding the North West Upgrade. Rather than being an exception, NWU fits the larger and longer pattern of failed “forced-growth” diversification initiatives in Alberta and other provinces. Alberta politicians should think long and hard before succumbing to the next version of the “refine it where you mine it” diversification siren song.

  13. Morphology and ultrastructure of beluga (Huso huso) spermatozoa and a comparison with related sturgeons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhartová, Z.; Rodina, M.; Nebesářová, Jana; Cosson, J.; Pšenička, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 137, 3-4 (2013), s. 220-229 ISSN 0378-4320 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP502/10/P426; GAJU(CZ) 046/2010/Z; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/01.0024 Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : beluga * strugeon * spermatozoon * electron microscopy * acrosome * flagellum Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.581, year: 2013

  14. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA SFETCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS and integrated/aquaponic (RAS_A regarding water quality parameters generally, and TAN (total ammonia nitrogen production and transformation, particularly.

  15. Protease in sturgeon sperm and the effect of protease inhibitors on sperm motility and velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alavi, S.M.H.; Postlerová, Pavla; Hatef, A.; Pšenička, M.; Pěknicová, Jana; Inaba, K.; Ciereszko, A.; Linhart, O.

    october, č. 40 (2014), s. 1393-1398 ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acrosome * AGB * Electron microscopy * Sperm motility * TPCK Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.622, year: 2014

  16. Diet and growth of 1+ Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii in alternative pond culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Z.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Sukop, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2007), s. 153-160 ISSN 1303-2712 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : feeding * weight condition * length-weight relationship * Acipenseridae Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.trjfas.org/pdf/issue_7_2/153_160.pdf

  17. 78 FR 16526 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... modification, overutilization, and inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms, as well as other natural or... abatement, population management, research, and monitoring. We emphasize conserving extant genetic viability...

  18. Metabolic changes in droplet vitrified semen of wild endangered Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed-Elmdoust, Amirreza; Farahmand, Hamid; Mojazi-Amiri, Bagher; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Rahimi, Ruhollah

    2017-06-01

    Comparative quantitative metabolite profiling can be used for better understanding of cell functions and dysfunctions in particular circumstances such as sperm banking which is an important approach for cryopreservation of endangered species. Cryopreservation techniques have some deleterious effects on spermatozoa which put the obtained results in controversy. Therefore, in the present study, quantitative 1 H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) based metabolite profiling was conducted to evaluate metabolite changes related to energetics and some other detected metabolites in vitrified semen of critically endangered wild Acipenser persicus. The semen was diluted with extenders containing 0, 5, 10, and 15 μM of fish antifreeze protein (AFP) type III as a cryoprotectant. Semen-extenders were vitrified and stored for two days. Based on post-thaw motility duration and motility percentage assessments, two treatments with 10 μM and 0 μM of AFP had the highest and the lowest motility percentages respectively and they were objected to 1 H NMR spectroscopy investigations in order to reveal the extremes of the metabolites dynamic range. Univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (PCA) analysis of the resulting metabolic profiles indicated significant changes (P > 0.05) in metabolites. The level of some metabolites including acetate, adenine, creatine, creatine phosphate, lactate, betaine, sarcosine, β-alanine and trimethylamine N-oxide significantly decreased in vitrified semen while some others such as creatinine, guanidinoacetate, N, N-dimethylglycine, and glycine significantly increased. There were also significant differences between vitrified treatments in levels of creatine, creatine phosphate, creatinine, glucose, guanidinoacetate, lactate, N, N-dimethylglycine, and glycine, suggesting how fish AFP type III can be effective as a cryoprotectant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 47722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... rarest species of fish in the nation and may be close to extinction. Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or plant to the point where it is again a secure, self-sustaining member of its ecosystem...

  20. Molecular Cytogenetics in Artificial Hybrid and Highly Polyploid Sturgeons: An Evolutionary Story Narrated by Repetitive Sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Symonová, Radka; Flajšhans, M.; Sember, Alexandr; Havelka, M.; Gela, D.; Kořínková, Tereza; Rodina, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 141, 2-3 (2013), s. 153-162 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/0824; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P596 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Acipenser * GISH * Hybridization * Macrochromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  1. UNPUBLISHED TEXTS / INEDITI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gelida. Non ho più nulla da offrire. Sono veramente solo. Nudo. Pronto a riceverli. Al grido sfrecciano verso di me tre lunghe canoe. Li vedo bene mentre avanzano. Sembrano per lo più muti e tesi, questi. Inuit della costa orientale. Sono tutti uomini, tranne una donna, ritta sulla prua. Mi grida: “Dicci il tuo nome! Dicci chi sei!

  2. Growth of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus under experimental and farm conditions of the Czech Republic, with remarks on other sturgeons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Mareš, J.; Peňáz, Milan; Baránek, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2011), s. 281-290 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : sterlet juveniles and adults * specific growth rate * length-weight relationship * condition factor Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.mendelu.cz/dok_server/slozka.pl?id=51329;download=85841

  3. Environmental calcium and variation in yolk sac size influence swimming performance in larval lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deslauriers, David; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Genz, Janet

    2018-01-01

    , because the yolk sac is likely to affect drag forces during swimming. Testing swimming performance of larval A. fulvescens reared in four different calcium treatments spanning the range of 4-132 mg l-1 [Ca2+], this study found no treatment effects on the sprint swimming speed. A novel test of volitional...... reduced swimming performance and could be more susceptible to predation or premature downstream drift. Our study reveals how environmental factors and phenotypic variation influence locomotor performance in a larval fish....

  4. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    .... SUMMARY: NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for authorization to... disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding...

  5. Scanning electron microscopic study of the otolithic organs in the bichir (Polypterus bichir) and shovel-nose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, A N

    1978-09-01

    The anatomy and ultrastructure of the sacculus, lagena, and utriculus of the ear of Polypterus bichir and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus were studied using the scanning electron microscope. The otolithic organs each contain a single dense calcareous otolith in close contact with a sensory epithelium (macula). The maculae have sensory hair cells typical of those found in other vertebrates, surrounded by microvilli-covered supporting cells. The hair cells on each macula are divided into several groups, with all of the cells in each group morphologically polarized in the same direction. The cells of the utricular macula in both species are divided into opposing groups in a pattern similar to that found in other vertebrates. The saccular and lagenar maculae are located in a single large chamber in both species. In Scaphirhychus the two maculae are on the same plane, while in Polypterus they are at right angles to one another. The hair cells on the saccular maculae of both species are divided into two oppositely oriented groups. In Scaphirhynchus the cells on the posterior half of the macula are oriented dorsally on the dorsal half of the macula and ventrally on the ventral half. The anterior region of the macula is rotated and the cells of the dorsal and ventral groups are shifted so that they are oriented on the animal's horizon plane. A similar pattern is found in Polypterus, except that this macula is shaped like a "J" with the vertical portion of the J having horizontal cells and the bottom portion vertical cells. The lagenar maculae in both species have dorsally oriented cells on the anterior side of the macula and ventrally oriented cells on the posterior half of the macula. While these data are not sufficient for clarifying the taxonomic relationship between the two species studied, it is clear that the ears in these species have a number of significant differences from the teleost ear that could have functional and/or taxonomic significance.

  6. Ultrastructure and morphology of spermatozoa in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray 1835) using scanning and transmission elektron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wei, Q.; Li, P.; Pšenička, M.; Hadi Alavi, S.M.; Shen, L.; Liu, J.; Pěknicová, Jana; Linhart, O.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2007), s. 1269-1278 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0817; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA MŠk 1P05ME742 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Acipenser sinensis * spermatozoon * acrosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  7. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...) 427-8403. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On March 12, 2012, we received a petition from the... effect on the wild population of A. sturio are not known, the introduction of new pathological germs...

  8. Effect of dietary estradiol-17β on growth performance, body composition and blood indices in Stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus

    OpenAIRE

    Khara, H.; Meknatkhah, B.; Falahatkar, B.; Ahmadnezhad, M.; Poursaeid, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was investigated the effects of dietary estradiol-17β (E2) on growth, body composition and blood indices in Acipenser stellatus. Fish (40.9 ± 1.1 g average initial weight; n = 60 per group) were fed with three different diets containing 0 (control), 25 and 50 mg kg-1 dietary estradiol contents to apparent satiation for seven months. The results suggested that growth rate were decreased as the E2 level was increased. No significant difference was observed in condition factor among d...

  9. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...″ W.), and Bonilla Point, British Columbia (48°35′30″ N./124°43′00″ W.); in Jefferson and Island... following coastal bays and estuaries in California, Oregon, and Washington: (i) San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay in California. All tidally influenced areas of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay...

  10. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-0051, Division of Policy and Directives Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax... you may make an appointment during normal business hours at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... were listed based upon the similarity of appearance provision. CITES is a multinational agreement...

  11. Mezinárodní obchod s jeseterem sibiřským (Acipenser baerii)

    OpenAIRE

    KORUNKOVÁ, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeon fish (Acipenseriformes) is commercially used to produce high quality fish meat and highly priced caviar. In fact, all species of Sturgeon fish are integrated into CITES appendix. Sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) is the most frequently bred/reared and the most commercial representative of its kind, not only in Europe but also in Asia. The aim of this final project is to evaluate international sturgeon trade while using CITES references from 1998-2012. The source of data(s) was commercial d...

  12. Comparison of two Cellulomonas strains and their interaction with Azospirillum brasilense in degradation of wheat straw and associated nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    A mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. CS1-17 was compared with Cellulomonas gelida 2480 as the cellulolytic component of a mixed culture which was responsible for the breakdown of wheat straw to support asymbiotic nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 (ATCC 29145). Cellulomonas sp. strain CS1-17 was more efficient than was C. gelida in cellulose breakdown at lower oxygen concentrations and, in mixed culture with A. brasilense, it supported higher nitrogenase activity(C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction) and nitrogen fixation with straw as the carbon source. Based on gravimetric determinations of straw breakdown and total N determinations, the efficiency of nitrogen fixation was 72 and 63 mg of N per g of straw utilized for the mixtures containing Cellulomonas sp. and C. gelida, respectively. Both Cellulomonas spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited a wide range of pH tolerance. When introduced into sterilized soil, the Cellulomonas sp.-Azospirillum brasilense association was more effective in nitrogen fixation at a pH of 7.0 than at the native soil pH (5.6). This was also true of the indigenous diazotrophic microflora of this soil. The potential implications of this work to the field situation are discussed. 16 references.

  13. Observations on the identification of larval and juvenile Scaphirhynchus spp. in the lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, Paul D.; Kuntz, Nathan M.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2013-01-01

    Scaphirhynchus albus (Pallid Sturgeon) and S. platorynchus (Shovelnose Sturgeon) are sympatric and not uncommon in the lower Mississippi River from the confluence of the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico, and in its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. Reports of sturgeon larvae have been rare in the Mississippi River but have been increasing with more effective collection methods. A suite of characters identified in hatchery-reared larval Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon from the Yellowstone and upper Missouri rivers has been used to distinguish larval Scaphirhynchus spp. In the Mississippi River; however, a large proportion of wild Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae are intermediate in these characters and have been identified by some as hybridized Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon. We applied three diagnostic characters developed from Missouri River sturgeon larvae to hatchery-reared progeny of Atchafalaya River Pallid Sturgeon and found them inadequate to identify most of the known Pallid sturgeon larvae. Additionally, fewer than 10% of a large sample of wild Scaphirhynchusspp. larvae from the lower Mississippi River conformed to either Pallid Sturgeon or Shovelnose Sturgeon at two or more of the characters. We also found a small mouth width relative to head width and a concave forward barbel position may be useful for the identification of 30% or more Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae and postlarval young-of-year as Shovelnose Sturgeon. Established adult character indices and diagnostic measurement proportionalities also failed to correctly identify any hatchery-reared Pallid Sturgeon juveniles recaptured 6–7 years following their release.

  14. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5. min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10. min. At 0. min pre......-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1. min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10. min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5. min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate...... than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for

  15. Fermentation of Arabinoxylan-Oligosaccharides, Oligofructose and their Monomeric Sugars by Hindgut Bacteria from Siberian Sturgeon and African Catfish in Batch Culture in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Rurangwa, E.; Wiele, van der T.; Courtin, C.M.; Delcour, J.A.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation of two Non-Digestible Oligosaccharide (NDO) preparations, Arabinoxylan- Oligosaccharides (AXOS) and Oligofructose (OF), and their respective monomeric sugars, xylose and fructose, were investigated by hindgut microbiota of two major aquaculture fish species, Siberian

  16. Quantitation of chordin in developing Huso huso embryos and larvae by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preobrazhensky, A.A.; Glinka, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Chordin is a protein discovered in the notochord cells of the representatives of Acipenseridae; giant sturgeon, stellate sturgeon and sterlet. Some characteristics of the purified chordin preparation which justify its use in radioimmunoassay are described. A sensitive competitive-binding double-antibody radioimmunoassay for chordin is described by which its content in the extracts from giant sturgeon embryos and larvae has been measured. It is shown that chordin biosynthesis started in the embryos from stage 32. (Auth.)

  17. Acipenser dabryanus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-05

    Aug 5, 2014 ... ful for population genetics and conservation management in. A. dabryanus. ..... DNA Analyzer with a ROX-500 internal size standard and allele sizes were .... tus and risk for extinction of the Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) in the ... genetic studies in sturgeons and their trade control in China. J.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Comunication Site ...................................................................................................2-29 3-1 Pallid Sturgeon Habitat...and Endangered Species within the ROI Common Name Scientific Name Federal Status Fish Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirynchus albus E Birds Bald Eagle...listed in Table 1. 2 --’ Common Name Scientific Name Fish I Scaphirhynchus albus Haliaeetus leucoce halus Charadrius melodus m Grizzly Bear Ursus

  19. Waste production and valorization in an integrated aquaponic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bester sturgeon and Lactuca sativa were used to test both nitrogen excretion and uptake in an aquaponic system under two hydraulic regimes. In the end of the experiment, fish growth performance, lettuce yields and nutrient retention were assessed. Higher ammonia excretion for sturgeons held in higher hydraulic retention ...

  20. 75 FR 61871 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing Determinations for Three Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Atlantic sturgeon habitat, Niklitschek and Secor (2005) found that a 1 [deg]C increase of water temperature... Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. The proposed rule, status review report, and... Atlantic sturgeon under the ESA. We published a Notice of 90-Day Finding on January 6, 2010 (75 FR 838...

  1. Study on the willingness of Sfantu Gheorghe fishermen community, from Danube Delta, to involve in decision making regarding biodiversity conservation by switching from sturgeon fishing to other natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOZAGIEVICI Raluca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation aimed to find out local knowledge on biodiversity conservation through sustainable use and the willingness of the local community Sfântu Gheorghe, Danube Delta, to be involved in the decision making process regarding the sustainable use of the natural resources. In obtaining the necessary information, structuredinterviews and focus group were conducted with the local population and stakeholders in order to achieve a clearer picture of all aspects of sustainable use of natural resources within the area. The results highlighted the unwillingness of local people to exploit the alternative natural resources, other than fish, available in the area and the lack of a strategy to inform and support the local community to realize projects pursuing the recovery of these resources.

  2. 50 CFR 17.44 - Special rules-fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Threatened Wildlife § 17.44 Special... Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine. Re-export. Export of beluga sturgeon...

  3. 75 FR 61424 - Endangered Species; File No. 15596

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and... maintenance and educational display of five captive-bred, non-releaseable adult shortnose sturgeon. This...

  4. Aed, imelise rahu paik / Merilen Mentaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mentaal, Merilen, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Chelsea Flower Show 2008 võistelnud aedadest. Kujundajateks Philip Nash, Andy Sturgeon, Buono Gazerwitz, Trevor Tooth, Philip Nixon, Thomas Hoblyn, Robert Myers, Tom Stuart-Smith, Yvonne Innes ja Olivia Harrison. 11 värv. ill

  5. 46 CFR 50.10-30 - Coast Guard number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers and pressure vessels. (c) The Coast Guard number is comprised of the following: (1) Three capital... St. Louis. STB Sturgeon Bay. TAM Tampa. TOL Toledo. VAL Valdez. WNC Wilmington, NC. [CGFR 68-82, 33...

  6. 75 FR 838 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ....C. 1532(15)). In 1996, the USFWS and NMFS published the Policy on the Recognition of a Distinct... 800 pounds (364 kg). Atlantic sturgeon are distinguished by armor-like plates and a long snout with a...

  7. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  8. Moes on lopsakad taimed ja geomeetrilised vormid / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Aiadisainer Merilen Mentaali muljeid Briti Kuningliku Aiandusseltisi 2010. aasta Chelsea Flower Show'lt. Peapreemia ehk parima show-aia tiitli võitis disainer Andy Sturgeon The Daily Telegraphi aia eest

  9. Polyploidie u jeseterů

    OpenAIRE

    SRP, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to study the theoretical backgrounds of sturgeon fish genetics, focusing on aspects of polyploidy cytogenetics and to learn basics of reproduction and rearing of sturgeon fish in conditions of Central European aquaculture. The work describes an overview of methods for determining ploidy levels in fish, methods of artificial reproduction, methods of fish marking, sampling and evaluation of population samples for cytogenetic analysis. The experimental part dealt with samples of diff...

  10. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  11. Final Environmental Assessment: For Immediate Storm Surge Protection for Santa Rosa Island Facilities, Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    wetlands provide the base of a complex food web, supporting the feeding and foraging habits of these animals for part or all of their life cycle...Sturgeon feed over sandy bottoms on crustaceans , mollusks, worms and small fish, species inhabiting the benthos of the proposed project area. Sturgeon do...construction Floodplains Floodplain impacts would be insignificant. Alterations to the floodplain would not affect habitable structures. Public

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  13. Chemical Warfare Agent Operational Exposure Hazard Assessment Research: FY07 Report and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    agent migration rates. As stated by Armour and Sturgeon (1992), the extent of the contact hazard depends on the initial degree of contamination, the...with a contaminated surface. 2.1.5 Literature Cited 1. Armour , S.J; Sturgeon, W.R. Liquid Hazard from Chemical Warfare Agents for Pilots of High...the neck area was clipped and prepped with betadine, and the animal covered with a sterile surgical drape . The planned incision areas in the

  14. Characterization of the marine propionate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfofaba fastidiosa sp. nov. and reclassification of Desulfomusa hansenii as Desulfofaba hansenii comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Ramsing, Niels Birger; Finster, Kai

    2004-03-01

    A rod-shaped, slightly curved sulfate reducer, designated strain P2(T), was isolated from the sulfate-methane transition zone of a marine sediment. Cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The strain reduced sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite to sulfide and used propionate, lactate and 1-propanol as electron donors. Strain P2(T) also grew by fermentation of lactate. Propionate was oxidized incompletely to acetate and CO(2). The DNA G+C content was 48.8 mol%. Sequence analysis of the small-subunit rDNA and the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene revealed that strain P2(T) was related to the genera Desulfonema, Desulfococcus, Desulfosarcina, 'Desulfobotulus', Desulfofaba, Desulfomusa and Desulfofrigus. These genera include incomplete as well as complete oxidizers of substrates. Strain P2(T) shared important morphological and physiological traits with Desulfofaba gelida and Desulfomusa hansenii, including the ability to oxidize propionate incompletely to acetate. The 16S rRNA gene similarities of P2(T) to Desulfofaba gelida and Desulfomusa hansenii were respectively 92.9 and 91.5 %. Combining phenotypic and genotypic traits, we propose strain P2(T) to be a member of the genus Desulfofaba. The name Desulfofaba fastidiosa sp. nov. (type strain P2(T)=DSM 15249(T)=ATCC BAA-815(T)) is proposed, reflecting the limited number of substrates consumed by the strain. In addition, the reclassification of Desulfomusa hansenii as a member of the genus Desulfofaba, Desulfofaba hansenii comb. nov., is proposed. A common line of descent and a number of shared phenotypic traits support this reclassification.

  15. Biotransformation and detoxication of molinate (Ordram) in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjeerdema, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Bioconcentration, deputation, and biotransformation of molinate were compared in common carp (cyprinus carpio), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and white sturgeon (acipenser transmontanus) using a flow-through metabolism system. When compared to static conditions, flowing water improved oxygenation, decreased chemical volatilization and remetabolism, and run through a macroreticular resin, improved waste-product collection. Metabolite analysis employed gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. Exposure to 100 μg L -1 [ring- 14 C]molinate for 24 h resulted in bioconcentration factors of 30.5 (carp), 25.3 (bass), and 19.7 (sturgeon); differences were not significant (all, P > 0.05). 14 C depuration by common carp was significantly slower than that by either striped bass or white sturgeon (both, P < 0.01). All three species oxidized molinate to a number of products and hydrolyzed, or conjugated with glutathione (GSH), the sulfoxide or sulfone, ultimately producing the mercapturic acid; carp and sturgeon also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. Common carp were significantly less capable of sulfoxidation and GSH conjugation than either striped bass (P < 0.05) or white sturgeon (P < 0.01). Therefore, the selective toxicity of molinate in carp may be due to less efficient depuration and metabolic deactivation

  16. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  17. Population trends, bend use relative to available habitat and within-river-bend habitat use of eight indicator species of Missouri and Lower Kansas River benthic fishes: 15 years after baseline assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Yang, Wen-Hsi; Arab, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A baseline assessment of the Missouri River fish community and species-specific habitat use patterns conducted from 1996 to 1998 provided the first comprehensive analysis of Missouri River benthic fish population trends and habitat use in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers, exclusive of reservoirs, and provided the foundation for the present Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP). Data used in such studies are frequently zero inflated. To address this issue, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model was applied. This follow-up study is based on PSPAP data collected up to 15 years later along with new understanding of how habitat characteristics among and within bends affect habitat use of fish species targeted by PSPAP, including pallid sturgeon. This work demonstrated that a large-scale, large-river, PSPAP-type monitoring program can be an effective tool for assessing population trends and habitat usage of large-river fish species. Using multiple gears, PSPAP was effective in monitoring shovelnose and pallid sturgeons, sicklefin, shoal and sturgeon chubs, sand shiner, blue sucker and sauger. For all species, the relationship between environmental variables and relative abundance differed, somewhat, among river segments suggesting the importance of the overall conditions of Upper and Middle Missouri River and Lower Missouri and Kansas rivers on the habitat usage patterns exhibited. Shoal and sicklefin chubs exhibited many similar habitat usage patterns; blue sucker and shovelnose sturgeon also shared similar responses. For pallid sturgeon, the primary focus of PSPAP, relative abundance tended to increase in Upper and Middle Missouri River paralleling stocking efforts, whereas no evidence of an increasing relative abundance was found in the Lower Missouri River despite stocking.

  18. 78 FR 69310 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Protective Regulations for the Gulf of Maine Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Lisa Manning, (301) 427-8466. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background As described in the two Federal... the same marine range and appearance regardless of the DPS of origin (Stein et al., 2004; USFWS, 2004... Atlantic sturgeon from direct forms of take, such as physical injury or killing, whether incidental or...

  19. 78 FR 4127 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Basic Requirements for Special Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... educational photography of marine mammals; import and capture of marine mammals for public display; and... and Permits for Protected Species (APPS). Respondents can currently only apply for scientific research and enhancement permits using APPS. This revision also includes adding Atlantic sturgeon and...

  20. 76 FR 15300 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and 16291

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa... maintenance and educational display of eight captive-bred, non-releaseable adult shortnose sturgeon, as well... educational display of those specimens. Both displays would be used to increase public awareness of the...

  1. In vitro selection and characterization of putative probiotics isolated from the gut of Acipenser baerii (Brandt, 1869)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Souffreau, C.; Rurangwa, E.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2014-01-01

    To select and characterize potential probiotic bacteria from the gut microbiota of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), 129 strains isolated from the hindgut were screened for antagonistic activity against five fish pathogens. Ten isolates showed antagonism towards three or more pathogens. Nine of

  2. Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration Behavior and Escapement in the Bonneville Reservoir and Lower Columbia River Monitored Using the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS), 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    sea lions (Zalophus californicus, Eumetopias jubatus) or white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the tailrace, moved to spawning tributaries...and management of three parasitic lampreys of North America. Fisheries 35:580-594. Close, D. A., M. Fitzpatrick, and H. Li. 2002. The ecological

  3. 77 FR 5913 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Listing Determinations for Two Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Atlantic sturgeon retention. In 2003, we sponsored a workshop in Raleigh, North Carolina, with USFWS and... their capacity for re-population from small effective population size, the reviewer believed the... deterministic population response to unsuitable conditions (e.g., lack of suitable spawning habitat, poor water...

  4. Dynamic Seascapes Predict the Marine Occurrence of an Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breece, M.; Fox, D. A.; Dunton, K. J.; Frisk, M. G.; Jordaan, A.; Oliver, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Landscapes are powerful environmental partitions that index complex biogeochemical processes that drive terrestrial species distributions. However, translating landscapes into seascapes requires that the dynamic nature of the fluid environment be reflected in spatial and temporal boundaries such that seascapes can be used in marine species distribution models and conservation decisions. A seascape product derived from satellite ocean color and sea surface temperature partitioned mid-Atlantic coastal waters on scales commensurate with the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus coastal migration. The seascapes were then matched with acoustic telemetry records of Atlantic Sturgeon to determine seascape selectivity. To test our model, we used real-time satellite seascape maps to normalize the sampling of an autonomous underwater vehicle that resampled similar geographic regions with time varying seascape classifications. We found that Atlantic Sturgeon exhibited preference for one seascape class over those available in the coastal ocean, indicating selection for environmental properties that co-varied with the dynamic seascape class rather than geographical location. The recent listing of Atlantic Sturgeon as Endangered throughout much of their United States range has highlighted the need for improved understanding of their occurrence in marine waters to reduce interactions with various anthropogenic stressors. Narrow dynamic migration corridors may enable seascapes to be used as a daily decision tool by industry and managers to reduce interactions with this Endangered Species during coastal migrations.

  5. The study about the impact of radioactive effluent from nuclear facilities on freshwater ecological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Li Jianguo; Ma Binghui; Wang Huijuan

    2014-01-01

    The sturgeon and carp were chose as reference freshwater organism near nuclear site. The biology characteristic parameters of sturgeon and carp were measured. The adsorption ability of the aquarium glass wall, four kinds of filter material and filter vessel about Sr and Cs were tested. Through the fifty days of breeding test, the Sr, Cs absorption behavior of the different parts such as bowel, head, meat and bone of fish were researched. The results show that the maximum concentration ratios of Sr about the bowel, head, meat and bone of sturgeon are 0.53 L/kg, 3.58 L/kg, 0.51 L/kg, 6.60 L/kg respectively. the maximum concentration ratios of Cs about the bowel, head, meat and bone of sturgeon are 5.70 L/kg, 2.88 L/kg, 10.72 L/kg, 8.28 L/kg respectively. the maximum concentration ratios of Sr about the bowel, head, meat and bone of carp are 0.51 L/kg, 15.20 L/kg, 0.59 L/kg, 22.94 L/kg respectively, the maximum concentration ratios of Cs about the bowel, head, meat and bone of carp are 8.09 L/kg, 3.11 L/kg, 7.98 L/kg, 3.86 L/kg respectively. (authors)

  6. Marsh Recession and Erosion study of the Fraser Delta, B.C., Canada from Historic Satellite Imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, R.J.C.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study is to map the changes of marsh extent and topography on both Sturgeon Bank and Westham Island between 1980 and now. The study will look for a correlation between the recession and the possible loss of sediment from the banks. If a sediment deficit is a

  7. Effects of phospholipids in the diet on biochemical factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of dietary phospholipids biochemical factors parameters of beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles. Juveniles were fed formulated diet with four varying dietary levels of PL, that is, 0 (D1), 2 (D2), 4 (D3) and 6% (D4). At the end of the experimental period (56 days), there were ...

  8. 76 FR 2664 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...) and 14092 (applicant: California Department of Fish and Game). In that notice, the permit application... American green sturgeon associated with conducting surveys measuring fish response to initial and...

  9. 76 FR 2663 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and steelhead, and natural juvenile green sturgeon while carrying out a study measuring fish response... species, taking of length measurements), tissue sampling, release of moribund fish or fish carcasses back...

  10. 75 FR 30714 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Establish Take Prohibitions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... California Fish and Game Commission approved revised regulations, effective March 1, 2007, to prohibit.... Recently, the California Fish and Game Commission approved revised regulations, effective March 1, 2010... white sturgeon for their meat and roe from the Sacramento River (CDFG, 2003 and 2006), the Sacramento...

  11. THE ICHTHYOFAUNA OF THE UPPER TEREK AND ITS BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents an analysis of the ichthyofauna of the Upper Terek, emphasizing different part of the region under consideration. A long-term of skate of sturgeon of larvae is given, characterized the conditions of natural reproduction.

  12. 76 FR 34023 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Protective Regulations for the Gulf of Maine Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... stressors impeding recovery of the DPS. DATES: Comments on this proposal must be received by August 9, 2011... primary stressors for the GOM DPS of Atlantic sturgeon (ASSRT, 2007). As described in the proposed rule... considerably from 1977-2000 (1977 B 1981 CPUE = 0.30 versus 1998 B 2000 CPUE = 7.43) while the CPUE of adult...

  13. 75 FR 16738 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... River fall Chinook salmon under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The FMEP specifies the future... fish, sturgeon, carp, and other species.'' The FMEP describes the management of recreational fisheries...

  14. 75 FR 13255 - Endangered Species; File No. 15338

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU83 Endangered... form for a permit pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The Permit application is for the incidental take of ESA-listed sea turtles and shortnose sturgeon associated with...

  15. Characterization of proteolytic and anti-proteolytic activity involvement in sterlet spermatozoon maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzyuba, V.; Słowińska, M.; Cosson, J.; Ciereszko, A.; Boryshpolets, S.; Štěrba, Ján; Rodina, M.; Linhart, O.; Dzyuba, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2016), s. 1755-1766 ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : amidase activity * anti-proteolytic activity * casein and gelatin zymography * siberian sturgeon sperm * spermatozoon maturation * sterlet sperm Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2016

  16. The Russian Navy and the Future of Russian Power in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    restaurants, department stores, hotels , boutiques , computers, sturgeon hatcheries, sausage plants, Madagascar and California.173 ment” strategy (sea...Region as a guide for future developments there. Additionally, the thesis will make use of books , scholarly articles, web sites, and official reports as...

  17. 77 FR 55144 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... in avian foraging behavior, modification of bottom topography, loss of benthic prey species from... or adverse modification of any critical habitat. The EPA prepared a Biological Assessment (BA) to... modification of designated critical habitat for southern DPS North American green sturgeon. The NMFS also...

  18. Inés Palou: dos novelas y un suicidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No sabemos muy bien si su experiencia carcelaria cambió para mal la forma de ser de Inés Palou (Agramunt, Lérida, 1923 – Gelida, Barcelona, 1975 o si, por el contrario, eligió el delito como forma de vida con anterioridad. En cualquier caso, su primera nove- la, Carne apaleada, es, o pretende ser, una autobiografía exculpatoria. Sobre su biografía real algo nos dicen los textos que acompañan a la edición de sus obras: Nació en una familia de clase media que pudo pagarle estudios de Comercio y Peritaje Mer- cantil. Su educación familiar fue la misma que solían recibir hace cuarenta o cincuenta años las hijas de buena familia. Desempeñó diversos oficios relacionados con sus estudios hasta que siendo responsable en parte de la marcha financiera de una empresa se vio envuelta en problemas fiscales. Para salir del paso recurrió a métodos que la justicia consideró delictivos, por lo que pasó una larga temporada en la cárcel de mujeres de Barcelona. Allí comenzó a escribir. Y allí comenzaría también el terrible túnel de humillaciones y rebeldía del que sólo salió con el suicidio en 1975.

  19. Fish and fisheries in the Lower Rhine 1550-1950: A historical-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, H J Rob

    2017-11-01

    Regulation and intensive use of most of the world's large rivers, has led to dramatic decline and even to extinction of riverine fish populations like salmon and sturgeon in the river Rhine. In general this decline is considered an unwelcome side-effect of the Industrial Revolution and large-scale river regulation (c. 1800), but the deterioration of stocks of some species may have started well before the 19th century. For the river Rhine, data on fish landings as proxies of abundance in the period 1550-1950 can be derived from historical market prices, fisheries taxation and fishery and fish auctions statistics, especially for commercially interesting species like Atlantic salmon, sturgeon, Allis shad and Twaite shad. Most data from which abundance of these species can be derived, however, appear to be missing in historical sources until decline of the investigated species sets in and the species become economically scarce goods. Atlantic salmon in the Rhine catchment appears to be already in decline during Early Modern Times (post 1500 AD) after which time river regulation, pollution and intensified fisheries finished off the remaining stocks in the 20th century. Salmon decline caused a cascade in the River Rhine ecosystem as fisheries shifted to, especially, Allis shad and Twaite shad, followed by (near-)extinction of these species. Dropping yields of salmon fishery did not lead to increased sturgeon fishery, although numbers of sturgeon also dwindled to extinction in the river Rhine. The onset of sturgeon decline appears to coincide with the period of the first large regulation works. It is shown that historical-ecological data on fish abundance can quantitatively underpin detrimental long-term processes in river ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Egg deposition by lithophilic-spawning fishes in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers, 2005–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Roseman, Edward F.; Fischer, Jason L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2017-03-14

    A long-term, multiseason, fish egg sampling program conducted annually on the Detroit (2005–14) and Saint Clair (2010–14) Rivers was summarized to identify where productive fish spawning habitat currently exists. Egg mats were placed on the river bottom during the spring and fall at historic spawning areas and candidate fish spawning habitat restoration sites throughout both rivers. Widespread evidence was found of lithophilic spawning by numerous native fish species, including walleye (Sander vitreus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), suckers (Catostomidae spp.), and trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus). Walleye, lake whitefish, and suckers spp. spawned in nearly every region of each river in all years on both reef and nonreef substrates. Lake sturgeon eggs were collected almost exclusively over constructed reefs. Catch-per-unit effort of walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs was much greater in the Detroit River than in the Saint Clair River, while Saint Clair River sites supported the greatest collections of lake sturgeon eggs. Collections during this study of lake sturgeon eggs on man-made spawning reefs suggest that artificial reefs may be an effective tool for restoring fish populations in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers; however, the quick response of lake sturgeon to spawn on newly constructed reefs and the fact that walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs were often collected over substrate with little interstitial space to protect eggs from siltation and predators suggests that lack of suitable spawning habitat may continue to limit reproduction of lithophilic-spawning fish species in the Saint Clair-Detroit River System.

  1. Integrating understanding of biophysical processes governing larval fish dispersal with basin-scale management decisions: lessons from the Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, S. O.; Jacobson, R. B.; Fischenich, C. J.; Bulliner, E. A., IV; McDonald, R.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P.; Elliott, C. M.; Chojnacki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Management of the Missouri River—the longest river in the USA, with a drainage basin covering one sixth of the conterminous USA—is increasingly driven by the need to understand biophysical processes governing the dispersal of 8-mm long larval pallid sturgeon. In both the upper and lower basin, survival of larval sturgeon is thought to be a bottleneck limiting populations, but because of different physical processes at play, different modeling frameworks and resolutions are required to link management actions with population-level responses. In the upper basin, a series of impoundments reduce the length of river for the drifting larval sturgeon to complete their development. Downstream from the mainstem dams, recruitment is most likely diminished by channelization and reduced floodplain connectivity that limit the benthic habitat available for larval sturgeon to settle and initiate feeding. We present a synthesis of complementary field studies, laboratory observations, and numerical simulations that evaluate the physical processes related to larval dispersal of sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. In the upper basin, we use one-dimensional advection-dispersion models, calibrated with field experiments conducted in 2016-2017 using surrogate particles and tracers, to evaluate reservoir management alternatives. Results of field experimentation and numerical modeling show that proposed management alternatives in the upper basin may be limited by insufficient lengths of flowing river for drifting larvae to fully develop into their juvenile lifestage. In the intensively engineered lower basin, we employ higher resolution measurements and models to evaluate potential for channel reconfiguration and flow alteration to promote successful interception of drifting larvae into supportive benthic habitats for the initiation of feeding and transition to the juvenile life stage. We illustrate how refined understanding of small-scale biophysical process has been incorporated

  2. EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF USING DIFFERENT SPAWNING INDUCERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION OF STЕRLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kovalenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the efficiency of replacing the preparation of sturgeon hypophyses, which is traditional for sturgeon culture but scarce and expensive, with its carp analogue as well as with preparations, which induce own gonadotrophic function of brood sterlet hypophysis when producing offspring in aquaculture conditions. Methodology. The research was performed in the framework of the NULES research theme for 2013–2015, in the conditions of the Fishery Academic, Research and Production Laboratory of the Aquaculture Department (hatching room and fish culture facility with closed water supply in Nemishaev, Borodianka district, Kyiv region. The control in the experiment on a comparative evaluation of the efficiency of different spawning inducers for artificially reproduced sterlet was Reproginol (powder of acetoned sturgeon hypophysis in 50 mg capsules. The experimental variant 1 included acetoned hypophyses of Prussian carp and common carp (no older than a year and half since their collection. The experimental variant 2 is experimental synthetic fish spawning inducer Vadilen-2 (the developer of the preparation is Kovalenko V. O., assistant professor of the Aquaculture Department of the NULES of Ukraine. Collection and processing of experiment data were performed using conventional aquaculture research methods. Findings. It was found that Vadilen-2 produced inducing effect on the gonadotrophic function of sterlet hypophysis and transition from the 4th to the 5th stage of maturation. The effective doses of Vadilen-2 with water temperature of 13–15°C for sterlet females and males were 0.8–1.0 and 0.5–0.6 mg per 1 kg of brood fish, respectively. We observed that sterlet females, which were kept in basins of the recirculated water facility, showed worse results during incubation period when they missed winter period compared to fish, which were kept in the water with natural temperature in the winter. The possibility of replacing the

  3. Creation of artificial spawning grounds downstream of the Riviere-des-Prairies Spillway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdon, R.

    1991-01-01

    The creation of artificial spawning grounds is often considered a valuable means of mitigating impact on fish populations. In 1985, following reconstruction of the Riviere-des-Prairies spillway, granular material from the access road was used to create a new spawning area for resident fish. This 0.5 hectare spawning bed was used over the following years by walleye, sauger, longnose and white suckers, and lake sturgeon for reproduction. It was also used as a fry habitat by sturgeon and sucker. Since the reproductive success of the fish depends largely on stable flow conditions, the quality of the habitat is strongly related to the spillway flow regime. Operating procedures compatible with power generation can optimize the spawning success of desirable fish species. Details are presented of site design, construction, fish monitoring, and spillway operation. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Managing water, fish and power : trends in environmental regulation of hydropower projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursey, D.; McLean, J.; Longe, R. [Bull, Housser and Tupper LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Recent trends in federal legislation related to the environmental impacts of hydroelectric power projects were reviewed. The study focused on a discussion of recent and proposed amendments to the Species at Risk Act, the Fisheries Act, and the Navigable Waters Protection Act. Challenges associated with risk management, the public perception of risk, and the communication of decisions related to the management and protection of aquatic ecosystems were discussed. The Brilliant Expansion Power Project (BRX) examined the interactions with white sturgeon on the Kootenay River in British Columbia (BC). A monitoring program was conducted during the project's construction in order to reduce the risk to sturgeon from blasting. A habitat enhancement feature was also constructed. It was concluded that the mitigation strategies used during the BRX project provide a useful example of innovation and adaptive management. 19 refs.

  5. Individual Variation in Life History Characteristics Can Influence Extinction Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, H I

    2001-01-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) shows great individual variation in the age at maturation. This study examines the consequences of model assumptions about individual variation in the age at maturation on predicted population viability. I considered: (1) the effects of variation in age at maturation alone; (2) the effects of heritability; and (3) the influence of a stable and an altered selective regime. Two selective regimes represented conditions before and after the impoundment of a river, blocking access of anadromous white sturgeon populations to the ocean. In contrast to previous simulation studies, I found that increased individual variation in the age at maturity did not necessarily lead to a higher likelihood of persistence. Individual variation increased the simulated likelihood of persistence when the variation was heritable and the selective regime had changed such that the mean age at maturity was no longer optimal.

  6. Individual variation in life history characteristics can influence extinction risk (vol 144, pg 61, 2001) Correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) shows great individual variation in the age at maturation. This study examines the consequences of model assumptions about individual variation in the age at maturation on predicted population viability. I considered: (1) the effects of variation in age at maturation alone; (2) the effects of heritability; and (3) the influence of a stable and an altered selective regime. Two selective regimes represented conditions before and after the impoundment of a river, blocking access of anadromous white sturgeon populations to the ocean. In contrast to previous simulation studies, I found that increased individual variation in the age at maturity did not necessarily lead to a higher likelihood of persistence. Individual variation increased the simulated likelihood of persistence when the variation was heritable and the selective regime had changed such that the mean age at maturity was no longer optimal.

  7. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  8. Metody odchovu raných stádií jeseterovitých ryb. Přehledová práce.

    OpenAIRE

    KAHANEC, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The review "Methods of rearing the early stages of sturgeon fishes" brings in its introductory part an information on current systematics of chondrosteans. It has recently gone through certain amendments upon the development of genetic mapping the fish populations in open waters, as well as the specimens from fish farms. Owing to worldwide- and long-term reduction of stocks of the last populations of chondrostean fishes in open waters, controlled reproduction followed by progeny nursing is th...

  9. Status and perspectives of fish industry of Azerbaijan in conditions of increased oil and gas extraction in the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjiev, R.V; Kasimov, R.Yu; Akhundov, M.M; Karaev, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The Caspian Sea plays important role in supply of the population of Azerbaijan Republic with fish products. Furthermore, the Caspian Sea is the single pond where more than 70% of sturgeons are harvested all over the world. Besides, more than 80% of the big bony fishes harvested in the ponds of Azerbaijan, are caught in the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, the entrails of the Caspian Sea contain tremendous amounts of oil and gas deposits whose extraction disturbs partially the ecological equilibrium in this unique pond. It should be noticed that since 1973-1974 the increase of sturgeon harvest was observed. The special scientific Institute of Fish Industry in Astrakhan city with its branch in Azerbaijan was founded. In the same years top amount of oil was extracted in the Caspian Sea and simultaneously high pollution level of the sea with oil and oil products, having been clearly seen in the Sea-attached Boulevard, was fixed. However, in spite of these unfavorable conditions, the sturgeon harvests, due to their reproduction in the hatcheries and following release into the sea, increased not only in Azerbaijan, but also all over the whole Caspian Sea basin. It is impossible to keep serenity today owing to the fact that broadening of oil extraction in the Caspian Sea for new deposits are situated near to the fattening areas of juveniles of valuable fish species, in the estuary of the Kura river and other small rivers where sex-mature fishes migrate. Besides, the migration ways of sturgeons the North origin pass through these zones: in autumn- from the North to the South, while in early and middle spring- in opposite direction

  10. Studies on activity, distribution, and zymogram of protease, α-amylase, and lipase in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H; Sun, H T; Xiong, D M

    2012-06-01

    A series of biochemical determination and electrophoretic observations have been conducted to analyze the activities and characteristics of protease, α-amylase, and lipase of paddlefish Polyodon spathula. The results obtained have been compared with those of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus ♀ × Acipenser schrenki Brandt ♂), in order to increase available knowledge of the physiological characteristics of this sturgeon species and to gain information with regard to its nutrition. Further, a comparative study of enzymatic activity, distribution, and characterization between commercial feed-reared paddlefish (CG) and natural live food-reared (NG) paddlefish was conducted. Results showed that higher proteolytic activity was observed in the pH range 2.5-3.0 and at a pH of 7.0 for paddlefish. Levels of acid protease activity of paddlefish were similar to that of hybrid sturgeon, and significantly higher than that of bighead carp. The inhibition assay of paddlefish showed that the rate of inhibition of tosyl-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone was approximately 2.6-fold that of tosyl-lysine chloromethyl ketone. There was no significant difference observed for acid protease activity between PG and CG groups, whereas the activity of alkaline protease, α-amylase, and lipase in the PG group were significantly lower than those in the CG group. The substrate sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis further showed that there were certain types of enzymes, especially α-amylase, with similar molecular mass in the paddlefish and hybrid sturgeon. It can be inferred that acid digestion was main mechanism for protein hydrolysis in paddlefish, as reported for other fishes with a stomach. This indicates that the paddlefish requires higher alkaline protease, α-amylase, and lipase activity to digest natural live food.

  11. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System 2007 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    conditions, and defmes the influence of District projects on smface water quality. 3) Establish and maintain su·ong working partnerships and...Drinking Water Supply Warmwater Fishery Riparian Alteration (AL, WWF ) Arsenic (AL, DWS, WWF ) Copper (AL, WWF ) No No ----- Pallid sturgeon recovery...dependent upon the continuance of a monitoring partnership with the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality. c Special Study will be implemented, as

  12. JPRS Report Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-31

    grow their own lettuce , spinach, strawberry and cherries. Now people are asking: How long have they and their children been eating produce containing...contamina- tion to be as severe as it turned out. Plant tests were performed in seven locations, involving spinach, lettuce and sorrels. The...no sturgeon. Then they thought quickly, and released some kind of fish with a funny name, bester or something (a hybrid of beluga and sterlet). But

  13. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  14. Lumpfish caviar - from vessel to consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Fish roe products have historically been seen as expensive and highly-desirable luxury food items. The best and most expensive is true caviar, which uses eggs from sturgeons caught in the Caspian Sea. In recent years, eggs from many other fish species have been used to develop products imitating original caviar. By utilizing processes appropriate for each kind of fish, it is now possible to make a similar - but nevertheless imitation - product. This publication presents a comprehensive overvi...

  15. Indidivual differences in the behaviour of fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Budaev, Dr. Sergey

    2000-01-01

    This is the official printed Russian summary of PhD Thesis, describing a series of studies of the phenotypic organization and ecological significance of individual differences in fish behavior. The following species were studied: guppy Poecilia retuculata, lion-headed cichlid Steatocranus cassuarius, convict cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatum, wrasses Symphodus ocellatus, S. tinca, and two species of sturgeons Acipenser stellatus and A. gueldenstaedti. In this Thesis, I developed methods for...

  16. Molecular cytogenetic differentiation of paralogs of Hox paralogs in duplicated and re-diploidized genome of the North American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Symonová, Radka; Havelka, M.; Amemiya, C. T.; Howell, M. W.; Kořínková, Tereza; Flajšhans, M.; Gela, D.; Ráb, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 19. ISSN 1471-2156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hoxA/D paralogs mapping * sturgeon whole genome duplication * ancient fish genome * rediploidization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.266, year: 2016

  17. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  18. Age and sex specific variation in hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the age- and sex-specific changes of various haematological and blood serum biochemical blood parameters of Beluga (Huso huso were investigated. Blood samples were collected from 4-, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old beluga (n = 7 for each sex and age. The specimens were fed at a rate of 0.5-3% body weight per day. AST and LDH levels in 7- and 8-year-old fish of both sexes were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in 4- and 6-year-old individuals. The mean ALT were significantly different (P<0.05 in both sexes of 4-, 6-, and 7-year-old sturgeon. However, the 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old female sturgeon had higher ALP levels (P<0.05. Additionally, mean RBC, PCV, and Hb values were significantly higher (P<0.05 in 7- and 8-year-old females and males than the others. Two-tailed Pearson’s correlation between the biochemical and haematological parameters obtained for beluga sturgeon indicated significant positive correlations between AST and ALP, AST and LDH, ALP and LDH, RBC and Hb, RBC and PCV, Hb and PCV, MCH and MCHC, and MCV and MCH. However, significant negative correlations were found between RBC and MCV and MCH. These results suggest that the blood parameters of beluga are influenced by age- and sex-specific factors.

  19. Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project probability/coordination study resident fish and wildlife impacts. Phase 3. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitzinger, E.

    1997-12-01

    Phase 3 began in 1995 with the overall goal of quantifying changes in resident fish habitat in the Snake River Basin upstream of Brownlee Reservoir resulting from the release of salmon flow augmentation water. Existing data, in the form of weighted usable area versus flow relationships, were used to estimate habitat changes for white sturgeon (Acipenser transinontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Snake River between C.J. Strike Dam and Brownlee pool. The increased flows resulted in increased habitat for adult and juvenile white sturgeon and adult rainbow trout. But, the flows have failed to meet mean monthly flow recommendations for the past three years despite the addition of the flow augmentation releases. It is unlikely that the flow augmentation releases have had any significant long-term benefit for sturgeon and rainbow trout in the Snake River. Flow augmentation releases from the Boise and Payette rivers have in some years helped to meet or exceed minimum flow recommendations in these tributaries. The minimum flows would not have been reached without the flow augmentation releases. But, in some instances, the timing of the releases need to be adjusted in order to maximize benefits to resident fishes in the Boise and Payette rivers

  20. Evolutionary aspects of growth hormones and prolactins and their receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The interactions of GH's, PRL's and PL's with receptors for GH and PRL were examined from a comparative and evolutionary viewpoint. The binding of 125 I-bGH to membrane preparations from liver of representatives of the major classes of non-mammalian vertebrates was also studied. Only hepatic membranes from sturgeon and Gillichthys had significant bGH binding and were further characterized and compared with male rabbit liver membranes in terms of time, temperature, pH, and membrane concentration to optimize binding conditions. The binding of several members of the GH, PRL, PL family of hormones to GH receptors from liver of sturgeon, Gillichthys, rabbit, mouse and rat was investigated. in terms of hormonal specificity, the mammalian receptors and the sturgeon binding sites were similar, while Gillichthys receptors had a different pattern of hormonal specificity. The binding of 125 I-oPRL to renal membranes of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans, was characterized and compared to PRL binding sites of kidney membranes of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum

  1. Bathymetric and sediment facies maps for China Bend and Marcus Flats, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington, 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created bathymetric and sediment facies maps for portions of two reaches of Lake Roosevelt in support of an interdisciplinary study of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and their habitat areas within Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington. In October 2008, scientists from the USGS used a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder (MBES) to describe bathymetric data to characterize surface relief at China Bend and Marcus Flats, between Northport and Kettle Falls, Washington. In March 2009, an underwater video camera was used to view and record sediment facies that were then characterized by sediment type, grain size, and areas of sand deposition. Smelter slag has been identified as having the characteristics of sand-sized black particles; the two non-invasive surveys attempted to identify areas containing black-colored particulate matter that may be elements and minerals, organic material, or slag. The white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt is threatened by the failure of natural recruitment, resulting in a native population that consists primarily of aging fish and that is gradually declining as fish die and are not replaced by nonhatchery reared juvenile fish. These fish spawn and rear in the riverine and upper reservoir reaches where smelter slag is present in the sediment of the river lake bed. Effects of slag on the white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt are largely unknown. Two recent studies demonstrated that copper and other metals are mobilized from slag in aqueous environments with concentrations of copper and zinc in bed sediments reaching levels of 10,000 and 30,000 mg/kg due to the presence of smelter slag. Copper was found to be highly toxic to 30-day-old white sturgeon with 96-h LC50 concentrations ranging from 3 to 5 (u or mu)g copper per liter. Older juvenile and adult sturgeons commonly ingest substantial amounts of sediment while foraging. Future study efforts in Lake Roosevelt should include sampling of

  2. Optimum Pathways of Fish Spawning Migrations in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, B. J.; Jacobson, R. B.; Delonay, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many fish species migrate large distances upstream in rivers to spawn. These migrations require energetic expenditures that are inversely related to fecundity of spawners. Here we present the theory necessary to quantify relative energetic requirements of upstream migration pathways and then test the hypothesis that least-cost paths are taken by the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphyrhyncus Albus), a benthic rheophile, in the lower Missouri River, USA. Total work done by a fish through a migratory path is proportional to the size of the fish, the total drag on the fish, and the distance traversed. Normalizing by the work required to remain stationary at the beginning of a path, relative work expenditure at each point of the path is found to be the cube of the ratio of the velocity along the path to the velocity at the start of the path. This is the velocity of the fish relative to the river flow. A least-cost migratory pathway can be determined from the velocity field in a reach as the path that minimizes a fish's relative work expenditure. We combine location data from pallid sturgeon implanted with telemetric tags and pressure-sensitive data storage tags with depth and velocity data collected with an acoustic Doppler profiler. During spring 2010 individual sturgeon were closely followed as they migrated up the Missouri River to spawn. These show that, within a small margin, pallid sturgeon in the lower Missouri River select least-cost paths as they swim upstream (typical velocities near 1.0 - 1.2 m/s). Within the range of collected data, it is also seen that many alternative paths not selected for migration are two orders of magnitude more energetically expensive (typical velocities near 2.0 - 2.5 m/s). In general these sturgeon migrated along the inner banks of bends avoiding high velocities in the thalweg, crossing the channel where the thalweg crosses in the opposite direction in order to proceed up the inner bank of subsequent bends. Overall, these

  3. Assessment of Potential Impact of Electromagnetic Fields from Undersea Cable on Migratory Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimley, A. P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Wyman, M. T. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Kavet, Rob [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    The US Department of Energy and US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management commissioned this study to address the limited scientific data on the impacts of high voltage direct current cables on aquatic biota, in particular migratory species within the San Francisco Bay. Empirical evidence exists that marine animals perceive and orient to local distortions in the earth’s main geomagnetic field magnetic field. The electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by the cables that carry electricity from hydrokinetic energy sources to shore-based power stations may produce similar local distortions in the earth’s main field. Concern exists that animals that migrate along the continental shelves might orient to the EMF from the cables, and move either inshore or offshore away from their normal path. The Trans Bay Cable (TBC) is a ±200-kilovolt (kV), 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC) buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF) through the San Francisco Bay. The study addresses the following specific questions based on measurements and projections of the EMF produced by an existing marine cable, the TBC, in San Francisco Bay. Specifically, does the presence of EMF from an operating power cable alter the behavior and path of bony fishes and sharks along a migratory corridor? Does the EMF from an operating power cable guide migratory movements or pose an obstacle to movement? To meet the main study objectives several activities needed to be carried out: 1) modeling of the magnetic fields produced by the TBC, 2) assessing the migratory impacts on Chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) as a result of local magnetic field distortions produced by bridge structures and 3) analyzing behavioral responses by migratory Chinook salmon and green sturgeon to a high-voltage power cable. To meet the first objective, magnetic field measurements were made using two

  4. Ecological operation for Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply, and recreation, and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on the river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied with a focus on maintaining a healthy river ecosystem. This study considered ecological operation targets, including maintaining the river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Using flow data from 1900 to 2006 at the Yichang gauging station as the control station data for the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets for the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. This paper proposes a reservoir ecological operation model, which comprehensively considers flood control, power generation, navigation, and the ecological environment. Three typical periods, wet, normal, and dry years, were selected, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to analyze the model. The results show that ecological operation modes have different effects on the economic benefit of the hydropower station, and the reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for the requirements of spawning of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand is met. The results provide a reference for designing reasonable operation schemes for the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  5. Recovery of a US endangered fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Bain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More fish have been afforded US Endangered Species Act protection than any other vertebrate taxonomic group, and none has been designated as recovered. Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum occupy large rivers and estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America, and the species has been protected by the US Endangered Species Act since its enactment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on the shortnose sturgeon in the Hudson River (New York to Albany, NY, USA were obtained from a 1970s population study, a population and fish distribution study we conducted in the late 1990s, and a fish monitoring program during the 1980s and 1990s. Population estimates indicate a late 1990s abundance of about 60,000 fish, dominated by adults. The Hudson River population has increased by more than 400% since the 1970s, appears healthy, and has attributes typical for a long-lived species. Our population estimates exceed the government and scientific population recovery criteria by more than 500%, we found a positive trend in population abundance, and key habitats have remained intact despite heavy human river use. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Scientists and legislators have called for changes in the US Endangered Species Act, the Act is being debated in the US Congress, and the Act has been characterized as failing to recover species. Recovery of the Hudson River population of shortnose sturgeon suggests the combination of species and habitat protection with patience can yield successful species recovery, even near one of the world's largest human population centers.

  6. Fish-protection devices at unscreened water diversions can reduce entrainment: evidence from behavioural laboratory investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mussen, Timothy D.; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion (i.e. extraction) of water from rivers and estuaries can potentially affect native wildlife populations if operation is not carefully managed. For example, open, unmodified water diversions can act as a source of injury or mortality to resident or migratory fishes from entrainment and impingement, and can cause habitat degradation and fragmentation. Fish-protection devices, such as exclusion screens, louvres or sensory deterrents, can physically or behaviourally deter fish from approaching or being entrained into water diversions. However, empirical assessment of their efficacy is often lacking or is investigated only for particular economically or culturally important fishes, such as salmonids. The Southern population of anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is listed as threatened in California, and there is a high density of water diversions located within their native range (the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed). Coupled with their unique physiology and behaviour compared with many other fishes native to California, the green sturgeon is susceptible to entrainment into diversions and is an ideal species with which to study the efficacy of mitigation techniques. Therefore, we investigated juvenile green sturgeon (188–202 days post-hatch) in the presence of several fish-protection devices to assess behaviour and entrainment risk. Using a large experimental flume (∼500 kl), we found that compared with an open diversion pipe (control), the addition of a trash-rack box, louvre box, or perforated cylinder on the pipe inlet all significantly reduced the proportion of fish that were entrained through the pipe (P = 0.03, P = 0.028, and P = 0.028, respectively). Likewise, these devices decreased entrainment risk during a single movement past the pipe by between 60 and 96%. These fish-protection devices should decrease the risk of fish entrainment during water-diversion activities. PMID:27293725

  7. A report on the fisheries resources of the lower Nelson River and the impacts of hydroelectric development, 1988 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, G.M.; Kansas, K.R.; Matkowski, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fisheries studies on the lower Nelson River (Manitoba) system have had the goals of gaining an understanding of the fisheries resources present, assessing current and potential impacts of hydroelectric developments, and investigating enhancement or mitigative options. In 1988, a resource inventory of McMillan and 12-Mile Creeks was conducted to increase understanding of brook trout stocks in the Limestone River system. Results indicate that both streams contain self-sustaining populations. Baseline data collection in the Conawapa Forebay of the Nelson River was initiated in 1988. Inventories of fish populations were conducted, focusing on lake sturgeon. Three long-term monitoring projects were continued in 1988, investigating the populations of spawning brook trout, larval brook trout, and anadromy in brook trout. Four major tributaries to the Nelson River were classified on the basis of physical and chemical characteristics in an attempt to understand brook trout distribution patterns. Ten sturgeon were captured in Angling Lake in 1988 and fitted with radio tags to assess the importance of the Angling Lake-Angling River system to Nelson River lake sturgeon. To investigate the feasibility of enhancing brook trout populations in the Nelson River system, baskets of eggs were planted in previously identified spawning areas in three creeks in 1988. The eggs developed and hatched only in CN Creek. The potential for rehabilitating the Kettle River brook trout population by transfer of fish from other rivers was also investigated in 1988. Radio-tagged fish remained in the Kettle River-Long Spruce system throughout the life of the tags and appear to have found suitable summer and winter habitat. 60 refs., 76 figs., 38 tabs

  8. Validation of a spatial model used to locate fish spawning reef construction sites in the St. Clair–Detroit River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason L.; Bennion, David; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations have suffered precipitous declines in the St. Clair–Detroit River system, following the removal of gravel spawning substrates and overfishing in the late 1800s to mid-1900s. To assist the remediation of lake sturgeon spawning habitat, three hydrodynamic models were integrated into a spatial model to identify areas in two large rivers, where water velocities were appropriate for the restoration of lake sturgeon spawning habitat. Here we use water velocity data collected with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to assess the ability of the spatial model and its sub-models to correctly identify areas where water velocities were deemed suitable for restoration of fish spawning habitat. ArcMap 10.1 was used to create raster grids of water velocity data from model estimates and ADCP measurements which were compared to determine the percentage of cells similarly classified as unsuitable, suitable, or ideal for fish spawning habitat remediation. The spatial model categorized 65% of the raster cells the same as depth-averaged water velocity measurements from the ADCP and 72% of the raster cells the same as surface water velocity measurements from the ADCP. Sub-models focused on depth-averaged velocities categorized the greatest percentage of cells similar to ADCP measurements where 74% and 76% of cells were the same as depth-averaged water velocity measurements. Our results indicate that integrating depth-averaged and surface water velocity hydrodynamic models may have biased the spatial model and overestimated suitable spawning habitat. A model solely integrating depth-averaged velocity models could improve identification of areas suitable for restoration of fish spawning habitat.

  9. Draft Environmental Assessment for the Combat Support Training Complex, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-25

    nwdas Green Seaturtle PK E E 1,19 FISH Acipenser oxyrhynchus &esotoi Gulf Sturgeon SR SSC UR2 17,19 Mustela vison lutensis Florida Mink P - UR2 13...immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) with respect to respiratory irritation. This represents the maximum concentration from which one could...Threshold 0.004 mg/m3 ACGIH’ Median effective concentration 1-5 mg/m3 ACGIH Respiratory irritation Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 0.4 mg/m3

  10. Cognitive antecedents of consumers' willingness to purchase fish rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, G; Leek, S; Maddock, S

    1998-12-01

    A sample of UK consumers (N = 311) was interviewed in order to identify the attitudinal, cognitive and involvement characteristics of probable early adopters of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fed fish. Attitude to fish significantly influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish, PUFA salmon, PUFA eel and PUFA sturgeon purchase. Involvement in healthy eating influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish and PUFA salmon purchase. Cognitive style did not influence PUFA fish and premium price PUFA fish purchase; nor, contrary to earlier research, did cognitive style and involvement interact to influence intended PUFA fish purchases.

  11. Comparative polymorphism of sterlet fertilizers (Acipenser Ruthenus for microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Олексіївна Малишева

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on microsatellite DNA markers in three (LG-19, LS-68 and LS-39 it is examined intraspecific genetic structure of sterlet fertilizers. As a result of this work it was found that this group of fish is in a balanced state in terms of the genetic polymorphism. On the basis of certain individual differences in allelic variants have been selected and combined the parental pairs for alternative genotypes. The results of the research allow optimize further work on the reproduction of sturgeon under artificial cultivation

  12. (Acipenser baerii hindgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Najdegerami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB is a natural polymer that can be depolymerized by bacterial extracellular enzymes into β-hydroxybutyric acid monomers. Materials and methods: In this study, the effects of PHB and it’s degrading bacteria on the metabolic diversity of anaerobic bacteria in Siberian sturgeon hindgut were investigated in four treatments (Control, 2% PHB, combination of two degrading bacteria, 2% PHB + two bateria for 60 days. The Shanon diversity index, Evenness and Pareto-Lorenz curve was calculated with BiologTM Ecoplates data. Results: The results indicated that using supplemented diets significantly increased Shanon index and evenness then control (P

  13. Defense Trade Data: Sources and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Sabre reconnaissance vehicles and Spartan, Stormer and FV-432 Bulldog APC $144m deaJ GBP70 m ($126-129 m) deal; BGM-109 Tomahawk Block-JV (Tactical...6BTA-5.9 version;; for 189 BvS-10 APC from Sweden and modernization of some 2100 Scimitar and Sabre reconnaissance vehicles and Spartan. Stormer ...Viking CV variant 29 AFV 432 1487 Stormer APC 147 CVR(T) Scimitar 322 CVR(T) Spartan 494 CVR(T) Sturgeon 35 CVR(T) Salamander 32 Saxon 147

  14. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Doukakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90 compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95. Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  15. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  16. Identification of bester hybrid and its parental species (♀ Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758 and ♂ Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 by nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, sturgeon farming is gaining advance, different species being raised for commercial purposes and for restocking activities. A correct identification of individuals is imposed since severe ecological damages might occur if non-native species or hybrids are used for restocking. Such identification is required also for commercial reasons, the meat and caviar from different species having different prices. The aim of our study was to analyze two sturgeon species, Huso huso and Acipenser ruthenus and their interspecific hybrid - bester, using nuclear markers, in order to set up a molecular method for their accurate identification. The genetic pattern of the species was inferred from the analysis of nine microsatellite loci (LS19, LS34, LS39, LS54, AoxD234, AnacC11, LS68, Aox45 and Aox27 amplified by multiplex PCR reactions. The genotype data were analyzed with GENETIX v4.05 and STRUCTURE. The FCA analysis grouped the individuals in three distinct clusters corresponding to each of the pure species and to the interspecific hybrids. The admixture analysis performed in STRUCTURE also assigned three groups, confirming the results highlighted by FCA. We can conclude that the selected microsatellite markers allow the unambiguously identification of the bester hybrid and its genitor species from Romanian farms.

  17. Acquisition of glial cells missing 2 enhancers contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Shono

    Full Text Available Glial cells missing 2 (gcm2 encoding a GCM-motif transcription factor is expressed in the parathyroid in amniotes. In contrast, gcm2 is expressed in pharyngeal pouches (a homologous site of the parathyroid, gills, and H(+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs, a subset of ionocytes on the skin surface of the teleost fish zebrafish. Ionocytes are specialized cells that are involved in osmotic homeostasis in aquatic vertebrates. Here, we showed that gcm2 is essential for the development of HRCs and Na(+-Cl(- co-transporter-rich cells (NCCCs, another subset of ionocytes in zebrafish. We also identified gcm2 enhancer regions that control gcm2 expression in ionocytes of zebrafish. Comparisons of the gcm2 locus with its neighboring regions revealed no conserved elements between zebrafish and tetrapods. Furthermore, We observed gcm2 expression patterns in embryos of the teleost fishes Medaka (Oryzias latipes and fugu (Fugu niphobles, the extant primitive ray-finned fishes Polypterus (Polypterus senegalus and sturgeon (a hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruhenus, and the amphibian Xenopus (Xenopus laevis. Although gcm2-expressing cells were observed on the skin surface of Medaka and fugu, they were not found in Polypterus, sturgeon, or Xenopus. Our results suggest that an acquisition of enhancers for the expression of gcm2 contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish during evolution.

  18. Short-term storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus testicular cells at -80 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Amin; Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Rodina, Marek; Pšenička, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The conservation of sturgeons is of critical importance, and optimization of long-term storage is crucial to cell survival. This study aimed to examine the viability rates of several variations of sturgeon testicular cells storage at -80 °C for purpose of a short-term storage in a deep freezer or shipment on dried ice. Testes extracted from three immature fish were cut into small pieces, immersed in a cryomedium composed of phosphate buffered saline with 0.5% bovine serum albumin, 50 mM glucose, and 1.5 M ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant, chilled from 10 to -80 °C at a cooling rate of 1 °C per min, and stored under varying conditions. Our results revealed a significant effect of storage conditions on the number of living and dead cells (p > 0.05). Samples that were stored for 7 days at -80 °C showed a considerable decline in terms of cell viability compared to samples stored for 2 days storage at -80 °C or in LN. This result indicated that testicular cells can be stored at -80 °C and/or on dry ice, for 2 days with minimum loss of viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in fish near the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Delistraty, Damon; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-03-03

    It is well-known that absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes in fish can alter polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in fish, but these patterns have never been investigated using an advanced source-apportionment tool. In this work, PCB congener patterns in freshwater fish were examined with positive matrix factorization (PMF). PCB congeners were quantified via EPA Method 1668 in fillet and carcass of six species in four study areas in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. Six factors were resolved with PMF2 software. Depletion and enhancement of PCB congeners in factors, relative to Aroclor 1254, suggested biotransformation (via cytochrome P450) and bioaccumulation in fish, respectively. Notable differences were observed among species and across study locations. For example, sturgeon and whitefish exhibited congener patterns consistent with Aroclor weathering, suggesting potential PCB metabolism in these species. In terms of location, average concentration of total PCBs for all species combined was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Hanford 100 and 300 areas, relative to upriver and downriver study sites. Furthermore, a distinct PCB signature in sturgeon and whitefish, collected at Hanford study areas, suggests that Hanford is a unique PCB source.

  20. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  1. PHB-degrading bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals as protective actors against luminescent vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; De Schryver, Peter; Van Delsen, Bart; Maignien, Loïs; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2010-10-01

    The use of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was shown to be successful in increasing the resistance of brine shrimp against pathogenic infections. In this study, we isolated for the first time PHB-degrading bacteria from a gastrointestinal environment. Pure strains of PHB-degrading bacteria were isolated from Siberian sturgeon, European sea bass and giant river prawn. The capability of selected isolates to degrade PHB was confirmed in at least two of three setups: (1) growth in minimal medium containing PHB as the sole carbon (C) source, (2) production of clearing zones on minimal agar containing PHB as the sole C source and (3) degradation of PHB (as determined by HPLC analysis) in 10% Luria-Bertani medium containing PHB. Challenge tests showed that the PHB-degrading activity of the selected isolates increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged to a pathogenic Vibrio campbellii strain by a factor 2-3. Finally, one of the PHB-degrading isolates from sturgeon showed a double biocontrol effect because it was also able to inactivate acylhomoserine lactones, a type of quorum-sensing molecule that regulates the virulence of different pathogenic bacteria. Thus, the combined supplementation of a PHB-degrading bacterium and PHB as a synbioticum provides perspectives for improving the gastrointestinal health of aquatic animals. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix K: Resident fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. In this appendix the Resident Fish Work Group (RFWG) has attempted to characterize and evaluate impacts of dam operation on an extremely complex and diverse integrated resource. Not only is this required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for SOR, there are resident fish populations that have status under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) or equivalent state regulations (Kootenai River white sturgeon, Snake River white sturgeon, sandroller, shorthead and torrent sculpins, bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, redband trout, and burbot). The RFWG has also attempted to develop operating alternatives that benefit not only resident fish, but anadromous fish, wildlife, and other human interests as well. The authors have recognized the co-evolution of resident fish, anadromous fish, and other integrated resources in the basin

  3. Effects of different rearing temperatures on muscle development and stress response in the early larval stages of Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Aidos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating muscle development and stress response in early stages of Siberian sturgeon when subjected to different rearing temperatures, by analysing growth and development of the muscle and by assessing the stress response of yolk-sac larvae. Siberian sturgeon larvae were reared at 16°C, 19°C and 22°C until the yolk-sac was completely absorbed. Sampling timepoints were: hatching, schooling and complete yolk-sac absorption stage. Histometrical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in order to characterize muscle growth (total muscle area, TMA; slow muscle area, SMA; fast muscle area, FMA, development (anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen -PCNA or anticaspase as well as stress conditions by specific stress biomarkers (heat shock protein 70 or 90, HSP70 or HSP90. Larvae subjected to the highest water temperature showed a faster yolk-sac absorption. Histometry revealed that both TMA and FMA were larger in the schooling stage at 19°C while no differences were observed in the SMA at any of the tested rearing temperatures. PCNA quantification revealed a significantly higher number of proliferating cells in the yolk-sac absorption phase at 22°C than at 16°C. HSP90 immunopositivity seems to be particularly evident at 19°C. HPS70 immunopositivity was never observed in the developing lateral muscle.

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Howe, G.E.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  6. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  7. Ecological prediction with nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional data models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Hsi; Wikle, Christopher K.; Holan, Scott H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Time-frequency analysis has become a fundamental component of many scientific inquiries. Due to improvements in technology, the amount of high-frequency signals that are collected for ecological and other scientific processes is increasing at a dramatic rate. In order to facilitate the use of these data in ecological prediction, we introduce a class of nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional models that can identify important features of each signal as well as the interaction of signals corresponding to the response variable of interest. Our methodology is of independent interest and utilizes stochastic search variable selection to improve model selection and performs model averaging to enhance prediction. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through simulation and by application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE HORMONAL STIMULATION STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS, LINNAEUS, 1758 USING CARP HYPOPHYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL HORMONE TYPE NERESTIN 5-5A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the particular sturgeon reproductive biology, propagation of technology through artificial comprises a number of phases required including: selection, parking broodstocks cell maturation and sexual stimulation in order fertilized their conditions provided. To stimulate the process of sexual maturation of the sexual elements for sterlet could be hypophysis and also analogue gonadothropic hormone type Nerestin 5. Literature attesting to the use of sterlet dry hypophysis treated with acetone (Maria Caloianu-Iordăchel, 1973 and employing successful hormone analogue found as LHRHa (N.Patrichi and collaborators, 1989- unpublished data. Advantages and disadvantages of using hypophysis or gonadotropic hormone analogue fdhgghNerestin 5 are very important and decisive for modern aquaculture the century XXI century.

  9. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  10. Summary on uranium in Canada, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations of recently discovered uranium occurrences and deposits have revealed that (a) the mineralization processes that formed the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan were similar to those reported for the McClean Lake deposit; (b) the recently discovered Boomerang Lake occurrence related to the sub-Thelon unconformity occurs in a geological environment similar to that hosting deposits related to the sub-Athabasca unconformity; (c) additional occurrences of mineralization similar to the Black Sturgeon Lake showing, Ontario, will be restricted to areas containing uraniferous igneous rocks adjacent to ferruginous metavolcanic rocks in areas affected by Keweenawan hydrothermal activity; (d) uranium occurrences in the Otish Basin, Labrador Trough, Central Mineral Belt of Labrador and the Nonacho Basin were formed by epigenetic processes

  11. Freshwater Megafauna: Flagships for Freshwater Biodiversity under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Savrina F; Jähnig, Sonja C; Bremerich, Vanessa; Freyhof, Jörg; Harrison, Ian; He, Fengzhi; Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement; Zarfl, Christiane; Darwall, William

    2017-10-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich. Freshwater megafauna co-occur with up to 93% of mapped overall freshwater biodiversity. Fifty-eight percent of the 132 megafauna species included in the study are threatened, with 84% of their collective range falling outside of protected areas. Of all threatened freshwater species, 83% are found within the megafauna range, revealing the megafauna's capacity as flagship and umbrella species for fostering freshwater conservation.

  12. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  13. Impact of oil from the Neftyaniye kamni deposits on physiological and biochemical fishes reproductive functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasimov, R.YU; Akhundov, M.M; Vagabova, G.R; Mekhtiev, A.A; Palatnikov, G.M

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The problem of impact of oil and oil products on water organisms has been studying for a long time.However, the main and more profound studies were begun in the middle of seventies of 20th century due to increase of the tanker-mediated oil transportation and exploitation of the oil and gas deposits in the shelf area.Such kind of works was begun for the first time in the Caspian Sea in the N eftyaniye Kamni d eposits.Owing to the fact that the Caspian Sea is very rich with the sturgeon fishes and nearly 70% of the world sturgeon harvests are provided here, that time the wide-scale studies of impact of oil and oil products on water organisms were initiated. However, in these studies the authors' conclusions about oil impact on water organisms were equivocal. Analysis of these and other studies shows that authors mostly studied the values of fish survival and development under exposition to oil impact for a short time. So long-termexperiments with application of more sensitive values weren't accomplished. Beginning since 1965 in Azerbaijan in academy of Sciences and in Fish Industry Institute the comprehensive studies had been conducted on the oil impact on the most important physiological and biochemical values and further on reproductive functions of fishes.The main attention was given to chronic minimal oil concentrations that were present in a number of the Caspian Sea areas. In our investigations changes of defensive, orientation and food-seeking reflexes, changes of quantities of biogenic amines in the fish brains, dynamic of blood values changes, changes of amplitude and duration of evoked potentials of different brain areas,changes of reproduction activities and terms of sexual maturation and rates of gametogenesis in fishes were determined under the impact of oil pollution. The experiments were conducted on sturgeon juveniles and model aqurium fishes guppy. The results showed that crude oil from the Neftyaniye Kamni deposits in concentrations above

  14. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Texas Authority's funding pending before conference committee: Auditor's report favors authority; Revisions likely for Illinois siting law; Midwest Compact votes on Ohio fundings: Less approved than requested; Walter Sturgeon named executive director of North Carolina authority; New forum participant for Massachusetts; CRCPD holds fifth workshop for LLRW regulators; DOD generators hold annual meeting; State legislators' LLRW working group meets; NRC Chairman Jackson responds to proposal to amend the Policy Act; US Ecology uses to recover costs and lost profits and/or to compel Ward Valley land transfer; New suit against Envirocare and others alleges unlawful business practices; Federal court finds line-item veto unconstitutional; States/utilities seek to escrow nuclear waste payments; High-level waste bill passes Senate; NRC releases decommissioning rule; EPA Region VI re La Paz Agreement; EPA, NRC debate NRC's decommissioning rule: No progress re approaches to risk harmonization; and Mousseau heads DOE's national low-level waste management program

  15. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF ANIMAL ADHESIVES USING DNA AMPLIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Marie; Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Bøllingtoft, Peder

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether DNA was degraded in the manufacturing of animal glue. To test this, two different types of sturgeon glue (Acipenser sp.) were manufactured using historic recipes. One glue was boiled for a substantial amount of time and the other was kept under 75°C. DNA...... of the glue and in 18 out of 24 samples collected of the canvas. In four out of the five cases where it was not possible amplify DNA, the sample belongs to the smallest size of the canvas investigated. As shown in this study it is possible to get DNA out of boiled animal glue and glue applied onto canvas...

  17. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  18. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  19. [Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance.

  20. Landscape-scale Habitat Templates and Life Histories of Endangered and Invasive Fish Species in Large Rivers of the Mid-Continent USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Chapman, D.; DeLonay, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Many fish species migrate through river systems to complete their life cycles, occupying specific habitats during specific life stages. Regional geomorphology sets a template for their habitat-use patterns and ontogenetic development. In large rivers of the Mid-continent USA, understanding of relations of fish life histories to landscape-scale habitat templates informs recovery of endangered species and prevention of spread of invasive species. The endangered pallid sturgeon has evolved in the Missouri-Mississippi river system over 150 Ma. Its present-day distribution probably results from extensive drainage re-arrangements during the Pleistocene, followed by contemporary fragmentation. The reproductive and early life-stage needs of pallid sturgeon encompass hundreds of km, as adults migrate upstream to spawn and free embryos and larvae disperse downstream. Spawning requires coarse, hard substrate for incubation of adhesive eggs but adult pallid sturgeon are found predominately over sand, indicating that coarse substrate is a critical but transient habitat need. Once hatched, free-embryos initiate 9-17 days of downstream dispersal that distributes them over several hundreds of km. Lotic conditions at the dispersal terminus are required for survival. Persistent recruitment failure has been attributed to dams and channelization, which have fragmented migration and dispersal corridors, altered flow regimes, and diminished rearing habitats. Key elements of the natural history of this species remain poorly understood because adults are rare and difficult to observe, while the earliest life stages are nearly undetectable. Recent understanding has been accelerated using telemetry and hydroacoustics, but such assessments occur in altered systems and may not be indicative of natural behaviors. Restoration activities attempt - within considerable uncertainty -- to restore elements of the habitat template where they are needed. In comparison, invasive Asian carps have been

  1. Molecular evolution of proopiomelanocortin in early vertebrates; Gensakudobutsu hoya no shinkeisen ni saguru fukujinhishitsu sigeki horumon no kigen to bunshi shinka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi [Kitasato University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Fishieries Sciences

    1998-12-16

    Proolpiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor for melanotrophin (MSH) and {beta}-endorphin that regulate stress and environmental adaptation. The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the molecular evolution of POMC in the early vertebrates by examining structures of POMCs in protochordates and in ancient and advanced fishes. Lungfish POMC is similar to tetrapods because they include three MSHs ({alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}) and {beta}-endorphin. In contrast to the consistent occurrence of three MSHs in tetrapods and dipnoans, fish POMC varies in the number of MSH types it contains. POMCs of tuna and sturgeon lack {gamma}-MSH whereas POMC of dogfish has a forth ({delta}) MSH in addition to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-MSH. b-endorphin, however, occurs in all vertebrates. These results suggest that POMC has evolved by duplication, insertion and deletion of MSH genomic segments. The diversity of MSH may have contributed to development of the ability to adapt to different conditions. (author)

  2. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  3. Upper Devonian (Frasnian) non-calcified, algae, Alberta: Geological relevance to Leduc platforms and petroleum source rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dix, G.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    Several types of non-calcified fossil algae comparable to extant brown and green benithic macrophytes occur abundantly on two bedding planes in drill core from argillaceous slope carbonates of the Ireton Formation in northern Alberta. Fossiliferous strata abruptly overlie part of a stepped-back margin of the Sturgeon Lake carbonate platform (Leduc Formation), southeast of the Peace River Arch. Fossils are flattened organic fragments, some representing nearly complete specimens. Tentative comparisons are made with some Paleozoic algae; some of the Sturgeon Lake flora may be new species or genera. Preliminary examination of selected cores from the Ireton Formation and organic-rich Duvernay Formation in central Alberta indicates a widespread distribution of algal-derived organic matter within Upper Devonian basinal strata. The geological relevance of non-calcified algae to Devonian carbonate platforms and basins is postulated in three cases. Their presence in slope sediments may indicate that algal lawns flourished in muddy, upper slope environments. Fossils accumulated either in situ, or were ripped up and quickly buried within downshope resedimented deposits. All or some algal fragments may have been swept from the adjacent carbonate platform during storms. Prolific shallow water algal growth may have occurred simultaneously with oceanic crises when shallow water carbonate production either decreased or was shut down. The present position of fossil algae, therefore, would mark a bedding surface that is stratigraphically equivalent to an intraplatform disconformity. Regardless of the original environment, a sufficient accumulation of non-calcified algae in slope strata represents a viable petroleum source proximal to carbonate platforms. 46 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Is the Ghost of Waste Management's Past Coming Back to Haunt Us In Our Seafood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, C. M.; Tahir, A.; Serrato, S.; Williams, S.; Baxa, D.; Lam, R.; Teh, C.; Miller, J.; Werorilangi, S.; Teh, S.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic debris is recognized globally as a persistent contaminant, littered across multiple habitats worldwide. Most striking is its occurrence in wildlife. Plastic has been recovered from hundreds of species across multiple trophic levels and in animals we consider seafood. This has led policy-makers to ask about the extent that our seafood is contaminated with plastic debris and associated contaminants. To help address these policy-relevant and emerging scientific questions, we first measured the simple presence of anthropogenic debris in many different species of fish and one species of shellfish sold as seafood at local fish markets in Half Moon Bay, California, USA and Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found anthropogenic debris in roughly 25% of all animals purchased, demonstrating that some seafood items are contaminated with plastic debris, including some that we consume whole (e.g., anchovies and oysters). Next, to understand if plastic debris can act as a vector for organic pollutants to move through the food chain and indirectly into the meat of fish at higher trophic levels, we designed a laboratory dietary exposure to measure the bioaccumulation of sorbed PCBs in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) and the biomagnifications in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Asian clams were exposed for 30 days to separate treatments of microplastic (polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene) with and without sorbed PCBs. Next, diets were formulated using purified ingredients and clams from the first exposure and fed to their predators (sturgeon) for 30 days. Chemical analyses, allowing us to understand how chemical contaminants from plastics move through food chains, will be presented. Combined, this work demonstrates the presence of plastic debris in seafood and will help us understand whether plastic acts as a vector for chemicals to transfer through aquatic foodwebs, including our own.

  5. Retraction of articles by Dr M. Aramli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    The below articles published online on Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) have been retracted by agreement between the submitting author, Mohammad Sadegh Aramli, the Editor-in-Chief, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez, and Blackwell Verlag GmbH. After a thorough investigation, there is strong evidence to indicate that the peer review of these papers was compromised. The identities of the reviewers were unable to be verified, and it is believed that these papers were accepted based on recommendations from reviewers not suitably qualified. REFERENCES Aramli, M. (2014). ATP content, oxidative stress and motility of beluga (Huso huso) semen: Effect of short-term storage. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, 636-640. https://doi.org/10.1111/rda.12339 Aramli, M., Nazari, R., & Gharibi, M. (2015), Effect of post-thaw storage time on motility and fertility of cryopreserved beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) sperm. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 50, 349-352. https://doi.org/10.1111/rda.12484 Aramli, M., Golshahi, K., Nazari, R., Golpour, A., & Aramli, S. (2016). Influence of glutamine supplementation on motility and fertilization success of frozen-thawed persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) sperm. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 474-477. https://doi.org/10.1111/rda.12704 Aramli, M., Golshahi, K., Banan, A., & Sotoudeh, E. (2016). Reliable collection of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) sperm using a catheter. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 831-834. https://doi.org/10.1111/rda.12740 Aramli, M., Nazari, R., Aramli, S., & Nouri, H. (2017). Motility and oxidative-antioxidant capacity of Huso huso semen, stored at -80°C. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 52, 170-173. https://doi.org/10.1111/rda.12814. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  7. INTERNALIZATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE ACIPENSIN 1 INTO HUMAN TUMOR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Umnyakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for new compounds providing delivery of drugs into infected or neoplastic cells, is an important direction of biomedical research. Cell-penetrating peptides are among those compounds, due to their ability to translocate through membranes of eukaryotic cells, serving as potential carriers of various therapeutic agents to the target cells. The aim of present work was to investigate the ability of acipensin 1, an antimicrobial peptide of innate immune system, for in vitro penetration into human tumor cells. Acipensin 1 is a cationic peptide that we have previously isolated from leukocytes of the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Capability of acipensin 1 to enter the human erytroleukemia K-562 cells has been investigated for the first time. A biotechnological procedure for producing a recombinant acipensin 1 peptide has been developed. The obtained peptide was conjugated with a fluorescent probe BODIPY FL. By means of confocal microscopy, we have shown that the tagged acipensin 1 rapidly enters into K-562 cells and can be detected in the intracellular space within 5 min after its addition to the cell culture. Using flow cytometry technique, penetration kinetics of the labeled peptide into K-562 cells (at nontoxic micromolar concentrations has been studied. We have observed a rapid internalization of the peptide to the target cells, thus confirming the results of microscopic analysis, i.e, the labeled acipensin was detectable in K-562 cells as soon as wihin 2-3 seconds after its addition to the incubation medium. The maximum of fluorescence was reached within a period of approx. 45 seconds, with further “plateau” at the terms of >100 seconds following cell stimulation with the test compound. These data support the concept, that the antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity system possess the features of cell-penetrating peptides, and allow us to consider the studied sturgeon peptide a promising template for development of new

  8. Comparative immunocytochemical study of FMRFamide neuronal system in the brain of Danio rerio and Acipenser ruthenus during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, C; D'Aniello, B; Sordino, P; Meyer, D L; Fiorentino, M; Rastogi, R K

    2000-02-07

    The distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers was investigated in the central nervous system of developing zebrafish and juvenile sturgeon (sterlet). Adult zebrafish was also studied. In zebrafish embryos FMRFamide-ir elements first appeared 30 h post-fertilization (PF). Ir somata were located in the olfactory placode and in the ventral diencephalon. FMRFamide-ir fibers originating from diencephalic neurons were found in the ventral telencephalon and in ventral portions of the brainstem. At 48 h PF, the ir perikarya in the olfactory placode displayed increased immunoreactivity and stained fibers emerged from the somata. At 60 h PF, bilaterally, clusters of FMRFamide-ir neurons were found along the rostro-caudal axis of the brain, from the olfactory placode to rostral regions of the ventro-lateral telencephalon. At 60 h PF, numerous ir fibers appeared in the dorsal telencephalon, optic lobes, optic nerves, and retina. Except for ir fibers in the hypophysis at the age of 72 h PF, and a few ir cells in the nucleus olfacto-retinalis (NOR) at the age of 2 months PF, no major re-organization was noted in subsequent ontogenetic stages. The number of stained NOR neurons increased markedly in sexually mature zebrafish. In adult zebrafish, other ir neurons were located in the dorsal zones of the periventricular hypothalamus and in components of the nervus terminalis. We are inclined to believe that neurons expressing FMRFamide originate in the olfactory placode and in the ventricular ependyma in the hypothalamus. On the same grounds, a dual origin of FMRFamide-ir neurons is inferred in the sturgeon, an ancestral bony fish: prior to the observation of ir cells in the nasal area and in the telencephalon stained neurons were noted in circumventricular hypothalamic regions.

  9. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  10. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  11. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  13. A Revision of Lasionycta Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae for North America and notes on Eurasian species, with descriptions of 17 new species, 6 new subspecies, a new genus, and two new species of Tricholita Grote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Crabo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The North American species of Lasionycta Aurivillius are revised to include 43 species and 13 subspecies using traditional methods and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 DNA sequence (barcode analysis. Seven species-groups are recognized, and one group is further divided into seven sub-groups. Seventeen species and six subspecies of Lasionycta are described: L. anthracina Crabo & Lafontaine, L. benjamini medaminosa Crabo & Lafontaine, L. brunnea Crabo & Lafontaine, L. caesia Crabo & Lafontaine, L. carolynae Crabo, L. coracina Crabo & Lafontaine, L. fergusoni Crabo & Lafontaine, L. frigida Crabo & Lafontaine, L. gelida Crabo & Lafontaine, L. haida Crabo & Lafontaine, L. illima Crabo & Lafontaine, L. mono Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis fusca Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis handfieldi Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis multicolor Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis shasta Crabo & Lafontaine, L. perplexella Crabo & Lafontaine, L. pulverea Crabo & Lafontaine, L. sasquatch Crabo & Lafontaine, L. sierra Crabo & Lafontaine, L. silacea Crabo & Lafontaine, L. subalpina Crabo & Lafontaine, and L. subfuscula livida Crabo & Lafontaine. Lasionycta coloradensis (Richards, L. dolosaL. flanda (Barnes & Benjamin, (Smith, L. poca (Barnes & Benjamin, and L. subfumosa (Gibson are elevated to species. The following new synonyms are recognized: Scotogramma albinuda Smith (= Lasiestra phoca Möschler, Lasiestra klotsi Richards (= Scotogramma discolor Smith, Scotogramma infuscata Smith (= Mamestra promulsa Morrison, Lasionycta alberta Barnes & Benjamin and Anytus marloffi Smith (= Scotogramma perplexa Smith, Scotogramma sedilis Smith (= Scotogramma subfuscula Grote, Mamestra rainieri Smith (= Mamestra mutilata Smith, Anarta zemblica Hampson (= Anarta staudingeri Aurivillius, and Anarta etacta Smith (= Mamestra arietis Grote. The Eurasian species are reviewed resulting in the following changes: Lasionhada proxima (Hübner, comb. rev., Eriopygodes imbecilla

  14. North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Prous

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810 are revised. Altogether, 90 species are treated, two of which are described as new: P. caraganae Vikberg & Prous, sp. n. from Finland and P. dedeara Liston & Prous, sp. n. from Germany. Host plant of P. caraganae is Caragana arborescens Lam. Pristiphora dasiphorae (Zinovjev, 1993 (previously known from East Palaearctic and P. cadma Wong & Ross, 1960 (previously known from North America are recorded for the first time from Europe. Nematus nigricans Eversmann, 1847 [= Pristiphora nigricans (Eversmann, 1847, comb. n.], N. breviusculus Eversmann, 1847 [= Euura melanocephalus (Hartig, 1837], and N. caudalis Eversmann, 1847 [= E. caudalis (Eversmann, 1847, comb. n.] are removed from synonymy with P. pallidiventris (Fallén, 1808, N. paralellus Hartig, 1840 [= P. paralella (Hartig, 1840, comb. n.] is removed from synonymy with P. bufo (Brischke, 1883, and P. mesatlantica Lacourt, 1976 is removed from synonymy with P. insularis Rohwer, 1910. The following 29 new synonymies are proposed: P. nigropuncticeps Haris, 2002, syn. n. with P. albitibia (Costa, 1859; Lygaeonematus karvoneni Lindqvist, 1952, syn. n. with P. alpestris (Konow, 1903; P. (P. anivskiensis Haris, 2006, syn. n. with P. appendiculata (Hartig, 1837; Nematus canaliculatus Hartig, 1840, syn. n with P. carinata (Hartig, 1837; P. nigrogroenblomi Haris, 2002, syn. n. with P. cincta Newman, 1837; Tenthredo flavipes Zetterstedt, 1838, syn. n., Nematus congener W.F. Kirby, 1882, syn. n., and P. thomsoni Lindqvist, 1953, syn. n. with P. dochmocera (Thomson, 1871; P. atrata Lindqvist, 1975, syn. n. with P. friesei (Konow, 1904; P. gelida Wong, 1968, syn. n. with P. frigida (Boheman, 1865; Pachynematus nigricorpus Takagi, 1931, syn. n. with P. laricis (Hartig, 1837; Nematus (Pikonema piceae Zhelochovtsev in Zhelochovtsev and Zinovjev, 1988, syn. n. and P. (P. hoverlaensis Haris, 2001, syn. n. with P. leucopodia (Hartig, 1837; Mesoneura

  15. Migration of some metals in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Wladimir A.; Tanasova, Anastasia S.; Ershova, Tatiana S.; Zaitsev, Vyacheslav F.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    The content of heavy metals in aquatic organisms of the Caspian sea is connected with the increase of anthropogenic load on aqueous ecosystems, what leads to the disruption of the natural cycle of chemical elements. Heavy metals in small concentrations are included in an organism and are involved in various metabolic processes. One of the reasons for the high content of metals in the body of hydrobionts is the accumulation of the last in the food web and functional disturbance in all parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this work was to trace the migration of some metals in trophic chains in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea. The objects of the study were: various types of soils of the Caspian sea molluscs of the genus Didacna, fish - gobies ceneйcTвa Gobiidae and liver of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, mammal - the liver of the Caspian seal Phoca caspica. The main burden of the accumulation of trace elements takes on the liver, which is a functional depot of many metals and is characterized by high metabolic activity in which there is a filtering and transformation of substances. The content of heavy metals in the objects of study were determined by atomic absorption method. The results are presented in mg/kg dry matter. The results showed that the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different types of soils of the Caspian sea was within the limits of environmental standards for bottom sediments taken in the Netherlands (2009) and heavy metal concentrations in silt and sand soil were below background values (according Verkhnevolzhskaya exploration of the enterprise and the Institute of water problems Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia). It should be noted that silty and sandy soils have a similar distribution pattern of heavy metals. A number of decrease the content of heavy metals in different soils of the Caspian sea were as follows: Silty and sandy soils: Zn>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Hg. The metals content in mollusks decreases in the series: Zn

  16. Collection of Arctic Ocean Data from US Navy Submarines on the New SCICEX Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethie, W. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Boyd, T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Corbett, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SCICEX submarine Arctic science program originated in the 1990s when six dedicated science cruises were conducted in the Arctic Ocean aboard US Navy Sturgeon class submarines. After the cold war era Sturgeon class submarines were retired, several Science Accommodation cruises, for which a few days for scientific measurements were added to planned submarine transits through the Arctic Ocean, were carried out when opportunities arose. Renewed interest in conducting further Science Accommodation cruises on a regular basis to better document and understand how the Arctic Ocean responds to climate change resulted in publication of a scientific plan in 2010 (http://www.arctic.gov/publications/scicex_plan.pdf). In the spring of 2011 testing of data collection and water sampling methods aboard newer Virginia and Seawolf class submarines on transit from a Navy ice camp in the Beaufort Sea, was conducted in order to develop protocols and evaluate techniques. Ice draft measurements were also taken in the vicinity of the ice camp and near the North Pole to evaluate new data collection systems. This evaluation will include a comparison of the ice draft data with a comprehensive set of in situ ice thickness measurements taken near the ice camp. Under-ice submarine-launched eXpendable Condutivity Temperature Depth (XCTD) probes were deployed from the USS Connecticut (SSN-22), a Seawolf class submarine, and the resulting profiles compared to CTD casts from the APLIS ice station and historical profiles. Water samples were collected through the hull for measurements of tritium, helium isotopes, oxygen isotopes, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and particulates levels. These samples were returned to Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and were in the process of being measured at the time this abstract was written. Measurements completed at this time indicate good samples can be collected for CFC-12

  17. Design of a naturalized flow regime—An example from the Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Galat, David L.

    2008-01-01

     group of river managers, stakeholders, and scientists met during summer 2005 to design a more naturalized flow regime for the Lower Missouri River (LMOR). The objective was to comply with requirements under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to support reproduction and survival of threatened and endangered species, with emphasis on the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), while minimizing negative effects to existing social and economic benefits of prevailing river management. Specific hydrograph requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction are unknown, hence much of the design process was based on features of the natural flow regime. Environmental flow components (EFCs) extracted from the reference natural flow regime were used to design and assess performance of alternative flow regimes.The design process incorporated a primary stage in which conceptual hydrographs were developed and assessed for their general ecological and social-economic performance. The second stage accounted for hydroclimatic variation by coding the conceptual hydrographs into reservoir release rules, adding constraints for downstream flooding and low-storage precludes, and running the rules through 100 years of hydroclimatic simulation. The output flow regimes were then evaluated for presumed ecological benefits based on how closely they resembled EFCs in the reference natural flow regime. Flow regimes also were assessed for social-economic cost indicators, including days of flooding of low-lying agricultural land, days over flood stage, and storage levels in system reservoirs.Our experience with flow-regime design on the LMOR underscored the lack of confidence the stakeholders place in the value of the natural flow regime as a measure of ecosystem benefit in the absence of fundamental scientific documentation. Stakeholders desired proof of ecological benefits commensurate with the certainty of economic losses. We also gained insight into the processes of integrating science

  18. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  19. The public component of sea basins radiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agutov, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The sea is the key and essential element of the basin although the bigger share of the basin consists of the river ecosystems. The classical theory of sustainable basin development implies that the one of the main indicator of sustainable development is the river ecosystem biodiversity and especially the sturgeon kind of fish with long life cycle. The fish biodiversity and stocks of valuable fish were totally destroyed. One of the most serious causes for that was the inadequate water policy aimed at the construction of the river dam complexes and the construction of the huge water reservoirs. These water reservoirs were used for different purposes, but the main danger is coming from their usage as nuclear power plant cooling ponds. The wide public has received the opportunity to learn about the ecological danger of such objects. The modern Russian society doesn't fully believe to the results of monitoring by state agencies. In order to propel these activities the creation of non-governmental ecological organizations is needed within the all the key elements of river ecosystems. The information skeleton throughout the whole basin needed for successful and effective functioning of these organizations can be constructed only under the condition of having good and modern means of communication such as electronic ones (e-mail, Internet) and publishing of own newspapers and bulletins. Our regional non-governmental organization has created already such a network within the Don and accepting existing local organizations as members. The activities on the creation of the same networks have been already induced in the Volga and Ural rivers basins. Now the networks are more or less shaped and we start equipping the local NGOs with radiation detection devices of 'Inspector'class for measuring the beta and gamma radiation. Having the needed experts and specialists the independent networked organizations will be able not only to monitor the radiological situation

  20. Comparative analysis reveals that polyploidy does not decelerate diversification in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, S H; Glick, L; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Otto, S P; Mayrose, I

    2014-02-01

    While the proliferation of the species-rich teleost fish has been ascribed to an ancient genome duplication event at the base of this group, the broader impact of polyploidy on fish evolution and diversification remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the association between polyploidy and diversification in several fish lineages: the sturgeons (Acipenseridae: Acipenseriformes), the botiid loaches (Botiidae: Cypriniformes), Cyprininae fishes (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) and the salmonids (Salmonidae: Salmoniformes). Using likelihood-based evolutionary methodologies, we co-estimate speciation and extinction rates associated with polyploid vs. diploid fish lineages. Family-level analysis of Acipenseridae and Botiidae revealed no significant difference in diversification rates between polyploid and diploid relatives, while analysis of the subfamily Cyprininae revealed higher polyploid diversification. Additionally, order-level analysis of the polyploid Salmoniformes and its diploid sister clade, the Esociformes, did not support a significantly different net diversification rate between the two groups. Taken together, our results suggest that polyploidy is generally not associated with decreased diversification in fish - a pattern that stands in contrast to that previously observed in plants. While there are notable differences in the time frame examined in the two studies, our results suggest that polyploidy is associated with different diversification patterns in these two major branches of the eukaryote tree of life. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology No claim to original US government works.

  2. Influence of heavy metals and 4-nonylphenol on reproductive function in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popek, Włodzimierz; Dietrich, Grzegorz; Glogowski, Jan; Demska-Zakeś, Krystyna; Drag-Kozak, Ewa; Sionkowski, Jan; Łuszczek-Trojan, Ewa; Epler, Piotr; Demianowicz, Wiesław; Sarosiek, Beata; Kowalski, Radosław; Jankun, Małgorzata; Zakeś, Zdzisław; Król, Jarosław; Czerniak, Stanisław; Szczepkowski, Mirosław

    2006-01-01

    Many industrial and agricultural chemicals (including heavy metals and alkylphenols) present in the environment have adverse effects on the reproductive function in fish. Three studies were conducted to assess toxicity of these chemicals towards reproduction of freshwater fish. It was shown that heavy metals added to the diets accumulate in brain tissue of carp, and this accumulation results in inhibition of the secretion of noradrenaline and stimulation of the secretion of dopamine in the hypothalamus. These processes results in a disturbance of hormonal equilibrium of the hypothalamo-pituitary system, which can unfavorably influence the efficiency of artificial spawning in fish. Quality of salmonid and sturgeon sperm was impaired after in vitro exposure to heavy metals. The degree of this toxic effect was species-specific. It was demonstrated that sperm motility parameters appeared to be good indicators of adverse effects of heavy metals fish sperm. The protection role of seminal plasma against toxic effects of heavy metals was suggested for salmonid fish. Oral application of 4-nonylphenol (NP) disrupted reproduction in pikeperch. In juvenile fish a decrease in the percentage of males and an increase of intersex fish was observed in relation to dose of NP and time of exposure to this alkylphenol. Exposure of adult males to the NP led to the reduction in fecundity, milt quality and fertility.

  3. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  4. Scaling in Free-Swimming Fish and Implications for Measuring Size-at-Time in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broell, Franziska; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need to measure size-at-age, and thus growth rate, in fish in the wild. We postulated that this could be achieved using accelerometer tags based first on early isometric scaling models that hypothesize that similar animals should move at the same speed with a stroke frequency that scales with length-1, and second on observations that the speed of primarily air-breathing free-swimming animals, presumably swimming ‘efficiently’, is independent of size, confirming that stroke frequency scales as length-1. However, such scaling relations between size and swimming parameters for fish remain mostly theoretical. Based on free-swimming saithe and sturgeon tagged with accelerometers, we introduce a species-specific scaling relationship between dominant tail beat frequency (TBF) and fork length. Dominant TBF was proportional to length-1 (r2 = 0.73, n = 40), and estimated swimming speed within species was independent of length. Similar scaling relations accrued in relation to body mass-0.29. We demonstrate that the dominant TBF can be used to estimate size-at-time and that accelerometer tags with onboard processing may be able to provide size-at-time estimates among free-swimming fish and thus the estimation of growth rate (change in size-at-time) in the wild. PMID:26673777

  5. Direct and indirect effects of different types of microplastics on freshwater prey (Corbicula fluminea) and their predator (Acipenser transmontanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnis, J. Mark; Browne, Mark A.; Serrato, Sebastian; Reiner, Eric J.; Robson, Matthew; Young, Thomas; Diamond, Miriam L.; Teh, Swee J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of different types of microplastics, with or without PCBs, directly affect freshwater prey and indirectly affect their predators. Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene, polyvinylchloride (PVC) or polystyrene with and without polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 28 days. Their predators, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), were exposed to clams from each treatment for 28 days. In both species, we examined bioaccumulation of PCBs and effects (i.e., immunohistochemistry, histology, behavior, condition, mortality) across several levels of biological organization. PCBs were not detected in prey or predator, and thus differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs among polymers and biomagnification in predators could not be measured. One of the main objectives of this study was to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of PCBs would differ among polymer types. Because we could not answer this question experimentally, a bioaccumulation model was run and predicted that concentrations of PCBs in clams exposed to polyethylene and polystyrene would be greater than PET and PVC. Observed effects, although subtle, seemed to be due to microplastics rather than PCBs alone. For example, histopathology showed tubular dilation in clams exposed to microplastics with PCBs, with only mild effects in clams exposed to PCBs alone. PMID:29108004

  6. Direct and indirect effects of different types of microplastics on freshwater prey (Corbicula fluminea and their predator (Acipenser transmontanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea M Rochman

    Full Text Available We examined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of different types of microplastics, with or without PCBs, directly affect freshwater prey and indirectly affect their predators. Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polyethylene, polyvinylchloride (PVC or polystyrene with and without polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs for 28 days. Their predators, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus, were exposed to clams from each treatment for 28 days. In both species, we examined bioaccumulation of PCBs and effects (i.e., immunohistochemistry, histology, behavior, condition, mortality across several levels of biological organization. PCBs were not detected in prey or predator, and thus differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs among polymers and biomagnification in predators could not be measured. One of the main objectives of this study was to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of PCBs would differ among polymer types. Because we could not answer this question experimentally, a bioaccumulation model was run and predicted that concentrations of PCBs in clams exposed to polyethylene and polystyrene would be greater than PET and PVC. Observed effects, although subtle, seemed to be due to microplastics rather than PCBs alone. For example, histopathology showed tubular dilation in clams exposed to microplastics with PCBs, with only mild effects in clams exposed to PCBs alone.

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  8. Book review: Implementing the Endangered Species Act on the Platte Basin water commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The Platte River is a unique midcontinent ecosystem that is world-renowned for its natural resources, particularly the spectacular spring concentrations of migratory birds, such as sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), ducks, and geese. The Platte River basin also provides habitat for four federally listed endangered or threatened species—interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), whooping crane (G. americana), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)—that require specific hydrological conditions in order for habitat to be suitable. Flows on the Platte River are subject to regulation by a number of dams, and it is heavily relied upon for irrigation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. Accordingly, it also has become a political battleground for the simple reason that the demand for water exceeds supply. David Freeman’s book takes a detailed look at water-use issues on the Platte River, focusing on how implementation of the Endangered Species Act influences decision-making about water allocations. 

  9. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio analysis by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS in scales, spines, and fin rays as a nonlethal alternative to otoliths for reconstructing fish life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, Malte; Glessner, Justin J. G.; Carleton, Scott A.; Gerrity, Paul C.; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in otoliths are a well-established tool to determine origins and movement patterns of fish. However, otolith extraction requires sacrificing fish, and when working with protected or endangered species, the use of nonlethal samples such as scales, spines, and fin rays is preferred. Unlike otoliths that are predominantly aragonite, these tissues are composed of biological apatite. Laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of biological apatite can induce significant interference on mass 87, causing inaccurate 87Sr/86Sr measurements. To quantify this interference, we applied LA-MC-ICP-MS to three marine samples (white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) otolith; green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) pectoral fin ray; salmon shark (Lamna ditropis) tooth), and freshwater walleye (Sander vitreus) otoliths, scales, and spines). Instrument conditions that maximize signal intensity resulted in elevated 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in the bioapatite samples, related to a polyatomic interference (40Ca31P16O, 40Ar31P16O). Retuning instrument conditions to reduce oxide levels removed this interference, resulting in accurate 87Sr/86Sr ratios across all tissue samples. This method provides a novel, nonlethal alternative to otolith analysis to reconstruct fish life histories.

  10. A short-term look at potential changes in Lake Michigan slimy sculpin diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Stickel, Richard G.; Stockdale, Beth A.; Black, M. Glen

    2010-01-01

    Diporeia hoyi and Mysis relicta are the most important prey items of slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) in the Great Lakes. Slimy sculpins were collected from dreissenid-infested bottoms off seven Lake Michigan ports at depths of 27–73 m in fall 2003 to study their lake-wide diets. Relatively large dreissenid biomass occurred at depths of 37- and 46-m. Quagga mussels (Dreissena bugnesis) composed at least 50% of dreissenid biomass at Manistique, Saugatuck, and Sturgeon Bay. Mysis accounted for 82% of the sculpin diet by dry weight at eastern Lake Michigan while Diporeia composed 54–69% of the diet at western Lake Michigan and dominated the diets of slimy sculpins at all sites deeper than 46 m. In northern Lake Michigan, this diet study in new sites showed that slimy sculpin consumed more prey with low energy contents, especially chironomids, than Mysis and Diporeia in shallow sites (depth diet studies on sedentary benthic fishes to be conducted along perimeters of the Great Lakes to observe changes in their diets that may be impacted by changing benthic macroinvertebrate communities.

  11. Environmental impact management during construction of the limestone project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Limestone Generating Station is being constructed on the Nelson River in Northern Manitoba, and will consist of a 10 unit powerhouse, 5 gate concrete spillway and earthfill dam spanning the 1.5 km width of the Nelson River. Environmental concerns associated with the project included insufficient pre- and post-construction monitoring documenting resources present or magnitude of impacts, impacts on brook trout and lake sturgeon resources, wildlife habitat loss due to construction activities, destruction or disturbance of historic or archaeological sites, degradation of nearby water courses and fish habitat by aggregate removal, in-migration of construction personnel, and various other socio-economic impacts. An overview is provided of monitoring activities and results in the above areas, which involved numerous consultants and government agencies. The project administration and workers did not find the environmental programs, including inspection and enforcement activities, to be onerous or an impediment to the project. On the contrary, the environmental requirements assisted in the general planning for certain activities, and in the general criteria for the conduct of the activities. The work permit process was particularly useful as it defined the requirements of both parties and provided the specific standards necessary determining the acceptability of the activities. 14 refs., 1 fig

  12. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  13. Quantification of egg proteome changes during fertilization in sterlet Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksirat, Hamid; Andersson, Liselotte; Golpour, Amin; Chupani, Latifeh; James, Peter

    2017-08-19

    Eggs of sterlet are discharged outside into ambient aquatic environment where egg activation and fertilization occur. Effects of different activation media including freshwater and clay suspension on protein abundances of egg were quantified in sterlet Acipenser ruthenus. In-gel digestion and high resolution mass spectrometry were used for label-free protein quantification in the eggs of five females. No significant (p > 0.05) difference was found between protein abundances in eggs activated with different media. However, results showed significant (p eggs as control. The fact that abundance of proteasome subunit alpha significantly reduced only in eggs which were activated by clay suspension suggests that activation medium can somehow intervene with protein regulation during fertilization. In conclusion, external fertilization in sturgeon egg is accompanied by huge release of proteins into the external environment that may participate in the construction of a transient microenvironment around egg for attraction and protection of spermatozoa to ensure ensuing fertilization. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006232. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability.

  15. Development of a System-wide Predator Control Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin; Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Franklin R.; Wachtel, Mark L.; Petersen, Marc R.

    2003-03-01

    We are reporting on the progress of the Northern Pikeminnow Sport-Reward Fishery (NPSRF) in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers for 1998. The objectives of this project were to (1) implement a sport fishery that rewards anglers who harvest northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis {ge}279 mm (11 inches) total length, (2) collect catch data on selected fish species caught by fishery participants while targeting northern pikeminnow, (3) monitor and report incidental catch of sensitive salmonid species by anglers targeting northern pikeminnow and, (4) collect, monitor and report data on angler participation, catch and catch per angler day of northern pikeminnow during the season. A total of 108,903 northern pikeminnow {ge}279 mm were harvested during the 1998 season and 21,959 angler days were spent harvesting these fish. Harvest was below the seven year average of 150,874 and participation was well below the seven-year average of 51,013 angler days. Catch per angler day for all anglers during the season was 4.96 and exceeded the seven-year average of 2.96 northern pikeminnow per angler day. Peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, and white sturgeon Acipencer transmontanus, were the other species most often harvested by returning NPSRF anglers targeting northern pikeminnow. Harvest of salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. by NPSRF anglers targeting northern pikeminnow remained below limits established by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).

  16. Behavioral responses of Pacific lamprey to alarm cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurie L.; Hayes, Michael C.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Burke, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Wagner, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), an anadromous ectoparasite, faces several challenges during adult migration to spawning grounds. Developing methods to address these challenges is critical to the success of ongoing conservation efforts. The challenges are diverse, and include anthropogenic alterations to the ecosystem resulting in loss of habitat, impassable barriers such as dams, climate change impacts, and altered predator fields. We conducted a behavioral study to understand how adult migrating Pacific lamprey respond to potential alarm cues: White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), human saliva, decayed Pacific lamprey, and river otter (Lontra canadensis). Research has shown that some species of lamprey can be guided to a location using odors and similar cues may be useful as a management tool for Pacific lamprey. Experiments were conducted over 2 nights and measured the number of entries (count) and duration of time spent (occupancy) by adult lamprey in each arm of a two-choice maze. During the first night, no odor was added to test for selection bias between arms. During the second night odor was added to one arm of the maze. Contrary to expectations, lamprey were significantly attracted to the river otter odor in both count and occupancy. No significant differences were found in the response of lamprey to the other three odors. Results from this study indicate that Pacific lamprey do respond to some odors; however, additional tests are necessary to better identify the types of odors and concentrations that elicit a repeatable response.

  17. Oxygen isotope mapping and evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with synvolcanic intrusion and VMS deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.E

    2001-01-01

    Whole-rock oxygen isotope mapping provides a useful method for the delineation and quantitative evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with syn-volcanic intrusions and volcanic-associated massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. During the course of a four-year study of regional alteration systems associated with VMS Deposits, four syn-volcanic intrusive complexes in Canada were mapped using stable isotope techniques. The complexes included Noranda, Quebec; Clifford-Ben Nevis, Ontario; Snow Lake, Manitoba, and Sturgeon Lake, Ontario. This study was regional in extent, involving large areas and large numbers of whole-rock samples: Noranda (625 km 2 ;≥600 samples, plus others (total = 1198); Sturgeon Lake (525 km 2 ; 452 samples); Clifford-Ben Nevis (160 km 2 ; 251 samples); and Snow Lake (84 km 2 ; 575 samples). Isotopic data on whole-rock carbonates and hydrous minerals were also collected. The regional isotopic studies were carried out in concert with other studies on mineral assemblages and mineral composition, and on associated intrusive and extrusive rocks. The Clifford-Ben Nevis area was selected as a control area, in as much as it contains no known VMS deposits; all other areas are well-known, productive VMS districts. Oxygen isotope maps are, in a sense, thermal maps, illustrating the paleo-distribution of heat and fluids, and offering a potential aid to exploration. The isotopic data may be contoured to reveal zones of 18 O depletion and enrichment, relative to unaltered rocks. Zones of δ 18 O≤60% comprise rocks that have reacted with seawater at high (e.g., 300+ o C) temperatures. The volume of foot-wall rocks isotopically-depleted by water/rock interaction during the life of one or more episodes of submarine hydrothermal activity is proportional to the amount of heat available from the syn-volcanic intrusive center. These altered rocks comprise the reaction zone often inferred to have supplied metals and other constituents for the VMS deposits

  18. Evaluation of swimming capability and potential velocity barrier problems for fish. Part A: Swimming performance of selected warm and cold water fish species relative to fish passage and fishway design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, D. A.; Goosney, R. G.; McKinley, R. S.; Booth, R. K.; Peake, S.

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information about the swimming capability of several widely distributed, economically or recreationally important fish species, for use in mitigating potential velocity barrier problems associated with hydroelectric power facilities. Swimming capability of anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon, brook trout, brown trout, lake sturgeon, and walleye, collected from various locations throughout Canada, were investigated to develop criteria for sustained, prolonged, burst swimming performance characteristics of the study species, fish physiology, life history and migration distance on swimming performance. Swimming performance characteristics in the wild, especially the use of physiological telemetry, as well as development of new methodology for the measurement of burst speed was also central to the study. Models were derived to describe swimming capabilities for each study species/life stage in relation to fish length, water velocity, water temperature, and other significant environmental factors. The data will form the basis of guideline development and decision making to improve design and evaluation of fish passage facilities. A series of annotated bibliographies resulting from the study are described in Appendix B. 74 refs., 8 tabs., figs., 2 appendices

  19. Scaling in Free-Swimming Fish and Implications for Measuring Size-at-Time in the Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Broell

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by the need to measure size-at-age, and thus growth rate, in fish in the wild. We postulated that this could be achieved using accelerometer tags based first on early isometric scaling models that hypothesize that similar animals should move at the same speed with a stroke frequency that scales with length-1, and second on observations that the speed of primarily air-breathing free-swimming animals, presumably swimming 'efficiently', is independent of size, confirming that stroke frequency scales as length-1. However, such scaling relations between size and swimming parameters for fish remain mostly theoretical. Based on free-swimming saithe and sturgeon tagged with accelerometers, we introduce a species-specific scaling relationship between dominant tail beat frequency (TBF and fork length. Dominant TBF was proportional to length-1 (r2 = 0.73, n = 40, and estimated swimming speed within species was independent of length. Similar scaling relations accrued in relation to body mass-0.29. We demonstrate that the dominant TBF can be used to estimate size-at-time and that accelerometer tags with onboard processing may be able to provide size-at-time estimates among free-swimming fish and thus the estimation of growth rate (change in size-at-time in the wild.

  20. Agency interaction at the Savannah River Plant under the Endangered Species Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The 300 square mile Savannah River Plant (SRP) offers a variety of protected habitats for endangered species including the alligator (resident), red-cockaded woodpecker (resident), short-nose sturgeon (migratory), and wood stork (fish-forager). The most recent of these four species to be listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS) is the wood stork. It had been observed prior to 1983 as an infrequent forager in the SRP Savannah River Swamp which adjoins SRP on the south and southwest. In anticipation of its listing as an endangered species, DOE-SR requested in the spring of 1983 that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, conduct field surveys and studies of the nearest colony of wood storks to SRP (the Birdsville colony in north-central Georgia). The objective of these studies was to determine potential effects of the flooding of the Steel Creek swamp area with cooling water from L-Reactor. L-Reactor, which is proposed for restart, has not been operated since 1968. The survey found that wood storks forage in the Steel Creek delta swamp area of the Savannah River at SRP. Based on the numbers of storks at various foraging locations, sites at SRP ranked higher than non-SRP sites during the pre-fledging phase of the colony. Cold flow testing of L-Reactor also demonstrated that foraging sites in the Steel Creek delta would be unavailable during L-Reactor operation because of increased water levels

  1. Remote sensing using hydroacoustics preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.; Patrick, P.H.; Sim, B.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the capability and accuracy of a dual beam sonar system in classifying various targets. The ability to classify fish and/or distinguish fish from debris is essential if hydroacoustics are ever to be used truly remotely for hydroelectric power plant fish passage facilities. Preliminary results indicated that considerable filtering was occurring in the sonar sounder which limited its use in target classification. A wideband sonar detection module was developed which allowed for a more detailed reflected signal which probably will be necessary for fish identification. Another advantage that this modification appears to have over the existing system is an improved spatial resolution of targets, which can be significant if biomass estimates are based on echo counting techniques rather than echo integration ones. Based on the results, it may be possible to filter out or remove the influence of air bubbles in echo returns. As a result echo counts could more accurately be defined as fish counts. Target strengths of sturgeon were estimated using both the modified and original sounder. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  2. From commodity chains to value chains: interdisciplinary theory building in an age of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimoty J. Sturgeon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article situates, elaborates, and further explains the theory of global value chain (GVC governance developed by Gereffi, Humphrey and Sturgeon (2005. The theory of GVC governance at the center of the paper is part of a long-term effort to generalize from accumulated comparative observational research on a range of global industries. First, I discuss the motivations for supplementing the buyer-driven and producer-driven modes of global commodity chain governance developed by Gary Gereffi in the 1990s with an industry-neutral, non-empirical framework. Second, I briefly present the features of the GVC governance framework as they appear in the 2005 article. Third, I discuss the interdisciplinary theoretical underpinnings of the framework in more detail than was possible in the original article. Fourth, I discuss the problem of variation in GVC governance. Fifth, I situate the GVC governance framework in a larger field of GVC-related theory, including but not limited to power and institutions.

  3. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline in edible fish fillets from six species of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The approved use of oxytetracycline (OTC) in U.S. Aquaculture is limited to specific diseases in salmonids and channel catfish. OTC may also be effective in controlling diseases in other fish species important to public aquaculture, but before approved use of OTC can be augmented, an analytical method for determining OTC in fillet tissue from multiple species of fish will be required to support residue depletion studies. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in edible fillets from multiple species of fish. Homogenized fillet tissues from walleye, Atlantic salmon, striped bass, white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and channel catfish were fortified with OTC at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g. In tissues fortified with OTC at 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g, mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 90%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.8%. In all other tissues, mean recoveries ranged from 59 to 98%, and RSDs ranged from 3.3 to 20%. Method quantitation limits ranged from 6 to 22 ng/g for the 6 species. The LC parameters produced easily integratable OTC peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds. The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in fillet tissue from 6 species of fish from 5 phylogenetically diverse groups.

  4. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (Pfillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (Pfillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (Pfillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antacid medication inhibits digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy: a fish allergy model in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Schöll, Isabella; Swoboda, Ines; Beil, Waltraud J; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Walter, Franziska; Riemer, Angelika; Kraml, Georg; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Spitzauer, Susanne; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2003-09-01

    Digestible proteins were supposed to be irrelevant for oral sensitization and induction of food allergy. Approximately 10% of the adult population uses antacids for the treatment of dyspeptic disorders, drugs that hinder peptic digestion. In these patients, proteins that are normally degradable might act as food allergens. We aimed to study the influence of antacid intake on the allergenicity of dietary proteins, taking sturgeon caviar and parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, as examples. Caviar proteins and recombinant parvalbumin from carp, rCyp c 1, were applied for intragastric feedings with or without the antacids sucralfate, ranitidine or omeprazole, using a Balb/c mouse model. Both caviar proteins and parvalbumin were rapidly degraded in an in vitro digestion assay at pH 2.0, but not at pH 5.0, imitating the effect of antacids. The groups fed with caviar in combination with ranitidine hydrochloride intramuscularly or sucralfate orally had significant levels of caviar-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy in these groups was further evidenced by oral provocation tests and positive immediate-type skin reactivity. In contrast, feedings with caviar alone led to antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. None of the groups showed immune reactivity against the daily mouse diet. As a proof of the principle, feeding mice with parvalbumin in combination with ranitidine or omeprazole intramuscularly induced allergen-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy.

  6. CURRENT STATE OF FISHERIES AND ASSESSMENT OF FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN MIDDLE OF THE CASPIAN SEA. PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF THE FISH RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To aim is to assess stocks and the fisheries of aquatic biological resources in the western part of the middle Caspian Sea and perspectives for the use of their resource potential.Methods. On the basis of the literature sources and our own data on the fish inventory in the western part of the Middle Caspian, we discuss possible reasons for emerging environmental, economic and other problems in the use of biological resources.Results. The main negative factors are the large-scale poaching, resulting in a catastrophic reduction in stocks of sturgeon and other valuable fish species of the Caspian Sea, a natural penetration of alien organisms (Mnemiopsis and overfishing of some species. The potential danger is large-scale development of oil and gas fields in the Caspian Sea, which can lead to even worse situation for the biological resources of the sea.Conclusions. In order to preserve the biological resources of the sea it is necessary to create conditions for steadily developing fishing and fish processing enterprises, thus ensuring the satisfaction of the constant demand for fish products and an increase in the revenue base of the budget and the well-being of the Russian population.

  7. Proceedings of the Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop: Assessing the Conservation Status of Mongolian Mammals and Fishes: III – Fishes: Assessment Results and Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne F. Ocock

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop was held at the National University of Mongolia and Hustai National Park from 1 st October to 4 th November, 2005. As part of the workshop, a working group of fish experts assessed the conservation status of all Mongolian fishes using the IUCN Catego - ries and Criteria. Of the 64 fish species found in Mongolia, 48 were assessed, with 16 considered Not Applicable (NA by the working group. Only one species, the Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii was assessed as Critically Endangered (CR in Mongolia, however six species were assigned Endangered (EN status. Four were found to be Vulnerable (VU and three were assessed to be Near Threatened (NT. Forty-eight percent of Mongolian fishes were Data Deficient (DD and 25% were Least Concern (LC. The north-east of Mongolia was most species rich, particularly the Onon River basin and Buir Lake. There was no trend for where the most threatened species occurred as they were found throughout the north of Mongolia. Hunting/fishing was the greatest threat to Mongolian fishes, followed by resource extraction and pollution.

  8. Gla-Rich Protein Is a Potential New Vitamin K Target in Cancer: Evidences for a Direct GRP-Mineral Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. B. Viegas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gla-rich protein (GRP was described in sturgeon as a new vitamin-K-dependent protein (VKDP with a high density of Gla residues and associated with ectopic calcifications in humans. Although VKDPs function has been related with γ-carboxylation, the Gla status of GRP in humans is still unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of recently identified GRP spliced transcripts, the γ-carboxylation status, and its association with ectopic calcifications, in skin basal cell and breast carcinomas. GRP-F1 was identified as the predominant splice variant expressed in healthy and cancer tissues. Patterns of γ-carboxylated GRP (cGRP/undercarboxylated GRP (ucGRP accumulation in healthy and cancer tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry, using newly developed conformation-specific antibodies. Both GRP protein forms were found colocalized in healthy tissues, while ucGRP was the predominant form associated with tumor cells. Both cGRP and ucGRP found at sites of microcalcifications were shown to have in vitro calcium mineral-binding capacity. The decreased levels of cGRP and predominance of ucGRP in tumor cells suggest that GRP may represent a new target for the anticancer potential of vitamin K. Also, the direct interaction of cGRP and ucGRP with BCP crystals provides a possible mechanism explaining GRP association with pathological mineralization.

  9. Normal embryonic stages of the Longnose Gar, Lepisosteus osseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard William W

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps exist in the modern literature that describes patterns of development in living groups of actinopterygian fishes. Relatively recent descriptions of development exist for the teleost fishes, bowfin, sturgeon, paddlefish and bichirs. Such literature dealing with the gars is to be found in older work, done approximately a century ago. The present study concerns the gars, of which the garpike, Lepisosteus osseus, is a representative example. Results The embryonic period of life of this fish is divided, as required for experimentation, into 34 stages, from fertilization to exhaustion of the yolk supply. Diagnostic structural characteristics are cited for each stage, and the rate of development is indicated. Conclusions Three features of development are especially noted that compare or contrast with other members of the Neopterygii, and with the Chondrostei. These are meroblastic cleavage, a well-defined yolk syncytial layer (ysl, and a pit at the posterodorsal edge of the blastoderm, which defines an overhanging dorsal lip. Meroblastic cleavage and the ysl in the garpike show an affinity to those character states in the teleosts, though not with Amia, the other neopterygian fish. The posterodorsal pit and dorsal lip are reminiscent of similar features in the Chondrostei. Lepisosteus is unique among the Neopterygii with respect to this character state. Such comparisons set the stage for a broader understanding of the mechanisms for development in these organisms, and of the evolutionary relationships between them.

  10. Influence of a weak field of pulsed DC electricity on the behavior and incidence of injury in adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys.

  11. Impacts of an underwater high voltage DC power cable on fish migration movements in the San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, M. T.; Kavet, R.; Klimley, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasingly strong interest on a global scale in offshore renewable energy production and transportation. However, there is concern that the electromagnetic fields (EMF) produced by these underwater cables may alter the behavior and physiology of marine species. Despite this concern, few studies have investigated these effects in free-living species. In 2009, a 85 km long high-voltage DC (HVDC) power cable was placed within the San Francisco Bay, running parallel, then perpendicular to, the migration route of anadromous species moving from the inland river system to the oceans. In this study, we assess the impacts of this HVDC cable on the migration behaviors of EMF-sensitive fish, including juvenile salmonids (Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and adult green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris. Acoustic telemetry techniques were used to track fish migration movements through the San Francisco Bay both before and after the cable was activated; individuals implanted with acoustic transmitters were detected on cross-channel hydrophone arrays at key locations in the system. Magnetic fields were surveyed and mapped at these locations using a transverse gradiometer, and models of the cable's magnetic field were developed that closely matched the empirically measured values. Here, we present our analyses on the relationships between migration-related behavioral metrics (e.g., percent of successful migrations, duration of migration, time spent near vs. far from cable location, etc.) and environmental parameters, such as cable activation and load level, local magnetic field levels, depth, and currents.

  12. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  13. Influence of medication on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (Part 1: hormons and corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhashemi Amirhossein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article was to define the mechanism of action and effects of commonly used medications on the tissue remodeling and Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM. A review on the effects of medications and dietary supplements on the rate of experimental tooth movement was performed using Cochrane library, Embase and medline (1980-2013. 63 articles were included in this review. 34 of them were related to the effects of hormones and analgesics, were evaluated in this article but their interpretation was hindered by the variability in experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and medication regimens. Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs reduced the rate of tooth movement while non-NSAIDs such as acetaminophen had no effect on the rate of OTM. Corticosteroids, parathyroid hormone and thyroxin increased the rate of tooth movement. Sturgeons might slow OTM, but experimental studies are lacking. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement and information on their consumption is necessary to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients.

  14. Kootenai River Resident Fish Assessment, FY2008 KTOI Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-06-26

    The overarching goal of project 1994-049-00 is to recover a productive, healthy and biologically diverse Kootenai River ecosystem, with emphasis on native fish species rehabilitation. It is especially designed to aid the recovery of important fish stocks, i.e. white sturgeon, burbot, bull trout, kokanee and several other salmonids important to the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho and regional sport-fisheries. The objectives of the project have been to address factors limiting key fish species within an ecosystem perspective. Major objectives include: establishment of a comprehensive and thorough biomonitoring program, investigate ecosystem--level in-river productivity, test the feasibility of a large-scale Kootenai River nutrient addition experiment (completed), to evaluate and rehabilitate key Kootenai River tributaries important to the health of the lower Kootenai River ecosystem, to provide funding for Canadian implementation of nutrient addition and monitoring in the Kootenai River ecosystem (Kootenay Lake) due to lost system productivity created by construction and operation of Libby Dam, mitigate the cost of monitoring nutrient additions in Arrow Lakes due to lost system productivity created by the Libby-Arrow water swap, provide written summaries of all research and activities of the project, and, hold a yearly workshop to convene with other agencies and institutions to discuss management, research, and monitoring strategies for this project and to provide a forum to coordinate and disseminate data with other projects involved in the Kootenai River basin.

  15. Yes to Realism! No to Non-naturalism!

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    Ulysses T. Araña

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary moral realism a moral property, like goodness or badness, is either a natural (descriptive property or a non-natural (nondescriptive property of actions or situations. Contemporary moral naturalists like Richard Boyd, Nicholas Sturgeon, and David Brink are a group of philosophers who are often referred to as Cornell realists because of their connection with Cornell University. Frank Jackson is another contemporary moral naturalist who is one of the leaders of The Canberra Planners at the Australian National University with which he is connected. Jackson defends “the most extreme form of naturalism.” Jackson’s view is considered extremeby those who disagree with him because he believes that moral properties are reducible or identical to natural properties. This view of Jackson is opposed by contemporary non-naturalists like Jonathan Dancy, Derek Parfit, and Russ Shafer-Landau for reasons which in my view are not successful. Despite Jackson’s reductionism about the ethical, the Cornell realists, nevertheless, agree with him that moral properties are natural properties.

  16. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Texas Authority`s funding pending before conference committee: Auditor`s report favors authority; Revisions likely for Illinois siting law; Midwest Compact votes on Ohio fundings: Less approved than requested; Walter Sturgeon named executive director of North Carolina authority; New forum participant for Massachusetts; CRCPD holds fifth workshop for LLRW regulators; DOD generators hold annual meeting; State legislators` LLRW working group meets; NRC Chairman Jackson responds to proposal to amend the Policy Act; US Ecology uses to recover costs and lost profits and/or to compel Ward Valley land transfer; New suit against Envirocare and others alleges unlawful business practices; Federal court finds line-item veto unconstitutional; States/utilities seek to escrow nuclear waste payments; High-level waste bill passes Senate; NRC releases decommissioning rule; EPA Region VI re La Paz Agreement; EPA, NRC debate NRC`s decommissioning rule: No progress re approaches to risk harmonization; and Mousseau heads DOE`s national low-level waste management program.

  17. Persistence of environmental DNA in freshwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Dejean

    Full Text Available The precise knowledge of species distribution is a key step in conservation biology. However, species detection can be extremely difficult in many environments, specific life stages and in populations at very low density. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge on DNA persistence in water in order to confirm the presence of the focus species in freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic vertebrates (fish: Siberian sturgeon and amphibian: Bullfrog tadpoles were used as target species. In control conditions (tanks and in the field (ponds, the DNA detectability decreases with time after the removal of the species source of DNA. DNA was detectable for less than one month in both conditions. The density of individuals also influences the dynamics of DNA detectability in water samples. The dynamics of detectability reflects the persistence of DNA fragments in freshwater ecosystems. The short time persistence of detectable amounts of DNA opens perspectives in conservation biology, by allowing access to the presence or absence of species e.g. rare, secretive, potentially invasive, or at low density. This knowledge of DNA persistence will greatly influence planning of biodiversity inventories and biosecurity surveys.

  18. Development of a lexicon for caviar and its usefulness for determining consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Vixie, Beata; Rasco, Barbara A; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-12-01

    Although caviar is a premium product which offers nutritional benefits, few studies have characterized its sensory properties. As such, this study sought to develop a lexicon for sensory evaluation of caviar appearance, texture, aroma, and flavor/taste and to relate these attributes to consumer acceptance. A trained panel identified 16 sensory attributes for evaluation along a 15-cm scale and used CATA (check all that apply) methodology to indicate the less frequently encountered off-aromas, appearance traits, and persistent flavors. Using this lexicon, the trained panel described differences among caviar samples harvested from sturgeon fed varying diets. Acceptance of the caviar was also evaluated by a consumer panel. As evaluated by the trained panelists, analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated differences among caviar in the sensory attributes of tactile firmness, mustard color, egg size, in-mouth firmness, seafood fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, earthy flavor, yeasty flavor, and bitterness (P consumer and trained panel data, overall consumer acceptance of caviar was driven by tactile firmness, sea fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, and black color. This overall acceptance was highly correlated with acceptance of texture (r = 0.867) and flavor/taste (r = 0.999). Overall, this lexicon allows for standardized sensory evaluation of caviar using a common set of descriptors. This lexicon and information regarding the drivers of caviar acceptance can be used by industry professionals to ensure optimal caviar quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The desperate dozen: Fishes on the brink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    as the diamond darter, are now suffering from the same water quality issues that cause harm to humans. Fishes that were once used for commercial gain, such as the Alabama sturgeon, are now too rare for harvest. We have ignored our freshwater to the point where we no longer remember that rivers used to be more common than reservoirs in the Southeast, and our diversity was a resource worth protecting. It is SFC’s goal to use this list to raise awareness of the plight of our freshwater habitats in the Southeast, which include rivers, creeks, wetlands, springs, and caves. The current crisis requires education, communication, and coordination among our neighbors. We have to learn how to prevent harm to our watersheds and develop new collaborations between private and public entities to promote wise development. By highlighting these twelve species, ranging from the spring pygmy sunfish to the Alabama sturgeon, we hope to encourage these partnerships to address the needs of our freshwater animals and hopefully prevent them from slipping quietly into extinction. SFC created a list of the most imperiled southeastern fishes by considering species with the highest risk of extinction. Criteria used, in order of importance, was distribution (a single population ranked highest), low abundance, and severity of threats. After the ranking based on level of imperilment, species were arranged in phylogenetic order so that all would receive equal attention. Experts on each species provided brief accounts on the Desperate Dozen, which include background, distribution, abundance, threats, and proposed conservation actions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) was not consulted in SFC’s identification of the Desperate Dozen fishes, as we intentionally chose to work as an independent scientific panel under the criteria stated above.

  20. The Feeding Behaviour of Fish from the Upper Lake Baikal Watershed of the Eroo River in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Chandra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The upper Selenge watershed in Mongolia is home to some of the world’s unique fish species. In this study we determined the feeding behaviour of selected fish species collected from the main stream of the Eroo River and two of its upstream tributaries, the Sharlan and Bar Chuluut rivers. Using stable isotope (carbon and nitrogen measurements combined with qualitative and literature information, we determined that taimen ( Hucho taimen and pike ( Esox luceus were the top predators in the Eroo River. They received a substantial amount of their energy from other fish species as well as terrestrial derived sources. Percent presence of biota in lenok ( Brachymystax lenok stomachs demonstrated they eat zoobenthos, invertebrates, fish, and terrestrial rodents. Siberian dace ( Leuciscus baicalensis , a small forage fish collected from the Sharlan and Bar Chuluut rivers demonstrate these fish eat periphyton, zoobenthos and terrestrial invertebrates. In the Bar Chuluut tributary, lenok eat a combination of foods including zoobenthos and other fish species, while arctic grayling ( Thymallus arcticus fed primarily on zoobenthos. Percent frequency analysis showed the two game fish species collected from the Bar Chuluut tributary fed primarily on zoobenthos (85 % for lenok and 80 % for grayling, with 28 families and 10 orders represented in their stomachs. Interviews with families suggested local people fish for a variety of species and that there has been a decline in the catch of taimen and sturgeon ( Acipenser baeri baicalensis over time. Since fishing was poor below highly disturbed areas (e.g. mine sites, local people fished above mine locations or in areas least impacted by these anthropogenic impacts.

  1. Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Larson, W.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  2. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Assemblages of Fishes below the Lowermost Dam in Protected Reach in the Yangtze River Main Stream: Implications for River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junyi; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Danqing; Wu, Jinming; Wang, Chengyou; Xie, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Now more and more ecologists concern about the impacts of dam construction on fish. However, studies of fishes downstream Gezhouba Dam were rarely reported except Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray). In this study, catch investigations and five hydroacoustic detections were completed from 2015 to 2016 to understand the distribution, size, and categories of fishes and their relationship with the environmental factors below Gezhouba Dam in protected reach in the Yangtze River main stream. Results showed significant differences in fish distribution and TS (target strength) between wet and flood seasons. Mean TS in five hydroacoustic detections were −59.98 dB, −54.70 dB, −56.16 dB, −57.90 dB, and −59.17 dB, respectively, and dominant fish species are Coreius guichenoti (Bleeker), Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), and Pelteobagrus vachelli (Richardson). In the longitudinal direction, fish preferred to stay in some specific sections like reaches 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, and 16. Since hydrology factors change greatly in different seasons, environmental characteristics vary along the reaches, and human activities play an important role in the fish behavior, it is concluded that great cross-season changes in hydrology lead to the differences in TS and fish assemblages and that geography characteristics, especially channel geography, together with human activities influence fish longitudinal distribution. This finding provides basic knowledge of spatiotemporal distribution and assemblages of fishes in the extended reaches downstream Gezhouba Dam. In addition, it offers implications for river management. It could also serve as reference of future research on fish habitat. PMID:27843943

  3. Visualization of Flow Alternatives, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Heuser, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Background The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) 'Missouri River Master Water Control Manual' (Master Manual) review has resulted in consideration of many flow alternatives for managing the water in the river (COE, 2001; 1998a). The purpose of this report is to present flow-management alternative model results in a way that can be easily visualized and understood. This report was updated in October 2001 to focus on the specific flow-management alternatives presented by the COE in the 'Master Manual Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement' (RDEIS; COE, 2001). The original version (February 2000) is available by clicking here. The COE, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Missouri River states, and Missouri River basin tribes have been participating in discussions concerning water management of the Missouri River mainstem reservoir system (MRMRS), the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project, and the Kansas River reservoir system since 1986. These discussions include general input to the revision of the Master Manual as well as formal consultation under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act. In 2000, the FWS issued a Biological Opinion that prescribed changes to reservoir management on the Missouri River that were believed to be necessary to preclude jeopardy to three endangered species, the pallid sturgeon, piping plover, and interior least tern (USFWS, 2000). The combined Missouri River system is large and complex, including many reservoirs, control structures, and free-flowing reaches extending over a broad region. The ability to assess future impacts of altered management scenarios necessarily involves complex, computational models that attempt to integrate physical, chemical, biological, and economic effects. Graphical visualization of the model output is intended to improve understanding of the differences among flow-management alternatives.

  4. The Dynamics Of Local Learning In Global Value Chains: Uma Análise Crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Avrichir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O livro The dynamics of local learning in global value chains: Experiences form East Asia de Momoko Kawakami e Timothy Sturgeon relata o processo de acumulação de capacidade por várias firmas e setores do Leste da Ásia. Estende e modifica a perspectiva da cadeia global de valor (CGV existente e apresenta um quadro de referência próprio para explicar como se dá o processo de acumulação em países de industrialização tardia. Contesta a ideia estabelecida na literatura sobre CGV que a possibilidade de acumulação de capacidades e de realização de upgrading é determinada pela estrutura de governança da cadeia. Contrapropõem que o processo de acumulação pode ocorrer mesmo em CGV fortemente coordenadas, se a firma fornecedora perseguir empreendedoramente uma estratégia de aprendizagem que for acompanhada pela estratégia de outsourcing das empresas líderes. Esta resenha apresenta ao leitor conceitos básicos de CGV e resume os capítulos do livro, enfatizando a contribuição teórica e prática de cada um deles. Termina destacando os pontos fortes e fracos do livro e questões que esse sugere para pesquisadores interessados na perspectiva. Os leitores da resenha entenderão o processo pelo qual os setores analisados nos capítulos passaram e as implicações das experiências deles para firmas de países como o Brasil, que almejam se inserir de forma mais competitiva nas CGVs.

  5. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE SULINSKY NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudik-Leuska Natalia Jaroslavivna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of biological diversity is the main task of modern biology. At the legislative level, Ukraine has pledged its support in ratifying the Convention on the conservation of biological diversity. As part of the implementation of environmental policy in Ukraine preservation of rare fish fauna component is the most problematic aspect. The basic conservation lists acting in Ukraine are: Red List of threatened animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ukrainian Red Book, Annex III of the Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, Washington, 1973. On the territory of Sula Bay located two objects of nature reserve fund - a landscape national reserve Sulinsky and National Park Nizhnesulsky that emphasizes the importance of this area for fish fauna reproduction. Its territory are spawning areas for almost all lower and middle parts of the Kremenchuk reservoir, ensuring more than half of total commercial catch of the Dnieper cascade. The article describes the species composition of the fish fauna, introduced in protected lists of different levels. The existence of seven such species was established. They belong to four families: four species - for cyprinids and one each - to sturgeon, loaches and catfishes. But we must remember that the priority activities should concern species with the highest conservation status. At the same time, four of them are only protected by Annex III of the Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats as poorly studied. These species require a more thorough study and not necessarily threatened with extinction. Remaining three species are under a real danger of extinction and are protected by the IUCN Red List and Ukrainian Red Book. Starlet also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES. Environmental

  6. Summary of Bed-Sediment Measurements Along the Platte River, Nebraska, 1931-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P.J.; Runge, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers are conduits for water and sediment supplied from upstream sources. The sizes of the sediments that a river bed consists of typically decrease in a downstream direction because of natural sorting. However, other factors can affect the caliber of bed sediment including changes in upstream water-resource development, land use, and climate that alter the watershed yield of water or sediment. Bed sediments provide both a geologic and stratigraphic record of past fluvial processes and quantification of current sediment transport relations. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe and compare longitudinal measurements of bed-sediment sizes made along the Platte River, Nebraska from 1931 to 2009. The Platte River begins at the junction of the North Platte and South Platte Rivers near North Platte, Nebr. and flows east for approximately 500 kilometers before joining the Missouri River at Plattsmouth, Nebr. The confluence of the Loup River with the Platte River serves to divide the middle (or central) Platte River (the Platte River upstream from the confluence with the Loup River) and lower Platte River (the Platte River downstream from the confluence with Loup River). The Platte River provides water for a variety of needs including: irrigation, infiltration to public water-supply wells, power generation, recreation, and wildlife habitat. The Platte River Basin includes habitat for four federally listed species including the whooping crane (Grus americana), interior least tern (Sterna antillarum), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). A habitat recovery program for the federally listed species in the Platte River was initiated in 2007. One strategy identified by the recovery program to manage and enhance habitat is the manipulation of streamflow. Understanding the longitudinal and temporal changes in the size gradation of the bed sediment will help to explain the effects of past flow regimes and anticipated

  7. Creating World-Class Gathering Places for People and Wildlife along the Detroit Riverfront, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Hartig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, USA is the automobile capital of the world, part of the industrial heartland and Rust Belt, and a major urban area. For over two centuries, the Detroit River was perceived as a working river that supported commerce and industry. Like many other large North American cities, the Motor City made the Detroit River its back door, with businesses facing inland and away from the river. Compounding the problem, Detroit became indifferent to the water pollution that was perceived as a necessary by-product of industrial progress. By the 1960s, the Detroit River was one of the most polluted rivers in North America. Today, the cleanup and recovery of the Detroit River represent one of the most remarkable ecological recovery stories in North America with the return of bald eagles, peregrine falcons, osprey, lake sturgeon, lake whitefish, mayflies, and more. Out of this recovery has come two transformational projects—the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge and the Detroit RiverWalk—that are helping change the perception of the region from that of a Rust Belt city to one of a leader of urban sustainability that reconnects people to nature, improves quality of life, promotes sustainable redevelopment, and enhances community pride. Key lessons learned include: recruit a well-respected champion; ensure broad support from key stakeholder groups; establish core delivery team, focused on outcomes; build trust; adopt a strategic approach to community engagement, creating a connected community; evoke a sense of place; and measure and celebrate successes to sustain momentum.

  8. BC Hydro triple bottom line report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-08-01

    British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro) published this document which measures the environmental, social and economic performance of the company. It is a complement to BC Hydro's 2002 Annual Report. The report was prepared to better understand the company's business in terms of its commitment to being an environmentally, socially, and economically responsible company (the three bottom lines). BC Hydro proved its ability to integrate the three bottom lines in decision making processes by carefully examining the environmental, social and economical impacts of programs such as Power Smart, Green and Alternative Energy, and Water Use Planning. All indicators point to BC Hydro achieving its commitment of providing a minimum of 10 per cent of new demand through 2010 with new green energy sources. Water Use Plans were developed for hydroelectric generating stations, and they should all be in place by 2003. Efficiencies realised through the Power Smart program offset the increases in greenhouse gas associated with increased energy demand. Juvenile sturgeon raised in a hatchery were released into the Columbia River in May 2002. The completion of a 40-kilometre trail on the Sunshine Coast was helped by a financial contribution from BC Hydro in the amount of 23,000 dollars. Safety improvements were implemented at eight facilities, such as dam remediation, dam surveillance and instrumentation updates. Scholarships were awarded across the province, along with additional donations to non-profit organizations. Co-op positions were provided for 150 students. Internal energy efficiency programs were successful. Planning is under way for significant maintenance work and equipment replacement projects as the transmission and distribution infrastructure ages. The number of reported indicators was expanded this year. In turn, they were aligned with the revised Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. tabs

  9. The effect of the 'no net loss' of habitat guiding principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The potential effect of the 'no net loss' principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa hydroelectric project is assessed, including an examination of the process by which the no net loss principle will likely be implemented at the site, based on a review of past applications of the policy. The no net loss principle was developed by the federal Department of Fisheries of Oceans (DFO) as part of their 1986 Policy for the Management of Fish Habitats. The overall objective of the policy is to achieve a net gain of the productive capacity of fish habitats in Canada. Application of the policy to specific developments is based upon maintaining the productive capacity of fish habitats as well as the needs of users groups. The policy has not yet been applied to an inland hydroelectric project. Achieving no net losses may be difficult in regard to large projects such as a hydro dam, however a review of past applications of the policy reveal a number of concepts that have been employed by the DFO when applying the no net loss principle. These concepts were applied to the Conawapa project to make recommendations to achieve no net loss if the project is developed. Mitigation and compensation measures must be developed for both brook trout and lake sturgeon habitat, and should include a combination of habitat enhancement and increased protection and compliance. Measures should also be developed for other species such as lake cisco and lake whitefish, both of which may be a food source for beluga whales. The Conawapa forebay may be given consideration as compensation for lost habitat. 81 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. The Danube – Mythical Space in the Literary Text (Voiculescu V. and Meniuc G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fonari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of the space the myth of the water is the specific one, which, trough its fluidity comes close to the myth of the air and also, through the dynamic force draws close to the myth of the fire, opposed to the earth which is the sign of stability. Studying the myth, we will approach to the image of Danube in the literary texts of Vasile Voiculescu and of George Meniuc. Both authors are tempted to absorb the own experiences through the phantasmagorical images, where the reality blends skillfully with the imagination, water having the function to cross the being into another world which is so little known. For V. Voiculescu, the water can be placed neither in the past, nor in the future, it lives in the circle time. It holds the secret of destiny. Even if it seems predictable, it contains the mysteries that can not be definitively perceived. For V. Voiculesc the river lends the poem which links the man to the aquatic life. Thus the fisherman, Amin, is convinced that he comes from the sturgeon, just like the old Santiago, the character from the novel of Ernest Hemingway, who is united with the porpoises and the flying fish. G. Meniuc is the artist who kept artistically silent in the fiftyřs in MSSR, being suspected during his life of the beginning of his literary career in the interwar period. That is why, Danube represents the space of the knowledge, of a freedom that combines the contemplation, the decoding and the memory. By the Danube (Reni and Tulcea G. Meniuc reveals the Romanian ethnic space.

  11. Comparison of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production of Ectothermic and Endothermic Fish Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Wiens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we demonstrated that the capacity of isolated muscle mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species, measured as H2O2 efflux, is temperature-sensitive in isolated muscle mitochondria of ectothermic fish and the rat, a representative endothermic mammal. However, at physiological temperatures (15° and 37°C for the fish and rat, respectively, the fraction of total mitochondrial electron flux that generated H2O2, the fractional electron leak (FEL, was far lower in the rat than in fish. Those results suggested that the elevated body temperatures associated with endothermy may lead to a compensatory decrease in mitochondrial ROS production relative to respiratory capacity. To test this hypothesis we compare slow twitch (red muscle mitochondria from the endothermic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis with mitochondria from three ectothermic fishes [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens] and the rat. At a common assay temperature (25°C rates of mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 efflux were similar in tuna and the other fishes. The thermal sensitivity of fish mitochondria was similar irrespective of ectothermy or endothermy. Comparing tuna to the rat at a common temperature, respiration rates were similar, or lower depending on mitochondrial substrates. FEL was not different across fish species at a common assay temperature (25°C but was markedly higher in fishes than in rat. Overall, endothermy and warming of Pacific Bluefin tuna red muscle may increase the potential for ROS production by muscle mitochondria but the evolution of endothermy in this species is not necessarily associated with a compensatory reduction of ROS production relative to the respiratory capacity of mitochondria.

  12. Fish habitat considerations associated with hydro-electric developments in Quebec region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, H.; Stoneman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Alternative approaches for evaluating the effects of 2 large Hydro Quebec proposed facilities on fish habitats were presented. The proposed projects will convert long stretches of river into water reservoirs and reduce the flow in the rivers below the impoundments for parts of the year. Rivers will be transformed into water reservoirs upstream by the dams, and a moderately large river will be transformed downstream into a much smaller river with a regulated flow. Productive capacity of fish populations is difficult to measure in large water bodies, and complications in the evaluation process have posed problems in the application of a traditional no-net-loss policy. It was suggested that estimates of biomass and productivity should be obtained from established methods of electrofishing combined with maps of the river and stream characteristics. For lakes and reservoirs, biomass and production will be estimated from models using a morphoedaphic index and measures of lake reservoir areas. Productivity will be partitioned among species according to surveys of existing lakes and reservoirs. It was also proposed that mitigation and compensation should be considered on a case-by-case basis related to importance of impact on fish production; geographic range of the impacts; regional fisheries management objectives for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fisheries and biodiversity conservation. Special attention will be given to listed species such as Atlantic salmon and lake sturgeon. Additional field sampling was recommended in areas impacted by the developments. Concerns about the technical methods used in sampling and monitoring data were reviewed, as well as issues concerning protected and unprotected species. It was suggested that predictive models of fish population characteristics will need to be parameterized for temperature ranges associated with the projects. It was noted that habitat suitability index methods do not consider the ecological flexibility

  13. Minimizing opportunity costs to aquatic connectivity restoration while controlling an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin W; Diebel, Matthew W; Doran, Patrick J; Ferris, Michael C; Herbert, Matthew; Khoury, Mary L; Moody, Allison T; Neeson, Thomas M; Ross, Jared; Treska, Ted; O'Hanley, Jesse R; Walter, Lisa; Wangen, Steven R; Yacobson, Eugene; McIntyre, Peter B

    2018-03-08

    Controlling invasive species is critical for conservation but can have unintended consequences for native species and divert resources away from other efforts. This dilemma occurs on a grand scale in the North American Great Lakes, where dams and culverts block tributary access to habitat of desirable fish species and are a lynchpin of long-standing efforts to limit ecological damage inflicted by the invasive, parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Habitat restoration and sea-lamprey control create conflicting goals for managing aging infrastructure. We used optimization to minimize opportunity costs of habitat gains for 37 desirable migratory fishes that arose from restricting sea lamprey access (0-25% increase) when selecting barriers for removal under a limited budget (US$1-105 million). Imposing limits on sea lamprey habitat reduced gains in tributary access for desirable species by 15-50% relative to an unconstrained scenario. Additional investment to offset the effect of limiting sea-lamprey access resulted in high opportunity costs for 30 of 37 species (e.g., an additional US$20-80 million for lake sturgeon [Acipenser fulvescens]) and often required ≥5% increase in sea-lamprey access to identify barrier-removal solutions adhering to the budget and limiting access. Narrowly distributed species exhibited the highest opportunity costs but benefited more at less cost when small increases in sea-lamprey access were allowed. Our results illustrate the value of optimization in limiting opportunity costs when balancing invasion control against restoration benefits for diverse desirable species. Such trade-off analyses are essential to the restoration of connectivity within fragmented rivers without unleashing invaders. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  15. Development of cryoprotective media for low-temperature freezing of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kononenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the optimum composition of a cryoprotective solution for freezing sterlet sperm with the use of new and standard constituents and compare the results of the fertilization of eggs with sperm frozen by different ways and in different media. To analyze the results of keeping sterlet males in simulated conditions of natural spawning and to assess the quality of sexual products obtained during early spawning periods in comparison with natural ones. Methodology. The tasks set for the optimization of cryoprotective media for freezing sterlet sperm were solved according to generally accepted cryobiology methods and in accordance with Kopyeyka Ye. F. recommendations. The works with brооd sterlet were conducted in accordance with the generally accepted methods of sturgeon breeding and recommendations for natural spawning modeling. Findings. The studies demonstrated a positive effect of creatine, the introduction of which into the solution allowed increasing the cryoprotection of sperm from damaging factors of cryopreservation. During low-temperature freezing of sperm by different ways, the best results were obtained when freezing sperm in samples of smallest volume — granules that was evidenced by the number of live thawed spermatozoa, fertilization rates of eggs and the number of developing embryos. The simulation of the conditions of natural spawning allowed obtaining high-quality sexual products from sterlet males earlier in comparison with natural spawning periods, freezing them and fertilizing eggs after several weeks of storage. Originality. Among a variety of substances used in cryobiology for the optimization of the composition of protective solutions, positive results were tested and obtained with the use of creatine. Optimization of the cryopreservation solution composition was carried out using sterlet sperm obtained at early spawning terms compared to the natural ones. Practical value. The obtained results can be used

  16. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak, D.; Gerebizza, E.; Wasse, G.; Kochladze, M.

    2007-12-01

    environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field to the public and calls for a full and independent assessment of the impacts of this project. We believe that the public has the right to be informed of all effects of this investment, including contamination, spills, dumping, poisonous substance emissions, toxic wastes, death of seals, sturgeon and birds - all of which have significant impacts on peoples' lives

  17. Emergency Fish Restoration Project; Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCaire, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt is a 151-mile impoundment created by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam during the early 1940's. The construction of the dam permanently and forever blocked the once abundant anadromous fish runs to the upper Columbia Basin. Since the construction of Grand Coulee Dam in 1943 and Chief Joseph Dam in 1956 this area is known as the blocked area. The blocked area is totally dependant upon resident fish species to provide a subsistence, recreational and sport fishery. The sport fishery of lake Roosevelt is varied but consists mostly of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) Small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Currently, Bonneville Power Administration funds and administers two trout/kokanee hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt. The Spokane Tribe of Indians operates one hatchery, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife the other. In addition to planting fish directly into Lake Roosevelt, these two hatcheries also supply fish to a net pen operation that also plants the lake. The net pen project is administered by Bonneville Power funded personnel but is dependant upon volunteer labor for daily feeding and monitoring operations. This project has demonstrated great success and is endorsed by the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe of Indians, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, local sportsmen associations, and the Lake Roosevelt Forum. The Lake Roosevelt/Grand Coulee Dam area is widely known and its diverse fishery is targeted by large numbers of anglers annually to catch rainbow trout, kokanee salmon, small mouth bass and walleye. These anglers contribute a great deal to the local economy by fuel, grocery, license, tackle and motel purchases. Because such a large portion of the local economy is dependant upon the Lake Roosevelt fishery and tourism, any unusual operation of the Lake Roosevelt system may have a

  18. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE 'SULINSKY' NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of biological diversity is the main task of modern biology. At the legislative level, Ukraine has pledged its support in ratifying the "Convention on the conservation of biological diversity." As part of the implementation of environmental policy in Ukraine preservation of rare fish fauna component is the most problematic aspect. The basic conservation lists acting in Ukraine are: Red List of threatened animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ukrainian Red Book, Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats", the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, Washington, 1973. On the territory of Sula Bay located two objects of nature reserve fund - a landscape national reserve "Sulinsky" and National Park "Nizhnesulsky" that emphasizes the importance of this area for fish fauna reproduction. Its territory are spawning areas for almost all lower and middle parts of the Kremenchuk reservoir, ensuring more than half of total commercial catch of the Dnieper cascade. The article describes the species composition of the fish fauna, introduced in protected lists of different levels. The existence of seven such species was established. They belong to four families: four species - for cyprinids and one each - to sturgeon, loaches and catfishes. But we must remember that the priority activities should concern species with the highest conservation status. At the same time, four of them are only protected by Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats" as poorly studied. These species require a more thorough study and not necessarily threatened with extinction. Remaining three species are under a real danger of extinction and are protected by the IUCN Red List and Ukrainian Red Book. Starlet also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES. Environmental

  19. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).

  20. From Catastrophizing to Recovery: a pilot study of a single-session treatment for pain catastrophizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnall BD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beth D Darnall, John A Sturgeon, Ming-Chih Kao, Jennifer M Hah, Sean C MackeyDivision of Pain Medicine, Stanford Systems Neuroscience and Pain Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USABackground: Pain catastrophizing (PC – a pattern of negative cognitive-emotional responses to real or anticipated pain – maintains chronic pain and undermines medical treatments. Standard PC treatment involves multiple sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy. To provide efficient treatment, we developed a single-session, 2-hour class that solely treats PC entitled “From Catastrophizing to Recovery”[FCR].Objectives: To determine 1 feasibility of FCR; 2 participant ratings for acceptability, understandability, satisfaction, and likelihood to use the information learned; and 3 preliminary efficacy of FCR for reducing PC.Design and methods: Uncontrolled prospective pilot trial with a retrospective chart and database review component. Seventy-six patients receiving care at an outpatient pain clinic (the Stanford Pain Management Center attended the class as free treatment and 70 attendees completed and returned an anonymous survey immediately post-class. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS was administered at class check-in (baseline and at 2, and 4 weeks post-treatment. Within subjects repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA with Student's t-test contrasts were used to compare scores across time points.Results: All attendees who completed a baseline PCS were included as study participants (N=57; F=82%; mean age =50.2 years; PCS was completed by 46 participants at week 2 and 35 participants at week 4. Participants had significantly reduced PC at both time points (P<0001 and large effect sizes were found (Cohen's d=0.85 and d=1.15.Conclusion: Preliminary data suggest that FCR is an acceptable and effective treatment for PC. Larger, controlled studies of longer duration are needed to determine durability of response, factors

  1. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River - 13603

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, J.A.; Hulstrom, L.C. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Sands, J.P. [U.S Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts from release of Hanford Site radioactive substances to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River [1] was issued in 2008 to initiate assessment of the impacts under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [2]. The work plan established a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities over a 120-mile stretch of the Columbia River began in October 2008 and were completed in 2010. Sampled media included surface water, pore water, surface and core sediment, island soil, and fish (carp, walleye, whitefish, sucker, small-mouth bass, and sturgeon). Information and sample results from the field investigation were used to characterize current conditions within the Columbia River and assess whether current conditions posed a risk to ecological or human receptors that would merit additional study or response actions under CERCLA. The human health and ecological risk assessments are documented in reports that were published in 2012 [3, 4]. Conclusions from the risk assessment reports are being summarized and integrated with remedial investigation

  2. The evolution of Root effect hemoglobins in the absence of intracellular pH protection of the red blood cell: insights from primitive fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Matthew D; Brauner, Colin J

    2010-06-01

    The Root effect, a reduction in blood oxygen (O(2)) carrying capacity at low pH, is used by many fish species to maximize O(2) delivery to the eye and swimbladder. It is believed to have evolved in the basal actinopterygian lineage of fishes, species that lack the intracellular pH (pH(i)) protection mechanism of more derived species' red blood cells (i.e., adrenergically activated Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; betaNHE). These basal actinopterygians may consequently experience a reduction in blood O(2) carrying capacity, and thus O(2) uptake at the gills, during hypoxia- and exercise-induced generalized blood acidoses. We analyzed the hemoglobins (Hbs) of seven species within this group [American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), bowfin (Amia calva), mooneye (Hiodon tergisus), and pirarucu (Arapaima gigas)] for their Root effect characteristics so as to test the hypothesis of the Root effect onset pH value being lower than those pH values expected during a generalized acidosis in vivo. Analysis of the haemolysates revealed that, although each of the seven species displayed Root effects (ranging from 7.3 to 40.5% desaturation of Hb with O(2), i.e., Hb O(2) desaturation), the Root effect onset pH values of all species are considerably lower (ranging from pH 5.94 to 7.04) than the maximum blood acidoses that would be expected following hypoxia or exercise (pH(i) 7.15-7.3). Thus, although these primitive fishes possess Hbs with large Root effects and lack any significant red blood cell betaNHE activity, it is unlikely that the possession of a Root effect would impair O(2) uptake at the gills following a generalized acidosis of the blood. As well, it was shown that both maximal Root effect and Root effect onset pH values increased significantly in bowfin over those of the more basal species, toward values of similar magnitude to those of most of the more derived

  3. Performance evaluation of a hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment system using multivariate statistical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Jack, E-mail: jack.wallace@ce.queensu.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Ellis Hall, 58 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Champagne, Pascale, E-mail: champagne@civil.queensu.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Ellis Hall, 58 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Monnier, Anne-Charlotte, E-mail: anne-charlotte.monnier@insa-lyon.fr [National Institute for Applied Sciences – Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Performance of a hybrid passive landfill leachate treatment system was evaluated. • 33 Water chemistry parameters were sampled for 21 months and statistically analyzed. • Parameters were strongly linked and explained most (>40%) of the variation in data. • Alkalinity, ammonia, COD, heavy metals, and iron were criteria for performance. • Eight other parameters were key in modeling system dynamics and criteria. - Abstract: A pilot-scale hybrid-passive treatment system operated at the Merrick Landfill in North Bay, Ontario, Canada, treats municipal landfill leachate and provides for subsequent natural attenuation. Collected leachate is directed to a hybrid-passive treatment system, followed by controlled release to a natural attenuation zone before entering the nearby Little Sturgeon River. The study presents a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of the system using multivariate statistical techniques to determine the interactions between parameters, major pollutants in the leachate, and the biological and chemical processes occurring in the system. Five parameters (ammonia, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), “heavy” metals of interest, with atomic weights above calcium, and iron) were set as criteria for the evaluation of system performance based on their toxicity to aquatic ecosystems and importance in treatment with respect to discharge regulations. System data for a full range of water quality parameters over a 21-month period were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), as well as principal components (PC) and partial least squares (PLS) regressions. PCA indicated a high degree of association for most parameters with the first PC, which explained a high percentage (>40%) of the variation in the data, suggesting strong statistical relationships among most of the parameters in the system. Regression analyses identified 8 parameters (set as independent variables) that were most frequently retained for modeling

  4. The Cost of Clean Water in the Delaware River Basin (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald J. Kauffman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delaware River has made a marked recovery in the half-century since the adoption of the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC Compact in 1961 and passage of the Federal Clean Water Act amendments during the 1970s. During the 1960s, the DRBC set a 3.5 mg/L dissolved oxygen criterion for the river based on an economic analysis that concluded that a waste load abatement program designed to meet fishable water quality goals would generate significant recreational and environmental benefits. Scientists with the Delaware Estuary Program have recently called for raising the 1960s dissolved oxygen criterion along the Delaware River from 3.5 mg/L to 5.0 mg/L to protect anadromous American shad and Atlantic sturgeon, and address the prospect of rising temperatures, sea levels, and salinity in the estuary. This research concludes, through a nitrogen marginal abatement cost (MAC analysis, that it would be cost-effective to raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet a more stringent standard by prioritizing agricultural conservation and some wastewater treatment investments in the Delaware River watershed to remove 90% of the nitrogen load by 13.6 million kg N/year (30 million lb N/year for just 35% ($160 million of the $449 million total cost. The annual least cost to reduce nitrogen loads and raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet more stringent water quality standards in the Delaware River totals $45 million for atmospheric NOX reduction, $130 million for wastewater treatment, $132 million for agriculture conservation, and $141 million for urban stormwater retrofitting. This 21st century least cost analysis estimates that an annual investment of $50 million is needed to reduce pollutant loads in the Delaware River to raise dissolved oxygen levels to 4.0 mg/L, $150 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 4.5 mg/L, and $449 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 5.0 mg/L.

  5. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Static and Variable Magnetic Fields on Freshwater Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Riemer, Kristina P [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    benthic invertebrates (Gill et al. 2005, 2009). It is known that numerous marine and freshwater organisms are sensitive to electrical and magnetic fields, often depending on them for such diverse activities as prey location and navigation (DOE 2009; Normandeau et al. 2011). Despite the wide range of aquatic organisms that are sensitive to EMF and the increasing numbers of underwater electrical transmitting cables being installed in rivers and coastal waters, little information is available to assess whether animals will be attracted, repelled, or unaffected by these new sources of EMF. This knowledge gap is especially significant for freshwater systems, where electrosensitive organisms such as paddlefish and sturgeon may interact with electrical transmission cables. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments to test the sensitivity of freshwater fish and invertebrates to the levels of EMF that are expected to be produced by HK projects in rivers. In this context, EM fields are likely to be emitted primarily by generators in the water column and by transmission cables on or buried in the substrate. The HK units will be located in areas of high-velocity waters that are used as only temporary habitats for most riverine species, so long-term exposure of fish and benthic invertebrates to EMF is unlikely. Rather, most aquatic organisms will be briefly exposed to the fields as they drift downstream or migrate upstream. Because the exposure of most aquatic organisms to EMF in a river would be relatively brief and non-lethal, we focused our investigations on detecting behavioral effects. For example, attraction to the EM fields could result in prolonged exposures to the fields or the HK rotor. On the other hand, avoidance reactions might hinder upstream migrations of fish. The experiments reported here are a continuation of studies begun in FY 2010, which focused on the potential effects of static magnetic fields on snails, clams, and fathead minnows (Cada et al. 2011

  6. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    ,181 milligrams calcium carbonate per liter (mg CaCO3/L)) that varied across species and lifestage within a species. The age at which fish were exposed to NaHCO3 significantly affected the severity of toxic responses for some organisms. The chronic toxicity of NaHCO3 was defined in experiments that lasted from 7—60 days post-hatch. For these experiments, sublethal effects such as growth and reproduction, in addition to significant reductions in survival were included in the final determination of effects. Chronic toxicity was observed at concentrations that ranged from 450 to 800mg NaHCO3/L (also defined as 430 to 657 mg HCO3-/L or total alkalinity expressed as 354 to 539 mg CaCO3/L) and the specific concentration depended on the sensitivity of the four species of invertebrates and fish exposed. Sublethal investigations during chronic studies revealed percent decrease in the activity of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K ATPase, an enzyme involved in ionoregulation) and the age of the fish at the onset of the decrease may affect the ability of fathead minnow to survive exposures to NaHCO3. A database of toxicity evaluations of NaHCO3 on aquatic life has been constructed. Using these data, sample acute and chronic criteria of 459 and 381 mg NaHCO3/L, respectively, can be calculated for the protection of aquatic life. The final derivation and implementation of such criteria is, of course, left to the discretion of the concerned management agencies. A combination of in situ experiments, static-renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory, demonstrated that untreated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) product water from the Tongue and Powder River Basins reduces survival of fathead minnow and pallid sturgeon. More precisely, the survival of early-lifestage fathead minnow, especially those less than 6-days post hatch (dph), likely is reduced significantly in the field when

  7. The Planck Constant, the International System of Units, and the 2012 North American Watt Balance Absolute Gravity Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    key standards are being performed and similar components used in the operation of the watt balances are being jointly verified. To this end, a comparison between the gravitational measurement systems used in conjunction with the NIST and NRC watt balances was carried out in early 2012. The results of the comparison provide verification of the gravity values used in the recently published Planck constant determinations that play a vital role in the redefinition effort of the SI. [1] Resolution 1 of the 24th Meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) 2011 On the possible future revision of the International System of Units, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Paris, http://www.bipm.org/en/si/new_si/ [2] Steiner R L, Williams E R, Liu R, and Newell D B 2007 Uncertainty Improvements of the NIST Electronic Kilogram, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 56 2 592-596 [3] Steele A G, Meija J, Sanchez C A, Yang L, Wood B M, Sturgeon R E, Mester Z and Inglis A D 2012 Reconciling Planck constant determinations via watt balance and enriched-silicon measurements at NRC Canada Metrologia 49 1 L8-L10

  8. Evaluating the negative effect of benthic egg predators on bloater recruitment in northern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David B.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Diana, James S.; Stott, Wendylee; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    As the only extant deepwater cisco in Lake Michigan, bloater is currently at record low levels of abundance.  Several mechanisms to regulate their recruitment have been proposed, including skewed sex ratios, predation on their larvae by adult alewife, and climatic factors during early life history stages, but none has unequivocal support.  In this research, we evaluated an alternative mechanism of egg predation that was supported by an inverse relationship between bloater recruitment and biomass of slimy sculpin, which are known to be effective egg predators.  To that end, we used a combination of field sampling, laboratory experiments, and modeling to estimate the proportion of bloater eggs consumed by sculpins each year between 1973 and 2008.  Monthly field sampling between January through May 2009-2010 (when bloater eggs were incubating) offshore of Frankfort (Michigan), Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), Two Rivers (Wisconsin), and Muskegon (Michigan) provided benthivore diets for subsequent laboratory processing.  Identification and enumeration of stomach contents and subsequent genetic analyses of eggs revealed that the mean proportion of bloater eggs in slimy sculpin diets (N = 1016) equaled 0.04.  Bloater eggs also were consumed by deepwater sculpins (N = 699) at a slightly lower mean proportion (0.02), and only one round goby diet among 552 enumerated revealed a bloater egg.  Based on the diet results, we developed daily ration models to estimate consumption for both deepwater and slimy sculpins.  We conducted feeding experiments to estimate gastric evacuation (GEVAC) for water temperatures ranging 2-5 °C, similar to those observed during egg incubation.  GEVAC rates equaled 0.0115/ h for slimy sculpin and 0.0147/h for deepwater sculpin, and did not vary between 2.7 and 5.1 °C for either species or between prey types (Mysis relicta and fish eggs) for slimy sculpin.  Index of fullness [(g prey/g fish weight)100%] was estimated from sculpins sampled in

  9. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to help mitigate hurricane damage to the mainland, restoring these habitats prior to the onset of future storms will help protect the islands themselves and the surrounding habitats. During Hurricane Katrina, coastal barrier islands reduced storm surge by approximately 10 percent and moderated wave heights (Wamsley and others, 2009). Islands protected the mainland by preventing ocean waves from maintaining their size as they approached the mainland. In addition to storm protection, it is advantageous to restore these islands to preserve the cultural heritage present there (for example, Fort Massachusetts) and because of the influence that these islands have on marine ecology. For example, these islands help maintain a salinity regime favorable to oysters in the Mississippi Sound and provide critical habitats for many migratory birds and endangered species such as sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, and Dermochelys coriacea), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009a). As land manager for the GUIS, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with the State of Mississippi and the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a set of recommendations to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) that will guide restoration planning. The final set of recommendations includes directly renourishing both West Ship Island (to protect Fort Massachusetts) and East Ship Island (to restore the French Warehouse archaeological site); filling Camille Cut to recreate a continuous Ship Island; and restoring natural regional sediment transport processes by placing sand in the littoral zone just east of Petit Bois

  10. FINAL FRONTIER AT HANFORD TACKLING THE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER MS

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup process. The CERCLA process is used to oversee the investigation, decision-making and remediation of 'past practices' (historical) sites, as opposed to sites in active use. For the first several years of Hanford's cleanup work, everyone concerned--the Department, contractors, regulatory agencies, stakeholders and Indian nations and tribes--focused efforts on the rivershore. The magnificent Columbia River--eighth largest in the world--flows through and by the Hanford Site for 52 miles. Two million people live downstream from Hanford along the Columbia before it empties into the Pacific Ocean. Further, the part of the river known as the 'Hanford Reach' is a prime habitat for salmon, steelhead, sturgeon and other species of fish. In fact, it provides a spawning ground to more salmon than any other stretch of river in the United States outside of Alaska. For these reasons, protecting the Columbia by cleaning up waste directly along its shoreline was an early priority in Hanford's Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (or Tri-Party Agreement) signed in 1989 among the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State to govern cleanup. However, Tri-Party Agreement signatories and others concerned with Hanford and the Columbia River, knew that the waste located in, and beneath, the Central Plateau could also pose dangers to the waterway. While the waste in central Hanford might move more slowly, and pose fewer immediate threats, it would have to be dealt with as cleanup progressed

  11. The Application of Traits-Based Assessment Approaches to Estimate the Effects of Hydroelectric Turbine Passage on Fish Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    ) found useful turbine passage survival data for only 30 species. Tests of advanced hydropower turbines have been limited to seven species - Chinook and coho salmon, rainbow trout, alewife, eel, smallmouth bass, and white sturgeon. We are investigating possible approaches for extending experimental results from the few tested fish species to predict turbine passage survival of other, untested species (Cada and Richmond 2011). In this report, we define the causes of injury and mortality to fish tested in laboratory and field studies, based on fish body shape and size, internal and external morphology, and physiology. We have begun to group the large numbers of unstudied species into a small number of categories, e.g., based on phylogenetic relationships or ecological similarities (guilds), so that subsequent studies of a few representative species (potentially including species-specific Biological Index Testing) would yield useful information about the overall fish community. This initial effort focused on modifying approaches that are used in the environmental toxicology field to estimate the toxicity of substances to untested species. Such techniques as the development of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models rely on a considerable amount of data to establish the species-toxicity relationships that can be extended to other organisms. There are far fewer studies of turbine passage stresses from which to derive the turbine passage equivalent of LC{sub 50} values. Whereas the SSD and ICE approaches are useful analogues to predicting turbine passage injury and mortality, too few data are available to support their application without some form of modification or simplification. In this report we explore the potential application of a newer, related technique, the Traits-Based Assessment (TBA), to the prediction of downstream passage mortality at hydropower projects.