WorldWideScience

Sample records for macquarie island entry

  1. The taxonomy and ecology of a new monocelid flatworm from Macquarie Island (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Hay, David A.

    1977-01-01

    Macquarie Island (54°37'S 158°54'E) has been investigated for the occurrence of freshwater macroturbellarians. Twenty sites were examined but only one species, here ascribed to the genus Minona sensu lato of the Monocelididae, was found and it is described as Minona amnica sp. nov. Its closest

  2. Hydrothermal contributions to global biogeochemical cycles: Insights from the Macquarie Island ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Rosalind M.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Harris, Michelle; Davidson, Garry J.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Brewer, Timothy S.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is a fundamental process in the formation and aging of the ocean crust, with the resultant chemical exchange between the crust and oceans comprising a key component of global biogeochemical cycles. Sections of hydrothermally altered ocean crust provide time-integrated records of this chemical exchange. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the nature and extent of hydrothermal exchange is limited by the absence of complete oceanic crustal sections from either submarine exposures or drill core. Sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island comprises 10 Ma ocean crust formed at a slow spreading ridge, and is the only sub-aerial exposure of a complete section of ocean crust in the ocean basin in which it formed. Hydrothermally altered rocks from Macquarie Island therefore provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the chemical changes due to fluid-rock exchange through a complete section of ocean crust. Here we exploit the immobile behavior of some elements during hydrothermal alteration to determine the precursor compositions to altered Macquarie whole rock samples, and evaluate the changes in bulk rock chemistry due to fluid-rock interaction throughout the Macquarie crust. The extent to which elements are enriched or depleted in each sample depends upon the secondary mineral assemblage developed, and hence the modal abundances of the primary minerals in the rocks and the alteration conditions, such as temperature, fluid composition, and water:rock ratios. Consequently the chemical changes vary with depth, most notably within the lava-dike transition zone where enrichments in K, S, Rb, Ba, and Zn are observed. Our results indicate that hydrothermal alteration of the Macquarie crust resulted in a net flux of Si, Ti, Al, and Ca to the oceans, whereas the crust was a net sink for H2O, Mg, Na, K, and S. Our results also demonstrate the importance of including the contribution of elemental uptake by veins for some elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Mg, S). Extrapolation of our

  3. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic.

  4. Analysis of Ionospheric Scintillation Characteristics in Sub-Antarctica Region with GNSS Data at Macquarie Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jinling

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric scintillation has a great impact on radio propagation and electronic system performance, thus is extensively studied currently. The influence of scintillation on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is particularly evident, making GNSS an effective medium to study characteristics of scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation varies greatly in relation with temporal and spatial distribution. In this paper, both temporal and spatial characteristics of scintillation are investigated based on Macquarie Island’s GNSS scintillation data collected from 2011 to 2015. Experiments demonstrate that occurrence rates of amplitude scintillation have a close relationship with solar activity, while phase scintillation is more likely to be generated by geomagnetic activity. In addition, scintillation distribution behaviors related to elevation and azimuth angles are statistically analyzed for both amplitude and phase scintillation. The proposed work is valuable for a deeper understanding of theoretical mechanisms of ionospheric scintillation in this region, and provides a reference for GNSS applications in certain regions around sub-Antarctica. PMID:28085087

  5. Transition from ultra-enriched to ultra-depleted primary MORB melts in a single volcanic suite (Macquarie Island, SW Pacific): Implications for mantle source, melting process and plumbing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Anika; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Everard, John L.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2016-07-01

    Compositional diversity of basalts forming the oceanic floor is attributed to a variety of factors such as mantle heterogeneities, melting conditions, mixing of individual melt batches, as well as fractionation and assimilation processes during magma ascent and emplacement. In this study the compositional range and origin of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) is approached by petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Miocene Macquarie Island ophiolite, an uplifted part of the Macquarie Ridge at the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. In this study, earlier results on the enriched to ultra-enriched (La/Sm 1.4-7.9), isotopically homogeneous basaltic glasses are complemented by the compositions of olivine-phyric rocks, principal phenocrystic minerals and Cr-spinel hosted melt inclusions. Studied olivine, clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel phenocrysts are among the most primitive known for MORB (85-91 mol% forsterite in olivine, 81-91 Mg# in clinopyroxene, and 66-77 Mg# and 34-60 Cr# in spinel) and represent primary and near-primary compositions of their parental melts. Geochemical characteristics of the liquids parental to clinopyroxene (La/Sm 0.8-6.3) and Cr-spinel (La/Sm 0.4-5) partly overlap with those of the basaltic glasses, but also strongly advocate the role of depleted to ultra-depleted primary melts in the origin of the Macquarie Island porphyritic rocks. The trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts and the systematics of rare-earth elements in glasses, melt inclusions, and clinopyroxene provide evidence for a peridotitic composition of the source mantle. Our data supports the mechanism of fractional "dynamic" melting of a single mantle peridotite producing individual partial melt batches with continuously changing compositions from ultra-enriched towards ultra-depleted. The incipient enriched melt batches, represented by basaltic glasses in this study, may erupt without significant modification, whereas consecutively derived

  6. Building the Sustainable Library at Macquarie University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a number of current issues and challenges in sustainability, both of and in academic libraries of the future, using as a case study the new library opened at Macquarie University, Sydney in 2011. Issues covered include sustainable design and operation of library buildings, sustainability in relation to library collections,…

  7. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, RT [University of Washington; Protat, A [Australian Bureau of Meterology; Alexander, SP [Australian Antarctic Division

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  8. Partnerships in Medical Education: An Exploration of Library Service Models for Postgraduate Medicine at Macquarie University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Macquarie University's new medical school, The Australian School of Advanced Medicine (ASAM), is developing a postgraduate program that incorporates a partnership with Macquarie University Library. The curriculum encompasses contemporary models of competency-based assessment, teamwork and lifelong learning that are integrated with research and…

  9. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may n...

  10. Failure laws of narrow pillar and asymmetric control technique of gob-side entry driving in island coal face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiping; Cao Shenggen; Li Xuehua

    2013-01-01

    In allusion to the problems of complex stress distribution in the surrounding rock and deformation failure laws,as well as the difficulty in roadway supporting of the gob-side entry driving in the island coal face,2107 face in Chengjiao Colliery is researched as an engineering case.Through physical mechanical test of rock,theoretical and numerical simulation analyses of rock,the analysis model of the roadway overlying strata structure was established,and its parameters quantified.To reveal the deformation law of the surrounding rock,the stability of the overlying strata structure was studied before,during and after the roadway driving.According to the field conditions,the stress distribution in coal pillar was quantified,and the surrounding rock deformation feature studied with different widths of the pillars in gob-side entry driving.Finally,the pillar width of 4 m was considered as the most reasonable.The research results show that there is great difference in support conditions among roadway roof,entity coal side and narrow pillar side.Besides,the asymmetric control technique for support of the surrounding rock was proposed.The asymmetric control technique was proved to be reasonable by field monitoring,support by bolt-net,steel ladder and steel wire truss used in narrow pillar side.

  11. The Student Experience of PACE at Macquarie University: Understanding Motivations for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kath; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; Mason, Colina; Haski-Levanthal, Debbie; Nabeel, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University offers undergraduate students experiential learning opportunities with local, regional and international partners. Through PACE, students work on mutually beneficial projects that both meet the partner's organizational goals and enable students to strengthen graduate capabilities…

  12. Transformational Learning and Community Development: Early Reflections on Professional and Community Engagement at Macquarie University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; Sachs, Judyth

    2014-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University offers undergraduate students experiential learning opportunities with local, regional, and international partners. In PACE projects, students work toward meeting the partner's organizational goals while they develop their capabilities, learn through the process of engagement,…

  13. Moss-inhabiting diatom communities from Heard Island, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeVijver, B.; Beyens, L.; Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we list 192 diatom taxa, collected from bryophyte samples from Heard Island (52degrees05'S, 73degrees30'E). The Heard Island diatom flora shows a marked similarity to those of the Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagos, and is quite dissimilar to the moss-dwelling diatom flora of Macquarie

  14. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Nytoft, H. Peter; Bojesen-Koefoed, Jørgen A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m), may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been repo...

  15. Mapping inundation in the heterogeneous floodplain wetlands of the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat Thematic Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rachael F.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lu, Yi; Cox, Stephen J.; Sims, Neil C.; Hunter, Simon J.

    2015-05-01

    Flood dependent aquatic ecosystems worldwide are in rapid decline with competing demands for water. In Australia, this is particularly evident in the floodplain wetlands of semi-arid regions (e.g. the Macquarie Marshes), which rely on highly variable flooding from river flows. Environmental flows mitigate the impacts of river regulation, inundating floodplains, thereby rehabilitating degraded habitats. Mapping flooding patterns is critical for environmental flow management but challenging in large heterogeneous floodplains with variable patterns of flooding and complex vegetation mosaics. We mapped inundation in the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images (1989-2010). We classified three inundation classes: water, mixed pixels (water, vegetation, soil) and vegetation (emergent macrophytes obscuring inundation), merged to map inundated areas from not-inundated areas (dry land). We used the Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWIB2/B5), masked by the sum of bands 4, 5, and 7 (sum457), to detect water and mixed pixels. Vegetation was classified using an unsupervised classification of a composite image comprising two dates representing vegetation senescence and green growth, transformed into two contrasting vegetation indices, NDVI and NDIB7/B4. We assessed accuracy using geo-referenced oblique aerial photography, coincident with Landsat imagery for a small and large flood, producing respective overall accuracies of inundated area of 93% and 95%. Producer's and user's accuracies were also high (94-99%). Confusion among inundation classes existed but classes were spectrally distinct from one another and from dry land. Inundation class areas varied with flood size, demonstrating the variability. Inundation extent was highly variable (683-206,611 ha). Floods up to 50,000 ha were confined to the north and south wetland regions. Connectivity to the east region only occurred when flooding was greater than 51,000 ha. Understanding the spatiotemporal

  16. The M8.1 Intraplate, Strike-Slip Macquarie Earthquake of 23 December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Antolik, M.; Yamada, T.

    2006-12-01

    The M8.1, strike-slip earthquake on 23 December 2004 was ~150 km from the Macquarie Ridge plate boundary. This large intraplate earthquake provides an opportunity to investigate both the source processes of oceanic strike-slip earthquakes, which are controversial and poorly known, and to constrain the tectonics of the complex region surrounding the Macquarie Ridge. We model teleseismic P and SH waves from 29 stations using a point source moment tensor inversion. Our preferred model has two subevents, both strike-slip with strike and dip within about 15 degrees of one another; the first is tightly constrained by the first motions. The sources overlap by 17 s and have a combined duration of ~50 s. The centroid depths are 30 -- 35 km. There is no evidence for directivity in the waveforms, so our result is consistent with bilateral rupture along a slightly curved or bent fault. The lack of directivity means that we cannot unambiguously identify the fault plane. We prefer the NNW-SSE plane as it aligns with the aftershocks and the fossil transform faults in the region. We are performing a slip inversion to constrain further the fault plane and slip distribution. The apparent stress of the earthquake is ~5 MPa, higher than continental strike-slip earthquakes, but similar to previous intraplate oceanic earthquakes, e.g. 1998 M8.1 Antarctica. The stress drop (based on the 200 km aftershock extent, and the depth of 35 km) is ~3 MPa, consistent with previous oceanic and also continental strike-slip earthquakes. The tectonics of the region around the Macquarie Ridge are poorly known. Cande and Stock (2004) proposed that the SE part of the Australian plate is actually a separate plate (the Macquarie plate) separated by a diffuse plate boundary. Their model predicts NNE-SSW extension in the region of the 2004 M8.1 earthquake, which is at the northerly extent of a group of previous, smaller, earthquakes. They all have T axis orientations that fit this plate model. The age of the

  17. Robert Garrett, Tasmanian penal colony surgeon: alcoholism, medical misadventure and the penal colony of Sarah Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, P

    2011-09-01

    Robert Garrett emigrated from Scotland to Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in 1822. Within a few months of arrival he was posted to the barbaric penal colony in Macquarie Harbour, known as Sarah Island. His descent into alcoholism, medical misadventure and premature death were related to his largely unsupported professional environment and were, in many respects, typical of those subjected to this experience.

  18. Eliciting the Implicit Knowledge and Perceptions of On-Ground Conservation Managers of the Macquarie Marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge that has been developed through extensive experience of receiving and responding to ecological feedback is particularly valuable for informing and guiding environmental management. This paper captures the implicit understanding of seven experienced on-ground conservation managers about the conservation issues affecting the Ramsar listed Macquarie Marshes in New South Wales, Australia. Multiple interviews, a workshop, and meetings were used to elicit the manager's knowledge. The managers suggest that the Macquarie Marshes are seriously threatened by a lack of water, and immediate steps need to be taken to achieve more effective water delivery. Their knowledge and perceptions of the wider societal impediments to achieving more effective water delivery have also led the managers to suggest that there may be system feedbacks that are reinforcing the tendency for water agencies to favor the short-term interests of the irrigation industry. Although the managers clearly have certain personal interests that influence their understanding and perceptions, much of their knowledge also appears to have been heavily influenced by their ecological understanding of the wetland's dynamics. This paper highlights that although all stakeholders clearly need to be involved in making decisions about conservation and how resources should be used, such decisions should not be confused with the need for consulting people with the appropriate ecological expertise to help determine the degree to which an ecological system is threatened, the likely ecological causes of the threats, and actions that may be needed to restore and maintain a functional ecosystem.

  19. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Palaeomagnetic results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamsen, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of thec. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now be correlated in detail with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. The lowermost (hidden part of thelower basalt formation correlates with Chron C26r (Selandian age, the top (exposed part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chrons C26n, C25r and C25n (Selandian and Thanetian ageand the middle and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian. Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from mostPalaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence of 20 specimens from one solid core (1½ m in length and 26 sidewall cores from the well between –2219 and –3531 m below sea level (b.s.l. suggest that the volcanic materials can be divided into two characteristic groups: solid unaltered basalts and altered basalts and tuffs. The magnetic properties are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at 2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented as all specimens appear to be from one flow. Magnetic logging (magnetic susceptibility and field intensity down to 3515 m b.s.l. was made in Lopra-1/1A together with other geophysical logs but did not yield conclusive inclination data.

  20. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  1. The Quarantine Protection of Sub-Antarctic Australia: Two Islands, Two Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Potter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Antarctic Heard Island and Macquarie Island are among Australia’s offshore properties susceptible to colonization by species introduced by humans. While both islands share World Heritage status and are IUCN Category Ia Protected Areas (Strict Nature Reserves, different quarantine protection regimes are in operation. Macquarie Island’s biosecurity appears to be less catered for while the means and likelihood of introductions are greater. The administrative, political, practical and geographical contexts within which quarantine management planning takes place variously impact on the level of quarantine protection provided to both islands. These and other remote sites of high conservation value are unlikely to receive heightened protection until the issues associated with such management contexts receive greater attention.

  2. An assessment of the effectiveness of lead pollution reduction strategies in North Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Anthony L

    2003-02-15

    The North Lake Macquarie area of NSW, Australia, principally the suburbs of Boolaroo, Argenton and Speers Point, has been significantly polluted by lead emissions emanating from the Pasminco Metals Smelter (Cockle Creek). A lead accessibility reduction program has been carried out in North Lake Macquarie since 1991. The primary measure of success for the program is reduced blood lead levels, particularly in children. From 1991 to 2000 average child blood lead levels have decreased from 11 to 7.5 microg/dl. However, the lead accessibility reduction programs had failed to eliminate child blood lead levels that exceed the National Health and Medical Research Council maximum goal of 10 microg/dl, and a number of children still retain blood lead levels >25 microg/dl. Many factors have contributed to this failure, notably the continued presence of airborne high lead pollutants in ambient air, dusts and soil in residential areas. Significant reductions in lead mass emissions from 92 tonnes per annum (p.a.) in 1988 to approximately 15 tonnes p.a. to September 2000 have been achieved by the smelter operator. However, the reductions have been insufficient to ensure that ambient air quality consent conditions of 1 microg/m(3) are achieved in the residential areas surrounding the smelter. Sampling by the smelter operator also provides confirmation of continued deposition of high lead dusts in residential areas. The continued dust deposition places a high burden on the local community which must maintain obsessive levels of household cleanliness in order to minimise lead uptake from dusts deposited within the home and community. Evidence exists of institutional failure that may also have limited the success of the program. These failures include the use of inappropriate standards and non-approved techniques in remediation, lack of coordination between various arms of government and an unwillingness to enforce consent conditions. The smelter operator has also failed to

  3. Modelling the impacts of strategic tree plantings on salt loads and flows in the Macquarie river catchment, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Natasha; Davis, Richard; Dawes, Warrick; Evans, Ray

    2003-05-01

    In Australia, problems of dryland and stream salinity have recently become the focus of a National Action Plan. In many river catchments, preliminary stream salt load and salinity targets have been set to define maximum permissible export levels in 2015. Afforestation has been proposed as a strategy for meeting these targets, although several studies suggest that widespread commercial tree plantations are likely to deliver net dis-benefits. However, the impacts on stream salt loads of more localised tree plantings in high salt yielding areas have not been quantified. In this paper we use a simple empirical model to predict the effects of various strategic and non-strategic tree planting scenarios on flows and salt loads in the mid-Macquarie catchment, New South Wales. A simple salt routing model is then used to estimate the effect of these changes on salt loads at the end-of-valley monitoring site for the Macquarie catchment. Results suggest that widespread land management interventions will be required to meet the preliminary salt load targets for this catchment. On their own, small-scale, strategic tree planting in high salt export areas of the mid-Macquarie area will not have a significant impact on salt loads at the end-of-valley monitoring site. While widespread tree plantings may reduce salt loads in the longer term, they are likely to cause streamflow losses in the shorter term. Thus, stream salinities are expected to rise initially, due to the different response times of groundwater and surface water systems to land use change.

  4. Macquarie Surgical Innovation Identification Tool (MSIIT): a study protocol for a usability and pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Brette; Selwood, Amanda; Rogers, Wendy A; Clay-Williams, Robyn

    2016-11-18

    Medicine relies on innovation to continually improve. However, innovation is potentially risky, and not all innovations are successful. Therefore, it is important to identify innovations prospectively and provide support, to make innovation as safe and effective as possible. The Macquarie Surgical Innovation Identification Tool (MSIIT) is a simple checklist designed as a practical tool for hospitals to identify planned surgical innovations. This project aims to test the usability and pilot the use of the MSIIT in a surgical setting. The project will run in two phases at two Australian hospitals, one public and one private. Phase I will involve interviews, focus groups and a survey of hospital administrators and surgical teams to assess the usability and system requirements for the use of the MSIIT. Current practice regarding surgical innovation within participating hospitals will be mapped, and the best implementation strategy for MSIIT completion will be established. Phase II will involve trialling the MSIIT for each surgery within the trial period by various surgical personnel. Follow-up interviews, focus groups and a survey will be conducted with trial participants to collect feedback on their experience of using the MSIIT during the trial period. Comparative data on rates of surgical innovation during the trial period will also be gathered from existing hospital systems and compared to the rates identified by the MSIIT. Ethical approval has been obtained. The results of this study will be presented to interested health services and other stakeholders, presented at conferences and published in a peer-reviewed MEDLINE-indexed journal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Decline of the Macquarie Marshes ecosystem, Australia, since European arrival recorded by organic geochemical proxies in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Chivas, A. R.; Garcia, A.; Hu, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Macquarie Marshes are floodplain wetlands in semi-arid NSW, Australia, and a Ramsar site experiencing accelerated deterioration in the last 50 years due to anthropogenic activities. We investigated environmental changes occurring in the northern and southern marshes using organic geochemical proxies from short cores and surface samples as modern analogues. Some proxies of modern plants (ferns, charophyte, reeds, Eucalyptus) and biota (black swan guano) samples, which are abundant in the Macquarie Marshes, were also analysed for comparison. The proxies analysed include bulk organic carbon and nitrogen (TOC, TN, C/N ratio), carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and some organic biomarkers (focusing on n-alkanes, sterols and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). TOC values in surface samples range between 2 to 5% depending on the organic input. The TOC and TN curves exhibit similar trends along time, decreasing to only one tenth at the depth of 70 cm (~ 565-752 years old) than those at the surface. The bulk δ13C values of modern samples (less than 50 years old) vary from -23% to -26%, falling within the range of values found in black swan guano(-21.6%) and plants (-27.0 to -31.5%). The calculated C/N ratios range from 10 to 25, and together with δ13C values suggest that the organic matter is mainly derived from terrestrial C3 plants. The contribution of aquatic plants is shown by shifts to higher δ13C values and lower C/N values in the core sections below the 40 cm depth (older than 130 years). Changes in vegetation type are also reflected by n-alkane and sterol biomarkers. In one core from the northern marshes, the temporal variation of (n-C27+C29)/n-C31 ratio indicates that the dominance of grasses has gradually been replaced by higher plants about 130 years ago. Sediments from the floodplain and dry lagoons show a dominant peak in long-chain n-alkanes with strong odd-to-even preference, contributed by emergent

  6. Detection of a spotted fever group Rickettsia in the tick Ixodes tasmani collected from koalas in Port Macquarie, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcins, Inger-Marie E; Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2008-07-01

    Four species of Rickettsia are recognized as endemic to Australia. This study reports the detection of a new spotted fever group Rickettsia in the common marsupial tick Ixodes tasmani Neumann collected from koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia. Based on the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of extracted tick DNA with primers targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA) and the outer membrane proteins A and B (ompA. ompB), Rickettsiae were detected in 22 of 78 I. tasmani tick samples (28.2%). Sequence data obtained for the three genes displayed the closest degree of similarity to Rickettsia heilongjiangiensiss for gltA (99.4%; 331/333 bp), Rickettsia amblyommii for the ompA gene (94.8%; 417/440 bp), and both Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia rhipicephali for the ompB gene (97%; 770/803 bp). BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences obtained for the three genes were found to have sufficient nucleotide variation from the current recognized Australian species to be considered a distinct spotted fever group Rickettsia.

  7. Assessing climate change impacts on wetlands in a flow regulated catchment: A case study in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Baihua; Pollino, Carmel A; Cuddy, Susan M; Andrews, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Globally wetlands are increasingly under threat due to changes in water regimes as a result of river regulation and climate change. We developed the Exploring CLimAte Impacts on Management (EXCLAIM) decision support system (DSS), which simulates flow-driven habitat condition for 16 vegetation species, 13 waterbird species and 4 fish groups in the Macquarie catchment, Australia. The EXCLAIM DSS estimates impacts to habitat condition, considering scenarios of climate change and water management. The model framework underlying the DSS is a probabilistic Bayesian network, and this approach was chosen to explicitly represent uncertainties in climate change scenarios and predicted ecological outcomes. The results suggest that the scenario with no climate change and no water resource development (i.e. flow condition without dams, weirs or water license entitlements, often regarded as a surrogate for 'natural' flow) consistently has the most beneficial outcomes for vegetation, waterbird and native fish. The 2030 dry climate change scenario delivers the poorest ecological outcomes overall, whereas the 2030 wet climate change scenario has beneficial outcomes for waterbird breeding, but delivers poor outcomes for river red gum and black box woodlands, and fish that prefer river channels as habitats. A formal evaluation of the waterbird breeding model showed that higher numbers of observed nest counts are typically associated with higher modelled average breeding habitat conditions. The EXCLAIM DSS provides a generic framework to link hydrology and ecological habitats for a large number of species, based on best available knowledge of their flood requirements. It is a starting point towards developing an integrated tool for assessing climate change impacts on wetland ecosystems.

  8. US Ports of Entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  9. Patterns and processes of fluvial discontinuity and sediment residence times on the lower Macquarie River, Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Zacchary; Ralph, Timothy; Hesse, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The supply, transport and deposition of fine-grained sediment are important factors determining the morphology of lowland rivers that experience channel breakdown and have wetlands on their lower reaches. Sediment supply and residence time determine whether reaches accumulate sediment (wetland areas) or erode sediment (channelised areas). This research investigated how processes of sedimentation and erosion drive channel breakdown and reformation in the Macquarie Marshes, a large anastomosing wetland system in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Channel breakdown is attributed to a dominance of in-stream sedimentation that leads to a point where single-thread river channels cannot be maintained and so avulsion and floodout processes create smaller distributary channels and wetlands. Avulsions may reconnect channels, changing the sediment supply regime in those particular channels. Channel reformation occurs on the trunk stream where the floodplain gradient steepens enough to allow convergence of small tributaries, locally increasing stream power (and erosive energy in channels). As each river reach reforms following channel breakdown, the channel is smaller, shallower and straighter than the previous reach. One reach in this system recently (in the 1970s) became connected with a parallel channel through avulsion and has morphological characteristics that indicate a significant change in flow and sediment supply. In a pilot study using uranium-series disequilibrium methods and OSL dating, a sediment residence time of 58 +/- 2 ka was determined for sediment in the base of the active channel and a sediment residence time of 153 +/- 5 ka was determined for sediment buried in an adjacent meander that was cut off from the main channel 1,000 years ago. The apparent dramatic decrease in sediment residence time to this active channel poses an interesting question about the role of relatively new channels in transporting and depositing sediment more rapidly than the

  10. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  11. Soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for sub-Antarctic islands contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Sub-Antarctic islands have been subjected to petroleum hydrocarbon spills, yet no information is available regarding the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to these subpolar soils. The purpose of the present study was to identify soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sub-Antarctic soil. Soil from Macquarie Island, a sub-Antarctic island south of Australia, was collected and exposed to 10 concentrations of Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel, ranging from 0 to 50,000 mg fuel/kg soil, for a 21-d period. The sensitivity of nitrification, denitrification, carbohydrate utilization, and total soil respiration to SAB fuel was assessed. Potential nitrification activity was the most sensitive indicator of SAB contamination assessed for nitrogen cycling, with an IC20 (concentration that results in a 20% change from the control response) of 190 mg fuel/ kg soil. Potential denitrification activity was not as sensitive to SAB contamination, with an IC20 of 950 mg fuel/kg soil for nitrous oxide production. Nitrous oxide consumption was unaffected by SAB contamination. Carbohydrate utilization (respiration caused by sucrose) was a more sensitive indicator (IC20, 16 mg fuel/kg soil) of SAB contamination than total respiration (IC20, 220 mg fuel/kg soil). However, total soil respiration was a more responsive measurement end point, increasing soil respiration over a 72-h period by 17 mg of CO2, compared to a change of only 2.1 mg of CO2 for carbohydrate utilization. Our results indicate that IC20s varied between 16 to 950 mg fuel/kg soil for Macquarie Island soil spiked with SAB diesel fuel. These results indicate that current cleanup levels derived from temperate zones may be too liberal for soil contamination in sub-Antarctic islands.

  12. The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the Western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963—1967)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.; Zaneveld, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    During the austral summer seasons of 1963-1964 and 1964-1965, and during the austral winter season of 1967 Prof. Dr. J.S. Zaneveld made collection expeditions to the western Ross Sea. In 1965 collections were also made from the U.S.C.G. icebreaker ‘Glacier’, around the western Ross Sea and around th

  13. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  14. DLMS Voice Data Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    between operator and computer displayed on ADM-3A 20c A-I Possible Hardware Configuration for a Multistation Cartographic VDES ...this program a Voice Recognition System (VRS) which can be used to explore the use of voice data entry ( VDE ) in the DIMS or other cartographic data...Multi-Station Cartographic Voice Data Entry System An engineering development model voice data entry system ( VDES ) could be most efficiently

  15. Entry at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  16. Spitzer IRAC observations of newly-discovered planetary nebulae from the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg H-alpha Planetary Nebula Project

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Martin; Green, Anne J; Murphy, Tara; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J; Meade, Marilyn R; Babler, Brian; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara A; Watson, Christer; Churchwell, Edward B; Watson, Douglas F

    2007-01-01

    We compare H-alpha, radio continuum, and Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) images of 58 planetary nebulae (PNe) recently discovered by the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbo- urg H-alpha PN Project (MASH) of the SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey. Using InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data we define the IR colors of PNe and demonstrate good isolation between these colors and those of many other types of astronomical object. The only substantive contamination of PNe in the color-color plane we illustrate is due to YSOs. However, this ambiguity is readily resolved by the unique optical characteristics of PNe and their environs. We also examine the relationships between optical and MIR morphologies from 3.6 to 8.0um and explore the ratio of mid-infrared (MIR) to radio nebular fluxes, which is a valuable discriminant between thermal and nonthermal emission. MASH emphasizes late evolutionary stages of PNe compared with previous catalogs, enabling study of the changes in MIR and radio flux that attend the aging process. Spatially integrated M...

  17. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  18. A new species of Abyssocladia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Cladorhizidae) and other carnivorous sponges from the far eastern Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacelet, Jean; Kelly, Michelle

    2014-06-16

    Two species, one each of Abyssocladia Lévi, 1964, and Asbestopluma Topsent, 1901, are recorded from the far eastern Solomon Islands for the first time. Abyssocladia lakwollii sp. nov. is characterized by the pedunculate disc-shape of the body, the unusually large size of the isochelae I microscleres, and by the shape of the cleistochelae with crossed central teeth. Asbestopluma (A.) desmophora Kelly & Vacelet, 2011, first described from a seamount on Macquarie Ridge (Australia EEZ) and eastern waters to the north and south of New Zealand, is also recorded from the far eastern Solomon Islands. The specimens differ only slightly from their southern counterparts in dimensions of some spicules, and in the ornamentation detail of the basal teeth of the large and small anisochelae. 

  19. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  20. Shuttle entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  1. From hydrodynamic to hydrological modelling: Investigating long-term hydrological regimes of key wetlands in the Macquarie Marshes, a semi-arid lowland floodplain in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Macdonald, Rohan; Morrison, Tim; Hameed, Tahir; Saintilan, Neil; Ling, Joanne

    2013-09-01

    The Macquarie Marshes is an intermittently flooded wetland complex covering nearly 200,000 ha. It is one of the largest semi-permanent wetland systems in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, and portions of the Marshes are listed as internationally important under the Ramsar Convention. Previous studies indicate that the Marshes have undergone accelerated ecological degradation since the 1980s. The ecological degradation is documented in declining biodiversity, encroaching of terrestrial species, colonisation of exotic species, and deterioration of floodplain forests. There is strong evidence that reduction in river flows is the principal cause of the decrease in ecological values. Although the streams are relatively well gauged and modelled, the lack of hydrological records within the Marshes hampers any attempts to quantitatively investigate the relationship between hydrological variation and ecosystem integrity. To enable a better understanding of the long-term hydrological variations within the key wetland systems, and in particular, to investigate the impacts of the different water management policies (e.g. environmental water) on wetlands, a river system model including the main wetland systems was needed. The morphological complex nature of the Marshes means that the approximation of hydrological regimes within wetlands using stream hydrographs would have been difficult and inaccurate. In this study, we built a coupled 1D/2D MIKE FLOOD floodplain hydrodynamic model based on a 1 m DEM derived from a LiDAR survey. Hydrological characteristics of key constituent wetlands such as the correlation between water level and inundation area, relationships between stream and wetlands and among wetlands were estimated using time series extracted from hydrodynamic simulations. These relationships were then introduced into the existing river hydrological model (IQQM) to represent the wetlands. The model was used in this study to simulate the daily behaviours of inflow

  2. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  4. Re-entry and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, H.; Guangming, X.

    1983-11-01

    The physics of re-entry are discussed with emphasis on the re-entry trajectory of a ballistic missile. Factors discussed include re-entry speed, ablation, aerodynamic heating, and the plasma sheath shield. Experimental techniques used to simulate the aerodynamics and performance of missile systems include the computer, the wind tunnel, and free flight. Each of these is briefly discussed.

  5. Dynamics of Water Entry

    CERN Document Server

    Truscott, Tadd T; Techet, Alexandra H

    2008-01-01

    The hydrodynamics associated with water-entry of spheres can be highly variable with respect to the material and kinematic properties of the sphere. This series of five fluid dynamics videos illustrates several subtle but interesting variations that can be seen. The first series of videos contrasts the nature of impact ($Fr = U_o/\\sqrt{gd} = 5.15$) between a hydrophilic (wetting angle of $\\alpha$ = 60$^\\circ$) and hydrophobic sphere ($\\alpha$ = 120$^\\circ$), and illustrates how surface coating can affect whether or not an air cavity is formed; the views from the side and from above are synchronized in time. The second video series illustrates how spin and surface treatments can alter the splash and cavity formation following water entry. The spinning sphere ($S = \\omega r / U_o = 1.7$; $Fr = 5.15$) causes a wedge of fluid to be drawn into the cavity due to the no-slip condition and follows a curved trajectory. The non-spinning sphere ($Fr = 5.15$) has two distinct surface treatments on the left and right hemi...

  6. 19 CFR 142.17 - One entry summary for multiple entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.17 One entry summary... for which entries or immediate transportation entries have been filed. However, this provision is not.... (ii) Immediate transportation entries. Immediate transportation entries may be consolidated if the...

  7. Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Poxviruses comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Poxviruses, unlike most DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and encode enzymes and other proteins that enable entry, gene expression, genome replication, virion assembly and resistance to host defenses. Entry of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family, can occur at the plasma membrane or following endocytosis. Whereas many viruses encode one or two proteins for attachment and membrane fusion, vaccinia virus encodes four proteins for attachment and eleven more for membrane fusion and core entry. The entry-fusion proteins are conserved in all poxviruses and form a complex, known as the Entry Fusion Complex (EFC), which is embedded in the membrane of the mature virion. An additional membrane that encloses the mature virion and is discarded prior to entry is present on an extracellular form of the virus. The EFC is held together by multiple interactions that depend on nine of the eleven proteins. The entry process can be divided into attachment, hemifusion and core entry. All eleven EFC proteins are required for core entry and at least eight for hemifusion. To mediate fusion the virus particle is activated by low pH, which removes one or more fusion repressors that interact with EFC components. Additional EFC-interacting fusion repressors insert into cell membranes and prevent secondary infection. The absence of detailed structural information, except for two attachment proteins and one EFC protein, is delaying efforts to determine the fusion mechanism.

  8. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  9. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  10. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  11. Water Entry of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T.; Epps, Brenden P.; Belden, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The free-surface impact of solid objects has been investigated for well over a century. This canonical problem is influenced by many physical parameters, including projectile geometry, material properties, fluid properties, and impact parameters. Through advances in high-speed imaging and visualization techniques, discoveries about the underlying physics have improved our understanding of these phenomena. Improvements to analytical and numerical models have led to critical insights into cavity formation, the depth and time of pinch-off, forces, and trajectories for myriad different impact parameters. This topic spans a wide range of regimes, from low-speed entry phenomena dominated by surface tension to high-speed ballistics, for which cavitation is important. This review surveys experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies over this broad range, utilizing canonical images where possible to enhance intuition and insight into the rich phenomena.

  12. The effects of body size and climate on post-weaning survival of elephant seals at Heard Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Clive R; New, Leslie; Fairley, E.J.; Hindell, M.A.; Burton, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The population size of southern elephant seals in the southern Indian and Pacific Oceans decreased precipitously between the 1950s and 1990s. To investigate the reasons behind this, we studied the population of southern elephant seals at Heard Island between 1949 and 1954, using data collected by the early Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions. Seals were marked and measured (lengths) as weaned pups, and resighted at Heard and Marion islands and in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica in subsequent years. Bayesian state-space mark-recapture models were used to determine post-weaning survival. Yearling survival was consistently lower (ϕy: 0.28–0.40) than sub-adult survival (ϕs: 0.79–0.83). We found evidence for constant sub-adult survival and time-dependent resight probabilities. Weaning length was an important determinate of yearling survival, with the probability of survival increasing with individual length. There was some suggestion that the Southern Annular Mode influenced yearling survival but this evidence was not strong. Nonetheless, our results provide further support showing that size at independence affects yearling survival. Given the known sensitivity of southern elephant seal populations to survival early in life, it is possible that the decline in population size at Heard Island between the 1950s and 1990s like that at Macquarie Island was due to low yearling survival mediated through maternal ability to produce large pups and the dominant environmental conditions mothers experience during pregnancy.

  13. Tactile Data Entry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  14. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  15. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  16. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  17. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  18. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  19. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed...

  20. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a) Entry summary not filed at time of entry. When the entry documentation is filed before the entry...

  1. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  2. Reconstruction of the Genesis Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Qualls, Garry D.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the reconstruction analyses performed for the Genesis capsule entry is described. The results indicate that the actual entry prior to the drogue deployment failure was very close to the pre-entry predictions. The capsule landed 8.3 km south of the desired target at Utah Test and Training Range. Analysis on infrared video footage (obtained from the tracking stations) during the descent estimated the onset of the capsule tumble at Mach 0.9. Frequency analysis on the infrared video data indicates that the aerodynamics generated for the Genesis capsule reasonably predicted the drag and static stability. Observations of the heatshield support the pre-entry simulation estimates of a small hypersonic angles-of-attack, since there is very little, if any, charring of the shoulder region or the aftbody. Through this investigation, an overall assertion can be made that all the data gathered from the Genesis entry is consistent with flight performance that was close to the nominal preentry prediction. Consequently, the design principles and methodologies utilized for the flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics analyses have been corroborated.

  3. Membongkar Akuntansi Double Entry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whedy Prasetyo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Double entry isa process of recording transactions that always involve at least two accounts ofwhich changes (increases or decreases have consequences to maintain a balance equation. This is a simple basic accounting, that the use of the funds must alwaysbe equal to the acquisition of funds. The equation is not able to include some business events that are responses to the development of business environment. A proposed view is based on the interaction of researcher (New Bond with accountant (Mrs M to dismantle the double entry accounting through Maurice Merleau Ponty's approach (1906-1961. The results prove that physical aspects of knowledge willcontinue to evolve according to environmental interactions.

  4. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  5. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  6. Components of Visual Prior Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Keith A.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2003-01-01

    The prior entry hypothesis contends that attention accelerates sensory processing, shortening the time to perception. Typical observations supporting the hypothesis may be explained equally well by response biases, changes in decision criteria, or sensory facilitation. In a series of experiments conducted to discriminate among the potential…

  7. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  8. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2009-01-01

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  9. 19 CFR 142.3a - Entry numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry numbers. 142.3a Section 142.3a Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.3a Entry numbers. (a) Placement on CBP forms. The importer or broker shall place an 11 character entry number on the entry and corresponding entry...

  10. Bi-weekly waterfowl survey data entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data sheet for the entry of bi-weekly waterfowl survey data from the state of Kansas. This Excel file contains the data entry sheet and a chart displaying waterfowl...

  11. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  12. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  13. Sunk costs, entry deterrence, and financial constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.; Diaw, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how sunk costs affect a financially constrained incumbent's ability to deter entry into its market. Sunk costs make it less attractive to the incumbent to accommodate entry by liquidating assets in place and exiting the market. This may render entry by a prospective rival

  14. Sport entries and qualification manual: Nanjing 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sport entries constitute an important part of the delegation registration process of the Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games. This manual aims to introduce to NOCs the process, relevant policies and requirements regarding sport entries so as to ensure that NOCs can successfully complete the entries for their athletes to the Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games.

  15. 19 CFR 143.36 - Form of immediate delivery, entry and entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Form of immediate delivery, entry and entry summary. (a) Electronic form of data. If Customs determines... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of immediate delivery, entry and entry summary. 143.36 Section 143.36 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  17. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  18. Matrix Completion from Noisy Entries

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavan, Raghunandan H; Oh, Sewoong

    2009-01-01

    Given a matrix M of low-rank, we consider the problem of reconstructing it from noisy observations of a small, random subset of its entries. The problem arises in a variety of applications, from collaborative filtering (the `Netflix problem') to structure-from-motion and positioning. We study a low complexity algorithm introduced by Keshavan et al.(2009), based on a combination of spectral techniques and manifold optimization, that we call here OptSpace. We prove performance guarantees that are order-optimal in a number of circumstances.

  19. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  20. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    -nesting seabirds of the Prince Edward Islands into the 21st century, but only providing the effects of .... too penguins resulted in high losses of eggs and chicks ... Marion Island base. ..... which comes into force three months after five Parties.

  1. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  2. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can......The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for adaptive context...

  3. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  4. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  6. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  7. Managing migration: scaling sovereignty on islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Loyd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Island and maritime spaces between regions have become central places of recurrent crises over human migration and re-articulations of state sovereignty. Islands, the very sites where land meets water, are among the contested sites of struggle over entry and exclusion. In this paper, the Mediterranean is our main area of geographical inquiry. We explore the connections between crises of sovereignty, migration and islands, seeking to enhance connections between scholarship on migration and sovereignty. We argue that migration management and its geographical articulation on islands involve persistent reconfigurations of sovereignty, particularly evident during times of crisis over human migration. Such crises and re-articulations of sovereignty are creative uses of geography that repeatedly lead to a failure to protect human rights. To develop this argument, we bring feminist theorists of state sovereignty into conversation with political geographers. We move across scales of governance and political mobilization to show how a reconfiguration of sovereignty through regional and national management regimes leads to complex legal geographies and sovereign entanglements that migrants and advocates must navigate to claim rights.

  8. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  9. Entry Into a Care Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Carpentier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A broad range of services are developing in response to the needs of an aging population. Although most interventions are carried out in the patient’s living environment—at the heart of society—few studies on service utilization refer to social theory. This paper suggests that studies on older people with chronic health conditions would benefit from a stronger theoretical foundation. Drawing on 15 in-depth interviews, it highlights the relevance of individualization processes and the network society, 2 central theoretical concerns in sociology. The research provides a unique perspective on the entry into the care trajectory and expands our comprehension of the emergence of a social organization that can respond to the needs of elderly patients. Data of this nature may be useful in service planning and the development of a care-centered approach.

  10. Assessment of flavaglines as potential chikungunya virus entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Thuaud, Frédéric; Basmadjian, Christine; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Ubol, Sukathida; Désaubry, Laurent; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that recently caused large epidemics in islands in, and countries around, the Indian Ocean. There is currently no specific drug for therapeutic treatment or for use as a prophylactic agent against infection and no commercially available vaccine. Prohibitin has been identified as a receptor protein used by chikungunya virus to enter mammalian cells. Recently, synthetic sulfonyl amidines and flavaglines (FLs), a class of naturally occurring plant compounds with potent anti-cancer and cytoprotective and neuroprotective activities, have been shown to interact directly with prohibitin. This study therefore sought to determine whether three prohibitin ligands (sulfonyl amidine 1 m and the flavaglines FL3 and FL23) were able to inhibit CHIKV infection of mammalian Hek293T/17 cells. All three compounds inhibited infection and reduced virus production when cells were treated before infection but not when added after infection. Pretreatment of cells for only 15 minutes prior to infection followed by washing out of the compound resulted in significant inhibition of entry and virus production. These results suggest that further investigation of prohibitin ligands as potential Chikungunya virus entry inhibitors is warranted.

  11. A Phenomenology of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.

  12. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...

  13. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel;

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  14. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...

  15. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  16. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  17. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  18. 19 CFR 142.3 - Entry documentation required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry documentation required. 142.3 Section 142.3... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.3 Entry documentation required. (a) Contents. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the entry documentation required to secure...

  19. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  20. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  1. Novel Approaches to Inhibit HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka A. Didigu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV entry into target cells is a multi-step process involving binding of the viral glycoprotein, Env, to its receptor CD4 and a coreceptor—either CCR5 or CXCR4. Understanding the means by which HIV enters cells has led to the identification of genetic polymorphisms, such as the 32 base-pair deletion in the ccr5 gene (ccr5∆32 that confers resistance to infection in homozygous individuals, and has also resulted in the development of entry inhibitors—small molecule antagonists that block infection at the entry step. The recent demonstration of long-term control of HIV infection in a leukemic patient following a hematopoietic stem cell transplant using cells from a ccr5∆32 homozygous donor highlights the important role of the HIV entry in maintaining an established infection and has led to a number of attempts to treat HIV infection by genetically modifying the ccr5 gene. In this review, we describe the HIV entry process and provide an overview of the different classes of approved HIV entry inhibitors while highlighting novel genetic strategies aimed at blocking HIV infection at the level of entry.

  2. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  3. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  4. Entry Regulation under Asymmetric Information about Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sarmento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how an incumbent firm can use the regulatory policy about entry and the informational advantage to protect his market position. This question is studied through the construction of a signalling game where we assume that the regulator has less information about demand than the firms. We conclude that there is a pooling equilibrium and partially separating equilibria in which entry is deterred and, if demand is high, there will be insufficient entry. The final effect on welfare depends on the tradeoff between short-run benefits (lower price and long-run losses (weaker competition.

  5. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  6. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration.

  7. Integrated Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Guo-dong; ZHANG Shu-guang; FANG Zhen-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the implementation of integrated three-degree-of-freedom constrained entry guidance for reusable launch vehicle is presented. Given any feasible entry conditions, terminal area energy management interface conditions, and the reference trajectory generated onboard then, the method can generate a longitudinal guidance profile rapidly, featuring linear quadratic regular method and a proportional-integral-derivative tracking law with time-varying gains, which satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the requirements with high precision. Afterwards, by utilizing special features of crossrange parameter, establishing bank-reversal corridor,and determining bank-reversals according to dynamically adjusted method, the algorithm enables the lateral entry guidance system to fly a wide range of missions and provides reliable and good performance in the presence of significant aerodynamic modeling uncertainty.Fast trajectory guidance profiles and simulations with a reusable launch vehicle model for various missions and aerodynamic uncertainties are presented to demonstrate the capacity and reliability of this method.

  8. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  9. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...... including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making....

  10. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  11. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  12. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  13. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  14. Hypersonic and planetary entry flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Busemann, A.; Culp, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The book treats hypersonic flight trajectories and atmospheric entry flight mechanics in light of their importance for space shuttle entry. Following a review of the structures of planetary atmospheres and aerodynamic forces, equations are derived for flight over a spherical planet, and the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles in extra-atmospheric flight is analyzed. Consideration is then given to vehicle trajectories in the powered and atmospheric reentry phases of flight, and several first-order solutions are derived for various planetary entry situations. The second-order theory of Loh for entry trajectories is presented along with the classical theories of Yaroshevskii and Chapman for entry into planetary atmospheres, and the thermal problems encountered in hypersonic flight are analyzed. A unified theory for entry into planetary atmospheres is then introduced which allows the performance of a general type of lifting vehicle to be studied, and applied to the analysis of orbit contraction due to atmospheric drag, flight with lift modulation and lateral maneuvers.

  15. Planetary/DOD entry technology flight experiments. Volume 2: Planetary entry flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. E.; Krieger, R. J.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Vetter, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The technical feasibility of launching a high speed, earth entry vehicle from the space shuttle to advance technology for the exploration of the outer planets' atmospheres was established. Disciplines of thermodynamics, orbital mechanics, aerodynamics propulsion, structures, design, electronics and system integration focused on the goal of producing outer planet environments on a probe shaped vehicle during an earth entry. Major aspects of analysis and vehicle design studied include: planetary environments, earth entry environment capability, mission maneuvers, capabilities of shuttle upper stages, a comparison of earth entry planetary environments, experiment design and vehicle design.

  16. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Island-trapped waves , internal waves , and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...topography. As strong flows encounter small islands, points, and submarine ridges, it is expected that wakes, eddies, and arrested internal lee waves ...form drag, lee waves , eddy generation) over small-scale topographic features and (ii) fundamentally nonlinear processes (turbulent island wakes

  17. 19 CFR 142.44 - Entry number range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry number range. 142.44 Section 142.44 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.44 Entry number range. After an application for Line Release has received final approval, filers must provide the port director, in writing, with a range of entry...

  18. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... assist in developing a marketing strategy. The firm has created a new Global Entry logo and tag line... SENTRI II. Analysis of Comments A. Program Performance and Entry Process B. Marketing of Global Entry C.... Marketing of Global Entry Comment: CBP received two comments suggesting that CBP should expand marketing...

  19. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species.

  20. Lessons learned from planetary entry probe missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kasprzak, Wayne

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and too costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future planetary missions should also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. The success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and unique data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. There are, however, unique challenges associated with entry probe missions and with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme. There are operating time constraints due to the usually short duration of the probe descent, and the instruments experience rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Because of the protective heat shield and the high acceleration the probe experiences during entry, the ratio of payload to total probe mass is usually much smaller than in other missions. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result, there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements are more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrumentation and consequently reducing the required size of the probe. Improved heat shield

  1. 76 FR 82315 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Entry/Immediate... process is conducted in accordance with 5 CFR 1320.10. DATES: Written comments should be received on or...

  2. Body mass index estimation in a school-entry aged cohort in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Farrugia Sant'Angelo, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This study measured body mass index (BMI) in a national cohort of school-entry children in Malta (04/2007, n=3461). By International Obesity Task Force criteria, over a quarter are overweight/obese. CDC criteria classify one-third as overweight/obese. BMIs were higher in the less affluent south of the island, especially in the Grand Harbour area. Analysis by school showed differences in boys only with lowest BMIs in private schools, followed by subsidized church schools and by free State schools. These differences are attributed to a lower level of education with regard to the consequences of obesity in the less affluent southern part of the island, along with lifestyles adopted in this area. We estimate that obesity will eventually cost Malta 70,000,000 euros/annum and therefore hope that this study will serve as a catalyst for further population-based BMI estimations and for an intensive effort to curtail this chronic disease.

  3. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  4. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  5. Editorial : islands : objects of representation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  6. 32 CFR 763.5 - Entry procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements, specical projects, and the amount and cost of military supervision necessitated by a granting of... Assimilative Crimes Act, while on the island of Kaho'olawe. Any individual who violates any provisions of...

  7. Shuttle program. MCC Level C formulation requirements: Entry guidance and entry autopilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Hill, O.

    1980-01-01

    A set of preliminary entry guidance and autopilot software formulations is presented for use in the Mission Control Center (MCC) entry processor. These software formulations meet all level B requirements. Revision 2 incorporates the modifications required to functionally simulate optimal TAEM targeting capability (OTT). Implementation of this logic in the MCC must be coordinated with flight software OTT implementation and MCC TAEM guidance OTT. The entry guidance logic is based on the Orbiter avionics entry guidance software. This MCC requirements document contains a definition of coordinate systems, a list of parameter definitions for the software formulations, a description of the entry guidance detailed formulation requirements, a description of the detailed autopilot formulation requirements, a description of the targeting routine, and a set of formulation flow charts.

  8. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  9. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...... are identified. The paper closes with a brief discussion of limitations, avenues for future research, and implications for managers and affected policymakers....

  10. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  11. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  12. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  13. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  14. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project.

  15. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project.

  16. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  17. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  18. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  19. "Generic Entry and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals"

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Richard G.; David S. Salkever

    1995-01-01

    During the 1980s the share of prescriptions sold by retail pharmacies that was accounted for by generic products roughly doubled. The price response to generic entry of brand-name products has been a source of controversy. In this paper we estimate models of price responses to generic entry in the market for brand-name and generic drugs. We study a sample of 32 drugs that lost patent protection during the early to mid-1980s. Our results provide strong evidence that brand-name prices increase ...

  20. Position-optimization on retained entry and backfilling wall in gob-side entry retaining techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Feng; Nong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the stability problem of gob-side entry retaining (GER) and backfilling wall which located under the key block B. Based on the combined research of elastic–plastic mechanics, structure mechanics and modern theory of mining-induced pressure, the caving characteristic and roof structure over the GER were analyzed, and the vertical force and the torque on retained entry roof were also derived as the position for the retained entry varies. On the basis of the specific geology in Huainan mining area, the results indicate that a relatively more stable position for retained entry neighbors the hinge point of block A and B, and it also located at a scope ranging from this point to the one-third length of block B in horizontal direction. As to appropriate position for backfilling wall, this study recommends partial-road-in backfilling method for GER. Field trial conducted at panel face 12418 of Xieqiao Mine demonstrates that the recommended width for original entry is 3.6 m and the preferred width proportion between original retained entry and original entry is 75%or so whereas the avoidable one is 88%or so. These findings provide qualitative references to the mines which share similar geology as what Huainan mining area characterized.

  1. 19 CFR 4.8 - Preliminary entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic equivalent of a complete Customs Form 1302 (Cargo Declaration), in the manner provided in § 4.7(b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary entry. 4.8 Section 4.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. 19 CFR 145.25 - Entry correct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... director believes the duty originally assessed was correct, he shall send the addressee a notice in writing... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry correct. 145.25 Section 145.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. Continuous Aerodynamic Modelling of Entry Shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.; Mooij, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the conceptual design phase of a re-entry vehicle, the vehicle shape can be varied and its impact on performance evaluated. To this end, the continuous modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics as a function of the shape is useful in exploring the full design space. Local inclination method

  4. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  5. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  6. Processes with multiple entries and exits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Stefanescu, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to integrate the algebra of communicating processes (ACP) and the algebra of flownomials (AF). Basically, this means to combine axiomatized parallel and looping operators. To this end we introduce a model of process graphs with multiple entries and exits. In this model the u

  7. HIV-1 Entry Inhbitors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of HIV-1 entry inhibitors, with a focus on chemokine receptor antagonists. Recent findings Entry of HIV-1 into target cells is an ordered multi-step process involving attachment, co-receptor binding and fusion. Inhibitors of each step have been identified and shown to have antiviral activity in clinical trials. Phase 1-2 trials of monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule attachment inhibitors have demonstrated activity in HIV-1-infected subjects, but none has progressed to later phase clinical trials. The post-attachment inhibitor ibalizumab has shown activity in phase 1 and 2 trials; further studies are anticipated. The CCR5 antagonists maraviroc (now been approved for clinical use) and vicriviroc (in phase 3 trials) have shown significant benefit in controlled trials in treatment-experienced subjects; additional CCR5 antagonists are in various stages of clinical development. Targeting CXCR4 has proven to be more challenging. Although proof of concept has been demonstrated in phase 1-2 trials of two compounds, neither proved suitable for chronic administration. Little progress has been reported in developing longer acting or orally bioavailable fusion inhibitors. Summary ACCR5 antagonist and a fusion inhibitor are approved for use as HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Development of drugs targeting other steps in HIV-1 entry is ongoing. PMID:19339945

  8. Duopoly Dynamics with a Barrier to Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.; Campbell, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of raising the cost of entry for a potential competitor on infinite-horizon Markov-perfect duopoly dynamics with ongoing demand uncertainty. All entrants serving the model industry incur sunk costs, and exit avoids future fixed costs. We focus on the unique equilibri

  9. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  10. Internet portals as portfolios of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the valuation of platform investment, such as a software operating system or an Internet portal WebPage. Platform investment is the creation of an innovative distribution and production infrastructure, which increases access to customers; as a result it reduces entry costs in related

  11. Internet portals as portfolios of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the valuation of platform investment, such as a software operating system or an Internet portal WebPage. Platform investment is the creation of an innovative distribution and production infrastructure, which increases access to customers; as a result it reduces entry costs in related

  12. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  13. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  14. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  15. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  16. Analytic Guidance for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic method to generate a reference drag trajectory for the first entry portion of a skip atmospheric entry. The drag reference, expressed as a polynomial function of the velocity, will meet the conditions necessary to fit the requirements of the complete entry phase. The generic method proposed to generate the drag reference profile is further simplified by thinking of the drag and the velocity as density and cumulative distribution functions respectively. With this notion it will be shown that the reference drag profile can be obtained by solving a linear algebraic system of equations. The resulting drag profile is flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. This approach was first proposed as a revisited version of the Space Shuttle Orbiter entry guidance. However, this paper will show that it can be used to fly the first entry in a skip entry trajectory. In doing so, the gains in the error dynamics will be changed at a certain point along the trajectory to improve the tracking performance.

  17. Entry Location and Entry Timing (ELET Decision Model for International Construction Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Maznah Mat Isa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for entry location (EL and entry timing (ET decisions to guide construction firms in accessing targeted international markets.  Neglecting to properly choose the right combination of the entry location and entry timing (ELET decisions can lead to poor performance of the firms’ international ventures.  The sampling frame was from the Malaysian construction firms that have undertaken and completed projects abroad.  Survey questionnaires sent to 115 firms registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB Malaysia, operating in more than 50 countries, achieved a 39.1 per cent response rate. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of survey data it was found that the mutually inclusive significant factors that influenced the firms’ ELET decisions were: the firm’s ability to assess market signals and opportunities, international experience, financial capacity, competencies and capabilities (project management, specialist expertise and technology, resources (level of knowledge based on research and development, experience in similar works, financial support from the home country banks, technical complexities of projects and availability of funds for projects.  Hence, the present research builds on and extends the literature on the ELET decisions in a more integrated way. Keywords: Entry location, entry timing, resource-based view, international markets, Malaysian construction firms.

  18. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  19. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  20. Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ADEPT Project is developing a mechanically deployable low-ballistic coefficient aeroshell entry system to perform entry descent landing (EDL) functions for...

  1. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  2. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  3. Takarajima: A Treasured Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the manner in which local identity can be constructed on small islands from the selective prioritisation and elaboration of exogenous elements that become localised by this process and can subsequently function as a brand within contemporary tourism markets. The particular analysis of identity motifs on Takarajima island that we expound examines aspects of the relationships between folklore and contemporary media and references contemporary debates concerning archaeology’s interface with folklore and popular culture in the context of (non-scientific ‘treasure hunting’.

  4. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  5. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  6. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  7. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-15

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  8. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  9. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  10. Title list, publicly available documents: Three Mile Island Unit 1, Docket 50-289 - cumulated to November 16, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This title list of publicly available documents pertaining to Three Mile Island Unit 1, Docket 50-289, includes all documents pertaining to this Docket that had been filed in the NRC Public Document Room as of November 16, 1979. The categories used for filing and searching in the NRC Public Document Room are used to catalog the entries.

  11. Update of assessment of geotechnical risks, strategic petroleum reserve, Weeks Island site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, S.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a critical reassessment of the geotechnical risks of continuing oil storage at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. It reviews all previous risk abatement recommendations, subsequent mitigative actions, and new information. Of increased concern, due to the discovery of a surface levels, is the long term maintainability of the mine as an oil storage repository. Mine operational changes are supported in order to facilitate monitoring of water entry diagnostics. These changes are also intended to minimize the volume in the mine available for water entry. Specific recommendations are made to implement the mine changes.

  12. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  13. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M.

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1.

  14. Prototipicality in entries of school dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Castro de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical Lexicography is the discipline which, in a general way, studies and criticizes the dictionaries. It is open to the theoretical contribution from other fields of research, such as Text Linguistics, Pragmatics, and Multimodality, once they may show another lexical dimension. Thus, we base our analysis on the theoretical support from Prototypes Theory, from cognitive sciences. In that sense, this paper aims to identify and describe the prototypicality in entries from the five type 3 dictionaries from the PNLD 2012 (National Plan for the Didactic Books. In order to do so, we use theories from Pontes (2008; 2009 and Geeraerts (2007. We analyze five entries, one from each dictionary type 3.

  15. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and clearance. 375.24 Section 375.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  16. 19 CFR 143.35 - Procedure for electronic entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for electronic entry summary. 143.35 Section 143.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.35...

  17. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... selection process, and the initial airport locations. See 77 FR 5681 and 8 CFR 235.12. Travelers who wish to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S... as Global Entry, at twenty major U.S. airports. Global Entry allows pre-approved,...

  18. 40 CFR 90.1207 - Entry and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry and access. 90.1207 Section 90... § 90.1207 Entry and access. (a) To allow the Administrator to determine whether a manufacturer is... maintenance. (c) The provisions of § 90.705(c), (d), (e), (f) and (g) also apply to entry and access...

  19. Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.

  20. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the...

  1. 50 CFR 91.16 - Submission procedures for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Procedures for.... Each entry must be accompanied by a non-refundable entrance fee and a completed and signed Reproduction... the Reproduction Rights Agreement must be attached to the back of the entry. (b) Each entry should...

  2. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  3. Sport entries & qualification manual: Innsbruck 2012 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sport entries constitute an important part of the delegation registration process of the Innsbruck 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games. This manual aims to introduce to NOCs the process, relevant policies and requirements regarding sport entries so as to ensure that NOCs can successfully complete the entries for their athletes to the Innsbruck 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games.

  4. Hypersonic Flight Mechanics. [for atmospheric entry trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, A.; Vinh, N. X.; Culp, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds are discussed in terms of atmospheric models. The assumptions for the model are spherical symmetry, nonrotating, and an exponential atmosphere. The equations of flight, and the performance in extra-atmospheric flight are discussed along with the return to the atmosphere, and the entry. Solutions of the exact equations using directly matched asymptotic expansions are presented.

  5. Unified treatment of lifting atmospheric entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Lehman, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of the effect of lift on peak acceleration during atmospheric entry. Earlier studies were restricted to different regimes because of approximations invoked to solve the same transcendental equation. This paper shows the connection between the earlier studies by employing a general expression for the peak acceleration and obtains solutions to the transcendental equation without invoking the earlier approximations. Results are presented and compared with earlier studies where appropriate.

  6. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  7. Cell entry by human pathogenic arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Jillian M; Kunz, Stefan

    2008-04-01

    The arenaviruses Lassa virus (LASV) in Africa and Machupo (MACV), Guanarito (GTOV) and Junin viruses (JUNV) in South America cause severe haemorrhagic fevers in humans with fatality rates of 15-35%. The present review focuses on the first steps of infection with human pathogenic arenaviruses, the interaction with their cellular receptor molecules and subsequent entry into the host cell. While similarities exist in genomic organization, structure and clinical disease caused by pathogenic Old World and New World arenaviruses these pathogens use different primary receptors. The Old World arenaviruses employ alpha-dystroglycan, a cellular receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix, and the human pathogenic New World arenaviruses use the cellular cargo receptor transferrin receptor 1. While the New World arenavirus JUNV enters cells via clathrin-dependent endocytosis, evidence occurred for clathrin-independent entry of the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Upon internalization, arenaviruses are delivered to the endosome, where pH-dependent membrane fusion is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein (GP). While arenavirus GPs share characteristics with class I fusion GPs of other enveloped viruses, unusual mechanistic features of GP-mediated membrane fusion have recently been discovered for arenaviruses with important implications for viral entry.

  8. Kinetics of virus entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-04-01

    Entry of virions into the host cells is either endocytotic or fusogenic. In both cases, it occurs via reversible formation of numerous relatively weak bonds resulting in wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent membrane rupture or scission. The corresponding kinetic models are customarily focused on the formation of bonds and do not pay attention to the energetics of the whole process, which is crucially dependent, especially in the case of endocytosis, on deformation of actin filaments forming the cytoskeleton of the host cell. The kinetic model of endocytosis, proposed by the author, takes this factor into account and shows that the whole process can be divided into a rapid initial transient stage and a long steady-state stage. The entry occurs during the latter stage and can be described as a first-order reaction. Depending on the details of the dependence of the grand canonical potential on the number of bonds, the entry can be limited either by the interplay of bond formation and membrane rupture (or scission) or by reaching a maximum of this potential.

  9. Filovirus tropism: Cellular molecules for viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayato eTakada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In human and nonhuman primates, filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever.Recently, other animals such as pigs and some species of fruit bats have also been shown to be susceptible to these viruses. While having a preference for some cell types such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, filoviruses are known to be pantropic in infection of primates. The envelope glycoprotein (GP is responsible for both receptor binding and fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. It has been demonstrated that filovirus GP interacts with multiple molecules for entry into host cells, whereas none of the cellular molecules so far identified as a receptor/coreceptor fully explains filovirus tissue tropism and host range. Available data suggest that the mucin-like region (MLR on GP plays an important role in attachment to the preferred target cells, whose infection is likely involved in filovirus pathogenesis, whereas the MLR is not essential for the fundamental function of the GP in viral entry into cells in vitro. Further studies elucidating the mechanisms of cellular entry of filoviruses may shed light on the development of strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

  10. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson County Central Library, Lopez Island Public Library, North Olympic Public Library, Oak Harbor Public...

  11. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  12. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  13. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Steven

    1971-01-01

    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  14. The Flores Island tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  15. 19 CFR 149.6 - Entry and entry summary documentation and Importer Security Filing submitted via a single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Security Filing submitted via a single electronic transmission. 149.6 Section 149.6 Customs Duties U.S... submitted via a single electronic transmission. If the Importer Security Filing is filed pursuant to § 149.2 of this part via the same electronic transmission as entry or entry/entry summary...

  16. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

    and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian). Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from most Palaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence...... are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at -2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented...

  17. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    in the labor market and entry modes shape the post-entry dynamics of nascent business owners. By differentiating between different entry and exit routes, this paper provides new evidence on different human capital patterns among nascent business owners and on key determinants of entrepreneurial survival. Our...... results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily...

  18. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    for digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity.......When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode...

  19. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity.......When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode...

  20. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  1. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity....

  2. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  3. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  4. Entry properties and entry inhibitors of a human H7N9 influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Si

    Full Text Available The recently identified human infections with a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus in China raise important questions regarding possible risk to humans. However, the entry properties and tropism of this H7N9 virus were poorly understood. Moreover, neuraminidase inhibitor resistant H7N9 isolates were recently observed in two patients and correlated with poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the entry properties of H7N9 virus, design and evaluate inhibitors for H7N9 virus entry. We optimized and developed an H7N9-pseudotyped particle system (H7N9pp that could be neutralized by anti-H7 antibodies and closely mimicked the entry process of the H7N9 virus. Avian, human and mouse-derived cultured cells showed high, moderate and low permissiveness to H7N9pp, respectively. Based on influenza virus membrane fusion mechanisms, a potent anti-H7N9 peptide (P155-185-chol corresponding to the C-terminal ectodomain of the H7N9 hemagglutinin protein was successfully identified. P155-185-chol demonstrated H7N9pp-specific inhibition of infection with IC50 of 0.19 µM. Importantly, P155-185-chol showed significant suppression of A/Anhui/1/2013 H7N9 live virus propagation in MDCK cells and additive effects with NA inhibitors Oseltamivir and Zanamivir. These findings expand our knowledge of the entry properties of the novel H7N9 viruses, and they highlight the potential for developing a new class of inhibitors targeting viral entry for use in the next pandemic.

  5. Entry Properties and Entry Inhibitors of a Human H7N9 Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Youhui Si; Jianguo Li; Yuqiang Niu; Xiuying Liu; Lili Ren; Li Guo; Min Cheng; Hongli Zhou; Jianwei Wang; Qi Jin; Wei Yang

    2014-01-01

    The recently identified human infections with a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus in China raise important questions regarding possible risk to humans. However, the entry properties and tropism of this H7N9 virus were poorly understood. Moreover, neuraminidase inhibitor resistant H7N9 isolates were recently observed in two patients and correlated with poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the entry properties of H7N9 virus, design and evaluate inhibitors for H7N9 virus e...

  6. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...... production via SSDG. Furthermore, the paper gives an update on the implementation in Mauritius of the proposed incentives.......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...

  7. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  8. Access, entry and researcher-participant position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    it deals with the research findings that such a research design produced. As well as the methodological issues of researcher access, entry and participant position in the field, this article reports on the following questions: What kinds of implicit expectations of the students are embedded in the way...... the school introduces and initiates the programme? What kinds of effects does this have on the motivation of the students? How do the terms and professional language of the profession work on the individual students in including and excluding ways? These specific descriptions of classroom pedagogy, inspired...

  9. Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    d3Πg − a3Πu (0:18;0:33) Fox- Herzberg e3Πg − a3Πu (0:15;0:35) Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry RTO-EN-AVT-162 8 - 15 affect a few J...structures of the spectra, namely in lines. This motivates the development of approximate models which do not have the high resolution structures but provide...Dec 1996. [2] L.C. Hartung. Predicting radiative heat transfer in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium flow- fields: theory and user’s manual for the

  10. Evolved Acceleration Guidance for Planetary Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, K. D.; Leavitt, J. A.; Ferch, M.

    The U.S. Apollo and Shuttle programs have proven the viability and effectiveness of acceleration guidance. New capabilities have been developed to augment this basic concept. Algorithms have been designed for low lift to drag ratio vehicles and for mid to high lift to drag ratio vehicles. These algorithms have been tested for Mars landing and for earth entry of reusable launch vehicles and have performed well in both cases. Also the trajectory planner has been incorporated into a landing footprint generator that is designed for on-board use.

  11. Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt R. Brekke; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of reference pricing on pharmaceutical prices and ex-penditures when generic entry is endogenously determined. We develop a Salop-type model where a brand-name producer competes with generic producers in terms of prices. In the market there are two types of consumers: (i) brand biased consumers who choose between brand-name and generic drugs, and (ii) brand neutral consumers who choose between the different generic drugs. We find that, for a given number of ...

  12. Female entrepreneurial networks and foreign market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of networks in the 116 foreign market entries (FMEs) of women-owned small businesses. A multiple case study based on semi-structured interviews with eight female entrepreneurs in the Danish fashion design industry. The results show that contrary to...... entrepreneurial ventures....... or compromising their work-life balance. The present study’s findings suggest that ICT has a much stronger role in the FME of firms than previously envisioned. The study’s findings also have important implications for policymakers and practitioners charged with promoting the international growth of female...

  13. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  14. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  15. Cushion plants as islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepedino, V J; Stanton, N L

    1976-09-01

    The acarine fauna of two abundant species of cushion plant on the high, short-grass prairie of S.E. Wyoming were used to test The MacArthur-Wilson Theory of Island Biogeography. Multiple regression analysis using area, distance and percent moisture as independent variables and number of mite species and number of mite individuals were run for the two sampling dates. Results showed area alone to be consistently and highly correlated (r=0.84-0.94) with both species and individuals for one cushion species. The slopes of the species-area and individuals-area curves are among the highest recorded and were significantly higher on the second sampling date. Selective seasonal changes in the fauna were shown by increases both in numbers of species and individuals, mainly on larger cushions, for the later sampling period. It is hypothesized that seasonal changes are due to an increase in the number of predator species in response to an increase in the number of prey items. The slopes of the species-area curves are compared with those in the literature and it is argued that slope values are more dependent upon the taxonomic group being studied than on whether the island is insular or oceanic. Finally, we suggest that The MacArthur-Wilson Theory is not applicable to islands which 1) exhibit continuous growth, 2) lack a discrete species source, and 3) are relatively transitory.

  16. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  17. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-05-08

    May 8, 1987 ... Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free areas ..... Table 3 Number of nest visits/nest of three Procellariidae species on Marion Island ..... (Carnivora: Felidae) on Macquarie Island.

  18. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  19. 77 FR 72715 - Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... increase of the informal entry limit is also consistent with one of the goals of the Beyond the Border... the policy seemed inconsistent with the recent Congressional decision to increase the ad valorem MPFs... this analysis, CBP cannot ascertain with any degree of certainty the specific monetary impacts...

  20. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point (L1) collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the sample return capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the mission operations phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.002 deg (which was the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma error of +/-0.0274 deg (a third of the requirement). The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from deep space and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  1. The Hera Saturn Entry Probe Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Spilker, T; Venkatapathy, E; Poncy, J; Frampton, R; Coustenis, A; Reh, K; Lebreton, J -P; Fletcher, L N; Hueso, R; Amato, M J; Colaprete, A; Ferri, F; Stam, D; Wurz, P; Atreya, S; Aslam, S; Banfield, D J; Calcutt, S; Fischer, G; Holland, A; Keller, C; Kessler, E; Leese, M; Levacher, P; Morse, A; Munoz, O; Renard, J -B; Sheridan, S; Schmider, F -X; Snik, F; Waite, J H; Bird, M; Cavalié, T; Deleuil, M; Fortney, J; Gautier, D; Guillot, T; Lunine, J I; Marty, B; Nixon, C; Orton, G S; Sanchez-Lavega, A

    2015-01-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M--class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and ev...

  2. Mycobacteria entry and trafficking into endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltierra-Uribe, Shantal Lizbeth; García-Vásquez, Manuel de Jesús; Castrejón-Jiménez, Nayeli Shantal; Estrella-Piñón, Mayra Patricia; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; García-Pérez, Blanca Estela

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial cells are susceptible to infection by mycobacteria, but the endocytic mechanisms that mycobacteria exploit to enter host cells and their mechanisms of intracellular transport are completely unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we determined that the internalization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSM), and Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) is dependent on the cytoskeleton and is differentially inhibited by cytochalasin D, nocodazole, cycloheximide, wortmannin, and amiloride. Using confocal microscopy, we investigated their endosomal trafficking by analyzing Rab5, Rab7, LAMP-1, and cathepsin D. Our results suggest that MSM exploits macropinocytosis to enter endothelial cells and that the vacuoles containing these bacteria fuse with lysosomes. Conversely, the entry of MTB seems to depend on more than one endocytic route, and the observation that only a subset of the intracellular bacilli was associated with phagolysosomes suggests that these bacteria are able to inhibit endosomal maturation to persist intracellularly. The route of entry for MAB depends mainly on microtubules, which suggests that MAB uses a different trafficking pathway. However, MAB is also able to inhibit endosomal maturation and can replicate intracellularly. Together, these findings provide the first evidence that mycobacteria modulate proteins of host endothelial cells to enter and persist within these cells.

  3. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  4. Structural correlates of rotavirus cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa H Abdelhakim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell entry by non-enveloped viruses requires translocation into the cytosol of a macromolecular complex--for double-strand RNA viruses, a complete subviral particle. We have used live-cell fluorescence imaging to follow rotavirus entry and penetration into the cytosol of its ∼ 700 Å inner capsid particle ("double-layered particle", DLP. We label with distinct fluorescent tags the DLP and each of the two outer-layer proteins and track the fates of each species as the particles bind and enter BSC-1 cells. Virions attach to their glycolipid receptors in the host cell membrane and rapidly become inaccessible to externally added agents; most particles that release their DLP into the cytosol have done so by ∼ 10 minutes, as detected by rapid diffusional motion of the DLP away from residual outer-layer proteins. Electron microscopy shows images of particles at various stages of engulfment into tightly fitting membrane invaginations, consistent with the interpretation that rotavirus particles drive their own uptake. Electron cryotomography of membrane-bound virions also shows closely wrapped membrane. Combined with high resolution structural information about the viral components, these observations suggest a molecular model for membrane disruption and DLP penetration.

  5. Analytic Development of a Reference Profile for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This note shows that a feasible reference drag profile for the first entry portion of a skip entry can be generated as a polynomial expression of the velocity. The coefficients of that polynomial are found through the resolution of a system composed of m + 1 equations, where m is the degree of the drag polynomial. It has been shown that a minimum of five equations (m = 4) are required to establish the range and the initial and final conditions on velocity and flight path angle. It has been shown that at least one constraint on the trajectory can be imposed through the addition of one extra equation in the system, which must be accompanied by the increase in the degree of the drag polynomial. In order to simplify the resolution of the system of equations, the drag was considered as being a probability density function of the velocity, with the velocity as a distribution function of the drag. Combining this notion with the introduction of empirically derived constants, it has been shown that the system of equations required to generate the drag profile can be successfully reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. For completeness, the resulting drag profiles have been flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as a guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. Satisfactory results were achieved when the gains in the error dynamics were changed at a certain point along the trajectory that is dependent on the velocity and the curvature of the drag as a function of the velocity. Future work should study the capacity to update the drag profile in flight when dispersions are introduced. Also, future studies should attempt to link the first entry, as presented and controlled in this note, with a more standard control concept for the second entry, such as the Apollo entry guidance, to try to assess the overall skip entry performance. A guidance law that includes

  6. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  7. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  8. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  9. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  10. Mid-L/D Lifting Body Entry Demise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The mid-lift-to-drag ratio (mid-L/D) lifting body is a fully autonomous spacecraft under design at NASA for enabling a rapid return of scientific payloads from the International Space Station (ISS). For contingency planning and risk assessment for the Earth-return trajectory, an entry demise analysis was performed to examine three potential failure scenarios: (1) nominal entry interface conditions with loss of control, (2) controlled entry at maximum flight path angle, and (3) controlled entry at minimum flight path angle. The objectives of the analysis were to predict the spacecraft breakup sequence and timeline, determine debris survival, and calculate the debris dispersion footprint. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of the initial pitch rate on the spacecraft stability and breakup during the entry. This report describes the mid-L/D lifting body and presents the results of the entry demise and sensitivity analyses.

  11. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  12. Aspirin inhibits hepatitis C virus entry by downregulating claudin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, P; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin has previously been reported to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aspirin is involved in blocking HCV entry. We found that aspirin inhibits the entry of HCVpp and infectious HCV. The level of claudin-1, an HCV receptor, is reduced by aspirin. Our results extend the anti-HCV effect of aspirin to the HCV entry step and further reinforce the anti-HCV role of aspirin.

  13. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  14. An Integrated Approach for Entry Mission Design and Flight Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Rao, Prabhakara

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach for entry trajectory design, guidance, and simulation is proposed. The key ingredients for this approach are an on-line 3 degree-of-freedom entry trajectory planning algorithm and the entry guidance algorithm that generates the guidance gains automatically. When fully developed, such a tool could enable end-bend entry mission design and simulations in 3DOF and 6DOF mode from de-orbit burn to the TAEM interface and beyond, all in one key stroke. Some preliminary examples of such a capability are presented in this paper that demonstrate the potential of this type of integrated environment.

  15. A novel peptide that inhibits HIV-1 entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; HUANG Xiaoxing; WANG Qiong; YANG Yaling; TIAN Po; ZHANG Wentao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The global epidemic of HIV infection, the cause of AIDS, has created an urgent need for novel classes of antiretroviral agent. Besides reverse transcriptase and protease, the viral entry process provides new anti-HIV-1 targets. A new generation of antiviral drugs intended to block HIV entry into host cells is now under develop- ment[1]. These compounds are generally referred to as fusion or entry inhibitor. Several HIV-1 entry inhibitors that target CD4-gp120 interactions, co-receptor function, and gp41-mediated membrane fusion are in different stages of clinical development[2].

  16. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R.; Simmons, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess, whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  17. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  18. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  19. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  20. The submental island flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  1. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  2. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  3. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  4. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  5. Rain on small tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  6. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Ellerby, D.; Stackpoole, M..; Peterson, K.; Gage, P.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Chinnapongse, R.; Dillman, R.; Feldman, J.; Gasch, M.; Munk, M.; Prabhu, D.; Poteet, C.

    2013-01-01

    Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Technology (HEEET) project is based on the 3-D Woven TPS, an emerging innovative and game changing technology funded by SMD and STMD to fill the ablative TPS gap that exists currently for reaching the depths of Saturn and Venus. Woven TPS technology will address the challenges currently faced by the Venus, Saturn, and higher speed sample return mission Science community due to lack of availability of the only TPS, namely Carbon Phenolic and enable the Science community to move forward with proposals in this decade with Woven TPS. This presentation describes the approach in maturing the technology in the next three years enabling NF-4 mission proposers to address the challenges of Venus, Saturn or higher speed sample return missions.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of water entry problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, A.; Falcucci, G.; Jannelli, E.; Succi, S.; Porfiri, M.; Ubertini, S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of water entry problems using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The dynamics of the free surface is treated through the mass and momentum fluxes across the interface cells. A bounce-back boundary condition is utilized to model the contact between the fluid and the moving object. The method is implemented for the analysis of a two-dimensional flow physics produced by a symmetric wedge entering vertically a weakly-compressible fluid at a constant velocity. The method is used to predict the wetted length, the height of water pile-up, the pressure distribution and the overall force on the wedge. The accuracy of the numerical results is demonstrated through comparisons with data reported in the literature.

  8. Are entry criteria for cataract surgery justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Böhringer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The German Ophthalmological Society (GOS recently proposed surgical entry criteria, i.e. 300 cataract surgeries. We herein correlate the surgical hands-on experience with the risk of posterior capsule ruptures in order to assess whether this number is appropriate. METHODS: We identified all cataract operations that had been performed at the University Eye Hospital Freiburg since 1995. For each surgeon, we assigned a running number to his/her procedures in the order they had been performed. Thereafter, we excluded all combined procedures and the second eyes. We then selected the 5475 surgical reports between November 2008 and November 2012 for detailed review. We additionally classified each surgery into low- vs. high- à priori risk for posterior capsule ruptures. We fitted a multifactorial logistic regression model to assess the GOS recommendation of 300 surgeries under supervision. In the low-risk group, we additionally visualized the 'typical' learning curve by plotting the posterior capsule ruptures against the respective rank numbers. RESULTS: The odds ratio for posterior capsule ruptures of 'learning-mode' (one of the respective surgeon's 300 first procedures vs. the non-learning-mode was 3.8 (p<0.0001. By contrast, classification into the low-risk group lowered the risk of posterior capsule ruptures three fold (p<0.0001. According to the low-risk plot, the surgeons started with a complication rate of 4% and continuously improved towards 0.5% after 1500 operations. Thereafter, the rate increased again and stabilized around one percent. CONCLUSION: The learning curve with respect to posterior capsule ruptures is surprisingly flat. The GOS entry criterion of 300 cataract procedures is therefore most likely justified. Careful selection of low-risk patients for the training surgeons may help in reducing the rate of posterior capsule ruptures during training.

  9. The Hera Saturn entry probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Frampton, R.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hueso, R.; Amato, M. J.; Colaprete, A.; Ferri, F.; Stam, D.; Wurz, P.; Atreya, S.; Aslam, S.; Banfield, D. J.; Calcutt, S.; Fischer, G.; Holland, A.; Keller, C.; Kessler, E.; Leese, M.; Levacher, P.; Morse, A.; Muñoz, O.; Renard, J.-B.; Sheridan, S.; Schmider, F.-X.; Snik, F.; Waite, J. H.; Bird, M.; Cavalié, T.; Deleuil, M.; Fortney, J.; Gautier, D.; Guillot, T.; Lunine, J. I.; Marty, B.; Nixon, C.; Orton, G. S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M-class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera's aim is to probe well into the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to the locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. By leading to an improved understanding of the processes by which giant planets formed, including the composition and properties of the local solar nebula at the time and location of giant planet formation, Hera will extend the legacy of the Galileo and Cassini missions by further addressing the creation, formation, and chemical, dynamical, and thermal evolution of the giant planets, the entire solar system including Earth and the other terrestrial planets, and formation of other planetary systems.

  10. Coupling approaches used in atmospheric entry models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    While a planet orbits the Sun, it is subject to impact by smaller objects, ranging from tiny dust particles and space debris to much larger asteroids and comets. Such collisions have taken place frequently over geological time and played an important role in the evolution of planets and the development of life on the Earth. Though the search for near-Earth objects addresses one of the main points of the Asteroid and Comet Hazard, one should not underestimate the useful information to be gleaned from smaller atmospheric encounters, known as meteors or fireballs. Not only do these events help determine the linkages between meteorites and their parent bodies; due to their relative regularity they provide a good statistical basis for analysis. For successful cases with found meteorites, the detailed atmospheric path record is an excellent tool to test and improve existing entry models assuring the robustness of their implementation. There are many more important scientific questions meteoroids help us to answer, among them: Where do these objects come from, what are their origins, physical properties and chemical composition? What are the shapes and bulk densities of the space objects which fully ablate in an atmosphere and do not reach the planetary surface? Which values are directly measured and which are initially assumed as input to various models? How to couple both fragmentation and ablation effects in the model, taking real size distribution of fragments into account? How to specify and speed up the recovery of a recently fallen meteorites, not letting weathering to affect samples too much? How big is the pre-atmospheric projectile to terminal body ratio in terms of their mass/volume? Which exact parameters beside initial mass define this ratio? More generally, how entering object affects Earth's atmosphere and (if applicable) Earth's surface? How to predict these impact consequences based on atmospheric trajectory data? How to describe atmospheric entry

  11. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  12. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  13. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  14. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  15. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  16. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2008-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the mission operations phase upon final approach to Earth is described. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.21 deg (the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma uncertainty of +/-0.0017 deg (2% of the requirement). The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from an interplanetary trajectory and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  17. 19 CFR 145.24 - Amendment of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... director is satisfied that the objection is valid and timely, he shall amend the mail entry. If the duty... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of entry. 145.24 Section 145.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. 19 CFR 4.35 - Unlading outside port of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading outside port of entry. 4.35 Section 4.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... of entry. (a) Upon written application from the interested party, the port director concerned, if...

  19. Strategic advantage and the optimal exercise of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Perotti; S. Rossetto

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is

  20. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length, num

  1. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail...

  2. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent...

  3. Strategic advantage and the optimal exercise of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is

  4. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  5. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  6. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of i

  7. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  8. 19 CFR 146.64 - Entry for warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for warehouse. 146.64 Section 146.64 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.64 Entry for warehouse. (a) Foreign... status may not be entered for warehouse from a zone. Merchandise in nonprivileged foreign...

  9. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estimated or actual net weight of the wool or hair in its condition as imported, its total estimated clean... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per...

  10. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Internet-based book-entry system maintained by Treasury for purchasing and holding marketable...) TreasuryDirect ®. TreasuryDirect is a book-entry, online system maintained by the Department of the Treasury for purchasing and holding eligible marketable Treasury securities, United States Savings...

  11. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a zone...

  12. Extended High-Gain Observer for Mars Entry Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyuan Cui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To deliver a Mars entry vehicle to the prescribed parachute deployment point, active entry guidance is essential. This paper addresses the problem of Mars atmospheric entry guidance through drag tracking method with extended high gain observer. First, an extended high gain observer combined with feedback linearization is applied in drag tracking for Mars entry longitudinal guidance.  The observer estimates the drag and drag rate for drag tracking, estimates the perturbation due to model uncertainty and disturbance, and compensate for the perturbation by canceling its estimate. Then, bank reversal is adopted in the lateral plane to reduce the cross-range error. Finally, Mars entry simulation is performed to assess the performance of the adaptive guidance law. The results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law exhibits good performance.

  13. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rasoul ghollamzadeh

    2011-12-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  14. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  15. Market entry decisions: effects of absolute and relative confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Fergus; Pulford, Briony D; Colman, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    In a market entry game, the number of entrants usually approaches game-theoretic equilibrium quickly, but in real-world markets business start-ups typically exceed market capacity, resulting in chronically high failure rates and suboptimal industry profits. Excessive entry has been attributed to overconfidence arising when expected payoffs depend partly on skill. In an experimental test of this hypothesis, 96 participants played 24 rounds of a market entry game, with expected payoffs dependent partly on skill on half the rounds, after their confidence was manipulated and measured. The results provide direct support for the hypothesis that high levels of confidence are largely responsible for excessive entry, and they suggest that absolute confidence, independent of interpersonal comparison, rather than confidence about one's abilities relative to others, drives excessive entry decisions when skill is involved.

  16. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  17. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  18. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry into official establishments; transportation. 381.208 Section 381.208 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND...

  19. Firm entry and aggregate efficiency growth: An optimal dynamic - Program of entry and R&D investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Raies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of entry on the aggregate efficiency growth is still theoretically and empirically unresolved. Many studies focused on this effect in short and long-run, without considering the dynamic transition and how do entry affect the convergence of the industrytoward its long-run equilibrium? This paper aims to provide an answer and to fill this gap by employingoptimal control principles. Our model exhibits saddlepath stability and shows that the effect of entry and entry liberalizing policy (reducing the entry cost on the aggregate efficiency growth may be positive, negative or nil depending on the industry’s initial characteristics (size and R&D. This theoretical result can justify the inconclusive current empirical evidence.

  20. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  1. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  2. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  3. On Heatshield Shapes for Mars Entry Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, DInesh K.; Saunders, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The 70deg sphere-cone - the standard geometry for all US Mars entry missions - is thoroughly examined via flow field simulations at a select few peak heating points along candidate flight trajectories. Emphasis is placed on turbulent heating based on the Baldwin- Lomax turbulence model. It is shown that increased leeward turbulent heating for a 70 sphere-cone flying at angle of attack is primarily due to the discontinuity in curvature between the spherical nose cap and the conical frustum - the attachment of the sonic line at this sphere-cone junction leads to a supersonic edge Mach number over the leeward acreage. In an attempt to mitigate this problem of elevated turbulent heating, alternate geometries, without any curvature discontinuities in the acreage, are developed. Two approaches, one based on nonlinear optimization with constraints, and one based on the use of non-uniform rational B-splines, are considered. All configurations examined remain axisymmetric. The aerothermal performance of alternate geometries is shown to be superior to that of the 70 sphere-cone.

  4. Inflatable Emergency Atmospheric-Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Hall, Jeffrey; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2004-01-01

    In response to the loss of seven astronauts in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, large, lightweight, inflatable atmospheric- entry vehicles have been proposed as means of emergency descent and landing for persons who must abandon a spacecraft that is about to reenter the atmosphere and has been determined to be unable to land safely. Such a vehicle would act as an atmospheric decelerator at supersonic speed in the upper atmosphere, and a smaller, central astronaut pod could then separate at lower altitudes and parachute separately to Earth. Astronaut-rescue systems that have been considered previously have been massive, and the cost of designing them has exceeded the cost of fabrication of a space shuttle. In contrast, an inflatable emergency-landing vehicle according to the proposal would have a mass between 100 and 200 kg, could be stored in a volume of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cu m, and could likely be designed and built much less expensively. When fully inflated, the escape vehicle behaves as a large balloon parachute, or ballute. Due to very low mass-per-surface area, a large radius, and a large coefficient of drag, ballutes decelerate at much higher altitudes and with much lower heating rates than the space shuttle. Although the space shuttle atmospheric reentry results in surface temperatures of about 1,600 C, ballutes can be designed for maximum temperatures below 600 C. This allows ballutes to be fabricated with lightweight ZYLON(Registered TradeMark) or polybenzoxazole (PBO), or equivalent.

  5. Intracellular route of canine parvovirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, M; Kalela, A; Mäkinen, P; Kakkola, L; Marjomäki, V; Vuento, M

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18 degrees C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV.

  6. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  7. Lysosomotropic agents as HCV entry inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HCV has two envelop proteins named as E1 and E2 which play an important role in cell entry through two main pathways: direct fusion at the plasma membrane and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Fusion of the HCV envelope proteins is triggered by low pH within the endosome. Lysosomotropic agents (LA such as Chloroquine and Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl are the weak bases and penetrate in lysosome as protonated form and increase the intracellular pH. To investigate the antiviral effect of LA (Chloroquine and NH4Cl on pH dependent endocytosis, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp of 1a and 3a genotype were produced and used to infect liver cells. The toxicological effects of Chloroquine and NH4Cl were tested in liver cells through MTT cell proliferation assay. For antiviral screening of Chloroquine and NH4Cl, liver cells were infected with HCVpp of 3a and 1a genotype in the presence or absence of different concentrations of Chloroquine and NH4Cl and there luciferase activity was determined by using a luminometer. The results demonstrated that Chloroquine and NH4Cl showed more than 50% reduction of virus infectivity at 50 μM and 10 mM concentrations respectively. These results suggest that inhibition of HCV at fusion step by increasing the lysosomal pH will be better option to treat chronic HCV.

  8. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  9. Three-dimensional acceleration planning for atmospheric entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Teh-Han

    The next generation of reusable launch vehicles will benefit from an improved entry guidance algorithm. Improvements have been made to the current Space Shuttle entry guidance algorithm that will provide an ability to handle aborts, reach large crossranges, and provide complete onboard planning capability. Building on the entry guidance algorithm for the Space Shuttle, three versions of a three-dimensional acceleration based entry guidance algorithm have been created and tested. The Space Shuttle entry guidance algorithm is extended to three dimensions by planning the drag profile and the occurrence of bank reversals. The three versions of the planning algorithm that have been developed are a single bank reversal planner, a two bank reversal planner, and a single bank reversal update planner. Tests of the single and two bank reversal versions show that the planning algorithms are capable of producing feasible trajectories for a wide range of various entry conditions. Integration and testing of the update planning algorithm with a feedback linearizing control law in a high fidelity simulation developed by NASA Marshall has demonstrated the algorithm's ability to handle a variety of entry conditions in an onboard environment.

  10. A Further Look at X-33 Entry Guidance and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping

    1999-01-01

    An entry guidance design developed at Iowa State University (ISU) for the X-33 advanced technology demonstrator is outlined and compared with the X-33 entry guidance algorithms developed at NASA Marshall. Both designs are based on the Space Shuttle entry guidance concept, but significant improvements have been made to enhance the performance and reduce the complexity. The ISU design was incorporated into MAVERIC, a high fidelity vehicle simulation software for the X-33, and evaluated in Monte Carlo simulations against random dispersions in propulsion system, wind and atmospheric properties, aerodynamic coefficients, interaction between propulsion and aerodynamics, and navigation data. The simulations clearly demonstrated the capability and precision of the ISU entry guidance design in successfully guiding the X-33 in some rather difficult flight scenarios. As the entry guidance development for the X-33 is completing, this report also offers some review of the strength and limitations of the current Shuttle-based entry guidance framework, and finally some potential candidates for next generation of more capable and cost-effective entry guidance designs are discussed.

  11. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  12. Analysis of limited-entry well tests in layered reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, M.R.; Naismith, J.D.A.; Gunasekera, D.L.; Fitzpatrick, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    Vertical permeability, often a key parameter in reservoir engineering, can be calculated from the analysis of a limited entry pressure transient. Analytical solutions for limited entry welltests, where a fraction of the reservoir interval is perforated, have been available in the literature for some time. This paper considers the evaluation of limited entry welltests in heterogeneous layered formations. A number of field examples have been analyzed using both conventional analytical techniques and a new general purpose numerical welltest analysis application. The examples show that in layered formations vertical permeability can be significantly under estimated by conventional analytical analysis.

  13. Predicting academic outcomes in an Australian graduate entry medical programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette

    2014-02-15

    Predictive validity studies for selection criteria into graduate entry courses in Australia have been inconsistent in their outcomes. One of the reasons for this inconsistency may have been failure to have adequately considered background disciplines of the graduates as well as other potential confounding socio-demographic variables that may influence academic performance. Graduate entrants into the MBBS at The University of Western Australia between 2005 and 2012 were studied (N = 421). They undertook a 6-month bridging course, before joining the undergraduate-entry students for Years 3 through 6 of the medical course. Students were selected using their undergraduate Grade Point Average (GPA), Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test scores (GAMSAT) and a score from a standardised interview. Students could apply from any background discipline and could also be selected through an alternative rural entry pathway again utilising these 3 entry scores. Entry scores, together with age, gender, discipline background, rural entry status and a socioeconomic indicator were entered into linear regression models to determine the relative influence of each predictor on subsequent academic performance in the course. Background discipline, age, gender and selection through the rural pathway were variously related to each of the 3 entry criteria. Their subsequent inclusion in linear regression models identified GPA at entry, being from a health/allied health background and total GAMSAT score as consistent independent predictors of stronger academic performance as measured by the weighted average mark for the core units completed throughout the course. The Interview score only weakly predicted performance later in the course and mainly in clinically-based units. The association of total GAMSAT score with academic performance was predominantly dictated by the score in GAMSAT Section 3 (Reasoning in the biological and physical sciences) with Section 1 (Reasoning in the

  14. Fluctuations of Matrix Entries of Regular Functions of Wigner Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzo, Alessandro; Soshnikov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the matrix entries of regular functions of Wigner random matrices in the limit when the matrix size goes to infinity. In the case of the Gaussian ensembles (GOE and GUE) this problem was considered by A.Lytova and L.Pastur in J. Stat. Phys., v.134, 147-159 (2009). Our results are valid provided the off-diagonal matrix entries have finite fourth moment, the diagonal matrix entries have finite third moment, and the test functions have four continuous derivatives in a neighborhood of the support of the Wigner semicircle law.

  15. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tanganelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  16. Convective and radiative heating of a Saturn entry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.; Moss, J. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    The extent of convective and radiative heating for a Saturn entry probe is investigated in the absence and presence of ablation mass injection. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The importance of chemical nonequilibrium effects for both the radiative and convective nonblowing surface heating rates is demonstrated for prescribed entry conditions. Results indicate that the nonequilibrium chemistry can significantly influence the rate of radiative heating to the entry probes. With coupled carbon-phenolic ablation injection, the convective heating rates are reduced substantially. Turbulence has little effect on radiative heating but it increases the convective heating considerably.

  17. Lamiridosins, hepatitis C virus entry inhibitors from Lamium album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Rothwangl, Katharina; Mesecar, Andrew D; Sabahi, Ali; Rong, Lijun; Fong, Harry H S

    2009-12-01

    Phytochemical study of the aqueous extract of the flowering tops of Lamium album led to identification of the antiviral iridoid isomers lamiridosins A and B (1, 2). These compounds were found to significantly inhibit hepatitis C virus entry (IC(50) 2.31 muM) in vitro. Studies of 14 iridoid analogues showed that, while the parent iridoid glucosides demonstrated no anti-HCV entry activity, the aglycones of shanzhiside methyl ester (4), loganin (5), loganic acid (6), geniposide (10), verbenalin (12), eurostoside (15), and picroside II (17) exhibited significant anti-HCV entry and anti-infectivity activities.

  18. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  19. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; Tauber, Michael E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  20. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  1. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  2. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  3. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  4. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  5. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  6. Modulation of Calcium Entry by Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteriz, Rosalba; Matesanz-Isabel, Jessica; Arias-Del-Val, Jessica; Alvarez-Illera, Pilar; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in intracellular Ca(2+) signaling relies mainly in its capacity to take up Ca(2+) from the cytosol and thus modulate the cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Because of the low Ca(2+)-affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+)-uptake system, this organelle appears specially adapted to take up Ca(2+) from local high-Ca(2+) microdomains and not from the bulk cytosol. Mitochondria would then act as local Ca(2+) buffers in cellular regions where high-Ca(2+) microdomains form, that is, mainly close to the cytosolic mouth of Ca(2+) channels, both in the plasma membrane and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One of the first targets proposed already in the 1990s to be regulated in this way by mitochondria were the store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCE). Mitochondria, by taking up Ca(2+) from the region around the cytosolic mouth of the SOCE channels, would prevent its slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation, thus keeping them active for longer. Since then, evidence for this mechanism has accumulated mainly in immunitary cells, where mitochondria actually move towards the immune synapse during T cell activation. However, in many other cell types the available data indicate that the close apposition between plasma and ER membranes occurring during SOCE activation precludes mitochondria from getting close to the Ca(2+)-entry sites. Alternative pathways for mitochondrial modulation of SOCE, both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent, have also been proposed, but further work will be required to elucidate the actual mechanisms at work. Hopefully, the recent knowledge of the molecular nature of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter will allow soon more precise studies on this matter.

  7. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... from biogeography, community ecology and evolution to global change, this horizon scan may help to foster the formation of interdisciplinary research networks, enhancing joint efforts to better understand the past, present and future of island biotas....... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores....... Results: Questions were structured around four broad and partially overlapping island topics, including: (Macro)Ecology and Biogeography, (Macro)Evolution, Community Ecology, and Conservation and Management. These topics were then subdivided according to the following subject areas: global diversity...

  8. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  9. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  10. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  11. 27 CFR 22.25 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.25 Right of entry and examination. An appropriate TTB officer may enter,...

  12. Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every...

  13. Higher Entry Threshold of the Secondary Lead Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to news posted on the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s website on September 5,the MIIT and the Ministry of Environmental Protection recently jointly issued the Entry Conditions of the Secondary

  14. Orion Entry Performance-Based Center-of-Gravity Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion capsule has many performance requirements for its atmospheric entry trajectory. Requirements on landing accuracy, maximum heating rate, total heat load, propellant usage, and sensed acceleration must all be satised. It is desired to define a methodology to translate the many performance requirements for an atmospheric entry trajectory into language easily understood by vehicle designers in terms of an allowable center-of-gravity box. This is possible by noting that most entry performance parameters for a capsule vehicle are mainly determined by the lift-to-drag ratio of the vehicle. However, the lift-to- drag ratio should be considered a probabilistic quantity rather than deterministic, where variations in the lift-to-drag are caused by both aerodynamic and center-of-gravity un- certainties. This paper discusses the technique used by the Orion program to define the allowable dispersions in center-of-gravity to achieve the desired entry performance while accounting for aerodynamic uncertainty.

  15. 33 CFR 151.08 - Denial of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.08 Denial of entry. (a) Unless a ship...

  16. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  17. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  18. Entry Vehicle Control System Design for the Mars Smart Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Queen, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, participated in a preliminary design study of the Entry, Descent and Landing phase for the Mars Smart Lander Project. This concept utilizes advances in Guidance, Navigation and Control technology to significantly reduce uncertainty in the vehicle landed location on the Mars surface. A candidate entry vehicle controller based on the Reaction Control System controller for the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module digital autopilot is proposed for use in the entry vehicle attitude control. A slight modification to the phase plane controller is used to reduce jet-firing chattering while maintaining good control response for the Martian entry probe application. The controller performance is demonstrated in a six-degree-of-freedom simulation with representative aerodynamics.

  19. Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every...

  20. Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber™ sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry...

  1. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.

    2010-09-01

    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  2. FDI In India : Determinents Of Entry Modes In India

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Gaurav

    2003-01-01

    Although cultural distance between countries have gained a lot of attention in the FDI literature but impact on cultural distance on entry mode has recently been extensively researched, after Kogut and Singh introduced the simple measure to calculate cultural distance between the countries. This dissertation tests the proposition that do cultural distance, Sector, or Nationality affect the entry mode strategies of multinational firms when they enter foreign countries. I focus my study by conc...

  3. Lipoprotein Receptors Redundantly Participate in Entry of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Yamamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR are known to be involved in entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV, but their precise roles and their interplay are not fully understood. In this study, deficiency of both SR-B1 and LDLR in Huh7 cells was shown to impair the entry of HCV more strongly than deficiency of either SR-B1 or LDLR alone. In addition, exogenous expression of not only SR-B1 and LDLR but also very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR rescued HCV entry in the SR-B1 and LDLR double-knockout cells, suggesting that VLDLR has similar roles in HCV entry. VLDLR is a lipoprotein receptor, but the level of its hepatic expression was lower than those of SR-B1 and LDLR. Moreover, expression of mutant lipoprotein receptors incapable of binding to or uptake of lipid resulted in no or slight enhancement of HCV entry in the double-knockout cells, suggesting that binding and/or uptake activities of lipid by lipoprotein receptors are essential for HCV entry. In addition, rescue of infectivity in the double-knockout cells by the expression of the lipoprotein receptors was not observed following infection with pseudotype particles bearing HCV envelope proteins produced in non-hepatic cells, suggesting that lipoproteins associated with HCV particles participate in the entry through their interaction with lipoprotein receptors. Buoyant density gradient analysis revealed that HCV utilizes these lipoprotein receptors in a manner dependent on the lipoproteins associated with HCV particles. Collectively, these results suggest that lipoprotein receptors redundantly participate in the entry of HCV.

  4. Lipoprotein Receptors Redundantly Participate in Entry of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satomi; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Ono, Chikako; Uemura, Kentaro; Kawachi, Yukako; Shiokawa, Mai; Mori, Hiroyuki; Wada, Masami; Shima, Ryoichi; Okamoto, Toru; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Chayama, Kazuaki; Wakita, Takaji; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are known to be involved in entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV), but their precise roles and their interplay are not fully understood. In this study, deficiency of both SR-B1 and LDLR in Huh7 cells was shown to impair the entry of HCV more strongly than deficiency of either SR-B1 or LDLR alone. In addition, exogenous expression of not only SR-B1 and LDLR but also very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) rescued HCV entry in the SR-B1 and LDLR double-knockout cells, suggesting that VLDLR has similar roles in HCV entry. VLDLR is a lipoprotein receptor, but the level of its hepatic expression was lower than those of SR-B1 and LDLR. Moreover, expression of mutant lipoprotein receptors incapable of binding to or uptake of lipid resulted in no or slight enhancement of HCV entry in the double-knockout cells, suggesting that binding and/or uptake activities of lipid by lipoprotein receptors are essential for HCV entry. In addition, rescue of infectivity in the double-knockout cells by the expression of the lipoprotein receptors was not observed following infection with pseudotype particles bearing HCV envelope proteins produced in non-hepatic cells, suggesting that lipoproteins associated with HCV particles participate in the entry through their interaction with lipoprotein receptors. Buoyant density gradient analysis revealed that HCV utilizes these lipoprotein receptors in a manner dependent on the lipoproteins associated with HCV particles. Collectively, these results suggest that lipoprotein receptors redundantly participate in the entry of HCV.

  5. Fractionation and fragmentation of glass cosmic spherules during atmospheric entry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; VijayaKumar, T.; Feng, W.; Plane, J.M.C.

    of these elements during atmospheric entry (Fig. 7). However, the bulk chemical compositions of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe are generally CI-like except for some volatile elements, which rules out an achondritic parent body. Taylor et al. (2007) reported anorthite with low... entry with the exception of the particles having high velocities and low zenith angles (Love and Brownlee, 1991; Vondrak et al., 2008). Larger micrometeorites have undergone ablation leading to siderophile and volatile element depletion, and mass...

  6. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups d...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances)....

  7. Principles of safe abdominal entry in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongrak Thepsuwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic gynecologic surgery has been widely used with a range of benefits. However, there are complications that are related to the abdominal entry process. Serious complications are gastrointestinal tract and major blood vessel injuries. This review introduces the recent available literature to prevent and eliminate the laparoscopic entry complications. The open entry technique is associated with a significant reduction of failed entry, compared to the closed entry technique; however there is no difference in the incidence of visceral or vascular injury. Laparoscopic entry by the left upper abdomen (i.e., Palmer's point or the middle upper abdomen (i.e., the Lee-Huang point could be considered in patients with suspected periumbilical adhesions or a history of umbilical hernia, or after three failed attempts of insufflation at the umbilicus. The Lee-Huang point has its own benefit for the operative laparoscopy in large pelvic pathologies and gynecology malignancy cases. The angle of Veress needle insertion varies from 45° in nonobese women to 90° in extraordinarily obese women. The high intra-peritoneal pressure entries, which range from 20 mmHg to 25 mmHg, minimize the risk of vascular injury. Therefore, this will not adversely affect the cardiopulmonary function in healthy women. The Veress intraperitoneal pressure (<10 mmHg is a reliable indicator of correct intraperitoneal placement of the Veress needle. The elevation of anterior abdominal wall for placement of a Veress needle increases the risks of failed entry and shows no advantage in regard to vascular or visceral complications. Surgeons should continue to increase their knowledge of anatomy, their training, and their experience to decrease laparoscopic complications.

  8. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to...

  9. Entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Monrad; Ruhoff, Peder Thusgaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real......-life traffic phenomena that have not been included in previous models. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the desirable properties of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model are retained....

  10. Fragmentation of weak non-ablating objects during entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-04-01

    Fragmentation of objects during entry can be treated with developed models of breakup, fragment cascade, separation, and deceleration. The results reduce to those derived earlier for strong objects. Model predictions are in agreement with the key features of numerical simulations. Model equations can be inverted analytically to infer object size, entry speed, and strength from measurements of peak power and altitude and fragmentation altitude or time.

  11. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods.

  12. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  13. Thermal Testing of Woven TPS Materials in Extreme Entry Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G.; Stackpoole, M.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs future robotic missions to Venus and outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of current mid density ablators (PICA or Avcoat). Therefore mission planners assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heatshield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic (CP) is a robust TPS however its high density and thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, high heat fluxes, high pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program in NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System to meet the needs of NASAs most challenging entry missions. The high entry conditions pose certification challenges in existing ground based test facilities. Recent updates to NASAs IHF and AEDCs H3 high temperature arcjet test facilities enable higher heatflux (2000 Wcm2) and high pressure (5 atm) testing of TPS. Some recent thermal tests of woven TPS will be discussed in this paper. These upgrades have provided a way to test higher entry conditions of potential outer planet and Venus missions and provided a baseline against carbon phenolic material. The results of these tests have given preliminary insight to sample configuration and physical recession profile characteristics.

  14. Three-stage entry game: The strategic effects of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of investment in advertising in the three-stage entry game model with one incumbent and one potential entrant firm. It is shown that if a game theory is applied, under particular conditions, advertising can be used as a strategic weapon in the market entry game. Depending on the level of the advertising interaction factor, conditions for over-investment in advertising for strategic purposes are given. Furthermore, three specific cases are analyzed: strictly predatory advertising, informative advertising and the case when one firm’s advertising cannot directly influence the other firm's profit. For each of them, depending on the costs of advertising and marginal costs, equilibrium is determined, and conditions under which it is possible to deter the entry are given. It is shown that if the value of the advertising interaction factor increases, power of using advertising as a weapon to deter entry into the market decreases. Thus, in the case of informative advertising, advertising cannot be used as a tool for deterring entry into the market, while in the case of predatory advertising, it can. Also, we have proved that in the case of strictly informative advertising an over-investment never occurs, while in the two other cases, there is always over-investment either to deter or to accommodate the entry.

  15. Inhibition of influenza H7 hemagglutinin-mediated entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Antanasijevic

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of H7N9 influenza in China is of high concern to public health. H7 hemagglutinin (HA plays a critical role in influenza entry and thus HA presents an attractive target for antivirals. Previous studies have suggested that the small molecule tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ inhibits the entry of influenza H3 HA by binding to the stem loop of HA and stabilizing the neutral pH conformation of HA, thereby disrupting the membrane fusion step. Based on amino acid sequence, structure and immunogenicity, H7 is a related Group 2 HA. In this work we show, using a pseudovirus entry assay, that TBHQ inhibits H7 HA-mediated entry, as well as H3 HA-mediated entry, with an IC50 ~ 6 µM. Using NMR, we show that TBHQ binds to the H7 stem loop region. STD NMR experiments indicate that the aromatic ring of TBHQ makes extensive contact with the H7 HA surface. Limited proteolysis experiments indicate that TBHQ inhibits influenza entry by stabilizing the H7 HA neutral pH conformation. Together, this work suggests that the stem loop region of H7 HA is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention and that TBHQ, which is a widely used food preservative, is a promising lead compound.

  16. Dynamics of ambulatory surgery centers and hospitals market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Michael; Al-Amin, Mona

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we investigate the diversity of healthcare delivery organizations by comparing the market determinants of hospitals entry rates with those of ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). Unlike hospitals, ASCs is one of the growing populations of specialized healthcare delivery organizations. There are reasons to believe that firm entry patterns differ within growing organizational populations since these markets are characterized by different levels of organizational legitimacy, technological uncertainty, and information asymmetry. We compare the entry patterns of firms in a mature population of hospitals to those of firms within a growing population of ASCs. By using patient-level datasets from the state of Florida, we break down our explanatory variables by facility type (ASC vs. hospital) and utilize negative binomial regression models to evaluate the impact of niche density on ASC and hospital entry. Our results indicate that ASCs entry rates is higher in markets with overlapping ASCs while hospitals entry rates are less in markets with overlapping hospitals and ASCs. These results are consistent with the notion that firms in growing populations tend to seek out crowded markets as they compete to occupy the most desirable market segments while firms in mature populations such as general hospitals avoid direct competition.

  17. Entry and Exit Stress Variation of Cold Rolling Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDong—cheng

    2012-01-01

    The shortcomings of an exit stress variation formula which has been well accepted are analyzed~ it is found that the exit stress variation formula violates the premise of the law of volume constancy. The shortcomings of an en- try stress variation formula are analyzed too, and the basic assumption of the formula is uniform exit velocity. How- ever, for a rigid-plastic material uniform exit velocity implies that the lateral distributioi1 of elongation is uniform, so the exit stress must be uniform and any type of flatness defect is impossible, which is contrary to the practice. In fact, entry and exit velocity variation influence entry and exit stress variation, and entry and exit stress variation in- fluence entry and exit velocity variation too, so a precise explicit stress variation formula cannot be got easily. Con- sidering the relationship between stress variation and velocity variation, an iteration method is presented to calculate entry and exit stress variation of cold rolling strip. To avoid divergent phenomenon of the iteration course, a relaxa- tion factor method is adopted. The calculation results are compared with the entry and exit stress variation formula commonly used by many researchers. The difference is remarkable, while the result calculated agree more well with measured result if the exit elastic recovery zone is considered. Specially, the incoming flatnessI propagate efficiency calculated ~ives a more realistic result.

  18. Nursing medication administration and workflow using computerized physician order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen, Dana; Talsma, Akkeneel; Reinemeyer, Nicholas; Belt, Christine; Schoville, Rhonda

    2011-07-01

    The benefits of computerized physician order entry systems have been described widely; however, the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow and its potential for error are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a computerized physician order entry system on nursing workflow. Using an exploratory design, nurses employed on an adult ICU (n = 36) and a general pediatric unit (n = 50) involved in computerized physician order entry-based medication delivery were observed. Nurses were also asked questions regarding the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow. Observations revealed total time required for administering medications averaged 8.45 minutes in the ICU and 9.93 minutes in the pediatric unit. Several additional steps were required in the process for pediatric patients, including preparing the medications and communicating with patients and family, which resulted in greater time associated with the delivery of medications. Frequent barriers to workflow were noted by nurses across settings, including system issues (ie, inefficient medication reconciliation processes, long order sets requiring more time to determine medication dosage), less frequent interaction between the healthcare team, and greater use of informal communication modes. Areas for nursing workflow improvement include (1) medication reconciliation/order duplication, (2) strategies to improve communication, and (3) evaluation of the impact of computerized physician order entry on practice standards.

  19. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Camara Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  20. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  1. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  2. Mammals evolve faster on smaller islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    Island mammals often display remarkable evolutionary changes in size and morphology. Both theory and empirical data support the hypothesis that island mammals evolve at faster rates than their mainland congeners. It is also often assumed that the island effect is stronger and that evolution is faster on the smallest islands. I used a dataset assembled from the literature to test these assumptions for the first time. I show that mammals on smaller islands do indeed evolve more rapidly than mammals on larger islands, and also evolve by a greater amount. These results fit well the theory of an evolutionary burst due to the opening of new ecological opportunities on islands. This evolutionary burst is expected to be the strongest on the smallest islands where the contrast between the island and the mainland environments is the most dramatic.

  3. Generic entry, reformulations and promotion of SSRIs in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskamp, Haiden A; Donohue, Julie M; Koss, Catherine; Berndt, Ernst R; Frank, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a manufacturer's promotional strategy for a brand name drug is typically affected by generic entry. However, little is known about how newer strategies to extend patent life, including product reformulation introduction or obtaining approval to market for additional clinical indications, influence promotion. To examine the relationships among promotional expenditures, generic entry, reformulation entry and new indication approval. We used quarterly data on national product-level promotional spending (including expenditures for physician detailing and direct-to-consumer advertising [DTCA], and the retail value of free samples distributed in physician offices) for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) over the period 1997-2004. We estimated econometric models of detailing, DTCA and total quarterly promotional expenditures as a function of the timing of generic entry, entry of new product formulations and US FDA approval for new clinical indications for existing medications in the SSRI class. Expenditures by pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotion of antidepressant medications was the main outcome measure. Over the period 1997-2004, there was considerable variation in the composition of promotional expenditures across the SSRIs. Promotional expenditures for the original brand molecule decreased dramatically when a reformulation of the molecule was introduced. Promotional spending (both total and detailing alone) for a specific molecule was generally lower after generic entry than before, although the effect of generic entry on promotional spending appears to be closely linked with the choice of product reformulation strategy pursued by the manufacturer. Detailing expenditures for Paxil were increased after the manufacturer received FDA approval to market the drug for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the likelihood of DTCA outlays for the drug was not changed. In contrast, FDA approval to market Paxil and Zoloft

  4. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  5. The Macquarie Dictionary, its His- tory and its Editorial Practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    popular usage and a basic reference point even in the language policies of the ..... The EWD practice of giving part-of-speech labels only to single- ...... customers, said to the four of us Englishmen: 'Can one of youse blokes play the piano?'

  6. Virus entry. Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Lucas T; Raaben, Matthijs; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Soh, Timothy K; Stubbs, Sarah H; Janssen, Hans; Damme, Markus; Saftig, Paul; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2014-06-27

    Lassa virus spreads from a rodent to humans and can lead to lethal hemorrhagic fever. Despite its broad tropism, chicken cells were reported 30 years ago to resist infection. We found that Lassa virus readily engaged its cell-surface receptor α-dystroglycan in avian cells, but virus entry in susceptible species involved a pH-dependent switch to an intracellular receptor, the lysosome-resident protein LAMP1. Iterative haploid screens revealed that the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 was required for the interaction of the virus glycoprotein with LAMP1. A single glycosylated residue in LAMP1, present in susceptible species but absent in birds, was essential for interaction with the Lassa virus envelope protein and subsequent infection. The resistance of Lamp1-deficient mice to Lassa virus highlights the relevance of this receptor switch in vivo.

  7. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  8. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  9. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  10. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  11. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  12. CRED 10m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Maug Island(s), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Maug Island(s), CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 4 and 3275 meters. This 10-m grid also...

  13. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  14. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report...

  15. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  16. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  17. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  18. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  19. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  20. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  1. "Mosquitoes collected on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (Diptera : Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    "NODA, Shinichi"

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito larval surveys were carried out on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island in August 2011. Larvae were collected from 133 natural and artificial habitats. A total of 1,761 larvae belonging to nine species including one unidentified species were collected. On Weno Island, eight species, Aedes hensilli, Ae. albopictus, Ae. lamelliferus, Aedes sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. carolinensis, Cx. annulirostris and Lutzia vorax, were collected. On Romonum Island,  four sp...

  2. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife [Refuge]: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater South Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater North Light to Channel Islands Harbor North Jetty Light 5....

  4. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  5. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife [Refuge]: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  6. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  7. Thin metal island plasmon sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Downey, Todd R.; Passian, A.; Oden, Patrick I.; Wig, A. G.; Crilly, P. B.; Mangeant, S.; Ferrell, Trinidad L.

    1998-12-01

    The effects of the local dielectric environment on the surface-plasmon resonances of annealed gold-island films are studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. Gold- island films were annealed at 600 degree(s)C to produce spheroidal shape particles which exhibit well-resolved resonances in polarized, angle-resolved, absorption spectra. These resonances are shifted in different amounts by the depolarization effect of the surrounding medium (liquids with various refraction indices). Cross-section calculations based upon non-retarded, single-particle, dielectric interaction for these various configurations are presented and found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  8. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  9. Caveolin-1 associated adenovirus entry into human corneal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Yousuf

    Full Text Available The cellular entry of viruses represents a critical area of study, not only for viral tropism, but also because viral entry dictates the nature of the immune response elicited upon infection. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC, caused by viruses within human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D, is a severe, ocular surface infection associated with corneal inflammation. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has previously been shown to play a critical role in entry of other HAdV species into many host cell types. However, HAdV-D endocytosis into corneal cells has not been extensively studied. Herein, we show an essential role for cholesterol rich, lipid raft microdomains and caveolin-1, in the entry of HAdV-D37 into primary human corneal fibroblasts. Cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD profoundly reduced viral infection. When replenished with soluble cholesterol, the effect of MβCD was reversed, allowing productive viral infection. HAdV-D37 DNA was identified in caveolin-1 rich endosomal fractions after infection. Src kinase activity was also increased in caveolin-1 rich endosomal fractions after infection, and Src phosphorylation and CXCL1 induction were both decreased in caveolin-1-/- mice corneas compared to wild type mice. siRNA knock down of caveolin-1 in corneal cells reduced chemokine induction upon viral infection, and caveolin-1-/- mouse corneas showed reduced cellular entry of HAdV-D37. As a control, HAdV-C2, a non-corneal pathogen, appeared to utilize the caveolar pathway for entry into A549 cells, but failed to infect corneal cells entirely, indicating virus and cell specific tropism. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed the presence of caveolin-1 in HAdV-D37-containing vesicles during the earliest stages of viral entry. Collectively, these experiments indicate for the first time that HAdV-D37 uses a lipid raft mediated caveolin-1 associated pathway for entry into corneal cells, and connects the processes of viral entry with

  10. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, James Aaron

    The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

  11. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  12. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  13. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  14. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  15. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  16. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  17. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  19. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to main content Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum HOME TAKE ACTION CONTACT US DONATE Facebook Twitter ... latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, Suite #850, ...

  20. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  1. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  2. A Novel Keyless Entry System Using Visible Light Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyoshi Okuda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major conventional car key is the mechanical key. When users inserted the key into a cylinder mechanical key and turn, users can unlock. The mechanical key may be able to be worn away for physical contact. And it may be impossible to use. Further the mechanical key may be damaged or destroyed by mischief. So a keyless entry system has been developed. The keyless entry system locks and unlocks using the infrared ray and radio waves communication. The keyless entry system does not require physical contacts. Therefore, the possibilities of damage due to mischief and be worn away are fell. However, the transmission ranges of infrared ray and radio waves communication are not clear. Submitting data might be tapped to the malicious people. If the information is tapped, then you have theft of the car and the risk of car break. We propose a keyless entry system using visible light communication in order to solve this problem. Visible light communication transmits signal using blinking light. Thus the transmission range is clear. The user can transmit the information only to the aimed place. Therefore, the usability is improved. We measure the durations of "take out the remote control", "put the aim" and "takes to unlock key" in order to evaluate the usability in the experiment. We also compared with the infrared ray communication and examined the superiority. Usability is improved in the experimental results, and usability is better than conventional keyless entry system.

  3. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  4. A Gestalt approach to Gram-negative entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn L

    2016-12-15

    A major obstacle confronting the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents to combat resistant Gram-negative (GN) organisms is the lack of a rational process for endowing compounds with properties that allow (or promote) entry into the bacterial cytoplasm. The major permeability difference between GN and Gram-positive (GP) bacteria is the GN outer membrane (OM) which is a permeability barrier itself and potentiates efflux pumps that expel compounds. Based on the fact that OM-permeable and efflux-deleted GNs are sensitive to many anti-GP drugs, recent efforts to approach the GN entry problem have focused on ways of avoiding efflux and transiting or compromising the OM, with the tacit assumption that this could allow entry of compounds into the GN cytoplasm. But bypassing the OM and efflux obstacles does not take into account the additional requirement of penetrating the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) whose sieving properties appear to be orthogonal to that of the OM. That is, tailoring compounds to transit the OM may well compromise their ability to enter the cytoplasm. Thus, a Gestalt approach to understanding the chemical requirements for GN entry seems a useful adjunct. This might consist of characterizing compounds which reach the cytoplasm, grouping (or binning) by routes of entry and formulating chemical 'rules' for those bins. This will require acquisition of data on large numbers of compounds, using non-activity-dependent methods of measuring accumulation in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  6. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  7. Rhadinovirus host entry by co-operative infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lawler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan⁺ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs. Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  9. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species. Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies.

  10. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Lakshadweep Islands lie on the sea route between South Asia, Far East and African countries. Being on the trade route, boats and ships used the islands of Lakshadweep as a stopover to take on fresh water. Lakshadweep Islands played an important role...

  11. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31 Li

  12. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter entry guidance and control system sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    An approach has been developed to determine the guidance and control system sensitivity to off-nominal aerodynamics for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry. This approach, which uses a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom interactive, digital simulation, has been applied to both the longitudinal and lateral-directional axes for a portion of the orbiter entry. Boundary values for each of the aerodynamic parameters have been identified, the key parameters have been determined, and system modifications that will increase system tolerance to off-nominal aerodynamics have been recommended. The simulations were judged by specified criteria and the performance was evaluated by use of key dependent variables. The analysis is now being expanded to include the latest shuttle guidance and control systems throughout the entry speed range.

  14. Shuttle entry guidance revisited using nonlinear geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1994-11-01

    The entry guidance law for the space shuttle orbiter is revisited using nonlinear geometric methods. The shuttle guidance concept is to track a reference drag trajectory that has been designed to lead a specified range and velocity. It is shown that the approach taken in the original derivation of the shuttle entry guidance has much in common with the more recently developed feedback linearization method of differential geometric control. Using the feedback linearization method, however, an alternative, potentially superior, guidance law was formulated. Comparing the two guidance laws based performance domains in state space, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics, the alternative guidance law achieves the desired performance over larger domains in state space; the stability domain of the laws are similar. With larger operating domain for the shuttle or some other entry vehicle, the alternative guidance law should be considered.

  15. Confined space entry program for the Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    To comply with anticipated OSHA regulatory requirements concerning Permit-Required Confined Spaces, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) created a Confined Spaces Task Team. The primary focus of the task team was to prepare a formal Confined Space Entry (CSE) Program that would ensure full compliance with the anticipated OSHA requirements. A comprehensive training plan was also prepared and submitted for approval as soon as the new CSE Program was approved and released for implementation. On January 14, 1993, OSHA released their final ruling which contained several further changes, requiring the WHC Confined Space Entry Program and Training Plan to be revised. The revised training manual and lessons learned in establishing a Confined Space Entry Program are presented.

  16. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out.

  17. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System Modeling, Calibration, and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; VanNorman, John; Siemers, Paul M.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Munk, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)/Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) project installed seven pressure ports through the MSL Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield to measure heatshield surface pressures during entry. These measured surface pressures are used to generate estimates of atmospheric quantities based on modeled surface pressure distributions. In particular, the quantities to be estimated from the MEADS pressure measurements include the dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This report describes the calibration of the pressure transducers utilized to reconstruct the atmospheric data and associated uncertainty models, pressure modeling and uncertainty analysis, and system performance results. The results indicate that the MEADS pressure measurement system hardware meets the project requirements.

  18. Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin L(U); Shu-wen LIU; Shi-bo JIANG; Shu-guang WU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism by which tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of tannin on HIV-1 replication and entry was detected by p24 production and HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, respectively. The inhibitory activity on the gp41 six-helix bundle formation was determined by an improved sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Tannins from different sources showed potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 replication,HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, and the gp4 six-helix bundle formation. CONCLUSION: Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells by interfering with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, thus blocking HIV-1 fusion with the target cell.

  19. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  20. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-shan Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  1. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective......This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...

  2. Disambiguating bilingual nominal entries against WordNet

    CERN Document Server

    Rigau, G; Rigau, German; Agirre, Eneko

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of conceptual knowledge from bilingual dictionaries (French/English, Spanish/English and English/Spanish) using a pre-existing broad coverage Lexical Knowledge Base (LKB) WordNet. Bilingual nominal entries are disambiguated agains WordNet, therefore linking the bilingual dictionaries to WordNet yielding a multilingual LKB (MLKB). The resulting MLKB has the same structure as WordNet, but some nodes are attached additionally to disambiguated vocabulary of other languages. Two different, complementary approaches are explored. In one of the approaches each entry of the dictionary is taken in turn, exploiting the information in the entry itself. The inferential capability for disambiguating the translation is given by Semantic Density over WordNet. In the other approach, the bilingual dictionary was merged with WordNet, exploiting mainly synonymy relations. Each of the approaches was used in a different dictionary. Both approaches attain high levels of precision on their own, sh...

  3. Nonequilibrium radiative heating of a Jovian entry body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer on radiative and convective heating of a Jovian entry body is investigated. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous, and in chemical equilibrium. The chemical species considered for the collisional deactivation processes are H2, H, H+. The NLTE radiative transfer equations are derived for multilevel energy transitions. The rotational and vibrational energy modes are assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that higher-level energy transitions have little influence on the overall NLTE results. The NLTE results, however, are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distributions in the shock layer. The convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced significantly because of the NLTE conditions; the reduction in convective heating, however, is relatively small. The influence of NLTE is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes.

  4. HIV entry inhibitors: a new generation of antiretroviral drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elias KRAMBOVITIS; Filippos PORICHIS; Demetrios A SPANDIDOS

    2005-01-01

    AIDS is presently treatable, and patients can have a good prognosis due to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but it is still not curable or preventable. High toxicity of HAART, and the emergence of drug resistance add to the imperative to continue research into new strategies and interventions.Considerable progress in the understanding of HIV attachment and entry into host cells has suggested new possibilities for rationally designing agents that interfere with this process. The approval and introduction of the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) for clinical use signals a new era in AIDS therapeutics. Here we review the crucial steps the virus uses to achieve cell entry, which merit attention as potential targets, and the compounds at pre-clinical and clinical development stages, reported to effectively inhibit cell entry.

  5. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  6. Features of Human Herpesvirus-6A and -6B Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Maeki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 is a T lymphotropic herpesvirus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. HHV-6 was long classified into variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B; however, recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were reclassified as different species. The process of herpesvirus entry into target cells is complicated, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated, although both viruses are known to enter cells via endocytosis. In this paper, (1 findings about the cellular receptor and its ligand for HHV-6A and HHV-6B are summarized, and (2 a schematic model of HHV-6A’s replication cycle, including its entry, is presented. In addition, (3 reports showing the importance of lipids in both the HHV-6A envelope and target-cell membrane for viral entry are reviewed, and (4 glycoproteins involved in cell fusion are discussed.

  7. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (Elsevier B.V.

  8. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, K.A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, R.J.;

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  9. 1946 Unimak Island, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 1, 1946, at 12:29 [local time] a rather strong magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred with source to the south of Unimak Island, causing one of the most...

  10. Rhode Island's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; I. Ted Goodnight; Barbara O' Connell; Bruce Payton; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Rhode Island based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service....

  11. Date with the Green Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Qingdao,also spelled Tsingtao,iS one of the most beautiful and clean cities in China and with a population of around 2.5 million(7 million regional)is the largest city after Jinan(the capital)in Shandong Province.The name"Qingdao"means "The Green Island".

  12. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  13. Chaos in easter island ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, J C

    2011-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems.

  14. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  15. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  16. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  17. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  18. Alternative endocytosis pathway for productive entry of hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mami; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Kataoka, Chikako; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Kato, Nobuyuki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatic cells through interaction with a series of cellular receptors, followed by clathrin-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HCV entry into multiple HCV-permissive human hepatocyte-derived cells using trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp). Knockdown of CD81 and claudin-1, or treatment with bafilomycin A1, reduced infection in Huh-7 and Huh7.5.1 cells, suggesting that HCV entered both cell types via receptor-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Interestingly, knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain or dynamin-2 (Dyn2), as well as expression of the dominant-negative form of Dyn2, reduced infection of Huh-7 cells with HCVtcp, whereas infectious entry of HCVtcp into Huh7.5.1 cells was not impaired. Infection of Huh7.5.1 cells with culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) via a clathrin-independent pathway was also observed. Knockdown of caveolin-1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), flotillin, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and the PAK1 effector C-terminal binding protein 1 of E1A had no inhibitory effects on HCVtcp infection into Huh7.5.1 cells, thus suggesting that the infectious entry pathway of HCV into Huh7.5.1 cells was not caveolae-mediated, or Arf6- and flotillin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but rather may have occurred via an undefined endocytic pathway. Further analysis revealed that HCV entry was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent in ORL8c and HepCD81/miR122 cells, but productive entry of HCV was clathrin- and dynamin-independent in Hep3B/miR122 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that HCV entered different target cells through different entry routes.

  19. BeppoSAX equatorial uncontrolled re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C.

    The X-ray astronomy satellite BeppoSAX (Satellite per Astronomia X, "Beppo" in honor of Giuseppe Occhialini), is a project of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR). BeppoSAX was launched by an Atlas G Centaur directly into a circular 600 km- orbit at 3.9 degrees inclination on April 30th, 1996. The satellite is a three axis stabilized spacecraft with a total mass of about 1400 kg. The current (May 1, 2002) flight altitude is about 470 km and its uncontrolled re-entry is predicted late in 2002, or in 2003, with a 26 kg of hydrazine on board that could not be vented or used for controlled re-entry due to gyro's package total failure. Due to the relatively high mass of BeppoSAX, it has to be expected that parts of the satellite will survive the re-entry into the earth atmosphere. The Italian Space Agency has committed a study to HTG for the analysis of the destructive phase of the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry by means of a dedicated European software tool (SCARAB). The expected outputs will be used in order to determine how much of the spacecraft and how many fragments parts of it will reach the ground on the equatorial earth zone. This paper will address the peculiarities of the spacecraft initial status, its risks at end of life and the SCARAB modelling as well as its 6D flight dynamics re-entry analysis results also in terms of the destruction history tree. Consideration will be made on the ground dispersion and casualt y area due to the very restricted equatorial zone impacted. References B. Fritsche, H. Klinkrad, A. Kashkovsky, E.Grinberg; Spacecraft Disintegration during uncontrolled atmospheric entry ; IAA-99-IAA.6.7.02; 50t h IAC 4-8 Oct. 1999

  20. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  1. Developing international market entry strategy for cultural tourism of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to examine potential international markets for culture tourism of Turkey and to determine a mode of entry strategy for it. The structure of this paper includes screening, identification, and selection stage based on applied various analysis, techniques, methods, and statistics. The major findings here suggest that South Korea and Canada are two possible foreign markets to penetrate. After deeply analysis of South Korea and Canada outbound tourism market, opening overseas tourism promotion office and applying agency are recommended as an appropriate mode of entry strategy for them, respectively. In this regard, practical implications are also mentioned for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey.

  2. Geometry of Weyl theory for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. The Weyl surface describing the dependence of Green's matrix on the boundary conditions is interpreted as the set of maximally isotropic subspace of a quadratic from given by the Wronskian. Analysis of the possibly degenerate limit quadratic form leads to the limit point/limit surface theory of maximal symmetric extensions for semi-infinite Jacobi matrices with matrix entries with arbitrary deficiency indices. The resolvent of the extensions is explicitly calculated.

  3. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  4. Experience of a Medicaid nursing home entry cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wayne A.; Federspiel, Charles F.; Baugh, David K.; Dodds, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Long-term care cost-containment policies have focused on reducing the numbers of persons entering nursing homes. To provide insight and background for such efforts, the authors studied the experience of Medicaid nursing home entry cohorts in three individual States. They found substantial interstate variation in rates of nursing home entry and subsequent patterns of discharge, suggesting the operation of fundamentally different policies for provision of Medicaid nursing home services. Analysis of the cost effectiveness and quality of care implications of these policies may provide guidance for future cost-containment efforts. PMID:10313279

  5. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  6. Airborne re-entry observation experiment SLIT: UV spectroscopy during STARDUST and ATV1 re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhle, Stefan; Wernitz, Ricarda; Herdrich, Georg; Fertig, Markus; Röser, Hans-Peter; Ritter, Heiko

    2011-09-01

    Emission spectra during re-entry have been measured in 2006 for the STARDUST capsule and in 2008 for the ATV1 "Jules Verne" re-entry. This paper summarizes the approach to design the airborne UV spectroscopic setup and its modifications with respect to the missions. For the STARDUST mission, results of data analysis of data presented in 2008 are given while for the ATV1 observation first spectra of the main disruption are exemplary presented. The surface radiation during the STARDUST re-entry is used to estimate convective and radiative heat flux using different analytical models. A first look at the spectroscopic footprint of ATV1 shows that during the first explosive event, a severe break-up of the main ATV1 structure occurs. However, a correlation with an explosion of fuel could not be observed.

  7. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Bay and propagate waves into the entrance channel and boat canal . The numerical modeling results indicated that maximum wave energy re- duction inside...fishing fleet, the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk (CENAO) maintains the Tangier Island boat canal . CENAO is considering the construction of...primary goal of the study was to develop a quantitative esti- mate of waves and wave reduction in the canal for a relative comparison of alternatives

  8. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  9. Acute - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference [Genetics Home Reference (Glossary)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q-R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y-Z Acute Definition(s) Having ...ding Medical Terminology . Published : October 27, 2014 Acute - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference ...

  10. 76 FR 13703 - New Origin Entry Separation & Containerization Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is proposing to revise... March 14, 2011 Part II Postal Service 39 CFR Part 111 New Origin Entry Separation & Containerization Standards; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 49 / Monday, March 14, 2011 / Proposed Rules...

  11. Unraveling the Entry Mechanism of Baculoviruses and Its Evolutionary Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Wang, J.; Yin, F.; Tan, Y.; Deng, F.; Chen, X.; Jehle, J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, H.

    2014-01-01

    The entry of baculovirus budded virus into host cells is mediated by two distinct types of envelope fusion proteins (EFPs), GP64 and F protein. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that F proteins were ancestral baculovirus EFPs, whereas GP64 was acquired by progenitor group I alphabaculovirus more recen

  12. Essays on Empirical Industrial Organization : Entry and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  13. The importance of prior probabilities for entry page search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.; Hiemstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Een belangrijke groep zoekopdrachten op het internet heeft ten doel de startpagina of 'entry page' van een organisatie te vinden. Zoeken naar een startpagina verschilt sterk van algemeen of 'Ad Hoc' zoeken. De resultaten van een simpel algemeen zoeksysteem zijn teleurstellend. In het rapport wordt g

  14. 50 CFR 635.41 - Products denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel listed on the ICCAT record as engaged in illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing will be... included on the ICCAT list as engaged in illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing will be denied entry... ICCAT convention area by a fishing vessel that is required to be listed, but not listed on the...

  15. Application of an Aesthetic Evaluation Model to Data Entry Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, D. C. L.; Byrne, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a new model for quantitatively assessing screen formats. Results of applying the model to data entry screens support the use of the model. Also described is a critiquing mechanism embedded in a user interface design environment as a demonstration of this approach. (Author/AEF)

  16. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisio

  17. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisi

  18. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  19. Detecting entanglement of states by entries of their density matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Xiaofei

    2010-01-01

    For any bipartite systems, a universal entanglement witness of rank-4 for pure states is obtained and a class of finite rank entanglement witnesses is constructed. In addition, a method of detecting entanglement of a state only by entries of its density matrix is obtained.

  20. Handling Qualities of a Capsule Spacecraft During Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    A piloted simulation was conducted to study handling qualities for capsule spacecraft entering the Earth s atmosphere. Eight evaluation pilots, including six pilot astronauts, provided Cooper-Harper ratings, workload ratings, and qualitative comments. The simulation began after descending through the atmospheric entry interface point and continued until the drogue parachutes deployed. There were two categories of piloting tasks, both of which required bank angle control. In one task category, the pilot followed a closed-loop bank angle command computed by the backup guidance system to manage g-loads during entry. In the other task category, the pilot used intuitive rules to determine the desired bank angle independently, based on an open-loop schedule of vertical speed, Mach, and total energy specified at several range-to-target gates along the entry trajectory. Pilots were able to accurately track the bank angle guidance commands and steered the capsule toward the recovery site with essentially the same range error as the benchmark autopilot trajectory albeit with substantially higher propellant usage, and the handling qualities for this task were satisfactory. Another key result was that the complex piloting task of atmospheric entry could be performed satisfactorily, even in the presence of large dispersions, by controlling bank angle to follow a simple open-loop schedule.

  1. Customizable tool for ecological data entry, assessment, monitoring, and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Database for Inventory, Monitoring and Assessment (DIMA) is a highly customizable tool for data entry, assessment, monitoring, and interpretation. DIMA is a Microsoft Access database that can easily be used without Access knowledge and is available at no cost. Data can be entered for common, nat...

  2. 19 CFR 10.100 - Entry, examination, and tariff status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise..., importations made by or for the account of any agency or office of the United States Government are subject...

  3. Early versus Late Entry to Preschool: Some Developmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between cognitive, motor, social and personality development of 3-year-old children and the age of their entry into preschool, which ranged from 10 to 45 months. 247 children from 17 preschools in different regions of Slovenia, all implementing the same National Curriculum, participated. Preschool teachers…

  4. The Entrepreneurial Process: An International Analysis of Entry and Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van der Zwan (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with the entrepreneurial process from an international perspective. The first part explores which people decide to enter entrepreneurship. A distinction is made between two modes of entrepreneurial entry: taking over an existing firm and starting a new firm. The second

  5. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes...

  6. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  7. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.

    2007-01-01

    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show that ...

  8. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  9. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  10. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion.

  11. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  12. Macropinocytosis is the Entry Mechanism of Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Vilhardt, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    The entry mechanism of murine amphotropic retrovirus (A-MLV) has not been unambiguously determined. We show here that A-MLV does not internalize by caveolae or other pinocytic mechanism, but by macropinocytosis. Thus A-MLV infection of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient for caveolin or dynamin...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1849-01 - Right of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1849-01 Right of entry. (a) Any manufacturer who has applied for certification of a new motor vehicle subject to testing under this subpart, or any manufacturer or... activities connected with such testing are or were performed. (2) Any facility where any new motor vehicle...

  14. 25 CFR 227.12 - Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries. 227.12 Section 227.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  15. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  16. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries

    CERN Document Server

    Sadel, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. Averaging over boundary conditions leads to explicit formulas for the averaged spectral measure which can potentially be useful for spectral analysis. Furthermore another variant of spectral averaging over coupling constants for these operators is presented.

  17. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  18. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  19. Human Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Architectures Study Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Tara T.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Landing humans on Mars will require entry, descent and landing (EDL) capability beyond the current state of the art. Nearly twenty times more delivered payload and an order of magnitude improvement in precision landing capability will be necessary. Several EDL technologies capable of meeting the human class payload delivery requirements are being considered. The EDL technologies considered include low lift-to-drag vehicles like Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD), Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT), and mid range lift-to-drag vehicles like rigid aeroshell configurations. To better assess EDL technology options and sensitivities to future human mission design variations, a series of design studies has been conducted. The design studies incorporate EDL technologies with conceptual payload arrangements defined by the Evolvable Mars Campaign to evaluate the integrated system with higher fidelity than have been performed to date. This paper describes the results of the design studies for a lander design using the HIAD, ADEPT and rigid shell entry technologies and includes system and subsystem design details including mass and power estimates. This paper will review the point design for three entry configurations capable of delivering a 20 t human class payload to the surface of Mars.

  20. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  1. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  2. Wigner law for matrices with dependent entries - a perturbative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Krajewski, T; Vu, D L

    2016-01-01

    We show that Wigner semi-circle law holds for Hermitian matrices with dependent entries, provided the deviation of the cumulants from the normalised Gaussian case obeys a simple power law bound in the size of the matrix. To establish this result, we use replicas interpreted as a zero-dimensional quantum field theoretical model whose effective potential obey a renormalisation group equation.

  3. Potent D-Peptide Inhibitors of HIV-1 Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch,B.; VanDemark, A.; Heroux, A.; Hill, C.; Kay, M.

    2007-01-01

    During HIV-1 entry, the highly conserved gp41 N-trimer pocket region becomes transiently exposed and vulnerable to inhibition. Using mirror-image phage display and structure-assisted design, we have discovered protease-resistant D-amino acid peptides (D-peptides) that bind the N-trimer pocket with high affinity and potently inhibit viral entry. We also report high-resolution crystal structures of two of these D-peptides in complex with a pocket mimic that suggest sources of their high potency. A trimeric version of one of these peptides is the most potent pocket-specific entry inhibitor yet reported by three orders of magnitude (IC50 = 250 pM). These results are the first demonstration that D-peptides can form specific and high-affinity interactions with natural protein targets and strengthen their promise as therapeutic agents. The D-peptides described here address limitations associated with current L-peptide entry inhibitors and are promising leads for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

  4. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual...

  5. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  6. 7 CFR 322.35 - Ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.35 Section 322.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit...

  7. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.10 Section 322.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  8. 7 CFR 322.11 - Ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.11 Section 322.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  9. 7 CFR 322.20 - Ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.20 Section 322.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  10. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  11. Wikipedia pages as entry points for book search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, M.; Kazai, G.; Craswell, N.; Baeza-Yates, R.; Boldi, P.; Ribeiro-Neto, B.; Cambazoglu, B.

    2009-01-01

    A lot of the world's knowledge is stored in books, which, as a result of recent mass-digitisation efforts, are increasingly available online. Search engines, such as Google Books, provide mechanisms for searchers to enter this vast knowledge space using queries as entry points. In this paper, we vie

  12. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brammer, Jeremy R.; Brunet, Nicolas D.; Burton, A.C.; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V.; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M.

    2016-01-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of

  13. The importance of prior probabilities for entry page search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.; Hiemstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Een belangrijke groep zoekopdrachten op het internet heeft ten doel de startpagina of 'entry page' van een organisatie te vinden. Zoeken naar een startpagina verschilt sterk van algemeen of 'Ad Hoc' zoeken. De resultaten van een simpel algemeen zoeksysteem zijn teleurstellend. In het rapport wordt

  14. China's Oil Industry Facing Challenge & Opportunity from WTO Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ With ups and downs in the past 15 years, China was officially admitted into World Trade Organization in November 2001. China's entry into WTO inevitably poses a severe challenge to the country's domestic petroleum and petrochemical industry, which has been protected by means of tariff hurdles and other administrative measures for a long time.

  15. Apical entry channels in calcium-transporting epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ji-Bin; Brown, Edward M; Hediger, Matthias A

    2003-08-01

    The identification of the apical calcium channels CaT1 and ECaC revealed the key molecular mechanisms underlying apical calcium entry in calcium-transporting epithelia. These channels are regulated directly or indirectly by vitamin D and dietary calcium and undergo feedback control by intracellular calcium, suggesting their rate-limiting roles in transcellular calcium transport.

  16. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  17. A Systematic Assessment of Empirical Research on Foreign Entry Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reviews on foreign market entry mode are limited by their methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to overcome some of these limitations by systematically assessing the empirical support for central relationships in the empirical literature. Design/methodology/approach This r......Purpose Reviews on foreign market entry mode are limited by their methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to overcome some of these limitations by systematically assessing the empirical support for central relationships in the empirical literature. Design....../methodology/approach This review provides a systematic assessment of empirical support through a simple quantitative procedure using transparent criteria for article selection. In total, 1217 statistical tests from 119 studies published in 44 different scientific journals in the period 1997-2013 are examined across a range...... issues with regard to interpretation of interactions and the entry mode choice set. Research limitations/implications This study limits itself to study the direction of relationships and does not analyze effect sizes. Further, future research may benefit from broadening the entry mode choice by extending...

  18. MOTIVATING FACTORS AND THE MODES OF ENTRY IN OTHER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  19. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  20. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  1. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  2. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  3. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  4. Floating Cities, Islands and States

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Many small countries are in need of additional territory. They build landfills and expensive artificial islands. The ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth surface. Those countries (or persons of wealth) starting the early colonization of the ocean may obtain advantages through additional territory or creating their own independent state. An old idea is building a big ship. The best solution to this problem, however, is the provision of floating cities, islands, and states. The author idea is to use for floating cities, islands, and states a cheap floating platform created from a natural ice field taken from the Arctic or Antarctic oceans. These cheap platforms protected by air-film (bottom and sides) and a conventional insulating cover (top) and having a cooling system can exist for an unlimited time. They can be increased in number or size at any time, float in warm oceans, travel to different continents and countries, serve as artificial airports, harbors and other marine improvements, as well as floating c...

  5. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  6. Encyclopaedia Entries for: (1) Spa Tourism, (2) Backpacker Tourism and (3) Country Profile: Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    These entries detail definitional terms for spa tourism, backpacker tourism and an overview of tourism in the Irish Republic. Key trends, main products, visitor numbers and attractions are outlined in each concise entry for this extensive encyclopaedia.

  7. Changing Times: Trials and Tribulations of the Move to Master's Entry-Level Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Alison; Klein, Jennifer; Brown, G. Ted

    2003-01-01

    Describes the historical evolution of Canadian occupational therapy education, outlines issues within occupational therapy that affect increased entry-level training requirements, and discusses benefits and challenges to master's entry-level training. (Contains 61 references.) (Author/JOW)

  8. Risk factors for mosquito house entry in the Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hiscox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km(2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE vector incidence rate ratio (IRR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.38-3.70, P = 0.001; Anopheline IRR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23, P = 0.005. Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.29-4.17, P = 0.005.Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.73, P = 0.002; Anopheline IRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.51, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance

  9. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  10. Proposing New Wilderness Areas: Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — President Transmittal on the proposal of wilderness additions that include Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains.

  11. Progress report on field studies in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands and Bering Sea, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands, and Bering Sea in support of work unit 953.10. Distribution and abundance of birds as seas (work...

  12. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    , and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...... lower for oceanic islands, and significantly higher for inland water-body islands, than for habitat islands. Values of z and c were related to dataset characteristics including the ratio of the largest to smallest island and the maximum and minimum richness values in a dataset. Main conclusions: Our...... multimodel comparisons demonstrated the nonlinear implementation of the power model to be the best overall model and thus to be a sensible choice for general use. As the z-value of the log–log power model varied in relation to ecological and geographical properties of the study systems, caution should...

  13. Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs for the next 15 years....

  14. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  15. Narrative Report Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1970....

  16. Islandness or Smallness? A Comparative Look at Political Institutions in Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Anckar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to explicate the relevance of the island dimension for political categories, for each of seven political institutions, a series of four comparisons are conducted on a global basis. The first is between small island states and all other states, the second is between small island states and larger island states, the third is between small island states and small mainland states, and the fourth is between island states and mainland states, regardless of size. The finding is that islandness links in many instances to the choice of institutional settings. Political scientists are therefore well-advised to include in their analyses islandness among the factors that shape institutional choices.

  17. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  18. Narrative report Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1971....

  19. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  20. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...