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Sample records for macquarie island entry

  1. The taxonomy and ecology of a new monocelid flatworm from Macquarie Island (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Hay, David A.

    1977-01-01

    Macquarie Island (54°37'S 158°54'E) has been investigated for the occurrence of freshwater macroturbellarians. Twenty sites were examined but only one species, here ascribed to the genus Minona sensu lato of the Monocelididae, was found and it is described as Minona amnica sp. nov. Its closest

  2. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  3. Ticks associated with macquarie island penguins carry arboviruses from four genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Major

    Full Text Available Macquarie Island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, Ixodes uriae. A flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. The flavivirus was nearly identical to Gadgets Gully virus, isolated some 30 year previously, illustrating the remarkable genetic stability of this virus. The nearest relative to the orbivirus (for which we propose the name Sandy Bay virus was the Scottish Broadhaven virus, and provided only the second available sequences from the Great Island orbivirus serogroup. The phlebovirus (for which we propose the name Catch-me-cave virus and the previously isolated Precarious Point virus were distinct but related, with both showing homology with the Finnish Uukuniemi virus. These penguin viruses provided the second and third available sequences for the Uukuniemi group of phleboviruses. The nairovirus (for which we propose the name Finch Creek virus was shown to be related to the North American Tillamook virus, the Asian Hazara virus and Nairobi sheep disease virus. Macquarie Island penguins thus harbour arboviruses from at least four of the seven arbovirus-containing genera, with related viruses often found in the northern hemisphere.

  4. Crustose corallinaceous algae (Rhodophyta) of the New Zealand and United States scientific expedition to the Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, and Macquarie Ridge, 1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaneveld, Jacques S.; Sanford, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen taxa of crustose Corallinaceae are described from a collection of marine algae picked up in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters along a Ross Sea — Balleny IslandsMacquarie Island traject aboard the USS Glacier in 1965. Three of these taxa are newly described, i.e. Lithothamnium

  5. The effects of a spillage of diesel fuel on a rocky shore in the sub-Antarctic region (Macquarie Island)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.D.; Smith, S.D.A.; Pople, A.R. [University of New England, Armidale (Australia). Dept. of Zoology

    1995-04-01

    On 3 December 1987, the supply ship Nella Dan ran aground at Macquarie island (54{sup o}29`S. 158{sup o}58`E) releasing about 270 000 1 of oil, mostly light marine diesel, into the sea. At the time of the incident, many marine invertebrates were washed up dead along 2 km of shoreline. Twelve months later, the shore community was investigated using (1) algal and invertebrate populations of the littoral and sublittoral rocky shore, and (2) the invertebrate communities living in the holdfasts of the giant kelp Durvillaea antarctica, which were collected for later examination. Investigations were undertaken at both affected and control locations. Analyses of differences in community structure involved nested ANOVA and multi-dimensional scaling techniques. On the rocky substrate, the effect of the spill was restricted to some biota of the lower littoral and sublittoral zones -particularly echinoderms and the patellid limpet Nacella macquariensis. There were differences in cover for some algal species between locations. Within the kelp holdfasts, communities were dominated by peracarid crustaceans at control locations and by polychaetes (particularly the opportunistic groups - capitellids, cirratulids and spionids) at oil-affected locations. The communities have recently been re-surveyed (in the summer of 1994-95) to assist in the interpretation of the results and to gauge the extent of recovery of the affected biota. (author)

  6. The effects of a spillage of diesel fuel on a rocky shore in the sub-Antarctic region (Macquarie Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.D.; Smith, S.D.A.; Pople, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    On 3 December 1987, the supply ship Nella Dan ran aground at Macquarie island (54 o 29'S. 158 o 58'E) releasing about 270 000 1 of oil, mostly light marine diesel, into the sea. At the time of the incident, many marine invertebrates were washed up dead along 2 km of shoreline. Twelve months later, the shore community was investigated using (1) algal and invertebrate populations of the littoral and sublittoral rocky shore, and (2) the invertebrate communities living in the holdfasts of the giant kelp Durvillaea antarctica, which were collected for later examination. Investigations were undertaken at both affected and control locations. Analyses of differences in community structure involved nested ANOVA and multi-dimensional scaling techniques. On the rocky substrate, the effect of the spill was restricted to some biota of the lower littoral and sublittoral zones -particularly echinoderms and the patellid limpet Nacella macquariensis. There were differences in cover for some algal species between locations. Within the kelp holdfasts, communities were dominated by peracarid crustaceans at control locations and by polychaetes (particularly the opportunistic groups - capitellids, cirratulids and spionids) at oil-affected locations. The communities have recently been re-surveyed (in the summer of 1994-95) to assist in the interpretation of the results and to gauge the extent of recovery of the affected biota. (author)

  7. Building the Sustainable Library at Macquarie University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a number of current issues and challenges in sustainability, both of and in academic libraries of the future, using as a case study the new library opened at Macquarie University, Sydney in 2011. Issues covered include sustainable design and operation of library buildings, sustainability in relation to library collections,…

  8. Quick look report, entry 4: Three Mile Island Unit 2, November 13, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidam, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes tasks performed during entry 4 at Three Mile Island Unit 2. During the entry into containment, which was made on November 13, 1980, additional beta and gamma surveys were conducted to supplement data acquired on previous entries. A decontamination test was completed on Elevation 305. Power receptables tested on Elevation 305 were deenergized, but receptacles on Elevation 347 were energized. Still photography was acquired of Elevations 305 and 347. During the entry, 86 still photographs were taken. Videotaping (color and black and white) was done on Elevations 305 and 347, but lighting on both elevations was insufficient for high-quality video

  9. Quick look report, Entry 3: Three Mile Island Unit 2, October 16, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes tasks performed during the third entry at Three Mile Island Unit 2. During the entry into containment, which was made on October 16, 1980, additional beta, gamma, and neutron surveys were performed to supplement data obtained on previous entries. In addition, several maintenance tasks were completed including testing the operation of both equipment hatch doors, replacing a loose parts monitor system pre-amplifier, and removing a source range monitor. The five-man entry team accomplished these tasks in about 1-1/2 hours

  10. Industrial Pastoral: Lake Macquarie Coal Miners’ Holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell McDougall

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As Stephen Page and Joanne Connell note in their mapping of the field, leisure studies is a largely post-war development, evolving internationally out of geography, economics, sociology and a range of other disciplines mostly in the social sciences rather than the humanities. Historians have not ignored the subject – there are plenty of historical studies of sports and recreation, the development of national parks, and so on. Yet, while leisure clearly has a vital and dynamic relation to work – culturally, politically, psychologically – labour historians in Australia appear to have been less interested in this area of research. We, the authors of this article, are primarily literary scholars rather than historians, but we have been puzzled by this apparent neglect. It is not our brief to examine the contemporary meanings of ‘leisure’ in relation to ‘work’ (or ‘forced labour,’ to adopt Guy Standing’s important twenty-first century distinction. Instead, our own study of coal miners’ holidays around Lake Macquarie from the late nineteenth and into the second half of the twentieth century considers the bygone rituals and activities of their holidaying from the vantage point of our own present location in an age where ‘simulation and nostalgia lie at the heart of everyday life.’ The article includes memoir and creative writing along with theory and analysis.

  11. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, RT [University of Washington; Protat, A [Australian Bureau of Meterology; Alexander, SP [Australian Antarctic Division

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  12. The Macquarie Dictionary, its History and its Editorial Practices Die Macquarie Dictionary, sy geskiedenis en sy redaksionele praktyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Delbridge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Macquarie Dictionary, first published in Sydney in 1981, was intended to be the first comprehensive dictionary of Australian English. Now in its third edition it has been widely adopted by institutions and the general community as the national dictionary. This paper traces its development from a difficult birth to its present maturity, from a large set of cards to an electronic database, from a single book to a lexicographic library. The rationale and the methodology are laid out along with an account of the reception given to the dictionary in Australia and internationally.

    Keywords: dictionary; lexicography; macquarie dictionary; australianness; australianise; australian english; national dictionaries; phonology; international phonetic alphabet; lexical labels; lexicographic style; language style; colloquial; aboriginal words; electronic database; corpus; citation

     

    Die Macquarie Dictionary wat vir die eerste keer in 1981 in Sydney gepubliseer is, was bedoel om die eerste omvattende woordeboek van Australiese Engels te wees. Die woordeboek wat tans in sy derde uitgawe is, word reeds algemeen deur instansies en die algemene publiek as nasionale woordeboek aanvaar. Hierdie artikel skets sy ontwikkeling vanaf 'n moeilike geboorte tot sy huidige volwassenheid, vanaf 'n groot versameling kaartjies tot 'n elektroniese databasis, vanaf 'n enkele boek tot 'n leksikografiese biblioteek. Die grondbeginsels en metodologie word gegee saam met 'n verslag van die ontvangs wat dit in Australië en internasionaal gekry het.

    Sleutelwoorde: woordeboek; leksikografie; macquarie dictionary; australiesheid; australianiseer; australiese engels; nasionale woordeboeke; fonologie; internasionale fonetiese alfabet; leksikale etikette; leksikografiese styl; taalstyl; omgangstaal; aboriginele woorde; elektroniese databasis; korpus; aanhaling

     

  13. Southern high latitude squat lobsters II: description of Uroptychus macquariae sp. nov. from Macquarie Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Kareen E; Burghardt, Ingo; Ahyong, Shane T

    2017-11-23

    Squat lobsters have only recently been recorded from the Macquarie Ridge, which extends south between New Zealand and Antarctica. Among these, Uroptychus insignis (Henderson, 1885) was recorded for the first time outside the western Indian Ocean, exhibiting only subtle morphological differences. Reexamination of the Macquarie Ridge and Indian Ocean specimens attributed to U. insignis using morphological and molecular data revealed the Macquarie Ridge form to represent a separate species. Subtle but consistent morphological differences are evident and partial CO1 sequence data indicates that the specimens collected on Macquarie Ridge differ from those collected in the Indian Ocean by more than 7%. The Macquarie Ridge species is described herein as Uroptychus macquariae n.sp. Subtle morphological differences between the new species and U. insignis are discussed.

  14. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now...

  15. The Macquarie Dictionary, its His- tory and its Editorial Practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common to all or most brands of English in the fullest and clearest possible ... team took a different view: the most urgent need was for a people's dictionary .... subsequent corpus studies then showed, the effects of American English on ...... entries on screen as they would appear on the page, a luxury which before this.

  16. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Palaeomagnetic results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamsen, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of thec. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now be correlated in detail with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. The lowermost (hidden part of thelower basalt formation correlates with Chron C26r (Selandian age, the top (exposed part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chrons C26n, C25r and C25n (Selandian and Thanetian ageand the middle and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian. Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from mostPalaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence of 20 specimens from one solid core (1½ m in length and 26 sidewall cores from the well between –2219 and –3531 m below sea level (b.s.l. suggest that the volcanic materials can be divided into two characteristic groups: solid unaltered basalts and altered basalts and tuffs. The magnetic properties are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at 2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented as all specimens appear to be from one flow. Magnetic logging (magnetic susceptibility and field intensity down to 3515 m b.s.l. was made in Lopra-1/1A together with other geophysical logs but did not yield conclusive inclination data.

  17. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  18. Unauthorized forced entry into the protected area at Three Mile Island Unit 1 on February 7, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    On February 7, 1993, at 6:53 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) an intruder drove into tile site owner-controlled area, through a gate into the protected area of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station, Unit I (TMI-1) and crashed through a roll-up door on the Turbine Building. TMI Security reported this event to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters operations officer and declared a Security Emergency upon determining that the protected area of the plant had been compromised. At 7:23 a.m., the TMI-1 shift supervisor officially notified the NRC Headquarters operations officer that he had declared a Site Area Emergency effective at 7:05 a.m. Upon considering the possible significance to physical security and the regulatory questions that could result from the event, the NRC Executive Director for Operations established an incident investigation team to determine what happened and make appropriate findings and conclusions. In this report the team described the event and the response to the event, evaluated the regulatory requirements, and presented the team's findings and conclusions

  19. Sediment sources and storages in the urbanizing South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    An investigation of the sediment source areas and sediment storages has been undertaken in the South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW. Source areas have been examined by analyzing suspended sediment concentrations, field measurements and observations, and caesium-137 values. The caesium-137 technique and field measurements were used to study the sediment storages on the South Creek flood plain. Particle size analysis of sediments on the slopes and flood plain were undertaken to provide information on the efficiency of the sediment transport system. The results of these investigations indicate that the developing urban areas are the main sources of poorest water quality (in terms of suspended sediment) in the South Creek catchment. The open woodland, rural and established urban areas were minor sediment source areas, although the open woodland had the potential to become a major sediment source if disturbed by human activities. The developing urban areas had efficient sediment transport systems, while the open woodland and rural areas tended to deposit sediment locally. The upstream section of the flood plain was found to be storing more sediment than the downstream section. The study revealed that when urban development occurs on the steeper gradients of the South Creek catchment erosion processes are greatly accelerated and thus the developing urban area becomes the major source of poorest water quality in the catchment. The importance of the developing urban area as a sediment source needs to be considered in any future land developments in urbanizing drainage basins

  20. The Quarantine Protection of Sub-Antarctic Australia: Two Islands, Two Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Potter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Antarctic Heard Island and Macquarie Island are among Australia’s offshore properties susceptible to colonization by species introduced by humans. While both islands share World Heritage status and are IUCN Category Ia Protected Areas (Strict Nature Reserves, different quarantine protection regimes are in operation. Macquarie Island’s biosecurity appears to be less catered for while the means and likelihood of introductions are greater. The administrative, political, practical and geographical contexts within which quarantine management planning takes place variously impact on the level of quarantine protection provided to both islands. These and other remote sites of high conservation value are unlikely to receive heightened protection until the issues associated with such management contexts receive greater attention.

  1. Decline of the Macquarie Marshes ecosystem, Australia, since European arrival recorded by organic geochemical proxies in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Chivas, A. R.; Garcia, A.; Hu, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Macquarie Marshes are floodplain wetlands in semi-arid NSW, Australia, and a Ramsar site experiencing accelerated deterioration in the last 50 years due to anthropogenic activities. We investigated environmental changes occurring in the northern and southern marshes using organic geochemical proxies from short cores and surface samples as modern analogues. Some proxies of modern plants (ferns, charophyte, reeds, Eucalyptus) and biota (black swan guano) samples, which are abundant in the Macquarie Marshes, were also analysed for comparison. The proxies analysed include bulk organic carbon and nitrogen (TOC, TN, C/N ratio), carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and some organic biomarkers (focusing on n-alkanes, sterols and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). TOC values in surface samples range between 2 to 5% depending on the organic input. The TOC and TN curves exhibit similar trends along time, decreasing to only one tenth at the depth of 70 cm (~ 565-752 years old) than those at the surface. The bulk δ13C values of modern samples (less than 50 years old) vary from -23% to -26%, falling within the range of values found in black swan guano(-21.6%) and plants (-27.0 to -31.5%). The calculated C/N ratios range from 10 to 25, and together with δ13C values suggest that the organic matter is mainly derived from terrestrial C3 plants. The contribution of aquatic plants is shown by shifts to higher δ13C values and lower C/N values in the core sections below the 40 cm depth (older than 130 years). Changes in vegetation type are also reflected by n-alkane and sterol biomarkers. In one core from the northern marshes, the temporal variation of (n-C27+C29)/n-C31 ratio indicates that the dominance of grasses has gradually been replaced by higher plants about 130 years ago. Sediments from the floodplain and dry lagoons show a dominant peak in long-chain n-alkanes with strong odd-to-even preference, contributed by emergent

  2. Pillar size optimization design of isolated island panel gob-side entry driving in deep inclined coal seam—case study of Pingmei No. 6 coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Xufeng; Fan, Gangwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jianbin, Cui

    2018-06-01

    There is a perception that deep roadways are difficult to maintain. To reverse this and to improve the recovery rate of coal resources, gob-side entry driving is widely used in coal mines, especially deep-mining coal mines, in China. Determination of the reasonable pillar size through in situ observation and experimentation plays a vital role for roadway maintenance. Based on the geological conditions of Pingmei No.6 coal seam, a theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and industrial experiments are carried out to calculate the reasonable width of chain pillars, analyze the lateral support stress distribution law near the gob side, investigate the relationship between the coal pillar stress distribution, roadway surrounding rock stress distribution, roadway surrounding rock deformation and the coal pillar width. The results indicate that 5 m wide coal pillars can ensure that the chain pillars are at a lower stress level and the deformation of roadway surrounding rock is in a more reasonable range. Industrial experiments show that when the chain pillar width is 5 m, the deformation of roadway surrounding rock can meet the requirements of working face safe production. The numerical results agreed well with field measurement and observations, and the industrial experiments results further validated the results of the numerical simulation.

  3. The Islamic Entries in Three Major English Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrosyid Abdurrosyid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to analyze Islamic entries in three major English dictionaries; Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE, Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learners’Dictionary (MWALED, and Macquarie Australian National Dictionary (MAND. The three dictionaries are used the object of this study because they represent the major varieties of English besides the existence of a great number of new Englishness emerges around the globe. The selected entries are in accordance to Islamic sciences such as theology, Islamic  Jurisprudence,  Quranic  exegesis,  hadith  Science,  Islamic  mysticism  and  Islamic  History. Inappropriate and inaccurate or misleading definitions given by the dictionaries are identified and analyzed, then they will be examined according to definitions from each Islamic science so that accurate and appropriate definitions can be delivered as the alternatives and in turn more acceptable definitions and understandings of Islam will be given to not only the Muslim communities but also the greater readers.DOI: 10.15408/insaniyat.v2i1.6588

  4. US Ports of Entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  5. Recent history of sediment metal contamination in Lake Macquarie, Australia, and an assessment of ash handling procedure effectiveness in mitigating metal contamination from coal-fired power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Larissa, E-mail: Larissa.Schneider@canberra.edu.au [Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Maher, William [Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Potts, Jaimie [New South Wales Office of Environmental and Heritage, Lidcombe, NSW, 2141 Australia (Australia); Gruber, Bernd [Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Batley, Graeme [CSIRO Land and Water, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Taylor, Anne [Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Chariton, Anthony [CSIRO Land and Water, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Krikowa, Frank [Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    This study assessed historical changes in metal concentrations in sediments of southern Lake Macquarie resulting from the activities of coal-fired power stations, using a multi-proxy approach which combines {sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs and metal concentrations in sediment cores. Metal concentrations in the lake were on average, Zn: 67 mg/kg, Cu: 15 mg/kg, As: 8 mg/kg, Se: 2 mg/kg, Cd: 1.5 mg/kg, Pb: 8 mg/kg with a maximum of Zn: 280 mg/kg, Cu: 80 mg/kg, As: 21 mg/kg, Se: 5 mg/kg, Cd: 4 mg/kg, Pb: 48 mg/kg. The ratios of measured concentrations in sediment cores to their sediment guidelines were Cd 1.8, As 1.0, Cu 0.5, Pb 0.2 and Zn 0.2, with the highest concern being for cadmium. Of special interest was assessment of the effects of changes in ash handling procedures by the Vales Point power station on the metal concentrations in the sediments. Comparing sediment layers before and after ash handling procedures were implemented, zinc concentrations have decreased 10%, arsenic 37%, selenium 20%, cadmium 38% and lead 14%. An analysis of contaminant depth profiles showed that, after implementation of new ash handling procedures in 1995, selenium and cadmium, the main contaminants in Australian black coal had decreased significantly in this estuary. - Highlights: • The main sources of metals to Southern Lake Macquarie are coal-fired power stations. • The metal of highest concern in this estuary is cadmium. • Arsenic was mobile in sediments. • Selenium and cadmium decreased in sediments following new ash handling procedures.

  6. Recent history of sediment metal contamination in Lake Macquarie, Australia, and an assessment of ash handling procedure effectiveness in mitigating metal contamination from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William; Potts, Jaimie; Gruber, Bernd; Batley, Graeme; Taylor, Anne; Chariton, Anthony; Krikowa, Frank; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed historical changes in metal concentrations in sediments of southern Lake Macquarie resulting from the activities of coal-fired power stations, using a multi-proxy approach which combines 210 Pb, 137 Cs and metal concentrations in sediment cores. Metal concentrations in the lake were on average, Zn: 67 mg/kg, Cu: 15 mg/kg, As: 8 mg/kg, Se: 2 mg/kg, Cd: 1.5 mg/kg, Pb: 8 mg/kg with a maximum of Zn: 280 mg/kg, Cu: 80 mg/kg, As: 21 mg/kg, Se: 5 mg/kg, Cd: 4 mg/kg, Pb: 48 mg/kg. The ratios of measured concentrations in sediment cores to their sediment guidelines were Cd 1.8, As 1.0, Cu 0.5, Pb 0.2 and Zn 0.2, with the highest concern being for cadmium. Of special interest was assessment of the effects of changes in ash handling procedures by the Vales Point power station on the metal concentrations in the sediments. Comparing sediment layers before and after ash handling procedures were implemented, zinc concentrations have decreased 10%, arsenic 37%, selenium 20%, cadmium 38% and lead 14%. An analysis of contaminant depth profiles showed that, after implementation of new ash handling procedures in 1995, selenium and cadmium, the main contaminants in Australian black coal had decreased significantly in this estuary. - Highlights: • The main sources of metals to Southern Lake Macquarie are coal-fired power stations. • The metal of highest concern in this estuary is cadmium. • Arsenic was mobile in sediments. • Selenium and cadmium decreased in sediments following new ash handling procedures

  7. The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the Western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963—1967)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.; Zaneveld, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    During the austral summer seasons of 1963-1964 and 1964-1965, and during the austral winter season of 1967 Prof. Dr. J.S. Zaneveld made collection expeditions to the western Ross Sea. In 1965 collections were also made from the U.S.C.G. icebreaker ‘Glacier’, around the western Ross Sea and around

  8. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  9. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  10. Jesus' Entry into Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Sankamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to contribute to the understanding of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem. The author studies the entry, which is found in all the Gospels, in its Jewish context. The author argues that Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem on an ass is to be understood as a prophetic sign which was primarily meant to convey a message to the Jews.

  11. The NASA-Macquarie University Pilbara Education Project: Connecting the public to `science in the making' via virtual reality and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C. A.; Fergusson, J.; Bruce, G.; Gaskins, T.

    2006-12-01

    A 2005 international field trip to a key Mars analogue site in Western Australia was used to create a hi-tech education resource for use internationally. The NASA-Macquarie University Pilbara Education Project aims to engage high school students and the broader general community with `science in the making'. A team of educators and communicators, including a US documentary TV crew, joined 25 geologists, microbiologists, geochemists and other experts on the field trip to the Pilbara. The education team captured scientists debating different interpretations of what appears to be the best earliest evidence of life on Earth 3.5 billion years ago in situ. Initially the project was designed as a curriculum product, but difficulties in a range of areas persuaded researchers to chart a different course. While still maintaining high schools as a primary audience, designers refocused on the possibilities outside of the school gates and beyond. The paper describes the prompt for the project, its design and the impact of testing it with end users -- the students and their teachers -- in Australia and the UK.

  12. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  13. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, ped...

  14. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  15. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  16. Entry and Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    1. Introduction R Analyses of industrial competition have attained a new vigor with the application of game -theoretic methods. The process of... competition is represented in models that reflect genuine struggles for entry, market power, and continuing survival. Dynamics and informational effects are...presents a few of the models developed recently to study competitive processes that affect a firm’s entry into a market , and the decision to exit. The

  17. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2009-01-01

    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  18. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  19. Lobbying on entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise

  20. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    To better understand the technology requirements for Uranus atmospheric entry probe, Entry Vehicle Technology project funded an internal study with a multidisciplinary team from NASA Ames, Langley and JPL. The results of this study are communicated.

  1. Border Crossing/Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  2. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  3. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  4. Entry-Control Systems Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The function of an entry-control system in a total Physical Protection System is to allow the movement of authorized personnel and material through normal access routes, yet detect and delay unauthorized movement of personnel and material from uncontrolled areas. The ten chapters of this handbook cover: introduction, credentials, personnel identity verification systems, special nuclear materials monitors, metal detectors, explosives sensors, package search systems, criteria for selection of entry-control equipment, machine-aided manual entry-control systems, and automated entry-control systems. A system example and its cost are included as an appendix

  5. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Peter F. Orazem

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  6. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  7. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1986-05-01

    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  8. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  9. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  10. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  11. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  12. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  13. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  14. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  15. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more......This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  16. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  17. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  18. How Kindergarten Entry Assessments Are Used in Public Schools and How They Correlate with Spring Assessments. REL 2017-182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine A.; Cook, Kyle DeMeo; Greller, Sara

    2016-01-01

    As a growing number of states require kindergarten entry assessments, more state and district administrators are becoming interested in how their peers use these assessments around the country. Given this interest, state administrators participating in Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands Early Childhood Education Research…

  19. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  20. 32 CFR 763.5 - Entry procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander Naval Base policy to permit children below the age of 15 access to Kaho'olawe Island. (d) The...'olawe. (9) No person shall deface, alter, remove, spoil, or destroy any archeological object, feature, or site on the island. (10) Children shall remain with their parents at all times while on the island...

  1. Automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized. 2 refs., 7 figs

  2. Entry Mode Choice in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Anne Kathrine Navestad

    2012-01-01

    As the mature markets of developed economies have become increasingly saturated, firms are turning their attention towards emerging markets for further enterprise growth. However, these countries often present significant challenges for foreign entrants, forcing firms to adapt their strategies to the new context. While MNEs? entry mode choice is an extensively studied field, there is a deficit in the entry mode research on SMEs, and even more so when it comes to entry into emerging markets in...

  3. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Peter M.; Wrzaczek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped. PMID:26435573

  4. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is a...

  5. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. The entries in this revision include the corporate entries used in report bibliographic citations since 1973 and list approximately 28,000 corporate sources

  6. Cutting through - open entries require proper support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.S. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2000-06-01

    The paper explains the applications of open entries in mining and different roof techniques to relieve longwall abutment pressures. The primary support for the open (or cut-through) entries and recovery rooms are normally similar to other development entries in the same mines. The supplementary supports installed can be divided into the following three types: complete backfill of open entries, supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement only - no standing support and rows of standing support with or without supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement. 3 figs.

  7. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  9. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  10. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  11. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  12. Energy Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1982-08-01

    Corporate author entries provide a means for consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records in the data bases of the DOE Technical Information Center. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations

  13. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is associated with significant entry costs, which allow the incumbents to take advantage of their dominant position and derive positive economic profits. In case of entry threat by potential competitors the incumbents take strategic actions aimed at deterring entry and preserving their dominant position. Among the most efficient strategic actions one can emphasize the erection of additional barriers to entry for the newcomers through producing the limit output and price, investments in sunk assets, capacity expansion and product differentiation. Meanwhile by taking strategic actions the incumbents are not always trying to affect the entrant’s costs and profit directly, they often aim at changing the entrant’s expectations regarding future intentions of the incumbents to preserve dominant position.

  14. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-entry interval applies, including, but not limited to, soil, water, air, or surfaces of plants; and (2...-entry activity, the agricultural employer shall provide a decontamination site in accordance with § 170... running water for routine and emergency decontamination and mechanical devices that would reduce the...

  15. Entry and Competition in Differentiated Products Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.; Verboven, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a methodology for estimating the competition effects from entry when firms sell differentiated products. We first derive precise conditions under which Bres- nahan and Reiss'entry threshold ratios (ETRs) can be used to test for the presence and to measure the magnitude of competition

  16. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information tec...

  17. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms.......We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...

  18. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  19. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  20. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.

  1. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  2. Technical Area 55 Entry Control System (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, A.; Brundige, E.; DesJardin, R.; Rivera, R.

    1984-01-01

    The exchange badge system which was used at the Plutonium Facility located in Technical Area 55 was replaced on a trial basis with an automated Entry Control System. As a result of the success of the trial system, a new system incorporating expanded features and increased reliability is being implemented. The new Entry Control System incorporates several features not previously available in relatively inexpensive entry systems. The reliability of the system is enhanced by redundant microprocessors incorporating bubble memory for nonvolatile storage of the system data base. The badge readers incorporate dual communication lines to two different controllers to further increase the total system reliability

  3. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  4. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  5. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making.......This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  7. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  8. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... are analysed. The effective management of firms’ resources and capabilities is influenced by the perception of these internal factors when expanding into foreign markets. Our results confirmed that family firms build up longer lasting relationships in the host country by choosing high commitment entry modes...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  9. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  10. Tactile Data Entry System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  11. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  12. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  13. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  14. Models of radon entry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper reviews existing models of radon entry into houses. The primary mechanism of radon entry in houses with high indoor concentrations is, in most cases, convective entry of radon bearing soil-gas from the surrounding soil. The driving force for this convective entry is the small indoor-outdoor pressure difference arising from the stack effect and other causes. Entry points for the soil-gas generally are the cracks or gaps in the building substructure, or though other parts of the building shell in direct contact with the soil, although entry may also occur by flow though permeable concrete or cinder block walls of the substructure. Models using analytical solutions to idealized geometrical configurations with simplified boundary conditions obtain analytical tractability of equations to be solved at the cost of severe approximations; their strength is in the insights they offer with their solutions. Models based on lumped parameters attempt to characterize the significant physical behavioral characteristics of the soil-gas and radon flow. When realistic approximations are desired for the boundary conditions and terms in the governing equations, numerical models must be used; these are usually based on finite difference or finite element solutions to the governing equations. Limited data are now available for experimental verification of model predictions. The models are briefly reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed

  15. Medical student satisfaction, coping and burnout in direct-entry versus graduate-entry programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Dawn; Canny, Benedict J; Nitzberg, Michael; Choudri, Jennifer; Porter, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal length of medical training, with concern about the cost of prolonged training. Two simultaneous tracks currently exist in Australia: direct entry from high school and graduate entry for students with a bachelor degree. Medical schools are switching to graduate entry based on maturity, academic preparedness and career-choice surety. We tested the assumption that graduate entry is better by exploring student preferences, coping, burnout, empathy and alcohol use. From a potential pool of 2188 participants, enrolled at five Australian medical schools, a convenience sample of 688 (31%) first and second year students completed a survey in the middle of the academic year. Participants answered questions about demographics, satisfaction and coping and completed three validated instruments. Over 90% of students preferred their own entry-type, though more graduate-entry students were satisfied with their programme (82.4% versus 65.3%, p students in self-reported coping or in the proportion of students meeting criteria for burnout (50.7% versus 51.2%). Direct-entry students rated significantly higher for empathy (concern, p = 0.022; personal distress, p = 0.031). Graduate-entry students reported significantly more alcohol use and hazardous drinking (30.0% versus 22.8%; p = 0.017). Our multi-institution data confirm that students are generally satisfied with their choice of entry pathway and do not confirm significant psychosocial benefits of graduate entry. Overall, our data suggest that direct-entry students cope with the workload and psychosocial challenges of medical school, in the first 2 years, as well as graduate-entry students. Burnout and alcohol use should be addressed in both pathways. Despite studies showing similar academic outcomes, and higher total costs, more programmes in Australia are becoming graduate entry. Further research on non-cognitive issues and outcomes is needed so that universities, government

  16. 19 CFR 151.41 - Information on entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.41 Section 151... Products § 151.41 Information on entry summary. On the entry summary for petroleum or petroleum products in.... If the exact volumetric quantity cannot be determined in advance, the entry summary may be made for...

  17. Entry control system for large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System

  18. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  19. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  20. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  1. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  2. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2012-01-01

    (first-mover or follower). Invention is understood as the conversion of human creativity, time and financial resources into new ideas. Innovation in turn reflects the practical and financial return on such investments. While there is little disagreement about what an innovator strategy is, imitative......This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...

  3. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  4. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  5. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  6. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  7. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  8. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  9. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project.

  10. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project

  11. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  12. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  13. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  14. Correlation Between Entry Requirements and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the investigator examines the correlation between entry requirements and academic performance of undergraduate students at the University of Buea. The quality of performance on the Cameroon General Certificate Examination at the Advanced Level is the predictor while the criterion is the cumulative grade ...

  15. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  16. Women's Entry into Teaching: Myths and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the entry of women into the teaching profession in nineteenth-century America, noting that, while the primary motivation for encouraging women to teach was that they could be paid less than men, this economic justification was obscured by sentimental pronouncements about women's superior moral and nurturant power. (SJL)

  17. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  18. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  19. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Marjomäki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus B species (EV-B are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1, actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC and protein kinase Cα (PKCα. Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1 and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9. These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication.

  20. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    The DOE Energy Information Data Base has been created and is maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center. One of the controls for information entered into the base is the standardized name of the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of this list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. It also serves as a guide for users who retrieve information from a bibliographic data base and who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. This authority is a combination of entries established by the Technical Information Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The format calls, in general, for the name of the organization represented by the literature being cataloged to be cited as follows: the largest element, the place, the smallest element, e.g., Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah (USA), Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Code numbers are assigned to each entry to provide manipulation by computer. Cross references are used to reflect name changes and invalid entries

  1. Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    state which mainly determines its polarizability . ∆r2 = r2u− r2l is the difference between Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry RTO-EN-AVT...NO A← X (0,0) band in the presence of argon and nitrogen. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 47:375–390, 1992. Radiation

  2. 76 FR 15841 - Entry of Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 141 Entry of Merchandise CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 141 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 6, the second general authority citation for part...

  3. Anthropologists and Broadcasting: Roles and Entry Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    The article describes some of the roles open to anthropologists in radio and television. Entry strategies for occupying these roles include taking the first step in approaching the broadcast station, learning about broadcasting, and communicating anthropology to the broadcasters. (Author/NQ)

  4. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  5. An Analysis of the Feasible Entry Mode for Tottenham Hotspur’s Entry into China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of European football clubs has developed global strategies with an emphasis on the Chinese market, which seems to be a shortcut to their global success. In order to achieve an effective expansion, the selection of appropriate entry modes should be conducted cautiously. This paper aims to select feasible entry modes for Tottenham Hotspur F.C., an emerging power in the Premier League, to enter into the Chinese market. A framework that combines different theories based ...

  6. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market

    OpenAIRE

    Karataev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  7. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  8. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  9. In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

  10. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND... present a certificate to the appropriate customs official at the date of entry of specialty sugars. Entry...

  11. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  12. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  13. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  14. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  15. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  16. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1 . (Author)

  17. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  18. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Rea, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    For Exploration Missions 1 and 2, the Orion capsules will be entering the Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 km/s. In the event of a degraded Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, attempting the nominal guided entry may be inadvisable due to the potential for failures that result in a loss of vehicle (or crew, when crew are aboard). In such a case, a method of assuring Earth capture, water landing, and observence of trajectory constraints (heating, loads) is desired. Such a method should also be robust to large state uncertainty and variations in entry interface states. This document will explore four approaches evaluated and their performance in ensuring a safe return of the Orion capsule in the event of onboard system degradation.

  19. Available hardware for automated entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Ongoing work at Sandia National Laboratories is attempting to establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a performance test of the following biometric verifiers: (1) voice verifier by Alpha Microsystems of Santa Ana, California; (2) signature dynamics verifier by Autosig Systems of Irving, Texas; (3) voice verifier by Ecco Industries of Danvers, Massachusetts (now International Electronics); (4) retinal pattern verifier by EyeDentify of Portland, Oregon; (5) fingerprint verifier by Identix of Sunnyvale, California; and (6) hand geometry verifier by Recognition Systems of San Jose, California

  20. Cell entry of hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosch, Birke; Cosset, Francois-Loic

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important human pathogen, is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Cell attachment of flaviviruses generally leads to endocytosis of bound virions. Systems that support HCV replication and particle formation in vitro are emerging only now, 16 years after the discovery of the virus. Albeit this limitation, the route of HCV cell entry as well as 'capture' molecules involved in low-affinity interactions for the initial contact of HCV with target cells and potential high-affinity receptor candidates that may mediate HCV trafficking and fusion has been described. The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of different HCV model systems to our current knowledge about structure of the HCV GPs E1 and E2 and their roles in cell entry comprising cell attachment, interactions with cellular receptors, endocytosis, and fusion

  1. Guessing lexicon entries using finite-state methods

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenniemi, Kimmo Matti

    2018-01-01

    A practical method for interactive guessing of LEXC lexicon entries is presented. The method is based on describing groups of similarly inflected words using regular expressions. The patterns are compiled into a finite-state transducer (FST) which maps any word form into the possible LEXC lexicon entries which could generate it. The same FST can be used (1) for converting conventional headword lists into LEXC entries, (2) for interactive guessing of entries, (3) for corpus-assisted interactiv...

  2. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2014-04-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  3. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  4. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  5. Incumbent innovation and entry by spinoff

    OpenAIRE

    Falck, Oliver; Heblich, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a different perspective toward the escape entry incentive of incumbent firms to innovate. New entrants spawned from incumbents are not necessarily a threat; they can complement incumbents' production by commercializing knowledge incumbents are not willing or able to exploit. Accordingly, incumbent innovation determines exploitable knowledge externalities for spinoffs while, at the same time, spinoffs are expected to influence incumbent innovation. To overcome this problem of ...

  6. Advertising, Competition and Entry in Media Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Crampes, Claude; Haritchabalet, Carole; Jullien, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of media competition with free entry when media operators are financed both from advertisers and customers. The relation between advertising receipts and sales receipts, which are both complementary and antagonist, is different if media operators impose a price or a quantity to advertisers. When consumers dislike advertising, media operators are better off setting an advertising price than an advertising quantity. We establish a relationship between the equilibrium...

  7. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  8. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  9. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  10. Filovirus tropism: Cellular molecules for viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayato eTakada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In human and nonhuman primates, filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever.Recently, other animals such as pigs and some species of fruit bats have also been shown to be susceptible to these viruses. While having a preference for some cell types such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, filoviruses are known to be pantropic in infection of primates. The envelope glycoprotein (GP is responsible for both receptor binding and fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. It has been demonstrated that filovirus GP interacts with multiple molecules for entry into host cells, whereas none of the cellular molecules so far identified as a receptor/coreceptor fully explains filovirus tissue tropism and host range. Available data suggest that the mucin-like region (MLR on GP plays an important role in attachment to the preferred target cells, whose infection is likely involved in filovirus pathogenesis, whereas the MLR is not essential for the fundamental function of the GP in viral entry into cells in vitro. Further studies elucidating the mechanisms of cellular entry of filoviruses may shed light on the development of strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

  11. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  12. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be...

  13. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  14. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.63 Section 151.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean...

  15. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 deg Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Dinesh K.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Spilker, Thomas R.; Hwang, Helen H.; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and capsule diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30 is explored with a 3DOF trajectory code, TRAJ. Assuming that the thermal protection material of choice is carbon phenolic of flight heritage, the entry flight path angle space is constrained a posteriori by the mechanical and thermal performance parameters of the material. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load and 10 bar is assumed as the limit for heritage carbon-phenolic material. It is shown that both constraints cannot be active simultaneously. For thermal performance, a heat flux 2.5 kW/sq cm is utilized as a threshold below which the heritage carbon phenolic is considered mass inefficient. Using these constraints, viable entry flight path angle corridors are determined. Analysis of the results also hints at the existence of a range of "critical" ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of 10 bar. The results are verified against known performance of the various probes used in the Pioneer Venus mission. It is anticipated that the results presented here will serve as a baseline in the development of a new class of ablative materials for future Venus missions.

  16. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  18. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  19. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  20. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  1. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  2. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  3. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  4. Title list, publicly available documents: Three Mile Island Unit 1, Docket 50-289 - cumulated to November 16, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This title list of publicly available documents pertaining to Three Mile Island Unit 1, Docket 50-289, includes all documents pertaining to this Docket that had been filed in the NRC Public Document Room as of November 16, 1979. The categories used for filing and searching in the NRC Public Document Room are used to catalog the entries

  5. Update of assessment of geotechnical risks, strategic petroleum reserve, Weeks Island site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, S.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a critical reassessment of the geotechnical risks of continuing oil storage at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. It reviews all previous risk abatement recommendations, subsequent mitigative actions, and new information. Of increased concern, due to the discovery of a surface levels, is the long term maintainability of the mine as an oil storage repository. Mine operational changes are supported in order to facilitate monitoring of water entry diagnostics. These changes are also intended to minimize the volume in the mine available for water entry. Specific recommendations are made to implement the mine changes.

  6. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  7. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode fo...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  8. Analysis and Optimization of Entry Stability in Underground Longwall Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable utilization of limited coal resources, it is important to increase the coal recovery rate and reduce mine accidents, especially those occurring in the entry (gateroad. Entry stabilities are vital for ventilation, transportation and other essential services in underground coal mining. In the present study, a finite difference model was built to investigate stress evolutions around the entry, and true triaxial tests were carried out at the laboratory to explore entry wall stabilities under different mining conditions. The modeling and experimental results indicated that a wide coal pillar was favorable for entry stabilities, but oversize pillars caused a serious waste of coal resources. As the width of the entry wall decreased, the integrated vertical stress, induced by two adjacent mining panels, coupled with each other and experienced an increase on the entry wall, which inevitably weakened the stability of the entry. Therefore, mining with coal pillars always involves a tradeoff between economy and safety. To address this problem, an innovative non-pillar mining technique by optimizing the entry surrounding structures was proposed. Numerical simulation showed that the deformation of the entry roof decreased by approximately 66% after adopting the new approach, compared with that using the conventional mining method. Field monitoring indicated that the stress condition of the entry was significantly improved and the average roof pressure decreased by appropriately 60.33% after adopting the new technique. This work provides an economical and effective approach to achieve sustainable exploitation of underground coal resources.

  9. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. UPSON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  10. Hepatitis C virus utilizes VLDLR as a novel entry pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Hishiki, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Takaku, Hiroshi; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2016-01-05

    Various host factors are involved in the cellular entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition to the factors previously reported, we discovered that the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) mediates HCV entry independent of CD81. Culturing Huh7.5 cells under hypoxic conditions significantly increased HCV entry as a result of the expression of VLDLR, which was not expressed under normoxic conditions in this cell line. Ectopic VLDLR expression conferred susceptibility to HCV entry of CD81-deficient Huh7.5 cells. Additionally, VLDLR-mediated HCV entry was not affected by the knockdown of cellular factors known to act as HCV receptors or HCV entry factors. Because VLDLR is expressed in primary human hepatocytes, our results suggest that VLDLR functions in vivo as an HCV receptor independent of canonical CD81-mediated HCV entry.

  11. An Institutional Approach to Bordering in Islands: The Canary Islands on the African-European Migration Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Godenau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands play a significant role in international irregular maritime migration. Frequently they are part of maritime interstitial spaces between states, and their location, combined with institutional membership, makes them part of international migration routes and subject to border management strategies. In this paper borders are analysed as social institutions used for regulating relative permeability through rules of entry and exit for persons, goods and capital. Borders institutionalize territoriality and are politically implemented by states. They are selective, also in migration, and irregular border transit is not always indicative of an inability to control. The Canary Islands are used as an illustrative example of how border management at the southern edge of the European Union has evolved towards more coercive deterrence and tighter surveillance. The Canary Islands experienced irregular maritime immigration from the west African coasts during the first decade of the 21st century and most of these migrants intended to use the islands as transit space towards the European continent. Increasing surveillance in countries of origin, enforcement of border controls and stricter return policies were used to stop flows. The so-called “cayuco crisis” in 2006 induced institutional change in border management and forced the active involvement of the EU through FRONTEX.

  12. Formation Mechanisms for Entry and Exit Defects in Bobbin Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Tamadon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW is an innovative variant for the solid state welding process whereby a rotating symmetrical tool causes a fully penetrated bond. Despite the process development, there are still unknown variables in the characterization of the process parameters which can cause uncontrolled weld defects. The entry zone and the exit zone consist of two discontinuity-defects and removing them is one of the current challenges for improving the weld quality. In the present research, the characteristic features of the entry and exit defects in the weld structure and formation mechanism of them during the BFSW processing was investigated. Using stacked layers of multi-colour plasticine the material flow, analogous to metal flow, can be visualised. By using different colours as the path markers of the analogue model, the streamline flow can be easily delineated in the discontinuity defects compared with the metal welds. AA6082-T6 aluminium plates and multi-layered plasticine slabs were employed to replicate the entry-exit defects in the metal weld and analogue samples. The fixed-bobbin tool utilized for this research was optimized by adding a thread feature and tri-flat geometry to the pin and closed-end spiral scrolls on both shoulder surfaces. Samples were processed at different rotating and longitudinal speeds to show the degree of dependency on the welding parameters for the defects. The analogue models showed that the entry zone and the exit zone of the BFSW are affected by the inhomogeneity of the material flow regime which causes the ejection or disruption of the plastic flow in the gap between the bobbin shoulders. The trial aluminium welds showed that the elimination of entry-exit defects in the weld body is not completely possible but the size of the defects can be minimized by modification of the welding parameters. For the entry zone, the flow pattern evolution suggested formation mechanisms for a sprayed tail, island zone

  13. Aerothermodynamics of blunt body entry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  14. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries

    OpenAIRE

    Laskowski, Roman A.; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image‐based and include protein secondary structure, protein‐ligand and protein‐DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password‐protected PDBsum analyses for e...

  15. The Timing of Entry into New Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Debra J. Aron

    1991-01-01

    Under what circumstances will a successful incumbent in a related market be the first to enter a new market? We present a model in which the order of entry into new markets has long run effects on the firms' profits. We assume that a firm that is successfully producing in a related market has valuable information about the demand in the new market. By his choice of location in product space in the new market the incumbent reveals information about the demand to the potential entrant. Thus, th...

  16. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M

    2018-01-01

    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbsum. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  17. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    with a positive influence, namely having an entrepreneurial role model and having attended seminars about starting a business. In our model, these factors support waiting longer before starting a business. In light of these results, we call for a more experimental approach in entrepreneurship education.......This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  18. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  19. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  20. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  1. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  2. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  3. Energy Data Base corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is one of three agencies funding the major portion of government-supported research. One of the ways to locate the results of this research is to find reports in the Energy Data Base (EDB), the comprehensive data base of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Technical Information Center, and in publications derived therefrom by referring to the corporate organization performing the research. This information field has been established as an index point retrievable in on-line searching and is included as an index in printed publications. To provide consistent citing of names in bibliographic entries, this authority has been created and maintained as a means of entry of corporate names into the EDB. To locate such information, one can (1) use the seven-digit code number assigned to the corporate entity of interest (enter, for example, IC=9506086) or (2) use one word at a time from the corporate name given (enter, for example, CS=Dominion)

  4. 75 FR 82241 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... manner by which the declared transaction value on imported merchandise was determined. This requirement... whether the transaction value of imported merchandise is determined on the basis of the price paid by the...

  5. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  6. Analytic Development of a Reference Profile for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This note shows that a feasible reference drag profile for the first entry portion of a skip entry can be generated as a polynomial expression of the velocity. The coefficients of that polynomial are found through the resolution of a system composed of m + 1 equations, where m is the degree of the drag polynomial. It has been shown that a minimum of five equations (m = 4) are required to establish the range and the initial and final conditions on velocity and flight path angle. It has been shown that at least one constraint on the trajectory can be imposed through the addition of one extra equation in the system, which must be accompanied by the increase in the degree of the drag polynomial. In order to simplify the resolution of the system of equations, the drag was considered as being a probability density function of the velocity, with the velocity as a distribution function of the drag. Combining this notion with the introduction of empirically derived constants, it has been shown that the system of equations required to generate the drag profile can be successfully reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. For completeness, the resulting drag profiles have been flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as a guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. Satisfactory results were achieved when the gains in the error dynamics were changed at a certain point along the trajectory that is dependent on the velocity and the curvature of the drag as a function of the velocity. Future work should study the capacity to update the drag profile in flight when dispersions are introduced. Also, future studies should attempt to link the first entry, as presented and controlled in this note, with a more standard control concept for the second entry, such as the Apollo entry guidance, to try to assess the overall skip entry performance. A guidance law that includes

  7. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  8. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  9. An automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized

  10. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  11. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  12. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  13. The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: Entry Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Chinese firms and other emerging markets firms aim to select a favourable entry mode to start or expand their international business, thus this is significant issue for research. This study demonstrates that the Chinese firms’ choice of entry mode is determined by internal-factors, external-factors and transaction cost factors. This is illustrated through the investigation of a case study of the Haier Group’s choice of entry mode and internationalization. Therefore, four processes of choice o...

  14. Entry Restrictions, Corruption and Extortion in the Context of Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Cabelkova

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that even temporary barriers to entry present at the very beginning of transition may lead to permanent extortion development. Entry restrictions, if binding, lead to excess profits, which create an incentive to extort. The emergence of extortionists reduces the expected profit from production, making producers expect extortion in the future. If, after this adaptation of expectations, the government removes the barriers to entry, only a few new firms will enter the market. H...

  15. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  16. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency under Co-opetition

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the social desirability of free entry in the co-opetition model in which firms compete in a homogeneous product market while sharing common property resources that affect market size or consumers' willingness to pay for products. We show that free entry leads to socially excessive or insufficient entry into the market in the case of non-commitment co-opetition, depending on the magnitude of "business stealing" and "common property" effects of entry. On the other hand, in the ca...

  17. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups...... depending on the control that the company has over its activities abroad. The paper examines selected factors that influence the ‘entry modes’ of Danish SMEs in different strategic settings. Results show that the most deciding factor for the choice of high control entry mode (subsidiary) was the factor...

  18. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  19. Regulated portals of entry into the cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2003-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  20. Access, entry and researcher-participant position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on methodological experiences obtained in an anthropologically inspired qualitative study among students of carpentry in Denmark. On the one hand the article deals with methodological issues of doing anthropological research among students of carpentry, while on the other...... it deals with the research findings that such a research design produced. As well as the methodological issues of researcher access, entry and participant position in the field, this article reports on the following questions: What kinds of implicit expectations of the students are embedded in the way...... the school introduces and initiates the programme? What kinds of effects does this have on the motivation of the students? How do the terms and professional language of the profession work on the individual students in including and excluding ways? These specific descriptions of classroom pedagogy, inspired...

  1. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...... membrane, and soil gas enters the cylinder through a changeable interface in the bottom. The depressurisation of the cylinder is controlled by a mass-flow controller, thereby limiting the influence of natural driving forces. Pressures, temperatures and radon concentrations are measured continuously...... in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect...

  2. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  3. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  4. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  5. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  6. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla

    2016-12-19

    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGED ENTRY AGREEMENTS IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Maxine F; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Merlin, Tracy; Roughead, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Australia relies on managed entry agreements (MEAs) for many medicines added to the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Previous studies of Australian MEAs examined public domain documents and were not able to provide a comprehensive assessment of the types and operation of MEAs. This study used government documents approved for release to examine the implementation and administration of MEAs implemented January 2012 to May 2016. We accessed documents for medicines with MEAs on the PBS between January 2012 and May 2016. Data were extracted on Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC), type of MEA (financial, financial with outcomes, outcomes, and subcategories within each group), implementation and administration methods, source of MEA recommendation, and type of economic analysis. Of all medication indication pairs (MIPs) recommended for listing, one-third had MEAs implemented. Our study of eighty-seven MIPs had 170 MEAs in place. The Government's expert health technology assessment (HTA) committee recommended MEAs for 90 percent of the eighty-seven MIPs. A total of 81 percent of MEAs were simple financial agreements: the majority either discounts (32 percent) or reimbursement caps (43 percent). Outcome-based MEAs were least common (5 percent). Ninety-two percent of MEAs were implemented and operated through legal agreements. Approximately half of the MIPs were listed on the basis of accepted claims of cost-minimization. Forty-nine percent of medicines were in ATC L group. Advice from HTA evaluations strongly influences the implementation of ways to manage uncertainties while providing access to medicines. The government relied primarily on simple financial agreements for the managed entry of medicines for which there were perceived risks.

  8. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  9. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin O. Bates

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.

  10. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  11. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  12. THE BANDWAGON EFFECT OF LEADERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES ON FOLLOWERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Firms, whichhave to compete with global firms in domestic market, try to internationalizefor gaining competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to recommend a conceptual framework to explain thedynamics of internationalization process of leader and follower firms thatinternationalize from an emerging country. In this study, author tries tofigure out the determinants of entrymode decisions of follower firms. In addition, bandwagon effect of leaders'entry mode strategies on followers&...

  13. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  14. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  15. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  16. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  17. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  18. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  19. 36 CFR 228.54 - Single entry sales or permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single entry sales or permits... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.54 Single entry sales or permits. The... plan which describes operating procedures and reclamation measures, unless the requirement is waived by...

  20. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Mexico 8 § 93.220 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All poultry offered for entry from Mexico, including such poultry intended for movement through...

  1. 9 CFR 93.426 - Inspection at port of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.426 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All ruminants offered for entry from Mexico, including such ruminants intended for movement...

  2. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  3. 19 CFR 12.99 - Procedures for permitted entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for permitted entry. 12.99 Section 12.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.99 Procedures for permitted entry...

  4. Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

  5. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For insuring...

  6. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a zone...

  7. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length,

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Submission of repair entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY GENERAL AGENT'S RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH FOREIGN REPAIR CUSTOM'S ENTRIES Sec. 2 Submission of repair entries. At the... with the District Director of Customs as defined in 19 CFR 1.1(d) an affidavit on Custom's Form 3417...

  9. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  10. The entry of free radicals into polystyrene latex particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.E.; Trau, M.; Gilbert, R.C.; Napper, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the processes governing the kinetics of emulsion polymerization has both scientific and technical interest. One component of this process that is poorly understood at present is that of free radical entry into latex particles. Measurements were made of the entry rate coefficient as a function of temperature for free radicals entering polystyrene latex particles in seeded emulsion polymerizations initiated by γ-rays. The activation energy for entry was found to be less than 24 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , consistent with entry being controlled by a physical (e.g. diffusional) rather than a chemical process. Measurement of the entry rate coefficient as a function of the γ-ray dose rate suggested that the factors that determine the entry rate when the primary free radicals are uncharged are similar to those that determine the entry rate for charged free radicals derived from chemical initiation by peroxydisulfate. This result was consistent with measurements of the entry rate coefficient of charged free radicals derived from peroxydisulfate; these data were found to be virtually independent of both the extent of the latex surface coverage by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the ionic strength of the continuous phase. The data refute several proposals given in the literature for the rate-determining step for entry, being inconsistent with control by collision of free radicals with the latex particles, surfactant desorption, and an electrostatic barrier arising from the colloidal nature of the entering free radical. The origin of the activation energy for entry remains obscure

  11. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  12. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  13. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  14. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  15. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  16. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  17. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  18. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  19. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  20. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  1. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  2. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  3. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  4. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  5. Macrophage sphingolipids are essential for the entry of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2018-07-01

    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known. In this work, we explored the role of host membrane sphingolipids in the entry of Mycobacterium smegmatis into J774A.1 macrophages. Our results show that metabolic depletion of sphingolipids in host macrophages results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis. Importantly, the entry of Escherichia coli into host macrophages under similar conditions remained invariant, implying the specificity of the requirement of sphingolipids in mycobacterial entry. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report demonstrating the role of host macrophage sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria. Our results could help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting sphingolipid-mediated entry of mycobacteria into host cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  7. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  8. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  9. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  10. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  11. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tanganelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  12. Development of the alternate entry port for the ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1993-05-01

    We discussed a second entry port for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) injection system at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which consists of a photocathode rf gun and a straight - ahead beamline directly into the 50 MeV linac. The proposed second entry port should improve the beam quality and lower the emittance needed for FEL (Free Electron Laser), and laser - acceleration experiments. A discussion on the laser driven high brightness photoelectrons through the primary entry port (a low energy 180 degrees achromatic double bend transport line) now in operation, and a beam analysis for the proposed secondary port is also given

  13. Predictive Modeling for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Modeling and Simulation (MS) is an enabling capability for complex NASA entry missions such as MSL and Orion. MS is used in every mission phase to define mission concepts, select appropriate architectures, design EDL systems, quantify margin and risk, ensure correct system operation, and analyze data returned from the entry. In an environment where it is impossible to fully test EDL concepts on the ground prior to use, accurate MS capability is required to extrapolate ground test results to expected flight performance.

  14. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  15. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  16. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  17. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  18. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  19. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  20. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  1. Barriers to Higher Education Entry--A Scottish Rural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasselle, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores some of the unique issues in accessing Higher Education (HE) faced by pupils living in some Scottish rural communities in Argyll & Bute, Highland, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. Many of these communities are hard to reach and in some of the least deprived areas of Scotland. Despite this,…

  2. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  3. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  4. Game Changing Transformable Entry System Technology Applicability to Robotic Venus Science Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative adpative deployable entry and placement technology (ADEPT), also known as transformable entry system technology (TEST) concept, akin to an umbrella,...

  5. Analysis of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) hydrogen burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrie, J.; Postma, A.

    1983-01-01

    As a basis for the analysis of the hydrogen burn which occurred in the Three Mile Island Containment on March 28, 1979, a study of recorded temperatures and pressures was made. Long-term temperature information was obtained from the multipoint temperature recorder which shows 12 containment atmosphere temperatures plotted every 6 min. The containment atmosphere pressure recorder provided excellent long and short-term pressure information. Short-term information was obtained from the multiplex record of 24 channels of data, recorded every 3 sec, and the alarm printer record which shows status change events and prints out temperatures, pressures, and the time of the events. The timing of these four data recording systems was correlated and pertinent data were tabulated, analyzed and plotted to show average containment temperature and pressure versus time. The data used have not been qualified and accuracy is not fully assured. Photographs and videotapes of the containment entries provided qualitative burn information

  6. Overview of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; Corliss, James

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere samples back to Earth for detailed examination. Langley Research Center's MSR Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is a core part of the mission, protecting the sample container during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing. Planetary protection requirements demand a higher reliability from the EEV than for any previous planetary entry vehicle. An overview of the EEV design and preliminary analysis is presented, with a follow-on discussion of recommended future design trade studies to be performed over the next several years in support of an MSR launch in 2018 or 2020. Planned topics include vehicle size for impact protection of a range of sample container sizes, outer mold line changes to achieve surface sterilization during re-entry, micrometeoroid protection, aerodynamic stability, thermal protection, and structural materials selection.

  7. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  8. Ordering the Senses in a Monolingual Dictionary Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews issues to be considered in determining the order of meanings for a lexeme in a dictionary entry and compares techniques for deciding order. Types of ordering include importance, frequency, logical ordering, dominant meaning, syntactic, and historical. (MSE)

  9. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Sklarin, Nancy T.; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of computerized provider order entry for complex chemotherapy regimens supported Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's strategic plan to successfully establish a distributive, networked health care delivery system.

  10. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions as he may prescribe to assure that allowing the entry of such articles will be consistent with the... inventory controls are maintained at all times. Inedible egg products may be processed in official plants...

  11. The Significance of Barriers to Entry in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Valence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at the significance of barriers that firms considering entry into the construction industry might face. Drawing on the microeconomic characteristics of imperfectly competitive and oligopolistic markets the analysis finds that there are a dozen barriers to entry that affect the industry, but their significance depends on the product type. The discussion covers the question of product homogeneity in construction and evidence for the existence of barriers to entry in concentration levels. Barriers to entry specific to construction are then identified, which leads to an analysis of how they operate and their significance (high, medium or low in different market types, thus increasing our understanding of construction industry dynamics.

  12. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  13. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  14. 19 CFR 141.19 - Declaration of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of consignee—(1) Authorized agent with knowledge of the facts. When entry is made in a consignee's name by an agent who has knowledge of the facts and who is authorized under a proper power of attorney...

  15. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B

    1994-01-01

    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  16. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  17. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ASTRODYNAMICS AND RE-ENTRY MECHANICS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selected list of references in the fields of astronautics and re-entry mechanics is classified and discussed, and a comprehensive subject and author index is included for ease in locating the references. (Author)

  18. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  19. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), 118 Stat. 3638, as amended... major airport authority printed its own signs for Global Entry and strategically placed them throughout...

  20. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.

    2010-09-01

    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  1. Franchising as a method of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Vargovčíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The subject of presented bachelor thesis is Franchising as a method of entry to the market. The first part of this thesis deals with characteristics of franchising such as the definition of franchising and its advantages and disadvantages for both parties involved. Then there is also provided the current situation of franchising in the Czech Republic. The second part deals with entry into the market by franchising. In this section franchise agreement is mainly mentioned, how to start a franch...

  2. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  3. ExoMars entry, descent and landing science

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, F.; Lewis, S. R.; Withers, P.; Aboudan, A.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Golombek, M.; Harri, A. M.; Komatsu, G.; Leese, M. R.; Mäkinen, T.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Ori, G. G.; Patel, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) measurements can provide essential data for atmospheric scientific investigations.\\ud \\ud We intend to perform atmospheric science measurements by exploiting data from EDLS engineering sensors and exploiting their readings beyond the expected engineering information.

  4. Double Entry Bookkeeping and Kitab-us Siyakat

    OpenAIRE

    Örten, Remzi; Kurt, Ganite; Torun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    It is known that accounting is applied since the existence of human being. When historical development of accounting is examined, recording methods may be summarized as single sided and double sided. The first method used in accounting is the single entry bookkeeping. According to this entry, not all of information related to financial events but important part of them are recorded in a single way. We can specify follow-up of receivable, payable, incomes and expenses as single sided recording...

  5. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  6. Multinationals’ mode of entry with presence of vertical spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Balsvik, Ragnhild

    2004-01-01

    Multinationals’ mode of foreign expansion may depend on whether or not they expect technological externalities or spillovers to generate new competition. Existing models where ex-post spillovers affect the ex-ante entry choice usually study the choice between exporting and FDI with horizontal spillovers. I consider a monopoly firm with a vertical production structure that has four possible modes of entry, one of which includes outsourcing of intermediate input production to a h...

  7. Response to Competitive Entry: A Rationale for Delayed Defensive Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kalra; Surendra Rajiv; Kannan Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    Empirical studies examining responses to new product entries come to the puzzling conclusion that, in general, an incumbent reacts to a new entrant after a significant delay. Even easy-to-implement price cuts are observed after significant lag following entry. These findings seem to contradict the existing literature that either implicitly assumes or strongly advocates immediate defensive responses to limit competitive encroachment. When a competing firm enters the market, consumers may be un...

  8. Design features of an automated entry control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  9. Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid KUNZE

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the gender wage gap in entry wages and in the early career for German skilled workers in the period 1975-1990. We use a new administrative longitudinal data source that allows to observe complete work and skill accumulation histories from the beginning for up to 13 years in the labour market. Descriptives show an entry wage differential of 22 percent between male and female full-time workers. Furthermore, the differential stays almost constant throughout the first 8 ei...

  10. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  11. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Camara Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  12. Three-stage entry game: The strategic effects of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of investment in advertising in the three-stage entry game model with one incumbent and one potential entrant firm. It is shown that if a game theory is applied, under particular conditions, advertising can be used as a strategic weapon in the market entry game. Depending on the level of the advertising interaction factor, conditions for over-investment in advertising for strategic purposes are given. Furthermore, three specific cases are analyzed: strictly predatory advertising, informative advertising and the case when one firm’s advertising cannot directly influence the other firm's profit. For each of them, depending on the costs of advertising and marginal costs, equilibrium is determined, and conditions under which it is possible to deter the entry are given. It is shown that if the value of the advertising interaction factor increases, power of using advertising as a weapon to deter entry into the market decreases. Thus, in the case of informative advertising, advertising cannot be used as a tool for deterring entry into the market, while in the case of predatory advertising, it can. Also, we have proved that in the case of strictly informative advertising an over-investment never occurs, while in the two other cases, there is always over-investment either to deter or to accommodate the entry.

  13. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  14. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  15. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  16. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  17. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  18. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  19. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  20. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  1. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  2. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  3. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  4. “The Lost Princess (putri duyung” of the Small Islands: Dugongs around Sulawesi in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail M. Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Spermonde as in the other main island groups around Sulawesi, seagrass and coral ecosystems are intimately linked ecologically and overlap extensively on the shallow water shelves surrounding most islands. One keystone species living in these shallow waters is the dugong (Dugong dugon. Officially fully protected under Indonesian Law (PP7/1999, published data on dugongs in the islands around Sulawesi are extremely limited. In this research, we collected, compiled and evaluated data and information (mostly unpublished on the distribution, exploitation and community perceptions of dugongs around Sulawesi, including the Togean, Banggai, Spermonde, Taka Bone Rate/Selayar, and Tanakeke Islands. Opportunities for dugong conservation, and potential benefits for coral reef ecosystems in a small island socio-ecological context, were considered. Once common within living memory, socio-economic data indicate that Sulawesi dugongs are now rare and under severe threat. Many fishing communities consider dugong meat superior to beef, and see it as a welcome change from fish, while certain body parts fetch a high price, as do dugong tears. In the Spermonde Islands, dugongs may already have been extirpated; the most recent reported sighting was in 1993 when the capture of an adult dugong by fishermen of Barranglompo Island resulted in an impromptu festival. All these Sulawesi small islands communities have dugong princess (putri duyung legends with potential as an entry-point to hearts and minds. Preventing further extirpations and striving to bring back the “lost princess” could be an iconic component of moving toward sustainability in small-island socio-ecological systems.

  5. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  6. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  7. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  9. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  10. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, James Aaron

    The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

  11. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...

  12. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  13. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  14. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  15. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  16. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent

    2010-12-01

    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  17. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  18. HYDROGEOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON KARSTIFIED ISLANDS - VIS ISLAND CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Terzić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrogeological investigations on Adriatic islands is presented on the Island of Vis case study. Infiltration, accumulation and discharge of the groundwater occur in karstified rock mass. Hydrogeological relations are mostly a consequence of the geological setting, because of the complete hydrogeologic barrier in Komiža bay, and relative barrier in the area of karst poljes. Significant research was performed in the 1999 – 2000 period aimed of better understanding of hydrogeological relations. These investigations, as well as reinterpretation of some previously known data, included structural geology, hydrogeology, hydrology and hydrochemistry. Approximate rock mass hydraulic conductivity calculation is also shown, as well as level of its usability in such terrain. Based on all these methods, it is possible to conclude that on the Island of Vis there is no saline water present underneath the entire island. There is only a saline water wedge which is formed on the top of relatively impermeable base rock, some few tens of meters under recent sea level. With such a model, and taking in account the hydrological balance, it is possible to conclude that there is possibility of higher amount of groundwater exploitation then it is today (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  20. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  1. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  2. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  3. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  4. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  5. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  6. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  7. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  9. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  10. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Ryuta [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: takashima@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Goto, Makoto [Department of Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1188 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown.

  11. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Goto, Makoto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  13. Soil and gas and radon entry potentials for substructure surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on measurement techniques and parameters that describe the potential for areas of a building substructure to have high soil gas and radon entry rates which have been developed. Flows and pressures measured at test holes in substructure surfaces while the substructure was intentionally depressurized were used in a highly simplified electrical circuit to model the substructure/soil network. Data from four New Jersey houses indicate that the soil was a factor of two to six times more resistant to soil gas flow than substructure surfaces, concrete slab floors, including perimeter gaps, cracks, and other penetrations, were approximately five times more resistant to soil gas movement than hollow block walls, and radon entry potentials were highest for slab floors. These indices of entry potential may be useful for characterizing the relative leakiness of below-grade substructure surfaces and for determining the selection and placement of radon control systems

  14. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  15. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-shan Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  16. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily......This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...

  17. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  18. Newcomer innovation during entry in a changing organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    ” of the organizational culture. Although acknowledging that organizational socialization is about continuity and change in the employing organization (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979), and realizing that the entry of newcomers holds the potential for innovation to the employing organization (Feldman, 2012), the discourse...... values and beliefs” (Feldman, 2012:215). Thus, the “workgroup”, “work processes”, “patterns of social interaction” and “core values” are considered stable units of analysis, which entries of organizational newcomers might affect. This gives rise to a dichotomy of newcomer assimilation versus...... organizational accommodation to organize much of the research on organizational socialization and innovation. The case study presented in this paper investigates organizational entry in a changing organization raising the question of how to understand organizational socialization and newcomer innovation when...

  19. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  20. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  1. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  2. seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island. M.N. Bester. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast duro ing the summers of 1974 - 1976 ...

  3. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  4. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  5. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  6. Entry of soil gas and radon into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.

    1992-04-01

    Entry of soil gas and radon into houses has been investigated by experiments conducted at radon test structures and numerical or analytical modelling. The numerical model solves the steady-state equations for Darcy flow of soil-gas and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. Model calculations were compared with results from field experiments conducted at Risoe National Laboratory, and it was found that there was good agreement between measured and modelled pressure coupling and radon concentration profiles. Discrepancies regarding absolute values of soil-gas entry rates and radon concentrations were observed. The numerical model has been used to study the importance of soil and building related factors on radon entry rates into slab-on-grade houses. It was found that, for a house with a 3 mm perimeter crack along the floor-wall joint, the entry was mainly determined by the soil permeability and building related factors such as house depressurization and presence of a capillary breaking layer of gravel below the slab. In a house with a bare soil floor, the diffusivity of the soil was found to be of principal importance for the entry rate even for moderate permeabilities. An analytical model was developed for the purpose of studying soil-gas entry rates into houses in response to non-static driving forces. It is based on the analogy between a 'buried drain' and a basement house with a perimeter crack. The structure was depressurized sinusoidally in time and the frequency dependent pressure couplings were measured. There was fairly good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. (LN) (26 tabs., 30 ills., 66 refs.)

  7. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  8. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  9. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  10. Technology Investments in the NASA Entry Systems Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Michael; Wright, Michael; Hughes, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The Entry Systems Modeling (ESM) technology development project, initiated in 2012 under NASAs Game Changing Development (GCD) Program, is engaged in maturation of fundamental research developing aerosciences, materials, and integrated systems products for entry, descent, and landing(EDL)technologies [1]. To date, the ESM project has published over 200 papers in these areas, comprising the bulk of NASAs research program for EDL modeling. This presentation will provide an overview of the projects successes and challenges, and an assessment of future investments in EDL modeling and simulation relevant to NASAs mission

  11. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklarin, Nancy T; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2011-07-01

    Implementation of a computerized provider order entry system for complex chemotherapy regimens at a large cancer center required intense effort from a multidisciplinary team of clinical and systems experts with experience in all facets of the chemotherapy process. The online tools had to resemble the paper forms used at the time and parallel the successful established process as well as add new functionality. Close collaboration between the institution and the vendor was necessary. This article summarizes the institutional efforts, challenges, and collaborative processes that facilitated universal chemotherapy computerized electronic order entry across multiple sites during a period of several years.

  12. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  13. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  14. The Secret of Guided Missile Re-Entry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-25

    I RD-PAI169 598 THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY(U) FOREIGN / I TECHNOLOGY DIV NRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH J CHEN ET AL. I 25 JUN 96 FTD-ID(RS)T...TECHNOLOGY DIVISION THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY by Chen Jingzhong, An Sehua J L 0 7 ’:;85’ ’ 0 *Approved for public release; Distribution...unlimite t d. :. 86 7 034.. FTD- ID(RS)T-0459-86 HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0459-86 25 June 1986 MICROFICHE NR: F - - 0Q 9? THE SECRET OF GUIDED

  15. A Systematic Assessment of Empirical Research on Foreign Entry Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of dimensions. Findings Findings question the frequent use of commonly used measures (e.g. advertising intensity) and control variables (e.g. firm size) and suggest that statements about the importance of mode choice for subsidiary performance may be premature. Methodologically, this study identifies critical...... issues with regard to interpretation of interactions and the entry mode choice set. Research limitations/implications This study limits itself to study the direction of relationships and does not analyze effect sizes. Further, future research may benefit from broadening the entry mode choice by extending...

  16. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  17. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  18. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  19. The Glacial and Relative Sea Level History of Southern Banks Island, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica Megan

    The mapping and dating of surficial glacial landforms and sediments across southern Banks Island document glaciation by the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the last glacial maximum. Geomorphic landforms confirm the operation of an ice stream at least 1000 m thick in Amundsen Gulf that was coalescent with thin, cold-based ice crossing the island's interior, both advancing offshore onto the polar continental shelf. Raised marine shorelines across western and southern Banks Island are barren, recording early withdrawal of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream prior to the resubmergence of Bering Strait and the re-entry of Pacific molluscs ~13,750 cal yr BP. This withdrawal resulted in a loss of ~60,000 km2 of ice --triggering drawdown from the primary northwest LIS divide and instigating changes in subsequent ice flow. The Jesse moraine belt on eastern Banks Island records a lateglacial stillstand and/or readvance of Laurentide ice in Prince of Wales Strait (13,750 -- 12,750 cal yr BP). Fossiliferous raised marine sediments that onlap the Jesse moraine belt constrain final deglaciation to ~12,600 cal yr BP, a minimum age for the breakup of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream. The investigation of a 30 m thick and 6 km wide stratigraphic sequence at Worth Point, southwest Banks Island, identifies an advance of the ancestral LIS during the Mid-Pleistocene (sensu lato), substantially diversifying the glacial record on Banks Island. Glacial ice emplaced during this advance has persisted through at least two glacial-interglacial cycles, demonstrating the resilience of circumpolar permafrost. Pervasive deformation of the stratigraphic sequence also records a detailed history of glaciotectonism in proglacial and subglacial settings that can result from interactions between cold-based ice and permafrost terrain. This newly recognized history rejects the long-established paleoenvironmental model of Worth Point that assumed a simple 'layer-cake' stratigraphy.

  20. Shape and coarsening dynamics of strained islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifani, Guido; Frisch, Thomas; Argentina, Mederic

    2016-01-01

    and numerically the formation of an equilibrium island using a two-dimensional continuous model. We have found that these equilibrium island-like solutions have a maximum height h_{0} and they sit on top of a flat wetting layer with a thickness h_{w}. We then consider two islands, and we report that they undergo...... and leads to the shrinkage of the smallest island. Once its height becomes smaller than a minimal equilibrium height h_{0}^{*}, its mass spreads over the entire system. Our results pave the way for a future analysis of coarsening of an assembly of islands....

  1. Essays on empirical industrial organization : Entry and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  2. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  5. Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

  6. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATEGIES ON ENTRY TO FOREIGN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Morozova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A company must have distinctly described alternatives for taking strategically correct decisions. For this reason the purpose of the paper is to provide comparative characteristics and systematize strategies on entry to foreign market. It is necessary to select the required criteria and carry out multi-criterion analysis in order to arrange systematization and comparative characteristics of  numerous institutional forms being established within the framework of export, cooperation or integration, main strategies on entry to foreign market. The paper contains an analysis and systematization prepared in accordance with the following criteria: strategic purpose of entry to foreign market, time factor in respect of entry to foreign market, distribution of  company’s business-cycle stages among countries, level of investments, form of investments, distribution of investment and management level among countries, risk level, market involvement, legal grounds for foreign activity, status of a subject entering foreign market. The paper makes it possible to give comparative characteristics of the analyzed strategies.

  7. Assessing welfare impact of entry into power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, In-Koo; Kim, Hyunsook

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry in the Korean electricity market. We use two different models. One is the optimal fuel mix model to estimate the effect of a new entry in the long run. The other is the variable cost minimization model to assess the contribution of an existing installed private generator in the short run. A specific private generator, which has a cost advantage, saves a substantial amount of system-wide variable costs. We show that the right location for a new entrant can save power generation costs significantly, even if a new entrant does not have a cost advantage. - Highlights: • This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry. • We use two different models to estimate the entry effect. • The minimum and maximum cost savings of a new entrant are about 0.3% and 0.84% of total generation cost. • Even if a new entrant has no cost advantage, its choice of location could save money

  8. Determining Data Entry Points For Javascript-rich Web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maksimovich Noseevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted the task of automatic crawling of javascript-rich web applications for data entry points. A new technique is proposed, which combines dynamic and static javascript code analysis. Testing the proposed technique on real world web applications such as Twitter, Youtube and Reddit has confirmed its applicability for analysis of modern web applications.

  9. On Double-Entry Bookkeeping: The Mathematical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerman, David

    2014-01-01

    Double-entry bookkeeping (DEB) implicitly uses a specific mathematical construction, the group of differences using pairs of unsigned numbers ("T-accounts"). That construction was only formulated abstractly in mathematics in the nineteenth century, even though DEB had been used in the business world for over five centuries. Yet the…

  10. 30 CFR 840.12 - Right of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... of entry. (a) Within its jurisdiction, the State regulatory authority shall have authority that... mining and reclamation operation without advance notice upon presentation of appropriate credentials. No...

  11. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual in...

  12. Recent Health Care Use and Medicaid Entry of Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between Medicaid entry and recent health care use among Medicare beneficiaries. We identified Medicare beneficiaries without full Medicaid or use of hospital or nursing home services in 2008 (N = 2,163,387). A discrete survival analysis estimated beneficiaries' monthly likelihood of entry into the full Medicaid program between January 2009 and June 2010. During the 18-month study period, Medicaid entry occurred for 1.1% and 3.7% of beneficiaries who aged into Medicare or originally qualified for Medicare due to disability, respectively. Among beneficiaries who aged into Medicare, 49% of new Medicaid participants had no use of inpatient, skilled nursing facility, or nursing home services during the study period. Individuals who recently used inpatient, skilled nursing facility or nursing home services had monthly rates of 1.9, 14.0, and 38.1 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries, respectively, compared with 0.4 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries with no recent use of these services. Although recent health care use predicted greater likelihood of Medicaid entry, half of new Medicaid participants used no hospital or nursing home care during the study period. These patterns should be considered when designing and evaluating interventions to reform health care delivery for dual-eligible beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  14. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Competition and entry in banking: implications for capital regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2006-01-01

    We assess how capital regulation interacts with the degree of competitiveness of the banking industry. We particularly ask two questions: i) how does capital regulation affect (endogenous) entry; and ii) how do (exogenous) changes in the competitive environment affect bank monitoring choices and the

  16. Love me tender: new entry in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.; Chiu, M.M.; Wijnberg, N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate new entry as a process of organizational change against the background of the digital revolution in the music industry. The study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from 131 companies active in the Dutch music industry that collectively engaged in 215

  17. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.

    2007-01-01

    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show...... negotiations are subject to significant stakeholder interference. (For more information, please contact: Kristian Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark: kj.int@cbs.dk)...

  18. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  19. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  20. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...

  1. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury... securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or... securities are held directly by the Department of the Treasury in accounts maintained in the investor's name...

  2. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brammer, Jeremy R.; Brunet, Nicolas D.; Burton, A.C.; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V.; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M.

    2016-01-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of

  3. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a) Any native mammal, native bird, or native plants taken within Antarctica that are imported into or... Orleans, Louisiana. (7) New York, New York. (8) Seattle, Washington. (9) Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. (10...

  4. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  5. Infectious Entry and Neutralization of Pathogenic JC Polyomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M. Geoghegan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a lethal brain disease caused by uncontrolled replication of JC polyomavirus (JCV. JCV strains recovered from the brains of PML patients carry mutations that prevent the engagement of sialylated glycans, which are thought to serve as receptors for the infectious entry of wild-type JCV. In this report, we show that non-sialylated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs can serve as alternative attachment receptors for the infectious entry of both wild-type and PML mutant JCV strains. After GAG-mediated attachment, PML mutant strains engage non-sialylated non-GAG co-receptor glycans, such as asialo-GM1. JCV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients who recovered from PML appear to block infection by preventing the docking of post-attachment co-receptor glycans in an apical pocket of the JCV major capsid protein. Identification of the GAG-dependent/sialylated glycan-independent alternative entry pathway should facilitate the development of infection inhibitors, including recombinant neutralizing antibodies. : Geoghegan et al. show that JC polyomavirus strains that cause brain disease infect cells via a pathway involving a heparin-like attachment receptor and a non-sialylated co-receptor. Candidate therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies neutralize by blocking co-receptor engagement. Keywords: polyomavirus, JC, BK, SV40, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, monoclonal antibody, mAb, virus entry, receptor

  6. Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with 45 Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues

  7. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  8. Becoming Counselors through Growth and Learning: The Entry Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Holly H.; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored counselor development within the entry transition into counselor education programs using 4 interviews and interpretive dialogues with 8 beginning counselors. Six categories resulted from the authors' grounded theory analysis: Anticipation, Evolving Identity, Growth and Learning, Coping, Choosing to Trust the Process, and…

  9. Orbiter Entry Aerothermodynamics Practical Engineering and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Organization of the Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group; 2) Overview of the Principal RTF Aeroheating Tools Utilized for Tile Damage Assessment; 3) Description of the Integrated Tile Damage Assessment Team Analyses Process; 4) Space Shuttle Flight Support Process; and 5) JSC Applied Aerosciences and CFD Branch Applied Research Interests.

  10. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  11. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes on...

  12. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  13. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  14. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  15. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Truscott, T. T.; Speirs, N. B.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates

  16. Instrument Formatting with Computer Data Entry in Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; And Others

    Different formats for four types of research items were studied for ease of computer data entry. The types were: (1) numeric response items; (2) individual multiple choice items; (3) multiple choice items with the same response items; and (4) card column indicator placement. Each of the 13 experienced staff members of a major university's Data…

  17. A novel small molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Baldick

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple inhibitors of different targets. The entry process of HCV into hepatocytes represents another series of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, involving viral structural proteins that have not been extensively explored due to experimental limitations. To discover HCV entry inhibitors, we utilized HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating E1-E2 envelope proteins from a genotype 1b clinical isolate. Screening of a small molecule library identified a potent HCV-specific triazine inhibitor, EI-1. A series of HCVpp with E1-E2 sequences from various HCV isolates was used to show activity against all genotype 1a and 1b HCVpp tested, with median EC50 values of 0.134 and 0.027 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments demonstrated a block in HCVpp entry, downstream of initial attachment to the cell surface, and prior to or concomitant with bafilomycin inhibition of endosomal acidification. EI-1 was equally active against cell-culture adapted HCV (HCVcc, blocking both cell-free entry and cell-to-cell transmission of virus. HCVcc with high-level resistance to EI-1 was selected by sequential passage in the presence of inhibitor, and resistance was shown to be conferred by changes to residue 719 in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane anchor region of E2, implicating this envelope protein in EI-1 susceptibility. Combinations of EI-1 with interferon, or inhibitors of NS3 or NS5A, resulted in additive to synergistic activity. These results suggest that inhibitors of HCV entry could be added to replication inhibitors and interferons already in development.

  18. MOTIVATING FACTORS AND THE MODES OF ENTRY IN OTHER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  19. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    relatively simple models can describe the processes that take place. New data are presented which provide a detailed description of the last 16,000 years of climate and sea level change influence on the forces that have formed the island. This geological history can be used to provide information...... on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present......Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...

  20. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, W.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  1. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  2. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and....208 Section 381.208 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist--Revised Manual [and] Helpful Entry Level Skill Checklist--Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development Centers of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY.

    The Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist was designed to assist preschool teachers in selecting functional skills that children (including children with disabilities) may need to make a successful transition into the public schools. These skills, for the most part, deal with attending, compliance, ability to follow directions, turn taking, ability…

  4. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    During the 1998 marine biological survey, a total of 122 species of reef fish, 41 species of corals, 39 species of other macroinvertebrates , and 19...The lagoon supports a large population of fish and the surrounding reefs host a diverse assemblage of reef fish. Nearshore fish important for food...found at Wake Island. The Federally threatened Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was observed multiple times in the near shore ocean and lagoon

  5. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  6. The Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  7. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  8. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  9. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    OpenAIRE

    B. Saraceno; G. Laudani; F. Guglielmino; A. Ferro; G. Falzone; O. Campisi; S. Gambino

    2007-01-01

    A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years) trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the stro...

  10. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  11. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI. The Bucholz AAF geographic coordinates information was updated in the Kwajalein Island Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action ensures the safety of aircraft operating in the Kwajalein Island airspace area. This is an administrative action and does not affect the operating requirements of the airspace.

  12. Depopulation of Vis Island, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses population dynamics of Vis Island along with geographic, demographic and social features related to this process. Data from demographic statistics and research results show that Vis Island has been affected by strong populational regression. This process originated at the beginning of the 20th century, and intensified after the Second World War. Depopulation was generated by retardation in socio-economic development, but it was directly caused by centennial emigration. At the beginning of 1960s, natural decrease occurred as another important cause of depopulation. It was the result of postponed effect of emigration, demographic losses in world wars and birth rate transition (changes in number of children per family. Long-term unfavorable demographic processes (emigration, depopulation, demographic aging, reduced birth rates have led to weakening of (bioreproduction and vital potential. The above-mentioned fact has also influencedthe age structure of the population. Population of Vis Island has aged and belongs to a particular demographic type named very old population. However, depopulation, that used to be the result of social phenomena, has become an important factor of social and spatial processes.

  13. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  14. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  15. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  16. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  17. Mosquito Surveys Carried out On Green Island, Orchid Island, and Penghu Island, Taiwan, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jen Teng

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys of mosquitoes were carried out on Green, Orchid, and Penghu Islands in 2003 to ascertain the status of mosquito vectors. Eighteen species of mosquitoes were collected, including three species of Anopheles, four species of Aedes, eight species of Culex, two species of Armigeres, and one species of Malaya. Seventeen previously recorded species were not collected in this study but 11 species collected had not previously been recorded. Ten newly recorded species, An. maculatus, An. takasagoensis, Ae. alcasidi, Ae. lineatopennis, Ae. vexans vexans, Ar. omissus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. halifaxii, Cx. hayashii, and Cx. neomimulus, were collected on Green Island and one previously unrecorded species, Ar. subalbatus, was collected on Orchid Island. Potential vectors An. maculatus and An. sinensis, malaria vectors in Korea and Mainland China, Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis vectors in Taiwan, Ae. vexans vexans, an eastern equine encephalitis vector in the USA, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, were among the mosquito species collected.

  18. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  19. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  20. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  1. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  2. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  3. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  4. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  5. Financial Inclusion, Entry Barriers, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobin Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the relationship between financial inclusion and the formation of entrepreneurs, both theoretically and empirically. We first construct a theoretical model to examine how the development of financial inclusion affects the formation of entrepreneurs. The model suggests that the development of financial inclusion can mitigate credit constraints on entrepreneurial activities by reducing information asymmetry in financial transactions, and in addition this effect is greater in industries with lower barriers to entry. Then, using data from 31 provinces and 19 industries in China during the period 2005–2014, we test the impact of financial inclusion on the formation of entrepreneurs. The estimation results confirm the positive effect of financial inclusion development on the formation of entrepreneurs, and indicate that this effect is heterogeneous across industries. Moreover, the development of financial inclusion is often beneficial to the formations of entrepreneurs in sectors with lower entry barriers.

  6. Radio/FADS/IMU integrated navigation for Mars entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Huang, Xiangyu

    2018-03-01

    Supposing future orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission as the potential project background, this paper addresses the issue of Mars entry integrated navigation using radio beacon, flush air data sensing system (FADS), and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The range and Doppler information sensed from an orbiting radio beacon, the dynamic pressure and heating data sensed from flush air data sensing system, and acceleration and attitude angular rate outputs from an inertial measurement unit are integrated in an unscented Kalman filter to perform state estimation and suppress the system and measurement noise. Computer simulations show that the proposed integrated navigation scheme can enhance the navigation accuracy, which enables precise entry guidance for the given Mars orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission.

  7. Targeted steam injection using horizontal wells with limited entry perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, T. J.; Youck, D. G.; Sun, S. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    An experimental horizontal well using limited-entry perforations as a method for distributing steam to different zones was used to replace ten vertical injection wells. The well was located between rows of vertical wells in a reservoir that has been subjected to more than ten years of operation under cyclic steam stimulation. The limited-entry perforations enabled steam to be targeted at the cold regions of the reservoir. This paper presents an assessment of the well based on theoretical calculations, measured injection pressures and rates and 3-D seismic imaging. All the data collected during the experiment support the conclusion that effective steam distribution along the well has been achieved. It was also concluded that this technology has significant potential for SAGD applications as a mechanism for achieving improved steam distribution at a much reduced cost. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Data entry system for INIS input using a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi

    1990-01-01

    Input preparation for the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) has been performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1970. Instead of the input data preparation done by worksheets make out with the typewriters, new method with which data can be directly inputted into a diskette using personal computers is introduced. According to the popularization of personal computers and word processors, this system is easily applied to other system, so the outline and the future development on it are described. A shortcoming of this system is that spell-checking and data entry using authority files are hardly performed because of the limitation of hardware resources, and that data code conversion is needed because applied code systems between personal computer and main frame computer are quite different from each other. On the other hand, improving the timelyness of data entry is expected without duplication of keying. (author)

  9. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  10. HIV/AIDS testing at ports of entry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dejian; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Beasley, R Palmer

    2011-05-01

    In 2007 the Chinese government issued regulations requiring HIV/AIDS testing for Chinese citizens returning at ports of entry if they had resided outside China for 1 year or longer. Three years after publication and partial implementation of the regulations, the Chinese government decided to eliminate compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese. We examine the history of China's HIV/AIDS testing regulations on entry-exit populations, showing how China has gradually altered its policy. As of December 2010, the policy of compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese has been abandoned; however, the regulations still compel HIV/AIDS testing for other groups inside China. Our review sheds new light on the dynamics of regulatory changes in the last 3 years. The Chinese experience that we observed may provide useful insights for policymakers in other parts of the world.

  11. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption. PMID:21886891

  12. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Baron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption.

  13. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F

    1989-01-01

    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  14. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  16. Strategic Market Entry Factors and Market Share Achievement in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian B Ryans

    1988-01-01

    In developing entry marketing strategies for new product markets companies might be advised to target product markets where significant market shares are likely to be achieved. The literature on market share change is reviewed to identify situational and marketing strategy factors associated with market share achievement. Certain hypotheses suggested by this and related literatures were then tested using a database of products introduced into the Japanese market. The results of this analysis ...

  17. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  18. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Franchising as the entry mode to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Čepera, Vít

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part contains basics of franchising, its situation in the world and in the Czech Republic and advantages and disadvantages of franchising for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in general. The practical part of the thesis compares advantages and disadvantages of franchising on existing travel agencies.

  20. Franchising as a form of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Těšínská, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. This work is devided into three chapters. The first chapter is focused on general theory in franchising (definition, different kinds of franchising, advantages and disadvantages, franchising history etc.). The second chapter is devoted to the application of franchising in particular firm accor hotels, where I introduce the brand ibis hotels and its operation in the world. In the third chapter I describe and introduc...

  1. Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dictionary of christian words: setting up the list of entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrushina Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issues of compiling the entry list for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Russian Christian Words. It presents a fragment of the classifi cation of the terminology in the domain and suggests to use the frequency of a lexical item in relevant texts as a criterion of its terminologization. The paper also considers whether proper names should be included in the Dictionary.

  3. Foreign market entry mode choice of hotel companies: Determining factors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu, Rosario; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Decisions regarding firm internationalisation, especially when it comes to choosing which market entry mode to use, have been one of the most frequently discussed topics in academic literature in the last few decades. Many studies have been conducted from different perspectives, either focusing on one or several sectors or analysing companies from a specific country. Nevertheless, there are few studies dealing with the Chinese hotel industry. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationsh...

  4. Optimal Entry Timing in Markets with Social Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh V. Joshi; David J. Reibstein; Z. John Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Firms routinely face the challenging decision of whether to enter a new market where a firm's strong presence in an existing market has a positive influence (the leverage effect) on product adoption in the new market, but the reciprocal social influence on the existing market is negative (the backlash effect). In this paper, we show that a firm's optimal entry strategy in this situation cannot be characterized by the familiar "now or never" or "now or at maturity" strategies proposed in the l...

  5. Candidate Medical Countermeasures Targeting Ebola Virus Cell Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    ML, Hessell AJ, Oswald WB, Burton DR, Saphire EO. Structure of the 405 Ebola virus glycoprotein bound to an antibody from a human survivor. Nature...virus cell-entry inhibitors 21 17. Gallaher WR. Similar structural models of the transmembrane proteins of Ebola and 408 avian sarcoma viruses. Cell...85(4), 477-478 (1996). 409 18. Weissenhorn W, Carfí A, Lee K-H, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC. Crystal structure of the Ebola 410 virus membrane fusion

  6. Brazilian franchisor: Entry and operation of internationalized franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Helder de Souza; Luppe, Marcos Roberto; Nascimento, Paulo Tromboni de Souza

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the entry and operations strategies of franchisors of developed countries into foreign countries with Brazilian counterparts. Were there significant differences? An exploratory study was conducted with 16 international franchisors operating in Brazil and 31 Brazilian franchisors operating abroad. The results show that international franchisors operating abroad prefer to use a subsidiary in the destination country. At the same time, this strategy is little used by B...

  7. Event detection for car park entries by video-surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, Didier; Tailland, Johan; Cintract, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Intelligent surveillance has become an important research issue due to the high cost and low efficiency of human supervisors, and machine intelligence is required to provide a solution for automated event detection. In this paper we describe a real-time system that has been used for detecting car park entries, using an adaptive background learning algorithm and two indicators representing activity and identity to overcome the difficulty of tracking objects.

  8. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  9. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  10. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  11. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes

  12. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  13. Simple method for calculating island widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs

  14. RAINDROP DISTRIBUTIONS AT MAJURO ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAINDROPS, MARSHALL ISLANDS ), (*ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION, TROPICAL REGIONS), PARTICLE SIZE, SAMPLING, TABLES(DATA), WATER, ATTENUATION, DISTRIBUTION, VOLUME, RADAR REFLECTIONS, RAINFALL, PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, COMPUTERS

  15. Recent Advances in Hepatitis C Virus Cell Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 170 million patients worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. Prevalence rates range from 0.5% in Northern European countries to 28% in some areas of Egypt. HCV is hepatotropic, and in many countries chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver disease including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV persists in 50–85% of infected patients, and once chronic infection is established, spontaneous clearance is rare. HCV is a member of the Flaviviridae family, in which it forms its own genus. Many lines of evidence suggest that the HCV life cycle displays many differences to that of other Flaviviridae family members. Some of these differences may be due to the close interaction of HCV with its host’s lipid and particular triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which may explain why the virus can be found in association with lipoproteins in serum of infected patients. This review focuses on the molecular events underlying the HCV cell entry process and the respective roles of cellular co-factors that have been implied in these events. These include, among others, the lipoprotein receptors low density lipoprotein receptor and scavenger receptor BI, the tight junction factors occludin and claudin-1 as well as the tetraspanin CD81. We discuss the roles of these cellular factors in HCV cell entry and how association of HCV with lipoproteins may modulate the cell entry process.

  16. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Tuck

    2013-07-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011. Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  17. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Chloe; Zhang, Tongli; Potapova, Tamara; Malumbres, Marcos; Novák, Béla

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011). Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  18. High performance modeling of atmospheric re-entry vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Alexandre; Scalabrin, Leonardo C; Boyd, Iain D

    2012-01-01

    Re-entry vehicles designed for space exploration are usually equipped with thermal protection systems made of ablative material. In order to properly model and predict the aerothermal environment of the vehicle, it is imperative to account for the gases produced by ablation processes. In the case of charring ablators, where an inner resin is pyrolyzed at a relatively low temperature, the composition of the gas expelled into the boundary layer is complex and may lead to thermal chemical reactions that cannot be captured with simple flow chemistry models. In order to obtain better predictions, an appropriate gas flow chemistry model needs to be included in the CFD calculations. Using a recently developed chemistry model for ablating carbon-phenolic-in-air species, a CFD calculation of the Stardust re-entry at 71 km is presented. The code used for that purpose has been designed to take advantage of the nature of the problem and therefore remains very efficient when a high number of chemical species are involved. The CFD result demonstrates the need for such chemistry model when modeling the flow field around an ablative material. Modeling of the nonequilibrium radiation spectra is also presented, and compared to the experimental data obtained during Stardust re-entry by the Echelle instrument. The predicted emission from the CN lines compares quite well with the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of the current approach.

  19. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  20. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  1. Aerothermodynamic Environments Definition for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the aerothermodynamic environments definition status is presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle. The environments are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on a candidate aeroshell geometry and worst-case entry heating trajectories. Uncertainties for the flowfield predictions are based primarily on available ground data since Mars flight data are scarce. The forebody aerothermodynamics analysis focuses on boundary layer transition and turbulent heating augmentation. Turbulent transition is expected prior to peak heating, a first for Mars entry, resulting in augmented heat flux and shear stress at the same heatshield location. Afterbody computations are also shown with and without interference effects of reaction control system thruster plumes. Including uncertainties, analysis predicts that the heatshield may experience peaks of 225 W/sq cm for turbulent heat flux, 0.32 atm for stagnation pressure, and 400 Pa for turbulent shear stress. The afterbody heat flux without thruster plume interference is predicted to be 7 W/sq cm on the backshell and 10 W/sq cm on the parachute cover. If the reaction control jets are fired near peak dynamic pressure, the heat flux at localized areas could reach as high as 76 W/sq cm on the backshell and 38 W/sq cm on the parachute cover, including uncertainties. The final flight environments used for hardware design will be updated for any changes in the aeroshell configuration, heating design trajectories, or uncertainties.

  2. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  3. Rotavirus RRV associates with lipid membrane microdomains during cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Pavel; Realpe, Mauricio; Romero, Pedro; Lopez, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.

    2004-01-01

    Rotavirus cell entry is a multistep process, not completely understood, which requires at least four interactions between the virus and cell surface molecules. In this work, we investigated the role of the sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains (rafts) in the entry of rotavirus strain RRV to MA104 cells. We found that ganglioside GM1, integrin subunits α2 and β3, and the heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70), all of which have been implicated as rotavirus receptors, are associated with TX-100 and Lubrol WX detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). Integrin subunits α2 and β3 were found to be particularly enriched in DRMs resistant to lysis by Lubrol WX. When purified RRV particles were incubated with cells at 4 deg. C, about 10% of the total infectious virus was found associated with DRMs, and the DRM-associated virus increased to 37% in Lubrol-resistant membrane domains after 60-min incubation at 37 deg. C. The virus was excluded from DRMs if the cells were treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Immunoblot analysis of the viral proteins showed that the virus surface proteins became enriched in DRMs upon incubation at 37 deg. C, being almost exclusively localized in Lubrol-resistant DRMs after 60 min. These data suggest that detergent-resistant membrane domains play an important role in the cell entry of rotaviruses, which could provide a platform to facilitate the efficient interaction of the rotavirus receptors with the virus particle

  4. 19 CFR 10.49 - Articles for exhibition; requirements on entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Works of Art § 10.49 Articles for exhibition; requirements on entry. (a) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of works of art and other articles claimed to be free of duty under Chapter 98... proof demanded by the port director in connection with the entry. (c) Articles entered under subheading...

  5. 19 CFR 176.22 - Deletion of protest or entry number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deletion of protest or entry number. 176.22... Facts § 176.22 Deletion of protest or entry number. If any protest number or entry number is to be... authorized official making and approving the deletion. [T.D. 70-181, 35 FR 13433, Aug. 22, 1970] ...

  6. 77 FR 76063 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles...

  7. Development Output Program Data Entry System For RSG-GAS Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihombing, Edison; Sitorus, Jupiter; Imron, M.; Azriani

    2000-01-01

    Data Entry System is a data acquisition software of failure data of system and component. The acquisition data was calculated to get the failure rate, upper bound value. Since the calculated is big enough the development on Data Entry System program was introduced. Now, the data Entry System can be run to calculate big enough data

  8. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  9. 12 CFR 995.4 - Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation... FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.4 Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations. (a) Authority. Any Federal Reserve Bank shall have authority to apply book-entry procedure to Financing...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5451 - Book-entry and definitive securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry and definitive securities. 615.5451... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Book-Entry Procedures for Farm Credit Securities § 615.5451 Book-entry and definitive securities. Subject to subpart C of this part: (a) Farm...

  11. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for entry...

  12. 7 CFR 319.8-22 - Ports of entry or export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry or export. 319.8-22 Section 319.8-22... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-22 Ports of entry or export. When ports of entry or export are not specifically designated...

  13. 19 CFR 144.42 - Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 144.42 Section 144.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Rewarehouse Entries § 144.42 Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (a) Applicability... rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (b) Procedure for entry. The procedures set forth in § 144.41 are...

  14. 50 CFR 660.24 - Limited entry and open access fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.24 Limited entry and open access fisheries. (a) General. All commercial fishing for groundfish must be conducted in accordance with the regulations governing limited entry and open...

  15. 50 CFR 660.331 - Limited entry and open access fisheries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.331 Limited entry and open access fisheries—general. All... entry and open access fisheries, except such fishing by treaty Indian tribes as may be separately...

  16. 78 FR 76152 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and...

  17. 75 FR 60772 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and... techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP...

  18. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  19. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  20. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...This action removes the reference to the Kwajalein Tactacial Air Navigation (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This action corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands.

  1. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  2. Modeling radon entry into Florida slab-on-grade houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and isotropic except for certain simulations in which soil layers of high permeability or radium content are introduced. Depressurization of the house induces a pressure field in the soil and backfill. The Laplace equation, resulting from Darcy's law and the continuity equation, is solved using a steady-state finite-difference model to determine this field. The mass-transport equation is then solved to obtain the diffusive and advective radon entry rates through the slab; the permeable stem wall; gaps at the intersections of the slab, stem wall, and footer; and gaps in the slab. These rates are determined for variable soil, backfill, and stem-wall permeability and radium content, slab-opening width and position, slab and stem-wall diffusivity, and water table depth. The variations in soil permeability and radium content include cases of horizontally stratified soil. We also consider the effect of a gap between the edge of the slab and the stem wall that restricts the passage of soil gas from the stem wall into the house. Calculations indicate that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. Variations in most of the factors, other than the soil permeability and radium content, have only a small effect on the total radon entry rate. However, for a fixed soil permeability, the total radon entry rate may be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by decreasing the backfill permeability, by making the stem wall impermeable and gap-free, (possibly by constructing a one-piece slab/stem-wall/footer), or by increasing the pressure in the interior of the stem wall

  3. ELECTRA © Launch and Re-Entry Safety Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, B.; Arnal, M. H.; Aussilhou, C.; Blazquez, A.; Chemama, F.

    2010-09-01

    French Space Operation Act gives as prime objective to National Technical Regulations to protect people, properties, public health and environment. In this frame, an independent technical assessment of French space operation is delegated to CNES. To perform this task and also for his owns operations CNES needs efficient state-of-the-art tools for evaluating risks. The development of the ELECTRA© tool, undertaken in 2007, meets the requirement for precise quantification of the risks involved in launching and re-entry of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© project draws on the proven expertise of CNES technical centers in the field of flight analysis and safety, spaceflight dynamics and the design of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© tool was specifically designed to evaluate the risks involved in the re-entry and return to Earth of all or part of a spacecraft. It will also be used for locating and visualizing nominal or accidental re-entry zones while comparing them with suitable geographic data such as population density, urban areas, and shipping lines, among others. The method chosen for ELECTRA© consists of two main steps: calculating the possible reentry trajectories for each fragment after the spacecraft breaks up; calculating the risks while taking into account the energy of the fragments, the population density and protection afforded by buildings. For launch operations and active re-entry, the risk calculation will be weighted by the probability of instantaneous failure of the spacecraft and integrated for the whole trajectory. ELECTRA©’s development is today at the end of the validation phase, last step before delivery to users. Validation process has been performed in different ways: numerical application way for the risk formulation; benchmarking process for casualty area, level of energy of the fragments entries and level of protection housing module; best practices in space transportation industries concerning dependability evaluation; benchmarking process for

  4. Sable Island: A heritage to preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, C.

    1997-09-01

    Sable Island is strategically located on the edge of the teeming fisheries of the Newfoundland Grand Banks and near one of the main sea routes between North America and Europe. It has been the bane of navigators from 1583 onward, with 250 ships running aground, the latest in 1947. Marine productivity around Sable Island is very high owing to the temperature differences between the currents and the adjacent underwater topography. Dolphins and whales abound in the area known as the `Gully`, and there are no fewer than 36 fish species present in the waters surrounding the Island. Approximately 35 per cent of the Island is covered by vegetation which is limited to species adapted to sandy soil containing little organic matter and few nutrients. Some plants, such as the American beachgrass, grow in dense colonies and help to stabilize the dunes. Bird diversity is limited to species adapted to open areas, ponds and the littoral. Some 324 species have been recorded on the Island, but only 25 are known to nest there. The Island is one of world`s most important breeding sites for grey seals where they can be observed in great numbers during mating, whelping and moulting season. Among the many introduced animals only the legendary horses of Sable Island remain to this day. Despite its remoteness and isolation, the Island faces many threats, one of the most worrysome being the erosion of the eastern extremity of the Island during severe winter storms. The Island benefits from its status as a Migratory Bird Sanctuary, and is legally protected under Sable Island Regulations of the Navigation Act.

  5. Surficial geology of Coats and Mansel Islands, Northwest Territories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aylsworth, J. M; Shilts, W. W

    1991-01-01

    ... islands.A second objective was to determine the maximum level of marine submergence on Coats Island and, if possible, to collect marine shells for dating purposes from the extensive flights of beaches developed on both islands...

  6. Updating Rhode Island's strategic highway safety plan (SHSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the peer exchange sponsored by the Rhode Island : Department of Transportation (RIDOT) that focused on Rhode Islands SHSP : update. : Rhode Islands goals for the peer exchange included learning from other States : expe...

  7. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  8. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.

  9. Optimizing TLB entries for mixed page size storage in contiguous memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kriegel, Jon K.; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2013-04-30

    A system and method for accessing memory are provided. The system comprises a lookup buffer for storing one or more page table entries, wherein each of the one or more page table entries comprises at least a virtual page number and a physical page number; a logic circuit for receiving a virtual address from said processor, said logic circuit for matching the virtual address to the virtual page number in one of the page table entries to select the physical page number in the same page table entry, said page table entry having one or more bits set to exclude a memory range from a page.

  10. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  11. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  12. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  13. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...

  14. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  15. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  16. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  17. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  18. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  19. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  20. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from