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Sample records for macoma nasuta contained

  1. Larval salivary glue protein heterosis and dosage compensation among the interspecific F1 hybrids of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Prithi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal cross effects with respect to larval salivary secretory protein levels were studied in the interspecific fertile reciprocal hybrids by crossing Drosophila nasuta nasuta, and Drosophila nasuta albomicans. These proteins are produced copiously during the third larval instar stage and are believed to play a role in the attachment of pupa to the substratum prior to pupariation as well as in insect immunity. Quantitative variations were encountered among the reciprocal hybrids. Significant heterosis was observed between D. n. nasuta and the F1 hybrid female of a cross between D. n. albomicans female and D. n. nasuta male (21.39% while the F1 hybrids of a cross between D. n. nasuta female and D. n. albomicans male showed a marginal increase (4.24% from the mid parent level. The glue secretions were correlated to total cell number but independent of gland size. SDS PAGE revealed a considerable heterosis with respect to X-linked protein fractions. Here we report sex specific biochemical heterosis. However the X-linked fractions undergo dosage compensation in both parents and hybrids indicating strict regulatory control.

  2. Implementation of dna mitochondrial analysis in rhinoclemmys nasuta (testudines: geoemydidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yherson Franchesco Molina Henao; Guillermo Barreto; Alan Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Rhinoclemmys nasuta (Testudines:Geoemydidae) is considered an almost endemic specie to Colombia and the most primitive species of Rhynoclemmys. However, it is classified data deficient by IUCN because the available information is not enough to make a direct or indirect assessment of its extinction risk. Here, we describe the implementation of the method to analyze the mitochondrial DNA control sequence (mtDNA) of R. nasuta in order to generate tools for future studies in systematics and popul...

  3. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila sulfurigaster neonasuta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Ravi Ram; S. R. Ramesh

    2007-12-01

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different populations from southern India. A total of 25 and 18 variant protein phenotypes were identified in D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta, respectively. Protein fractions of group III were more polymorphic than those from groups I and II. The results show that accessory gland secretory proteins show high levels of polymorphism, irrespective of species or habitat. Moreover, we have used the variation in the accessory gland proteins to assess the extent of divergence between the species and to infer their population structure. The study suggests that though both D. n. nasuta and D. s. neonasuta belong to the same subgroup, they differ in population structure, as far as accessory gland protein polymorphism is concerned.

  4. Distribution of bivalve mollusks Macoma golikovi Scarlato and Kafanov, 1988 and Macoma calcarea (Gmelin, 1791) in the shallow-water hydrothermal ecosystem of Kraternaya Bight (Yankich Island, Kuril Islands): connection with feeding type and hydrothermal activity of Ushishir Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenev, G. M.; Kavun, V. Ya; Tarasov, V. G.; Fadeev, V. I.

    2004-01-01

    Kraternaya Bight (Yankich Island, the Kuril Islands) is a submerged crater of the active Ushishir Volcano characterized by terrestrial and underwater gasohydrothermal activity. The gasohydrothermal activity of the volcano produces a great influence on the physico-chemical characteristics of water column, as well as planktonic and bottom communities of marine organisms of the bight. The bivalve mollusks Macoma golikovi and Macoma calcarea are dominant macrobenthos species of Kraternaya Bight, which inhabit all the zones of underwater volcanic activity. Macoma golikovi occurs at a depth of 1-45 m. This species forms the densest aggregations (with an average biomass of 500-800 g m -2 and a population density of 500-700 ind. m -2) at a depth of 3-15 m, on steep underwater crater slopes (40-45°), on slightly silted gravel. The majority of gasohydrothermal vents are located at that depth. Macoma calcarea occurs at a depth of 5-55 m. In contrast to Macoma golikovi, this species is dominant at a depth of 25-40 m, on gentle slopes of the crater (to 20°), on silt and silty sand. That depth is less subjected to the influence of volcanic products. Its average biomass is 450-750 g m -2 with a population density of 200-450 ind. m -2 there. It is assumed that the differences in the distribution are due the fact that Macoma golikovi is mainly a suspension-feeder in Kraternaya Bight, and Macoma calcarea is a deposit-feeder. The studies conducted between 1987 and 1997 on the quantitative distribution of Macoma golikovi and Macoma calcarea in four areas of the bight, which had different intensity, temperature and chemical composition of gasohydrothermal vents and volcanic water seeping showed that both species formed settlements with lesser density in the area of the gasohydrothermal vents containing hydrogen sulfide. Beyond the area of volcanic activity, these species were most abundant. In 1993 and 1995, the mortality of the populations of the bivalve mollusks was observed in the

  5. Implementation of DNA Mitochondrial Analysis in Rhinoclemmys nasuta (Testudines: Geoemydidae

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    Yherson Franchesco Molina Henao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoclemmys nasuta (Testudines:Geoemydidae is considered an almost endemic specie to Colombia and the most primitive species of Rhynoclemmys. However, it is classified data deficient by IUCN because the available information is not enough to make a direct or indirect assessment of its extinction risk. Here, we describe the implementation of the method to analyze the mitochondrial DNA control sequence (mtDNA of R. nasuta in order to generate tools for future studies in systematics and population conservation. Genomic mtDNA was extracted by salting-out from blood samples from Isla Palma and Playa Chucheros (Bahía Málaga - Colombian Pacific Coast. The polymerase reaction chain (PCR was performed using a pair of degenerate primers (reported for Chrysemys picta, Testudines:Emydidae in polyacrylamide gel stained with silver nitrate. Fragments of 800pb were obtained and the sequencing reaction was effective.High homology percentage (> 92 % was established between the obtained sequences with mtDNA sequences from two species of Geoemydidae, Sacalia quadriocellata and Cuora aurocapitata which are deposited in the GenBank. This demonstrate an effective sequencing ofthe mtDNA control region of R. nasuta.IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE LA METODOLOGÍA DE ANÁLISIS DE ADN MITOCONDRIAL EN Rhinoclemmys nasuta (TESTUDINES:GEOEMYDIDAERhinoclemmys nasuta (Testudines: Geoemydidae es considerada una especie casi endémica de Colombia y la más primitiva del género, sin embargo, se encuentra clasificada por la IUCN como deficiente de datos, ya que la información disponible no es suficiente para hacer una evaluación directa o indirecta de su riesgo de extinción. Con el propósito de generar herramientas de análisis poblacional se describe la metodología de secuenciación de la región control del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt para el análisis genético de poblaciones de Rhinoclemmys nasuta, que permita establecer bases para futuros estudios evolutivos y de conservación. Se

  6. Patterns of replication in the neo-sex chromosomes of Drosophila nasuta albomicans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Mahesh; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2000-09-01

    Drosophila nasuta albomicans (with 2n = 6), contains a pair of metacentric neo-sex chromosomes. Phylogenetically these are products of centric fusion between ancestral sex (X, Y) chromosomes and an autosome (chromosome 3). The polytene chromosome complement of males with a neo-X- and neo-Y-chromosomes has revealed asynchrony in replication between the two arms of the neo-sex chromosomes. The arm which represents the ancestral X-chromosome is faster replicating than the arm which represents ancestral autosome. The latter arm of the neo-sex chromosome is synchronous with other autosomes of the complement. We conclude that one arm of the neo-X/Y is still mimicking the features of an autosome while the other arm has the features of a classical X/Y-chromosome. This X-autosome translocation differs from the other evolutionary X-autosome translocations known in certain species of Drosophila.

  7. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: No-choice experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M T Tanuja; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2001-03-01

    Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans are cross-fertile races of Drosophila. Hybridization between these races in the laboratory has given rise to new races (Cytoraces), among which karyotypic composition differs from one another and also from those of the parental races. In this study, we search for the evidence of incipient reproductive isolation among the parental races and four Cytoraces by assessing the fraction of no-matings, mating latency and copulation duration in all possible types of homo- and heterogamic crosses ( = 4184). In no-choice conditions, the latency time (time to initiation of copulation) is lower in homogamic crosses than in heterogamic crosses for both parental races and Cytoraces. Latency time and copulation duration are negatively correlated, whereas fraction of no matings is positively correlated with latency time. Thus these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex show the initiation of the earliest stages of pre-zygotic isolation, manifested as a tendency for matings to be initiated earlier and more often, and for a longer duration, among homogamic rather than heterogamic individuals.

  8. The adaptive value of migrations for the bivalve Macoma balthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, Johan Gerrit

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is about the movements of the coastal marine bivalve Macoma balthica. M. balthica migrates over several kilometres between nurseries at high tidal flats, where juveniles are found in high numbers, and the adult habitat on low-lying tidal flats. Most benthic species in the Wadden Sea have

  9. Active pelagic migrations of the bivalve Macoma balthica are dangerous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, J.G.; Kock, R.P; Wolff, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    The bivalve Macoma balthica migrates twice during the benthic part of its life cycle. During the spring migration (May-June), the newly settled spat (0-group) migrates to the nurseries in the high intertidal. Seven to nine months later, the bivalves migrate back to the low tidal flats and the subtid

  10. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female– and multiple-choice mating experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M T Tanuja; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2001-09-01

    Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for con-specific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

  11. Sensitivity to stress of the estuarine bivalve Macoma balthica from areas between the Netherlands and its southern limits (Gironde)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Bachelet, G.; Desprez, M.; Marchand, J.; Sylvand, B.; Amiard, J.C.; Rybarczyk, H.; Bogaards, R.H.; Sinke, J.J.; De Wit, Y.; De Wolf, L.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in the sensitivity to stress of Macoma balthica was measured in several French and Dutch estuaries. For adult and juvenile Macoma balthica exposed to copper under conditions of starvation, differences in mortality rate, condition, glycogen, burrowing rate and copper content were assessed.

  12. Purification and characterization of an N-acetylglucosamine specific lectin from marine bivalve Macoma birmanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhya, Mausumi; Singha, Biswajit; Chatterjee, Bishnu P

    2009-07-01

    A calcium independent lectin of molecular mass 47kDa was isolated from the foot muscle of marine bivalve Macoma birmanica by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by affinity chromatography on immobilized GlcNAc column and designated as M. birmanica agglutinin (MBA). The lectin agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes strongly compared to human erythrocytes over a wide pH range from 5 to 9 and up to 50 degrees C. MBA is a glycoprotein and consists of 7.63% sugar. Among the tested sugars for analysis of carbohydrate recognition properties, Me-betaGlcNAc was the most potent inhibitor followed by Me-alphaMan. Enzyme linked solid phase assay revealed that MBA interacted well with complex type N-linked glycans and moderately to high mannose type N-linked glycans. Fluorescence study of MBA indicated that tryptophan was present in a non-hydrophobic region and its binding to GlcNAc was neither quenched nor altered lambda(max) position. The denaturation of MBA induced by urea was a reversible process and urea could not significantly change the Trp environment. MBA interacted with both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by recognizing their surface exposed GlcNAc containing antigens.

  13. Anoxic survival of Macoma balthica: the effect of antibiotics, molybdate and sulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zwaan, A.; Schaub, B.; Babarro, J.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    In anoxic semi-closed systems, the survival time of the clam Macoma balthica was compared to clams which were incubated in the presence of several antibiotics (chloramphenicol, 5- oxytetracycline hydrochloride, penicillin, streptomycin. a mix of penicillin and streptomycin and a mix of chloramphenic

  14. Mosaic haploid-diploid embryos and polyspermy in the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Pijnacker, LP

    2002-01-01

    We investigated meiosis, fertilization, and early development in eggs of the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica (L.), which has external fertilization. Meiosis is standard but polyspermy is found to be very common. In all eight crosses examined, mosaic embryos consisting of a mixture of diploid (2n =

  15. Seasonal changes in the diet of the long-nosed bandicoot (Perameles nasuta) assessed by analysis of faecal scats and of stable isotopes in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thums, M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Hume, I.D.

    2005-01-01

    The diet of long-nosed bandicoots (Perameles nasuta) on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia, was examined over two summers and two winters using a combination of faecal scat analysis for food fragments and stable isotope analysis (ratios of 13C/12C and 15N/14N) of blood. Isotope ratios i

  16. Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae em Guira guira e Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae in Guira guira and Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae on Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Adriane Bartmann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nematóides do gênero Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912 parasitam aves de diversas ordens e têm sido estudados, principalmente, em aves de importância econômica devido às lesões que provocam no proventrículo dos hospedeiros. Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920 é registrado em duas espécies de Cuculiformes, anu-branco, Guira guira Gmelin, 1788 e anu-preto, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758, no Sul do Brasil. Entre 2005 e 2008 foram coletados e necropsiados 120 espécimes de G. guira e 120 espécimes de C. ani nos municípios de Cacequi, São Vicente do Sul e Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A prevalência de D. nasuta foi de 28,3% em G. guira e 26,7%, em C. ani, e a intensidade média de infecção foi de 8,81 (DP=18,41; Amplitude 1 - 82 helmintos/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 5,10 (DP=6,17; Amplitude 1 - 30 helmintos/hospedeiro, em C. ani. Já a abundância média de infecção foi de 2,28 (DP=10,02 helminto/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 1,32 (DP=3,82 helminto/hospedeiro em C. ani. Análise comparativa entre o sexo, a maturidade sexual e a estação do ano, para as duas espécies de aves, mostrou que em C. ani não ocorreram diferenças significativas com relação a qualquer dos parâmetros analisados. Em G. guira as fêmeas estavam mais parasitadas do que os machos (P=0,039; as fêmeas encontravam-se mais parasitadas no inverno (P=0,008; os machos, no verão (P=0,011; os machos jovens estavam mais parasitados do que os adultos (P=0,015. As lesões encontradas no proventrículo das aves parasitadas confirmaram o diagnóstico de hiperplasia adenomatóide do proventrículo com proventriculite granulomatosa. Esta comunicação amplia o número de espécies hospedeiras e a distribuição geográfica do nematóide D. nasuta.Nematodes of the genus Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912 are parasites of several groups of birds which have been primarily studied in birds of economic importance due to the

  17. WHY KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS TAKE MEDIUM-SIZED MACOMA-BALTHICA WHEN 6 PREY SPECIES ARE AVAILABLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWARTS, L; BLOMERT, AM

    We quantified the prey selection and intake rate of a wading bird, knot Calidris canutus, when 6 different, intertidal prey species, the mud snail Peringia ulvae and the bivalves Macoma balthica, Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Scrobicularia plana and Mytilus edulis, were abundant. Knot usually

  18. Facilitation on an intertidal mudflat : the effect of siphon nipping by flatfish on burying depth of the bivalve Macoma balthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, P; Luttikhuizen, PC; van der Meer, J; Piersma, T

    2001-01-01

    During deposit feeding on benthic microalgae, the siphon of buried tellinid bivalves like Macoma balthica is vulnerable to nipping by plaice Pleuronectes platessa and other flatfish. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that siphon nippers facilitate predation on the entire bivalve (by shorebirds

  19. WHY KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS TAKE MEDIUM-SIZED MACOMA-BALTHICA WHEN 6 PREY SPECIES ARE AVAILABLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWARTS, L; BLOMERT, AM

    1992-01-01

    We quantified the prey selection and intake rate of a wading bird, knot Calidris canutus, when 6 different, intertidal prey species, the mud snail Peringia ulvae and the bivalves Macoma balthica, Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Scrobicularia plana and Mytilus edulis, were abundant. Knot usually se

  20. Free amino acids in the clam Macoma balthica (L.) (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from brackish waters of southern Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen acidic and neutral free amino acids (FAA) were investigated in soft tissue of Macoma balthica from different depth zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) over a full seasonal cycle. The dry weight of the bivalves and physico-chemical parameters of overlying bottom water and surface

  1. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA EN UNA POBLACION DE Rhinoclemmys nasuta (TESTUDINES:GEOEMYDIDAE ASOCIADA A UN AMBIENTE INSULAR DEL CHOCÓ BIOGEOGRÁFICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LESLIE ANAIS CASTILLO-CUTIVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización de la diversidad genética de la población de Rhinoclemmys nasuta, que habita en la localidad insular de Isla Palma, Bahía Málaga (Valle del Cauca, utilizando tres sistemas de microsatélites (Cm72, Cm58 y Cm3. En esta localidad, R. nasuta se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en los sistemas de riachuelos y quebradas presentes. Se tomaron entre 100 a 200 μL de sangre periférica de diez tortugas en cinco riachuelos, preservando las muestras en una solución 0,5 M de EDTA y el ADN fue extraído mediante las técnicas de Salting-out y Chelex. Los productos amplificados por PCR fueron visualizados y medidos en geles de poliacrilamida teñidos con nitrato de plata. Se obtuvieron productos amplificados exitosos para todos los sistemas analizados, dos de los cuales (Cm72 y Cm3 resultaron ser monomórficos, mientras que el sistema Cm58 presentó un PIC alto (0,698 permitiendo estimar la diversidad genética de esta población. La heterocigosidad observada fue baja (Ho = 0,26 y los índices de endogamia FIS y FIT fueron altos (0,67857 y 0,67881, indicando un exceso de homocigotos en cada uno de los ríos y para la población total. El Análisis Molecular de Varianza sugirió que no existe estructura genética diferencial en esta población (FST = 0,00075; p = 0,95112. En conclusión los resultados sugieren que la diversidad genética de la población de R. nasuta en Isla Palma es baja, siendo una población altamente endogámica

  2. IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE LA METODOLOGÍA DE ANÁLISIS DE ADN MITOCONDRIAL EN Rhinoclemmys nasuta (TESTUDINES:GEOEMYDIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YHERSON FRANCHESCO MOLINA HENAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoclemmys nasuta (Testudines: Geoemydidae es considerada una especie casi endémica de Colombia y la más primitiva del género, sin embargo, se encuentra clasificada por la IUCN como deficiente de datos, ya que la información disponible no es suficiente para hacer una evaluación directa o indirecta de su riesgo de extinción. En este trabajo se describe la implementación del método para realizar la secuenciación de la región control del ADN mitocondrial de R. nasuta, con el propósito de generar herramientas técnicas para futuros estudios de evolutivos y de conservación. Se utilizó el método de desalamiento (Salting-out para extraer ADN a muestras sanguíneas procedentes de Isla Palma y Playa Chucheros (Bahía Málaga–Pacífico Colombiano y se utilizó una pareja de cebadores degenerados (reportada para Chrysemys picta Testudines: Emydidae para realizar la amplificación. Se obtuvieron fragmentos de 800pb siendo exitosa la reacción de secuenciación de los amplificados, y se estableció un porcentaje de homología mayor al 92 % entre las secuencias obtenidas y las secuencias de ADNmt de Sacalia quadriocellata (Testudines:Geoemydidae y Cuora aurocapitata (Testudines:Geoemydidae, depositadas en el GeneBank. Este resultado demuestra que el método descrito puede ser una herramienta útil para el estudio de las poblaciones de R. nasuta del Pacífico colombiano, lográndose una efectiva secuenciación de la región control del ADNmt de esta especie.

  3. Some reproductive parameters of populations of Macoma calcarea (Bivalvia, Tellinidae in the Barents and Pechora Seas

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    Noskovich A. E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macoma calcarea is a boreal-arctic species widespread in all the northern seas of Russia. Like all bivalve molluscs M. calcarea plays an important role in marine ecosystems. Despite the widespread use many aspects of the biology of this species have not been adequately studied. The aim of the work is to establish a number of reproductive parameters (the sexual composition, the size of sexual maturity, breeding time, the size of the embryonic shell, the size of oocytes and spermatozoa in the Barents Sea bivalve Macoma calcarea in areas with different hydrological regimes. Molluscs of the populations localized in the area of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, in the Varandey, Ivanovskaya, Drozdovka and Ura Bays have been investigated. The material for the study has been samples of molluscs harvested in the mouths of the Barents and Pechora Seas in the period from 2006 to 2011 by the researchers of the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute. 680 samples have been studied all in all. As a result it has been found that makoms from the Novaya Zemlya population significantly differ from molluscs of other populations in the size structure, the ratio of mature and immature individuals. Also, apparently, spawning takes place in other periods than in the southern part of the Barents Sea. The abundance of young molluscs in the Ivanovskaya, Drozdovka, Ura and Varandey Bays indicates the more successful breeding in these areas, however there is also an increased elimination of large individuals. In all areas of the study among the sexually mature molluscs the dominance of males is widespread.

  4. Genetic Diversity in a Population of Rhinoclemmys nasuta (TESTU-DINES:GEOEMYDIDAE Associatted with an Insular Locality in the Chocó Biogeographic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Anais Castillo Cutiva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic diversity of Rhinoclemmys nasuta population inhabits Isla Palma (Malaga Bay, Valle del Caucawas carried out using three microsatellite systems (Cm72, Cm58 and Cm3. In this locality, individuals of  R. nasutaare widely distributed in the inland streams and creeks system. 100 to 200 ìL of peripheral blood was taken off from 10 turtles in five streams of theisland, preserving samples in in a 0.5 M EDTA. DNA was extracted using Salting-out and Chelex 100 solutiontechniques. PCR amplified products were visualized and measured in polyacrylamide gels (19:1 to 8 % silver nitrate. Successful amplification products were obtained for all systems analyzed, two of which (Cm72 and Cm3 were found to be monomorphic, while the system Cm58had a high PIC (0.698 allowing to estimate the genetic diversity of this population. The observed heterozygosity was low (Ho = 0.26 and inbreeding indices FIS and FIT were high (0.67857 and 0.67881 , indicating an excess of homozygotes in each of the rivers and for the all population. The molecular analysis of variance suggested that there is no difference in genetic structure of the population (FST= 0.00075,p= 0.95112 . Therefore, the results suggest that the genetic diversity of R. nasutapopulation in Isla Palma was low and exhibited a highly inbred index.DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA EN UNA POBLACION DE Rhinoclemmys nasuta (TESTUDINES:GEOEMYDIDAE ASOCIADA A UN AMBIENTE INSULAR DEL CHOCÓ BIOGEOGRÁFICOSe realizó la caracterización de la diversidad genética de la población de Rhinoclemmys nasuta, que habita en la localidad insular de Isla Palma, Bahía Málaga (Valle del Cauca, Colombia, utilizando tres sistemas de microsatélites (Cm72, Cm58 y Cm3. En esta localidad, R. nasuta se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en los sistemas de riachuelos y quebradas presentes. Se tomaron entre 100 a 200 µL de sangre periférica de 10 tortugas en cinco riachuelos, preservando las muestras en una solución 0

  5. TAMAÑO Y ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE LA TORTUGA SABALETERA (RHINOCLEMMYS NASUTA, TESTUDINES: GEOEMYDIDAE EN UN AMBIENTE INSULAR DEL PACIFICO COLOMBIANO

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    Giraldo Alan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoclemmys nasuta (Boulenger 1902 es una especie endémica que se encuentra registrada en el libro rojo de los reptiles de Colombia y está catalogada como casi amenazada a nivel mundial. Esta especie, de tamaño mediano, habita los cursos de agua en la región Tumbes-Chocó, desde la cuenca del río Esmeraldas (Ecuador hasta la zona media de la cuenca del río Atrato (Chocó, Colombia. Hasta la fecha no se ha podido realizar una adecuada valoración de su estado de conservación debido a diferentes vacíos de conocimientos identificados con relación a la historia natural y la ecología de la especie. En el presente trabajo se recogen los resultados del análisis del tamaño y estructura de una población de R. nasuta estudiada en un ambiente insular del Pacífico colombiano (Isla Palma, Bahía Málaga, Valle del Cauca. En las condiciones de estudio, la población estuvo dominada por individuos adultos siendo la proporción Hembras: Machos: Juveniles de 1.00: 0.71: 0.85. Las hembras fueron consistentemente más grandes que los machos (♀: 179.87 ± 3.27 mm; ♂:151.83 ± 2.41 mm, definiéndose un índice general de dimorfismo sexual de 1.18. Con base en los registros de captura-recaptura, se estimó que el tamaño de la población de esta especie en Isla Palma durante el periodo de estudio fue de 990 individuos (IC90%: 941 a 1044 ind, con una densidad promedio de 2444 ± 122 tortugas por cada hectárea de río. Al evaluar la relación tamaño-peso, se estableció que el crecimiento de R. nasuta es de tipo isométrico (b = 3.04, siendo la tendencia de crecimiento similar entre machos y hembras a pesar del dimorfismo sexual detectado. Este trabajo es el primer esfuerzo de investigación en la región pacífica de Colombia que aborda el estudio sistemático de una población de tortugas continentales. Además, proporciona información sobre la historia natural de R. nasuta que fortalecerá las iniciativas de conservación de tortugas en

  6. The biology and functional morphology of Macoma biota (Bivalvia: Tellinidae: Macominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ribeiro Piffer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005, is a recently described species known only from the intertidal zone of Praia da Cidade, Caraguatatuba Bay, in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main purpose of the present paper is to describe the biology of M. biota, beginning with a detailed analysis of its anatomy and functional morphology and how these attributes are correlated with its habitat and life history. The morphology of the organs in the pallial cavity and their sorting devices indicate that this species has efficient mechanisms to process large amounts of particles that enter this cavity via the inhalant current. M. biota can rapidly select the material suitable for ingestion and direct the undesired excess to the rejection mantle tracts. These characteristics along with the siphon's behavior and the digestive tract configuration reveal that this species can be classified primarily as a deposit feeder, like other species of the genus; however, it can also behave as a suspension feeder, depending on the environmental conditions.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of biomarkers in infaunal clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barda, Ieva; Purina, Ingrida; Rimsa, Elina; Balode, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are often regarded as “early warning” signals of environmental pollution; however seasonal changes are mentioned as one of the most important factor that influences the activity of biomarkers. The aim of our study was to assess the importance of seasonal variation of selected contaminant biomarkers in Macoma balthica to provide background information for further environmental surveys in the Gulf of Riga. Seasonal variation of biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) was measured in infaunal clam M. balthica from the southern part of the Gulf of Riga. The majority of biomarkers (GST, CAT and GR) showed strong seasonal variability; however only CAT and GR were found to be significantly related to environmental factors (near-bottom oxygen, salinity and temperature). Integrated biomarker response (IBR) index indicated that the most stressed condition of M. balthica is during August and May. The highest values of IBR were found near the mouth of the River Daugava, suggesting the impact of environmental pollution on the benthic animals.

  8. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  9. Passive settlement of Macoma balthica spat on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea and subsequent migration of juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armonies, Werner; Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    Spatfall of the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica may occur in fine-grained sediments at different tidal elevations in the Wadden Sea. but it is not clear which mechanism (active habitat selection or passive sinking of larvae, or both) can explain the observed distribution pattern. Spatfall and the subsequent development of juvenile abundances and size distribution were studied along a transect in the northern Wadden Sea near the Island of Sylt. Initial spatfall was highest in the lower intertidal and correlated significantly with hydrographic parameters. The enhanced larval settlement observed in dense aggregates of the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega confirmed the prominent role of hydrographic factors in initial spatfall. Subsequently, abundance strongly decreased in the lower intertidal but increased in the upper intertidal due to immigration of newly settled spat from lower sites. By the end of October, abundance was higher in the upper intertidal. Growth of the juveniles was higher in the upper intertidal. It is suggested that (1) initial spatfall is mainly ruled by hydrographic factors without active sediment selection; (2) young Macoma remain highly mobile during the first weeks of their benthic life and by byssus drift may achieve a net transport into areas with weak initial spatfall; (3) at the end of their first winter a second period of high floating activity occurs, bringing them back towards the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal. Thus, by successive postlarval migrations Macoma may several times change the intertidal site occupied during their first year of life. The comparatively low interannual variability of recruitment success noted in this species in the Wadden Sea may be a result of these migrations.

  10. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman; Smolarz-Gorska, Katarzyna; Fichet, Denis; Radenac, Gilles; Thiriot-Quievreux, Catherine; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled ('irregular') clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically 'irregular' clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the 'irregular' clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia.

  11. Food intake and growth in Macoma balthica (mollusca) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H.

    Groups of Macoma balthica were kept during 4-week periods in an experimental set up at a constant temperature and food concentration. Food concentrations (expressed in particulate organic carbon) for the different groups ranged from 0 to 16 mg C·I -1. The experiment was repeated 6 times, viz. in different months, and the temperatures were changed accordingly to correspond with levels found in the field. The rates of food intake, water clearance and growth were followed throughout the experiment. The flagellate Isochrysis galbana served as food. With increasing food concentration all 3 rates (food intake, water clearance and growth) increased up to maximum to decrease again at high food concentrations. Such bell-shaped relationships were observed in all seasons. The dependence of growth on food concentration was similar in all seasons. Zero growth or weight losses were observed at food concentrations below 1.3 mg C·I -1, and maximum growth rates were reached at food concentrations between 5 and 7 mg C·I -1. The daily maintenance ration amounted to about 1.2% of the body weight. Seasonal differences were observed in the relationships of the rates of both water clearance and food intake with food concentration. During the winter and spring the optimum curves for these relationships reached their maximum at food concentrations of 8 to 10 mg C·I -1. During summer and early autumn the optimum curves were shifted to lower food concentrations, around 2 to 4 mg C·I -1, probably as an adaptation to low food concentrations observed in the field during these periods.

  12. Prey choice and search speed : Why simple optimality fails to explain the prey choice of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus feeding on Nereis diversicolor and Macoma balthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B.J.; Bunskoeke, EJ; Hoekstra, R; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M.; DeVlas, SJ

    1996-01-01

    Oystercatchers breeding on the saltmarsh of Schiermonnikoog rely on two staple foods during the breeding season: the bivalve Macoma balthica and the worm Nereis diversicolor. Both prey are highly profitable, yet individual birds tend to specialize on either of the two prey species for prolonged

  13. Effects of particulate carbonaceous matter on the bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene and 2,2‘,5,5‘-tetrachlorobiphenyl to the clam, Macoma balthica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the bioavailability via diet of spiked benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2‘,5,5‘-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-52) from different carbonaceous (non-carbonate, carbon containing) particle types to clams (Macoma balthica) collected from San Francisco Bay. Our results reveal significant differences in absorption efficiency between compounds and among carbonaceous particle types. Absorption efficiency for PCB-52 was always greater than that for BaP bound to a given particle type. Among particles, absorption efficiency was highest from wood and diatoms and lowest from activated carbon. Large differences in absorption efficiency could not be simply explained by comparatively small differences in the particles' total organic carbon content. BaP and PCB-52 bound to activated carbon exhibited less than 2% absorption efficiency and were up to 60 times less available to clams than the same contaminants associated with other types of carbonaceous matter. These results suggest that variations in the amount and type of sediment particulate carbonaceous matter, whether naturally occurring or added as an amendment, will have a strong influence on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. This has important implications for environmental risk assessment, sediment management, and development of novel remediation techniques.

  14. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits on the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jeroen M; Pronker, Annelies E; Kube, Sandra; Sokolowski, Adam; Sola, J Carlos; Marquiegui, Mikel A; Schiedek, Doris; Wendelaar Bonga, Sjoerd; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman

    2007-11-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct populations of species that are distributed over a wide geographic range. We studied seasonal variations in the metabolic adjustments of two very common bivalve taxa at European scale. To this end we sampled 16 populations of Mytilus spp. and 10 Macoma balthica populations distributed from 39 degrees to 69 degrees N. The results from this large-scale comprehensive comparison demonstrated seasonal cycles in metabolic rates which were maximized during winter and springtime, and often reduced in the summer and autumn. Studying the sensitivity of metabolic rates to thermal variations, we found that a broad range of Q (10) values occurred under relatively cold conditions. As habitat temperatures increased the range of Q (10) narrowed, reaching a bottleneck in southern marginal populations during summer. For Mytilus spp., genetic-group-specific clines and limits on Q (10) values were observed at temperatures corresponding to the maximum climatic conditions these geographic populations presently experience. Such specific limitations indicate differential thermal adaptation among these divergent groups. They may explain currently observed migrations in mussel distributions and invasions. Our results provide a practical framework for the thermal ecophysiology of bivalves, the assessment of environmental changes due to climate change and its impact on (and consequences for) aquaculture.

  15. Effects of Reduced pH on Macoma balthica Larvae from a System with Naturally Fluctuating pH-Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jansson

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is causing severe changes in the inorganic carbon balance of the oceans. The pH conditions predicted for the future oceans are, however, already regularly occurring in the Baltic Sea, and the system might thus work as an analogue for future ocean acidification scenarios. The characteristics of the Baltic Sea with low buffering capacity and large natural pH fluctuations, in combination with multiple other stressors, suggest that OA effects may be severe, but remain largely unexplored. A calcifying species potentially affected by low pH conditions is the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.. We investigated larval survival and development of M. balthica by exposing the larvae to a range of pH levels: 7.2, 7.4, 7.7 and 8.1 during 20 days in order to learn what the effects of reduced pH are on the larval biology and thus also potentially for the population dynamics of this key species. We found that even a slight pH decrease causes significant negative changes during the larval phase, both by slowing growth and by decreasing survival. The growth was slower in all reduced pH treatments compared to the control treatment. The size of 250 µm that is considered indicative to imminent settling in our system was reached by 22% of the larvae grown in control conditions after 20 days, whereas in all reduced pH treatments the size of 250 µm was reached by only 7-14%. The strong impact of ocean acidification on larvae is alarming as slowly growing individuals are exposed to higher predation risk in response to the longer time they are required to spend in the plankton, further decreasing the ecological competence of the species.

  16. Biodynamic modeling of PCB uptake by Macoma balthica and Corbicula fluminea from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon amendment was assessed in the laboratory as a remediation strategy for freshwater sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Grasse River (near Massena, NY). Three end points were evaluated: aqueous equilibrium PCB concentration, uptake into semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and 28-day bioaccumulation in the clam Corbicula fluminea. PCB uptake by water, SPMDs, and clams followed similar trends, with reductions increasing as a function of carbon dose. Average percent reductions in clam tissue PCBs were 67, 86, and 95% for activated carbon doses of 0.7, 1.3, and 2.5% dry wt, respectively. A biodynamic model that incorporates sediment geochemistry and dietary and aqueous uptake routes was found to agree well with observed uptake by C. fluminea in our laboratory test systems. Results from this study were compared to 28-day bioaccumulation experiments involving PCB-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard (San Francisco Bay, CA) and the clam Macoma balthica. Due to differences in feeding strategy, M. balthica deposit-feeds whereas C. fluminea filter-feeds, the relative importance of the aqueous uptake route is predicted to be much higher for C. fluminea than for M. balthica. Whereas M. balthica takes up approximately 90% of its body burden through sediment ingestion, C. fluminea only accumulates approximately 45% via this route. In both cases, results strongly suggest that it is the mass transfer of PCBs from native sediment to added carbon particles, not merely reductions in aqueous PCB concentrations, that effectively reduces PCB bioavailability and uptake by sediment-dwelling organisms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  17. SNP detection from de novo transcriptome sequencing in the bivalve Macoma balthica: marker development for evolutionary studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pante

    Full Text Available Hybrid zones are noteworthy systems for the study of environmental adaptation to fast-changing environments, as they constitute reservoirs of polymorphism and are key to the maintenance of biodiversity. They can move in relation to climate fluctuations, as temperature can affect both selection and migration, or remain trapped by environmental and physical barriers. There is therefore a very strong incentive to study the dynamics of hybrid zones subjected to climate variations. The infaunal bivalve Macoma balthica emerges as a noteworthy model species, as divergent lineages hybridize, and its native NE Atlantic range is currently contracting to the North. To investigate the dynamics and functioning of hybrid zones in M. balthica, we developed new molecular markers by sequencing the collective transcriptome of 30 individuals. Ten individuals were pooled for each of the three populations sampled at the margins of two hybrid zones. A single 454 run generated 277 Mb from which 17K SNPs were detected. SNP density averaged 1 polymorphic site every 14 to 19 bases, for mitochondrial and nuclear loci, respectively. An [Formula: see text] scan detected high genetic divergence among several hundred SNPs, some of them involved in energetic metabolism, cellular respiration and physiological stress. The high population differentiation, recorded for nuclear-encoded ATP synthase and NADH dehydrogenase as well as most mitochondrial loci, suggests cytonuclear genetic incompatibilities. Results from this study will help pave the way to a high-resolution study of hybrid zone dynamics in M. balthica, and the relative importance of endogenous and exogenous barriers to gene flow in this system.

  18. Survival and settling of larval Macoma balthica in a large-scale mesocosm experiment at different fCO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Anna; Lischka, Silke; Boxhammer, Tim; Schulz, Kai G.; Norkko, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are causing severe changes in the global inorganic carbon balance of the oceans. Associated ocean acidification is expected to pose a major threat to marine ecosystems worldwide, and it is also expected to be amplified in the Baltic Sea where the system is already exposed to relatively large natural seasonal and diel pH fluctuations. We studied the responses of larvae of the benthic key species Macoma balthica to a range of future CO2 scenarios using six ˜ 55 m3 mesocosms encompassing the entire pelagic community. The mesocosms were deployed in the northern Baltic Sea in June 2012. We focused on the survival, growth and subsequent settlement process of Macoma balthica when exposed to different levels of future CO2. The size and time to settlement of M. balthica increased along the CO2 gradient, suggesting a developmental delay. With ongoing climate change, both the frequency and extent of regularly occurring high CO2 conditions are likely to increase, and a permanent pH decrease will likely occur. The strong impact of increasing CO2 levels on early-stage bivalves is alarming as these stages are crucial for sustaining viable populations, and a failure in their recruitment would ultimately lead to negative effects on the population.

  19. Long-term toxicity of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) to the benthic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolarz, Katarzyna, E-mail: oceksm@univ.gda.pl [University of Gdansk, Institute of Oceanography, Laboratory of Ecosystem Functioning, al Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia (Poland); Soedertoern University College, School of Life Sciences, Alfred Nobels alle 7, 141 89 Huddinge (Sweden); Berger, Agata [University of Gdansk, Institute of Oceanography, Laboratory of Ecosystem Functioning, al Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-11-27

    The world's largest brackish water sea area, the Baltic Sea, is considered to be one of the most polluted seas of the world. Many new pollutants are constantly entering the environment, such as brominated flame-retardants (BFRs). BFRs represent a group of compounds that structurally resemble hydrophobic organic contaminants, but only scarce data about their toxicity to marine organism exist. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze long-term in vivo cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexabromocyclodododecane (HBCDD) to exposed marine invertebrates using a suite of cytogenetic biomarkers. This included a set of nuclear and nucleolar characteristics and the micronucleus test. The use of those parameters reflects different mechanisms of nuclear activity regulation in cells (as a parameter of cytotoxicity) and measures subcellular processes. The induction of nuclear abnormalities (like the formation of micronuclei) was also employed here as a parameter of genotoxicity. In order to reflect the proliferative and metabolic activity of the cells the number of argylophillic nucleolar organiser regions (NORs) in interphase cells was scored. Over a period of 50 days an in vivo exposure experiment with a clam Macoma balthica and different concentrations of HBCDD (nominal concentrations of 0, 100 and 250 {mu}g/l) with three replicates each was performed. Gill cells were used as 'sentinel systems' considering specificity in metabolism, repair mechanisms, adaptative response and cell proliferation. A significant increase in nuclear and nucleolar abnormalities and in the frequency of dead cells was observed during the duration of the experiment with the highest peak occurring 10 days after exposure for nuclear abnormalities and 20-30 days after exposure for malfunction of ribosomal genes (NORs) (GLM analyses and Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Thus, the induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities reflected the toxic potential of HBCDD to marine

  20. Size Variation and Recruitment of Macoma sp. in the Southern Chukchi Sea and Possible Implications of Seasonal Ocean Acidification in the Pacific Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethel, C.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    Recent sea ice retreat and seawater warming in the Pacific Arctic are physical changes that can have direct impacts on benthic macrofaunal community composition and biomass. We used recent van Veen grab collections of the tellinid bivalves Macoma calcarea and M. moesta in July 2014 (n=84) and 2015 (n= 284), as well as historical length/weight data from the past twenty years, to follow changes in both size and recruitment of this genus at a highly productive station north of Bering Strait (UTN2; 67.05 N, 168.73 W). These bivalves are common benthic prey items for migrating walrus, bearded seals and diving seaducks, and this location is known to be a productive and biologically significant foraging hotspot. Since size and availability of prey items can affect the success of feeding bouts by benthivores, following the recruitment and size distributions of the benthic food base allows for a better understanding of potential feeding behaviors and shifts in response to biological changes. Clam lengths in 2014 ranged from 14 mm to 55 mm, with an average length of 25.8 mm, and clam lengths in 2015 ranged from 15 mm to 50 mm, with an average size of 21.3 mm. New recruitment is surmised based upon size trend changes within the 20-year data set. In addition, ongoing seasonal ocean acidification may be affecting shell growth and respiration rates, based upon results from on-going laboratory experiments using these Macoma sp.clams. This additional influence has the potential for altering size classes and faunal composition available to the foraging benthivores.

  1. Larval development and settling of Macoma balthica in a large-scale mesocosm experiment at different fCO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jansson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are causing severe changes in the global inorganic carbon balance of the oceans. Associated ocean acidification is expected to impose a major threat to marine ecosystems worldwide, and it is also expected to be amplified in the Baltic Sea where the system is already at present exposed to relatively large natural seasonal and diel pH fluctuations. The response of organisms to future ocean acidification has primarily been studied in single-species experiments, whereas the knowledge of community-wide responses is still limited. To study responses of the Baltic Sea pelagic community to a range of future CO2-scenarios, six ∼ 55 m3 pelagic mesocosms were deployed in the northern Baltic Sea in June 2012. In this specific study we focused on the tolerance, development and subsequent settlement process of the larvae of the benthic key-species Macoma balthica when exposed to different levels of future CO2. We found that the settling of M. balthica was delayed along the increasing CO2 gradient of the mesocosms. Also, when exposed to increasing CO2 levels larvae settled at a larger size, indicating a developmental delay. With on-going climate change, both the frequency and extent of regularly occurring high CO2 conditions is likely to increase, and a permanent pH decrease will likely occur. The strong impact of increasing CO2 levels on early-stage bivalves is alarming as these stages are crucial for sustaining viable populations, and a failure in their recruitment would ultimately lead to negative effects on the population.

  2. Larval development and settling of Macoma balthica in a large-scale mesocosm experiment at different fCO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, A.; Lischka, S.; Boxhammer, T.; Schulz, K. G.; Norkko, J.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are causing severe changes in the global inorganic carbon balance of the oceans. Associated ocean acidification is expected to impose a major threat to marine ecosystems worldwide, and it is also expected to be amplified in the Baltic Sea where the system is already at present exposed to relatively large natural seasonal and diel pH fluctuations. The response of organisms to future ocean acidification has primarily been studied in single-species experiments, whereas the knowledge of community-wide responses is still limited. To study responses of the Baltic Sea pelagic community to a range of future CO2-scenarios, six ∼ 55 m3 pelagic mesocosms were deployed in the northern Baltic Sea in June 2012. In this specific study we focused on the tolerance, development and subsequent settlement process of the larvae of the benthic key-species Macoma balthica when exposed to different levels of future CO2. We found that the settling of M. balthica was delayed along the increasing CO2 gradient of the mesocosms. Also, when exposed to increasing CO2 levels larvae settled at a larger size, indicating a developmental delay. With on-going climate change, both the frequency and extent of regularly occurring high CO2 conditions is likely to increase, and a permanent pH decrease will likely occur. The strong impact of increasing CO2 levels on early-stage bivalves is alarming as these stages are crucial for sustaining viable populations, and a failure in their recruitment would ultimately lead to negative effects on the population.

  3. Uptake of dissolved Ag, Cd, and Co by the clam, Macoma balthica: relative importance of overlying water, oxic pore water, and burrow water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, Sarah B; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2002-06-01

    The facultative deposit-feeding clam Macoma balthica is used as a bioindicator organism for assessing coastal metal contamination. Previous work has evaluated the assimilation of metals from different possible food sources for this clam, but no studies have measured the uptake rates of metals from different dissolved sources. This study specifically compares three different dissolved sources: overlying water (SW), oxic pore water (OPW) from a depth of deposit feeding), and burrow water (BW) (a mixture of anoxic pore water and overlying water). Uptake rates of dissolved Ag, Cd, and Co in M. balthica were measured in short-term laboratory experiments using radiotracers. Clams were exposed to metals in water only for SW and surface OPW treatments. In the BW treatment, metal uptake was compared in clams placed in radiolabeled organic-poor or organic-rich sediment under conditions in which feeding was inhibited. Uptake rate constantsfrom SW for Ag, Cd, and Co were 0.35, 0.033, and 0.035 L g(-1) day(-1), respectively. Lower uptake of dissolved metals from OPW was noted but was only significant for Co. Metal uptake from BW and SW were also comparable; however, the trend showed lower Ag and higher Co uptake from BW. Metal distributions and concentrations in the two radiolabeled sediments were affected by active irrigation of SW into the burrows; dissolved metal concentrations in BW were approximately 30% lower than that in the bulk pore water concentrations. In the organic-rich sediment, Cd and Ag partitioned more in the dissolved phase (sensitivity analysis using measured rate constants for uptake and a range of metal concentrations from field studies suggested that, under most conditions, uptake of dissolved Ag is primarily from OPW, Co is mostly from BW, and Cd uptake varies depending on its concentration in each compartment. Little Co or Ag is likely to be taken up from SW, whereas 20-50% of Cd may be accumulated from this source. Thus, SW, OPW, and BW are all

  4. Growth and survival in a changing environment: Combined effects of moderate hypoxia and low pH on juvenile bivalve Macoma balthica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Dupont, Sam; Norkko, Alf

    2015-08-01

    Baltic Sea species live in a complex, variable environment characterized by highly fluctuating hydrology, including large seasonal and diel pH variations. For decades, oxygen deficiency caused by anthropogenic eutrophication has affected the Baltic Sea, and large areas of the seafloor are permanently hypoxic resulting in severely degraded benthic communities. Species living in this system are thus potentially tolerant and adapted to this fluctuating environment, but also vulnerable as illustrated by high mortality of benthic species as a result of hypoxia. In the future, the frequency and extent of regularly co-occurring low oxygen and low pH levels will likely increase with on-going climate change. A key species in the Baltic Sea soft-bottom communities, the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.), experiences such conditions throughout its life-cycle, and therefore serves as a good model organism for studying the combined effects of oxygen and pH conditions. To study the response of M. balthica to multiple changes occurring in the benthic environment, we conducted an experiment to investigate the survival and shell growth of newly settled juveniles simultaneously exposed to two pH levels (7.85 and 7.35) and two oxygen levels (8.5 and 3.0 mg/l) for 29 days in a fully factorial design. Survival was high in all treatments (> 60%), but significantly higher in the two low oxygen treatments (> 70%). Although positive growth was observed in all treatments, pH and oxygen as well as their interaction significantly affected relative growth. The highest growth was observed in the "low O2/high pH" treatment, which was 2.4 times higher than in both treatments with high oxygen. Although the mechanism for these differences remains unknown, hypoxia-induced metabolic depression likely plays a role. Our results highlight the need to know more about the occurrence and performance of benthic species regularly exposed to changing conditions, and of the range and conditions encountered in situ

  5. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  6. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  7. Adaptation to larval crowding in Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila nasuta nasuta : increased larval competitive ability without increased larval feeding rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARCHANA NAGARAJAN; SHARMILA BHARATHI NATARAJAN; MOHAN JAYARAM; ANANDA THAMMANNA; SUDARSHAN CHARI; JOY BOSE; SHREYAS V. JOIS; AMITABH JOSHI

    2016-06-01

    The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evo-lution studies onDrosophila melanogaster , was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larvalfeeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion tobiomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classicalK -selection theory, notably the expectation that selec-tion at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpretedthrough the lens of α -selection. We show here that populations ofD. ananassaeandD. n. nasutasubjected to extreme larvalcrowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination ofreduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion tobiomass and increased pupation height, with a relatively small role of increased urea/ammonia tolerance, if at all. This is avery different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection inD .melanogaster ,andseemstobeclosertotheexpectations from the canonical theory ofK -selection. We also discuss possible reasons for these differences in results acrossthe three species. Overall, the results reinforce the view that our understanding of the evolution of competitive ability in fruit-flies needs to be more nuanced than before, with an appreciation that there may be multiple evolutionary routes through whichhigher competitive ability can be attained.

  8. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J A; Word, J Q; Pinza, M R; Mayhew, H L; Barrows, E S; Lefkovitz, L F [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

  9. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  10. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  11. Foldable container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusuma, G.; Herder, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a foldable container (1) having a bottom plate (2), upstanding long sidewalls (3) and upstanding short sidewalls (4) that are connected to the bottom plate with a hinge, and an optionally detachable roof (5), wherein at least one of the long sidewalls and short sidewalls and

  12. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  13. Generic Fortran Containers (GFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).

  14. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-09

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.

  15. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  16. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  17. Container Monitoring Device (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Ruijsbroek, W.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Stage Gate 11 is een bedrijf dat technologische innovaties naar de markt brengt. De drie ondernemers hebben een nieuw product ontwikkeld, de Container Monitoring Device, een product dat stalen containers ‘smart’ maakt door er allerlei sensoren aan te koppelen. Maar waar ligt precies de toegevoegde w

  18. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  19. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  20. Lanthanide-containing polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of a variety of lanthanide-containing polyimide films is described, and results of their characterization are presented. The properties investigated include the glass transition temperature, thermooxidative stability, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity of the polymer. Films containing lanthanide chlorides, fluorides, and sulfides are flexible, but those containing lanthanide nitrates are extremely brittle. The addition of lanthanide acetates and acetylacetonates caused immediate gelation of two of the synthesis-mixture ingredients. It was found that, in general, the addition of lanthanide to the polyimide increases the density and glass transition temperature of the polymer but slightly decreases the thermooxidative stability.

  1. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  2. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  3. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  4. Lightweight flywheel containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  5. Regular Expression Containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  6. Isothermal Containment Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Isothermal Containment Modules are the temperature-controlling carrier that BioServe built to carry Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) and in the future, Space Automated Bioproduct Lab (SABL) to the International Space Station.

  7. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...

  8. complexes containing isocyanide and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR. S. O. OWALUDE

    Synthesis of new ruthenium(II) complexes containing isocyanide and labile nitrile ligands. Owalude,* S. O. ... both compounds has distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Key words: Nitrile ... commercial product from Acros Organics. All.

  9. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations avec les Pays hôtes

    2000-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

  10. Container System Hardware, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) ................................ 27 Shipping Fram e, 4’ x 62/3’ x 8...Objective. NSNs 8115-01-194-4017 (old) 8115-01-354-0797 (new) Part I - Containers 25 Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) 26 Part I...Containers Equipment Deployment 0* ad Storage System ( EDSS ) POINTQ OCNTACT: Mr oUn 1le US Army Evor:RD&E-*Center,* SATBE-r-MR:Port Belvifr, VA 22o060-5606

  11. Explosion containment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  12. Material containment enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.O.

    1991-04-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures was designed which is useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. in a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures.

  13. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  14. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M. [Briggs Marine Environmental Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  15. Livet er en container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2008-01-01

    Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm.......Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm....

  16. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    . In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  17. Container shipping in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two years, the global maritime trade, and in particular container throughput, has been growing, although more slowly than in the exceptional year 2010, after a rapid collapse in 2009. Container fleet has also been growing well, but financial results achieved by the majority of leading container carrier companies (TOP 20 are very bad. When in 2009 their losses amounted to several billions dollars, carriers explained that it was an exceptional year because of the economic crisis and unusual collapse of container throughput accompanied by increasing expenses (especially on fuel. However, looking at financial results for the four years period of 2008-2011, year 2010 appears to be exceptionally profitable and the sum of financial results for the entire period for fifteen carriers from the TOP 20 group is 5.5 billion dollars loss. Debt of carriers is already over 90 billion dollars. Many of them are actually on the verge of bankruptcy and the prospects are not the best.

  18. Confinement contains condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.;

    2012-01-01

    been viewed as constant empirical mass scales that fill all space-time, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical...

  19. PANAMINT: Containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The PANAMINT event was detonated in hole U2gb of the Nevada Test Site at 13:59 PDT on May 21, 1986. This paper contains a discussion of that event, with special attention given to the instrumentation designed to monitor stemming emplacement and performance. Data from those instruments are presented.

  20. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  1. Containment: Relevant or Relic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Member Kevin P. Shea, Ed.D. Accepted this 10th day of June 2011 by: , Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F...occasionally affect the ideology plank as well. With rare exception however, military operations against non-states and phenomenon like terrorism and...one or more planks of the Terrorism Triangle can assist crafting a more effective containment or deterrence strategy. International Deterrence and

  2. Silicon Containing Photoresists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-13

    generation of high resolution patterns. The vast majority of the commercial positive photoresists are comprised of a base soluble Novolac type resin (Cresol...plays a passive role. The generation of silicon containing Novolac- type resins represents one such effort. Workers at AT&T Bell Labs have prepared a...and formaldehyde (20). The silylated Novolac type resins were designed for use with substituted 1,2-napthoquinone-2-diazide sensitizers employed in

  3. Hydrogen storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  4. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  5. Does propolis contain tannins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Marco A S; Lima, Carolina A; Tomba, Augusto C B; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although polyphenols have been reported as common constituents of propolis, tannins have rarely been mentioned as its constituents. Propolis samples from seven localities in Brazil were analyzed for detection of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) and determination of the tannin content. Positive reaction for proanthocyanidins was observed for all samples tested. The contents of tannins varied in the range 0.6-4.1%. A high degree of correlation was noted between total phenols and tannin content. Red and green propolis contained high contents of tannins, while in brown propolis the content was lower. It is suggested that the contents of tannins should be a parameter to be considered in propolis characterization.

  6. Cobalt-60 Container Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a special container scanner in which the radiation source is a conventional radiography 60Co projector of (100-300)×3 .7×1010Bq. With a specia l sensitive array detector, invented by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology ( INET) of Tsinghua University and other technical innovations, t he characteristics of the 60Co scanner qualify it for use in c ontainer insp ection. Its contrast indicator (CI) and image quality indicator (IQI) for 10 0 mm steel are equal to 0.7% and 2.5%, respectively, and the steel penetration ( SP) is about 240 mm. The 60Co container scanner is much more ec onomical and more reliable than those scanners using an accelerator source. Also, its penetr ation ability is much better than that of an X-ray machine scanner. This paper p resents the system design, the main difficulties and their technical solutions, the inspection characteristics and the special features of the 60Co sc anner.

  7. Intrauterine devices containing progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, F

    1977-05-01

    Characteristics of progesterone-releasing IUDs are reported. At present, the only progesterone-containing IUD on the market is Progestasert, a T-shaped ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer device containing 38 mg progesterone in silicone. The device releases approximately 65 mcg/day into the uterine cavity over the course of 1-year. The device does not alter pituitary function or ovulation, nor does it depend on a local mechanical effect. Rather, it may exert its effect by inhibiting sperm capacitation or survival, or it may prevent nidation by alterning the endometrium. The reported pregnancy rate for Progestasert is 1.9% in parous women and 2.5% in nulliparous women. This efficacy rate is similar to that for other IUDs and low-dose progestin-only oral contraceptives. Breakthrough bleeding is the most common side effect, and perhaps 10-15% of the acceptors will have the device removed for either bleeding, pain, or infection. The rate of spontaneous expulsion of the device is about 3-8%. It is recommended that the device be inserted during or shortly after the menstrual period.

  8. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    morphine via high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC peak corresponding to an authentic morphine standard had its morphine level determined via radioimmune assay. The identity of this material was established by Q-TOF-MS analysis. RESULTS: Each glioma exhibited an endogenous morphine presence....... Tumor extractions demonstrated a molecular mass of 286.14 da, identical to authentic morphine. Subsequent fragmentation analysis of this molecule revealed fragment masses of 129.01 da, 183.09 da and 201.07 da, corresponding to authentic morphine fragments. This material was not found in any......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  9. FUEL CONTAINER CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, C.C.; Noland, R.A.

    1962-07-17

    A method of producing a spherical closed end on a small thin-walled tube forming a container for reactor fuel is described. An end cap inserted in the tube has a long slender external projection extending axially of the tube. A heavy electrical current is applied to the projection, and simultaneously a portion of the tube very near the end cap is chilled. A part of the projection is vaporized, and the balance is melted, along with portions of the end cap and the tube. As a result, the end cap is welded to the tube, and the projection in melting is spread out to form a spherical surface on the end cap. (AEC)

  10. LABAN containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-05-01

    The LABAN event was detonated in hole U2ff of the Nevada Test Site. The device had a depth-of-burial of 326 m in the alluvium of Area 4, about 240 m above the standing water level (SWL). Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes and Narver. Detonation time was 06:33 PDT on August 3, 1983. About 75 minutes later the chimney began collapsing to the surface. A major collapse event occurred 5 minutes later with episodes continuing for the next 20 minutes. No radiation arrivals were detected in the emplacement hole at depths less than 106 m and the LABAN containment was considered successful.

  11. Does Propolis Contain Tannins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S. Mayworm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although polyphenols have been reported as common constituents of propolis, tannins have rarely been mentioned as its constituents. Propolis samples from seven localities in Brazil were analyzed for detection of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins and determination of the tannin content. Positive reaction for proanthocyanidins was observed for all samples tested. The contents of tannins varied in the range 0.6–4.1%. A high degree of correlation was noted between total phenols and tannin content. Red and green propolis contained high contents of tannins, while in brown propolis the content was lower. It is suggested that the contents of tannins should be a parameter to be considered in propolis characterization.

  12. A Wine-Water Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This exquisite bronze object is a combination wine container and water container. It was excavated from the tomb of Zeng Houyi, a prince of the State of Zeng. The upper part is a wine container, measuring 30. 1 cm tall and the lower part is a water or ice container, measuring 58 cm in diameter. The two parts resemble a

  13. From containment to ... syzygy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, H.M.

    1995-04-18

    The U S. is at an historic crossroads following the end of the Cold War. The old twin themes of containment and deterrence must now give way to a newer vision of the U.S. role as we approach the 21st century. This paper follows a visioning process requiring development of alternatives based on signposts, values and frameworks. Signposts are current domestic and global environments revealing a U.S. in economic trouble with budget and trade defidts, a falling dollar and multiplying peace operations at a time when Europe and Japan are becoming economic superpowers. Although U.S. values must be protected, economic competition requires increased emphasis on realpolitik. A balanced framework of internationalism and reduced multilateralism will suit the current environment and U.S. purposes. Recognizing that the U.S. must retain leadership to protect national interests, the vision unfolds as an alignment of major powers-a syzygy of purpose-with Europe, Japan, and the U.S. in a concert of power, sharing economic, political and military burdens to ensure world stability. Thus, the new U.S. role could be primus inter pares of a Pax Consortis with common interests and goals, allowing the U.S. time to restore its economic vitality.

  14. CARNELIAN containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, T [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The CARNELIAN event was detonated in hole U4af of the Nevada Test Site as indicated in figure 1 .l. The CARNELIAN device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 208 m in the alluvium of Area 4 , about 70 m above the Paleozoic formation and 330 m above the standing water level, as shown in the geologic cross-sections of figure 1.2(l) Figure 1 3 displays the local surface area showing nearby events Stemming of the 2 44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan shown in figure 1 4. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver(2) Detonation time was about 07 00 PDT on July 28,1977, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 19 minutes after the detonation resulting in a crater having a "cookie-cutter" geometry (steep walls with a relatively flat bottom) with a mean radius of 32 2 m and a maximum depth of 10 5 m No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the CARNELIAN containment was considered successful

  15. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g-1, average value 14 Bq g-1). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g-1 (average value 81 mBq g-1). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  16. Gestodene-containing contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, H; Jung-Hoffmann, C; Wiegratz, I

    1995-12-01

    As GSD is the most potent progestogen used in oral contraceptives, the doses of GSD can be lower than those of other progestogen components. The monophasic (30 micrograms EE + 75 micrograms GSD) and the triphasic formulation (30 micrograms EE + 50 micrograms GSD/40 micrograms EE + 70 micrograms GSD/30 micrograms EE + 100 micrograms GSD) suppress gonadotropin release and ovarian function profoundly and inhibit ovulation reliably. The strong anti-estrogenic and progestogenic effectiveness of GSD is based on the high GSD serum concentrations achieved during daily intake. Because of the weak androgenic properties of GSD, both formulations can be characterized as estrogen-dominant with respect to their hepatic effects. Except for the first cycles, both formulations afford good cycle control, and the rate of side effects is similar to that with comparable low-dose oral contraceptives. The levels of total and free androgens and androgen precursors, as well as of peripheral androgen activity, are significantly reduced, resulting in a reduced incidence of acne. The concentrations of SHBG and other serum-binding globulins are elevated considerably, and thyroid function is almost unaffected. The estrogen-dominant effect on hepatic metabolism of both formulations also is reflected by a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides and VLDL, HDL, and some apolipoproteins, while LDL-CH and total CH remain unchanged. Similar to other low-dose oral contraceptives, the GSD-containing preparations cause a slight impairment of glucose tolerance that does not appear to be of clinical relevance. However, a significant increase exists in pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic activity that leads to a considerable stimulation of fibrin turnover. In predisposed women, this may contribute to an elevated risk of venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases.

  17. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  18. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  19. Reactor containment research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, N. A.

    1963-06-15

    An outline is given of containment concepts, sources and release rates of energy, responses of containment structures, effects of projectiles, and leakage rates of radioisotopes, with particular regard to major reactor accidents. (T.F.H.)

  20. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  1. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  2. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  5. Base isolation of fluid containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Cygna Group Inc./ICF Kaiser International, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fluid containers often constitute critical internal equipment in power plants. However, due to possible structure-equipment interaction effect they are particularly vulnerable during strong earthquake events. An effective technique for protecting fluid containers is base isolation. By deflecting the possible seismic input energy into the superstructure, base isolation can substantially reduce seismic demand on the containers, making it more cost effective than equivalent conventional design.

  6. COSCO Container Lines Forging Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHaiyang

    2001-01-01

    COSCO Container Lines (COSCON) now has 107 container ships with a total capacity of over 210000 TEUs, six 5250TEU Super Panama container ships being the most advanced ships in the world. Operating in over 20 global shipping lines with ships calling over 100 ports in the world,COSCON is now one of the largest international shipping companies. With over 40 subsidiaries operating on shore, COSCON has become a comprehensive enterprise with international shipping as its main business.

  7. Container Logistic Transport Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study proposed a stochastic method of container logistic transport in order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings. Container transport has rapidly developed into a modern means of transportation because of their significant advantages. With the development, it also exacerbated the flaws of transport in the original. One of the most important problems was that the invalid transport had not still reduced due to the congenital imbalances of transportation. Container transport exacerbated the invalid transport for the empty containers. To solve the problem, people made many efforts, but they did not make much progress. There had two theoretical flaws by analyzing the previous management methods in container transport. The first one was the default empty containers inevitability. The second one was that they did not overall consider how to solve the problem of empty containers allocation. In order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings, the study re-built the container transport planning model-gravity model. It gave the general algorithm and has analyzed the final result of model.

  8. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  9. Lightweight engine containment. [Kevlar shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. T.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar fabric styles and weaves were studied, as well as methods of application for advanced gas turbine engines. The Kevlar material was subjected to high speed impacts by simple projectiles fired from a rifle, as well as more complex shapes such as fan blades released from gas turbine rotors in a spin pit. Just contained data was developed for a variety of weave and/or application techniques, and a comparative containment weight efficiency was established for Kevlar containment applications. The data generated during these tests is being incorporated into an analytical design system so that blade containment trade-off studies between Kevlar and metal case engine structures can be made. Laboratory tests and engine environment tests were performed to determine the survivability of Kevlar in a gas turbine environment.

  10. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in ... eat, the ground we walk upon, and the consumer products we purchase and use. Although many might ...

  11. Seal device for ferromagnetic containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ross E.; Jason, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    A temporary seal or patch assembly prevents the escape of contents, e.g., fluids and the like, from within a container having a breach therethrough until the contents can be removed and/or a repair effected. A frame that supports a sealing bladder can be positioned over the breach and the frame is then attached to the container surface, which must be of a ferromagnet material, by using switchable permanent magnets. The permanent magnets are designed to have a first condition that is not attracted to the ferromagnetic surface and a second conditions whereby the magnets are attracted to the surface with sufficient force to support the seal assembly on the surface. Latching devices may be attached to the frame and engage the container surface with hardened pins to prevent the lateral movement of the seal assembly along the container surface from external forces such as fluid drag or gravity.

  12. Strain Growth in Containment Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Q; LI Q M; ZHENG J Y

    2006-01-01

    Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading.The elastic response of the vessel may become larger in a later stage compared to its response during the initial stage.The dynamic responses of infinitely long cylindrical containment vessels subjected to uniformly-distributed internal blast loading are studied using LS-DYNA.The development of bending modes and the interaction between the breathing mode and bending modes are observed.The methodology developed for dynamic elastic buckling analysis is employed to study the strain growth phenomenon in explosion containment vessels.It is shown that the dynamic instable vibration of a containment vessel is the basic mechanism of strain growth.

  13. Using geosynthetics for oil containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S. [Albarrie Canada Ltd., Barrie, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Geosynthetics are a group of manmade synthetic polymeric materials that can be modified and combined with other geosynthetic materials for a variety of applications. Geosynthetics are used in municipal solid waste landfills to prevent the seepage of leachates, as their half-life when buried underground is approximately 400 years. This article discussed a geosynthetics system designed to allow precipitation to pass through a containment system while still containing the hydrocarbons. The Sorweb Plus solution used a modified sodium bentonite-based copolymer capable of absorbing hydrocarbons spread over the surface of water to absorb oils floating on the surface. A geosynthetic clay liner design was used without the addition of sodium bentonite. Tests were then conducted to determine the optimal amount of copolymer needed. A geosynthetic oil mat was placed over porous soil to allow for the drainage of precipitation. The sidewalls around the system's perimeter were lined with an impervious geomembrane to direct the flow of any liquids to the bottom of the system. A number of drainage layers were placed above the oil mat to provide lateral flow. A case study demonstrated that the system was able to contain a 4000 litre spill after an accident at the Don River in Toronto. The containment system was designed to contain 3,600,000 litres of transformer oil. It was concluded that the Sorweb Plus solution provides continuous protection against oil spills, while allowing water to drain through a containment area. 3 figs.

  14. Building a secondary containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  15. Container with Pig Pattern Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Unearthed from Hemudu ruins of the New Stone Age in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province in 1977, this rectangular-mouthed container belongs to the Hemudu culture. It is carved with a pig pattern on both sides in realist style. A complete piece, the container has a flat bottom and slightly sloped belly, with a mouth 21.7 cm long and 17.5 cm wide. Most of the artifacts from Hemudu culture are charcoal black pottery. The stem and leaves of the pottery can be seen clearly. The walls of the artifacts are usually thick but porous. The carving lines are rough and the designs are simple and natural, reflecting the ancient people’s love of nature and life. The pig’s four strong feet and backward bristles carved on the container are vivid, with ears sticking out and mouth

  16. Methane from waste containing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-24

    Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.

  17. School Nurse Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Mary C.; Amidon, Christine; Spellings, Diane; Franzetti, Susan; Nasuta, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This article features school nurses from across the country who are championing for school-located influenza immunization within their communities. These nurses are: (1) Mary C. Borja; (2) Christine Amidon; (3) Diane Spellings; (4) Susan Franzetti; and (5) Mary Nasuta. (Contains 6 figures.)

  18. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  19. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  20. Global Container Management Process Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    for a significant portion of its cost. The Department’s logisticians manage an extremely large and complex supply chain to support military...demand during four months of the year (UPS Supply Chain Solutions, 2014). This case study is similar the DOD container management problem of the...emphasize and require constant use” (Military Surface Deployment & Distribution Command, 2014). “DOD’s supply - chain management , which includes

  1. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance: cost and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Smith, Richard D

    2003-08-01

    There is growing evidence that antimicrobial resistance causes serious consequences for individuals as well as leading to increased healthcare costs. The containment of resistance is therefore a policy problem which will impact on all health systems in the next few years. Unfortunately, there is, as yet, no definitive evidence suggesting that particular control measures are successful in containing either the emergence or transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, few studies contain information about costs and even where there is such information it is generally inadequate because of the narrow perspectives from which analyses are conducted. In part, this is due to methodological problems associated with the inclusion of cost data: measuring and valuing what are often intangible costs; identifying costs associated with organizational change; and accounting for interaction between costs at levels from the individual to the international. Good quality research, including both economic evaluation and comprehensive economic modelling, is required to determine the most cost-effective combination of strategies to pursue in combating resistance, and to find ways around these methodological difficulties.

  3. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  4. 49 CFR 178.318-2 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 178.318-2 Section 178.318-2... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-2 Container. (a) Every container for... individual cell in the body of the container, into which each such cap shall snugly fit. There shall...

  5. 7 CFR 51.911 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 51.911 Section 51.911 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.911 Container. Container... of grapes in packages containing 5 pounds or less, mean the master container in which the...

  6. Containment of arthropod disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Effective containment of arthropod vectors of infectious diseases is necessary to prevent transmission of pathogens by released, infected vectors and to prevent vectors that escape from establishing populations that subsequently contribute to increased disease. Although rare, past releases illustrate what can go wrong and justify the need for guidelines that minimize risks. An overview of recommendations for insectary facilities, practices, and equipment is provided, and features of four recently published and increasingly rigorous arthropod containment levels (ACLs 1-4) are summarized. ACL-1 is appropriate for research that constitutes the lowest risk level, including uninfected arthropods or vectors that are infected with micro-organisms that do not cause disease in humans, domestic animals, or wildlife. ACL-2 is appropriate for indigenous and exotic arthropods that represent a moderate risk, including vectors infected or suspected of being infected with biosafety level (BSL)-2 infectious agents and arthropods that have been genetically modified in ways that do not significantly affect their fecundity, survival, host preference, or vector competence. ACL-3 is recommended for arthropods that are or may be infected with BSL-3 infectious agents. ACL-3 places greater emphasis on pathogen containment and more restricted access to the insectary than ACL-2. ACL-4 is intended for arthropods that are infected with the most dangerous BSL-4 infectious agents, which can cause life-threatening illness by aerosol or arthropod bite. Adherence to these guidelines will result in laboratory-based arthropod vector research that minimizes risks and results in important new contributions to applied and basic science.

  7. Cobalt ion-containing epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Varying concentrations of an organometallic cobalt complex were added to an epoxy system currently used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin. Methods for combining cobalt (III) acetylacetonate with a tetraglycidyl 4,4 prime - diaminodiphenylmethane-based epoxy were investigated. The effects of increasing cobalt ion concentration on the epoxy cure were demonstrated by epoxy gel times and differential scanning calorimetry cure exotherms. Analysis on cured cobalt-containing epoxy castings included determination of glass transition temperatures by thermomechanical analysis, thermooxidative stabilities by thermogravimetric analysis, and densities in a density gradient column. Flexural strength and stiffness were also measured on the neat resin castings.

  8. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  9. Collagen containing microcapsules: smart containers for disease controlled therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Laura; Erokhina, Svetlana; Soumetz, Federico Caneva; Bianchini, Paolo; Konovalov, Oleg; Diaspro, Alberto; Ruggiero, Carmelina; Erokhin, Victor

    2011-05-01

    The protein collagen is the major component of connective tissue and it is involved in many biological functions. Its degradation is at the basis of different pathological processes. The up-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinases and the down-regulated expression of their inhibitors are the causes for such degradation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility to fabricate collagen based containers for drug encapsulation and release by cellular demand by the action of matrix metalloproteinases. In present work collagen type I based microcapsules were fabricated by means of the layer-by-layer assembly of oppositely charged collagen and poly (stirene sulfonate) onto colloidal particles, followed by removal of the cores to obtain hollow microcapsules. The process of shell growth on planar supports was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. X-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out at the solid/water interface to study the interaction of matrix metalloproteinase 1 with LbL films of collagen. The morphology of hollow capsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and compared to that of capsules exposed to the matrix metalloproteinase 1. Finally the matrix metalloproteinase 1 mediated permeability of capsules variation was studied by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. The results demonstrated the possibility to fabricate a drug delivery system where the release of the drug is dependent on the biochemistry of the pathological state.

  10. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.026-3 Section 160.026-3 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically Sealed Containers), for Merchant Vessels § 160.026-3 Container. (a) General. The emergency drinking water container...

  11. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48 Container regulation. Whenever the Committee deems it advisable to establish a container regulation for any variety...

  12. 7 CFR 922.110 - Container exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container exemption. 922.110 Section 922.110... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Container Exemption; Waivers of Inspection and Certification § 922.110 Container exemption. Whenever container limitations are effective pursuant to § 922.52, a handler may make...

  13. 46 CFR 160.036-6 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.036-6 Section 160.036-6 Shipping COAST... § 160.036-6 Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by the Coast Guard. The container must meet...

  14. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and... Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed to facilitate the use of a uniform container label for blood and blood components (except Source Plasma) by all blood establishments. (b)...

  15. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  16. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.023-6 Section 160.023-6 Shipping COAST... Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by the Coast Guard. The container must meet the requirements...

  17. 76 FR 46805 - Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule AGENCY... the State of Utah's adoption by reference of the federal Pesticide Container Containment (PCC)...

  18. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J. [Geo-Con, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control.

  19. Synthesizing topological structures containing RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Shao, Yaming; Chen, Gang; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Weizmann, Yossi

    2017-03-01

    Though knotting and entanglement have been observed in DNA and proteins, their existence in RNA remains an enigma. Synthetic RNA topological structures are significant for understanding the physical and biological properties pertaining to RNA topology, and these properties in turn could facilitate identifying naturally occurring topologically nontrivial RNA molecules. Here we show that topological structures containing single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) free of strong base pairing interactions can be created either by configuring RNA-DNA hybrid four-way junctions or by template-directed synthesis with a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) topological structure. By using a constructed ssRNA knot as a highly sensitive topological probe, we find that Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I has low RNA topoisomerase activity and that the R173A point mutation abolishes the unknotting activity for ssRNA, but not for ssDNA. Furthermore, we discover the topological inhibition of reverse transcription (RT) and obtain different RT-PCR patterns for an ssRNA knot and circle of the same sequence.

  20. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... increased throughout the entire period, though there was a tendency for decreased efficiency of the removal of mercury per liter of water filtered by the mussels. Mussels were also translocated from polluted to clean (laboratory) water to depurate mercury. The biological half-lives of mercury was 293 d...... for M. edulis from the chronically polluted area in contrast to only 53 d for mussels from a temporary massive mercury polluted area near a chemical deposit. In both cases about 75% of the total mercury in the mussels was inorganic, and it is suggested that both inorganic and organic mercury species...

  1. Environmental context and trophic trait plasticity in a key species, the tellinid clam Macoma balthica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, M. C.; Aarnio, K.;

    2015-01-01

    showing differing isotopic signatures from clams at their original habitat, over time mirroring the changes in clams in the site to which they were transferred. The shift in carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of the clams provides insights into the context-dependent intraspecific feeding plasticity......Species show varying levels of plasticity regarding morphology, physiology and behaviour in relation to their immediate environment, and several trait characteristics are habitat-dependent. Determining when and how the environmental context changes trait expression is of key importance...... food uptake by using stable isotope signatures (delta C-13 and delta N-15). We transplanted individuals between and within two shallow bays differing in exposure (exposed sheltered) and sediment characteristics. Our results show that isotope signatures of clams differed between the two habitats...

  2. Bioavailability of heavy metals for the deposit feeder Macoma balthica with special emphasis on copper.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In coastal and estuarine regions of Western Europe, concentrations of contaminants in the sediment are often relatively high compared to the waterphase. Consequently, these contaminants might form a serious threat to animals living in and associated with the sediment.As a biological monitor for sedi

  3. Bioavailability of heavy metals for the deposit feeder Macoma balthica with special emphasis on copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In coastal and estuarine regions of Western Europe, concentrations of contaminants in the sediment are often relatively high compared to the waterphase. Consequently, these contaminants might form a serious threat to animals living in and associated with the sediment.

    As a biologica

  4. Spatial arrangement of genetic variation in the marine bivalve Macoma balthica (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, Pieternella Christina

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic similarities come in two kinds: those that are partially based on genetic differences and those that are not. Genetic variation is inherently heritable and without it, evolution by means of natural selection could not occur. It is therefore important to understand the origin and maintenan

  5. 75 FR 26268 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... concerning the: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made... Containers to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0049. Form Number: None. Abstract: This...

  6. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  7. OPTIMUM DESIGN OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTAINERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    work conducted in areas where information was lacking. Description of the design and construction of a liquid oxygen container together with the thermal test results on the container is included. (Author)

  8. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  9. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  10. Track guided self-driven container wagon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The linear motor consists of a series of stator coils (2) located along the Track guided self-driven container wagon Track guided self-driven container wagon track and a reaction rail (3) fitted under the wagon chassis (4).

  11. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a...

  12. 7 CFR 920.14 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 920.14 Section 920.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.14 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, lug, basket, carton, package, or any...

  13. 7 CFR 906.12 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 906.12 Section 906.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.12 Container. Container...

  14. 7 CFR 916.14 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 916.14 Section 916.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.14 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, lug, basket,...

  15. 7 CFR 925.13 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 925.13 Section 925.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.13 Container. Container means any lug, box, bag, crate, carton,...

  16. 7 CFR 922.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 922.17 Section 922.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.17 Container. Container means a box,...

  17. 7 CFR 948.14 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 948.14 Section 948.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.14 Container. Container means a sack, bag, crate,...

  18. 46 CFR 160.021-6 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.021-6 Section 160.021-6 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.021-6 Container. (a) General. Containers for stowage of hand red flare distress signals in lifeboats and life rafts on...

  19. 7 CFR 958.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 958.17 Section 958.17 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.17 Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, or any other type of...

  20. 7 CFR 959.13 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 959.13 Section 959.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.13 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, hamper,...

  1. 7 CFR 917.12 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 917.12 Section 917.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.12 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate,...

  2. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  3. 7 CFR 923.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 923.17 Section 923.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.17 Container. Container means a box,...

  4. 7 CFR 956.9 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 956.9 Section 956.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.9 Container. Container means a...

  5. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.037-6 Section 160.037-6 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of...

  6. 7 CFR 945.16 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 945.16 Section 945.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, barrel, or any...

  7. 7 CFR 946.18 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 946.18 Section 946.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.18 Container. Container means a sack, box, bag,...

  8. 7 CFR 966.13 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 966.13 Section 966.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.13 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, hamper,...

  9. 7 CFR 924.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 924.17 Section 924.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, lug, basket, carton, package, or any other type of...

  10. 46 CFR 160.028-6 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.028-6 Section 160.028-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Container. (a) General. Containers for the stowage of signal pistols and pistol projected parachute...

  11. 7 CFR 906.340 - Container, pack, and container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container, pack, and container marking regulations... AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.340 Container, pack, and container marking regulations. (a) No handler shall handle any variety...

  12. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  13. Containment loads due to direct containment heating and associated hydrogen behavior: Analysis and calculations with the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D C; Bergeron, K D; Carroll, D E; Gasser, R D; Tills, J L; Washington, K E

    1987-05-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues governing risk in many nuclear power plants involves the phenomenon called direct containment heating (DCH), in which it is postulated that molten corium ejected under high pressure from the reactor vessel is dispersed into the containment atmosphere, thereby causing sufficient heating and pressurization to threaten containment integrity. Models for the calculation of potential DCH loads have been developed and incorporated into the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis. Using CONTAIN, DCH scenarios in PWR plants having three different representative containment types have been analyzed: Surry (subatmospheric large dry containment), Sequoyah (ice condenser containment), and Bellefonte (atmospheric large dry containment). A large number of parameter variation and phenomenological uncertainty studies were performed. Response of DCH loads to these variations was found to be quite complex; often the results differ substantially from what has been previously assumed concerning DCH. Containment compartmentalization offers the potential of greatly mitigating DCH loads relative to what might be calculated using single-cell representations of containments, but the actual degree of mitigation to be expected is sensitive to many uncertainties. Dominant uncertainties include hydrogen combustion phenomena in the extreme environments produced by DCH scenarios, and factors which affect the rate of transport of DCH energy to the upper containment. In addition, DCH loads can be aggravated by rapid blowdown of the primary system, co-dispersal of moderate quantities of water with the debris, and quenching of de-entrained debris in water; these factors act by increasing steam flows which, in turn, accelerates energy transport. It may be noted that containment-threatening loads were calculated for a substantial portion of the scenarios treated for some of the plants considered.

  14. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila`s Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila`s AssetLAN{trademark} asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN{trademark} technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed.

  15. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  16. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  17. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We consider a container loading problem that occurs at a typical furniture manufacturer. Each furniture item has an associated profit. Given container dimensions and a set of furniture items, the problem is to determine a subset of items with maximal profit sum that is loadable in the container....... In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...

  18. 10 CFR 35.75 - Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... material or implants containing byproduct material. 35.75 Section 35.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. (a) A licensee may... material or implants containing byproduct material if the total effective dose equivalent to any...

  19. 75 FR 43536 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously...

  20. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This report uses the methodology and scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. The methodology calls for an initial screening phase in which the CCFP for each plant is calculated based on loads versus strength evaluations using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if the CCFP calculated in the screening phase is less than 0.01. This value is more stringent than the overall success criterion of 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 in the screening phase calculations, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  1. PIC-container for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, K.; Shinji, Y.; Maki, Y.; Ishizaki, K.; Minegishi, K.; Sudoh, G.

    1981-03-01

    Steel fiber reinforced polymer impregnated concrete (SFPIC) was investigated for low and intermediate level radioactive waste containers. The 60 L and 200 L containers were designed as pressure container (without equalizer) for 500 kg/square cm and 700 kg/square cm. Polymerization of impregnated methylmethacrylate monomer was performed by 60 Co-gamma ray radiation and thermal catalytic polymerization respectively. Under the loading of 500 kg/square cm and 700 kg/square cm-outside hydraulic pressure, these containers were kept in their good condition. The observed maximum strains were about .001380 and .003950 at the outside central position of container body for circumferential direction of the 60 L and 200 L container, respectively. The containers were immersed in deionized water for 400 days, nuclides were not leached from the container. The SFPIC container was suitable for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes.

  2. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  4. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  5. Biological containment strategies for transgenic crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological containment is the prevention or reduction in the spread of transgenes by modifying plant growth or development, most commonly through modification of reproductive characteristics. This review provides a summary of the current strategies for biological containment, including the use of bo

  6. Returnable containers: an example of reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G.M.C. Vrijens

    1996-01-01

    textabstractConsiders the application of returnable containers as an example of reverse logistics. A returnable container is a type of secondary packaging that can be used several times in the same form, in contrast with traditional cardboard boxes. For this equipment to be used, a system for the re

  7. Automatic produce quality monitoring in Reefer containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Sanders, M.G.; Kramer, de J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Current day perishable supply chains require intermediate points for manual produce quality inspection. Over the last decade international seatransport of fruit and vegetables in reefer containers has grown tremendously. Reefer containers may completely close the cold chain only if produce quality

  8. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of i

  9. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prevent physical damage or permanent deformation of the container or cover, and any openings complying with paragraph (a)(4) of this section. (3) Treatment of a waste in a container, including aeration, thermal or other treatment, must be performed by the owner or operator in a manner such that while...

  10. 7 CFR 58.514 - Container fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container fillers. 58.514 Section 58.514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....514 Container fillers. Shall comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Equipment for Packaging...

  11. The bathtub vortex in a rotating container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.

    2006-01-01

    We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...

  12. RFID Application in Global Container Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the problems of container transportation, then analyzes the RFID application in container transportation management. It gives some suggestions to improve the trade actuality, ensure the trade security and promote the efficiency of logistics. Although there are some limitations to generalize this technology, the cheap standardized RFID system will serve global ports with the development of the information technology.

  13. On the therapist's reverie and containing function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaslamatzis, G

    1999-07-01

    Containment and interpretation are two inseparable aspects of the psychoanalytic technique. This is better understood by Bion's clinical metaphors of "container-contained" relationship and the capacity for reverie. Bion, continuing and expanding Klein's concept of projective identification, has transposed this from what happens to an infant to what happens in the link between mother and infant; until now he laid emphasis on the mother's (or therapist's) ability to contain the primitive anxieties which the infant (or the patient) experiences. He described three types of links--love, hate, and knowledge-- and proposed two metaphors which laid the foundation of a new and efficient frame of reference of the analytic process and technique, namely, the container-contained relationship and the reverie. Two clinical vignettes will illustrate the pivotal function of the therapist's reverie within the therapist-patient interaction. In the first case, a dead (internal) object of the patient was contained in the context of the session, enabling the patient to contain and sustain the psychic pain and her self-destructive tendencies; the second case stresses how the therapist's reverie, during a silence, revealed a bad part of the patient's self, which was lost through projective identification.

  14. Optimizing Empty Containers Distribution among Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Hajeeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Empty containers are an essential part of the logistics of the movement, repositioning and distribution of containers. Optimizing the allocation and transportation of empty containers contributes significantly in reducing cost. Approach: A mathematical model is formulated with the objective of finding an optimal sequence of ships movement among ports in order to satisfy demands at the ports with minimum total cost. Results: Several numerical examples are used to compare the performance of the developed optimization model with well known standard models available in the literature. Conclusion/Recommendation: It was observed that the solution obtained by the developed method to be either as good as or better than the solution provided by other standard models. Future work should consider contribution of full containers in meeting demand for empty containers.

  15. Identification of uncommon objects in containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Peer-Timo; Kim, Hyojin; Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.

    2017-09-12

    A system for identifying in an image an object that is commonly found in a collection of images and for identifying a portion of an image that represents an object based on a consensus analysis of segmentations of the image. The system collects images of containers that contain objects for generating a collection of common objects within the containers. To process the images, the system generates a segmentation of each image. The image analysis system may also generate multiple segmentations for each image by introducing variations in the selection of voxels to be merged into a segment. The system then generates clusters of the segments based on similarity among the segments. Each cluster represents a common object found in the containers. Once the clustering is complete, the system may be used to identify common objects in images of new containers based on similarity between segments of images and the clusters.

  16. HCH for Checking Containment of XPath Fragment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Feng; Yu-Guo Liao; Yong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    XPath is ubiquitous in XML applications for navigating XML trees and selecting a set of element nodes. In XPath query processing, one of the most important issues is how to efficiently check containment relationship between two XPath expressions. To get out of the intricacy and complexity caused by numerous XPath features, we investigate this issue on a frequently used fragment of XPath expressions that consists of node tests, the child axis (/), the descendant axis (//), branches ([]) and label wildcards (*). Prior work has shown that homomorphism technology can be used for containment checking. However, homomorphism is the sufficient but not necessary condition for containment. For special classes of this fragment, the homomorphism algorithm returns false negatives. To address this problem, this paper proposes two containment techniques, conditioned homomorphism and hidden conditioned homomorphism, and then presents sound algorithms for checking containment. Experimental results confirm the practicability and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Modular Modeling of a Refrigeration Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Sørensen, Kresten; Juel Skovrup, Morten; M. Jessen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a refrigeration container for use as a reference for energy-optimizing controller design. The model is based on first principles in order to conserve mass and energy, but various assumptions are used to simplify the equations, resulting in a unified model for t...... for the Star Cool refrigeration unit, the container and the cargo. Comparisons between simulations using the model and measurements from a real container show an average error of less than ±1K on the states important for control....

  18. Super-hydrophobic fluorine containing aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2007-05-01

    An aerogel material with surfaces containing fluorine atoms which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, or the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels are efficient absorbers of solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water are separated from it because the solvents are more volatile than water and they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water/solid interface. Solvents that are immisicble with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel using fluorine containing molecules either directly by addition in the sol-gel process, or by treating a standard dried aerogel using the vapor of fluorine containing molecules.

  19. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  20. The Limits of Containment: Text-as-Container in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Darsie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses similarities among writing, texts, and containers. Claims that containerization is a central metaphor in composition studies. Argues that this metaphor constrains the way texts are understood and treated. Examines alternatives to the text-as-container metaphor. (HB)

  1. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behal

  2. Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM) and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are specific federal regulatory requirements that require the identification of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in many of the residential buildings that are being demolished or renovated by a municipality.

  3. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  4. Enzyme Reactions in Nanoporous, Picoliter Volume Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Choi, Chang Kyoung [Michigan Technological University; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale fabrication allow creation of small volume reaction containers that can facilitate the screening and characterization of enzymes. A porous, ~19 pL volume vessel has been used in this work to carry out enzyme reactions under varying substrate concentrations. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can be contained in these structures and diffusively fed with a solution containing glucose and the fluorogenic substrate Amplex Red through the engineered nanoscale pore structure. Fluorescent microscopy was used to monitor the reaction, which was carried out under microfluidic control. Kinetic characteristics of the enzyme were evaluated and compared with results from conventional scale reactions. These picoliter, nanoporous containers can facilitate quick determination of enzyme kinetics in microfluidic systems without the requirement of surface tethering and can be used for applications in drug discovery, clinical diagnostics and high-throughput screening.

  5. Carbon Nanostructures Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potsi, Georgia; Rossos, Andreas; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Antoniou, Myrsini K.; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Karakassides, Michael A.; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This mini review describes the synthesis and properties of carbon nanostructures containing organic-inorganic cage-like polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The physical and chemical functionalization of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes

  6. Mercury-Containing Devices and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some items inside residential buildings contain mercury, which poses a persistent and toxic human health and environmental threat. These materials should be carefully salvaged for proper recycling to prevent mercury contamination prior to demolition.

  7. Synthesis of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Benzophenoxazinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Wu Xin ZOU; Ling WU; Jin Shui LI; Ji Tao WANG; Ji Ben MENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new nucleoside derivatives containing benzophenoxazinone moiety were synthesized. Their luminescence spectra show that they have strong near infrared fluorescence. Our study provides a new method for direct introduction of near infrared fluorescent probe to bioactive molecules.

  8. Predicting the Lifetimes of Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    As for many aspects of the disposal of nuclear waste, the greatest challenge we have in the study of container materials is the prediction of the long-term performance over periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Various methods have been used for predicting the lifetime of containers for the disposal of high-level waste or spent fuel in deep geological repositories. Both mechanical and corrosion-related failure mechanisms need to be considered, although until recently the interactions of mechanical and corrosion degradation modes have not been considered in detail. Failure from mechanical degradation modes has tended to be treated through suitable container design. In comparison, the inevitable loss of container integrity due to corrosion has been treated by developing specific corrosion models. The most important aspect, however, is to be able to justify the long-term predictions by demonstrating a mechanistic understanding of the various degradation modes.

  9. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  10. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle trans

  11. Carbon Nanostructures Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potsi, Georgia; Rossos, Andreas; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Antoniou, Myrsini K.; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Karakassides, Michael A.; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This mini review describes the synthesis and properties of carbon nanostructures containing organic-inorganic cage-like polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The physical and chemical functionalization of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes

  12. Modular simulation of reefer container dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The amount of food transported long distances in reefer containers is constantly increasing and so is the cost per mile because of rising fuel prices. One way to reduce the cost is to minimize the energy consumed by reefer containers through a better controller but in order to achieve this a fast...... and flexible simulation model is needed for controller development. The simulation model may also be used for developing fault diagnosis methods for the reefer container and thereby further lowering costs by reducing the amount of functioning spare parts that is replaced and by providing early warning...... that ensures numerical stability and that the error is bounded using a minimum of calculations. The reefer container model is simulated using both ode15s and the proposed method both in multi-rate and monolithic configurations. The results are analyzed and compared with respect to speed and accuracy....

  13. Polyimides containing amide and perfluoroisopropylidene connecting groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezern, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    New, thermooxidatively stable polyimides were prepared from the reaction of aromatic dianhydrides containing isopropylidene bridging groups with aromatic diamines containing amide connecting groups between the rings. Several of these polyimides were shown to be semi-crystalline as evidenced by wide angle x ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. Most of the polyimides form tough, flexible films with high tensile properties. These polyimide films exhibit enhanced solubility in organic solvents.

  14. Silicone containing copolymers: Synthesis, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yılgör, Emel; Yılgör, İskender

    2013-01-01

    Accepted Manuscript Title: Silicone containing copolymers: Synthesis, properties and applications Author: Emel Yilgor Iskender Yilgor PII: S0079-6700(13)00141-X DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2013.11.003 Reference: JPPS 848 To appear in: Progress in Polymer Science Received date: 1-8-2013 Revised date: 4-11-2013 Accepted date: 8-11-2013 Please cite this article as: Yilgor E, Yilgor I, Silicone containing copolymers: Synthesis, properties ...

  15. Self-Contained Automated Vehicle Washing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    military personnel from harmful contaminants are the impetus for designing a closed loop vehicle washing system. Systems Specification Development This...I I I " I I EACH CONTAINMENT PAD HAS SELf -CONTAINED STORAGE TO MINIMIZ[ THE FOOTPRINT DURI NG TRANSPORT . I ~ ,’"j PIVOTING ELBOWS LOCK ...shipped to Dugway, UT in August 2013 and travel plans were confirmed only to encounter the government shutdown which would delay travel until 2014

  16. Container System Hardware (1992) Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    25 Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) .................................. 27 Shipping Frame, 4’ x 62/3’ x 8...old) 8115-01-354-0797 (new) Part I - Containers 25 Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) 26 Part I - Containers Equipment Deployment and...Storage System ( EDSS ) POINT OF CONTACT Mr. William Brower US Army Belvoir RD&E Center, SATBE-FMR Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5606 DSN 654-3613/Commercial (703

  17. Simulation of Containment Jet Flows Including Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    HEITSCH Matthias; Baraldi, Daniele; WILKENING Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The validation of a CFD code for light-water reactor containment applications requires among others the presence of steam in the different flow types like jets or buoyant plumes and leads to the need to simulate condensation phenomena. In this context the paper addresses the simulation of two ¿HYJET¿ experiments from the former Battelle Model Containment by the CFD code CFX. These experiments involve jet releases into the multicompartment geometry of the test facility accompani...

  18. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  19. Latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture is confronted with enormous challenges, from production of enough high-quality food to water use, environmental impacts and issues combined with a continually growing world population. Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrichemicals, used in applied agriculture. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool to modulate the properties of new crop protection compounds. Since 2010, around 96% of the launched products (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides/acaricides and nematicides) contain halogen atoms. The launched nematicides contain the largest number of halogen atoms, followed by insecticides/acaricides, herbicides and fungicides. In this context, fungicides and herbicides contain in most cases fluorine atoms, whereas nematicides and insecticides contain in most cases 'mixed' halogen atoms, for example chlorine and fluorine. This review gives an overview of the latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides launched over the past 6 years and describes current halogen-containing development candidates. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  1. AP600 containment purge radiological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, M.; Schulz, J.; Tan, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The AP600 Project is a passive pressurized water reactor power plant which is part of the Design Certification and First-of-a-Kind Engineering effort under the Advanced Light Water Reactor program. Included in this process is the design of the containment air filtration system which will be the subject of this paper. We will compare the practice used by previous plants with the AP600 approach to meet the goals of industry standards in sizing the containment air filtration system. The radiological aspects of design are of primary significance and will be the focus of this paper. The AP600 Project optimized the design to combine the functions of the high volumetric flow rate, low volumetric flow rate, and containment cleanup and other filtration systems into one multi-functional system. This achieves a more simplified, standardized, and lower cost design. Studies were performed to determine the possible concentrations of radioactive material in the containment atmosphere and the effectiveness of the purge system to keep concentrations within 10CFR20 limits and within offsite dose objectives. The concentrations were determined for various reactor coolant system leakage rates and containment purge modes of operation. The resultant concentrations were used to determine the containment accessibility during various stages of normal plant operation including refueling. The results of the parametric studies indicate that a dual train purge system with a capacity of 4,000 cfm per train is more than adequate to control the airborne radioactivity levels inside containment during normal plant operation and refueling, and satisfies the goals of ANSI/ANS-56.6-1986 and limits the amount of radioactive material released to the environment per ANSI/ANS 59.2-1985 to provide a safe environment for plant personnel and offsite residents.

  2. Container Boom in the Port of Koper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the Port of Koper the Central and Eastern European market is very important. The Port of Koper is especially interesting for goods flows relating to the exchange of goods on the East – West route (and vice versa and bound for the EU, in particular to the catchment area of the North Adriatic ports.The year 2009 was a difficult year for business, especially due to the uncertain international economic situation. In the first nine months of 2010, 16% more goods were handled in the Port of Koper than in the same period in 2009. The container transport especially exploded in tons (45% increase as well as in container units (40% increase. Within this period they handled 355,000 TEUs (new record in the container terminal (214,000 TEUs in the same period on the seventh pier in Trieste.The growth of container transport in the Port of Koper as well as the beginning of construction on the new container terminal have made the reconstruction and extension of the current container terminal an absolute priority. The extension is in line with the estimated growth of traffic as well as with the exploitation of present and future terminal capacities.This paper aims to present and analyse: (I supply chains of the flow of containerised goods through the Port of Koper to/from the countries of Central and Eastern Europe; (II the changes which enable this boom, current state and strategies to handle even more containers in the future; (iii market potential, current and future investments in new capacities.

  3. Container concept for the PBMR fuel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braehler, G.; Kelly, M.; Sauer, L.; Welbers, P. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation describes the types and the characteristics of the containers uniquely designed for and used in the PBMR Fuel Plant in Pelindaba, South Africa. The PBMR Fuel Plant is designed to manufacture so called Fuel Spheres for the High Temperature Reactor which shall be built in Koeberg near Cape Town. The PBMR fuel is based on a proven, high quality German fuel design consisting of 10% enriched Uranium triple-coated isotropic (LEU-TRISO) particles contained in a moulded graphite sphere. A coated particle comprises a kernel of Uranium dioxide surrounded by different layers. A fuel sphere consists of 9 g of Uranium (some 15 000 particles) and has a diameter of 60 mm; the total mass of a fuel sphere is 210 g. During normal operation the PBMR core contains a load of 456,000 fuel spheres. The PBMR Fuel plant is designed to produce 270,000 fuel spheres a year with the option to doubling the throughput. Two basic types of containers are foreseen for the plant, i.e. the Safe Geometry Containers for transportation and storage of Uranium bearing material and Containers in non restricted geometry for solid raw and auxiliary materials required by the different processes. Unlike other concepts in fuel element plants, the Safe Geometry Containers are allowed to be stored, from a criticality point of view, everywhere in the plant. Special identification measures, physical and IT based, prevent wrong material being processed. The sub-critical configuration is still maintained after the specified fire scenario for the PBMR Fuel Plant. (orig.)

  4. Blade containment evaluation of civil aircraft engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bin

    2013-01-01

    The potential hazard resulting from uncontained turbine engine rotor blade failure has always been the long-term concern of each aero engine manufacturer,and to fully contain the failed blades under critical operating conditions is also one of the most important considerations to meet the rotor integrity requirements.Usually,there are many factors involving the engine containment capability which need to be reviewed during the engine design phases,such as case thickness,rotor support structure,blade weight and shape,etc.However,the premier method to demonstrate the engine containment capability is the fan blade-off test and margin of safety (MS) analysis.Based on a concrete engine model,this paper aims to explain the key points of aero engine containment requirements in FAR Part 33,and introduces the implementation of MS analysis and fan blade-off test in the engine airworthiness certification.Through the introduction,it would be greatly helpful to the industrial community to evaluate the engine containment capability and prepare the final test demonstration in engine certification procedure.

  5. Composite-flywheel burst-containment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapowith, A D; Handy, W E

    1982-04-08

    A key component impacting total flywheel energy storage system weight is the containment structure. This report addresses the factors that shape this structure and define its design criteria. In addition, containment weight estimates are made for the several composite flywheel designs of interest so that judgements can be made as to the relative weights of their containment structure. The requirements set down for this program were that all containment weight estimates be based on a 1 kWh burst. It should be noted that typical flywheel requirements for regenerative braking of small automobiles call for deliverable energies of 0.25 kWh. This leads to expected maximum burst energies of 0.5 kWh. The flywheels studied are those considered most likely to be carried further for operational design. These area: The pseudo isotropic disk flywheel, sometimes called the alpha ply; the SMC molded disk; either disk with a carbon ring; the subcircular rim with cruciform hub; and Avco's bi-directional circular weave disk. The flywheel materials for the disk are S-glass; the subcircular rim is Kevlar over S-glass. Test data on flywheel bursts and containment failures were analyzed. Recommendations are made for further testing.

  6. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  7. DCH analyses using the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Wan; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes CONTAIN analyses performed during participation in the project of `DCH issue resolution for ice condenser plants` which is sponsored by NRC at SNL. Even though the calculations were performed for the Ice Condenser plant, CONTAIN code has been used for analyses of many phenomena in the PWR containment and the DCH module can be commonly applied to any plant types. The present ice condenser issue resolution effort intended to provide guidance as to what might be needed to resolve DCH for ice condenser plants. It includes both a screening analysis and a scoping study if the screening analysis cannot provide an complete resolution. The followings are the results concerning DCH loads in descending order. 1. Availability of ignition sources prior to vessel breach 2. availability and effectiveness of ice in the ice condenser 3. Loads modeling uncertainties related to co-ejected RPV water 4. Other loads modeling uncertainties 10 tabs., 3 figs., 14 refs. (Author).

  8. Stemming options and their effect on containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.A.

    1976-06-23

    In more than 17 years of studying underground nuclear explosions, LLL has developed containment procedures that include a stemming plan. Stemming plans can be divided into either layered or continuous forms. There are marked differences between standards for these forms. The materials used in the continuous plan must meet more stringent specifications; as a consequence, they are more expensive. Both plans have been successful since the Baneberry Event. Both plans must meet the following requirements: provide a plug sufficient to match the overburden density of earth; contain radioactive gases at the lowest possible depth; minimize the generation of noncondensable gases (such as CO/sub 2/); minimize gas flow rates during the early post-detonation stages when cavity pressure is high; and be compatible with the experiment and its diagnostics. LLL experience in developing containment procedures is reviewed, and the reasons for the adoption of LLL's continuous stemming plan are reported. (LCL)

  9. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  10. Hydrogen behavior in ice condenser containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, P.; Hongisto, O. [Power Plant Lab., Helsinki (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A new hydrogen management strategy is being developed for the Loviisa ice condenser containment. The strategy relies on containment-wide natural circulations that develop, once the ice condenser doors are forced open, to effectively produce a well-mixed behavior, and a correspondingly slow rise in hydrogen concentration. Levels can then be kept low by a distributed catalytic recombiner system, and (perhaps) an igniter system as a backup, while the associated energy releases can be effectively dissipated in the ice bed. Verification and fine-tuning of the approach is carried out experimentally in the VICTORIA facility and by associated scaling/modelling studies. VICTORIA represents an 1/15th scale model of the Loviisa containment, hydrogen is simulated by helium, and local concentration measurements are obtained by a newly developed instrument specifically for this purpose, called SPARTA. This paper is focused on experimental results from several key experiments that provide a first delineation of key behaviors.

  11. Using containers with ATLAS offline software

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Marcelo; The ATLAS collaboration; Heinrich, Lukas; Stewart, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Title: Using containers with ATLAS offline software Marcelo Vogel, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal Graeme Stewart, University of Glasgow Johannes Elmsheuser, Brookhaven National Laboratory Lukas Heinrich, New York University Abstract: This paper describes the deployment of ATLAS offline software in containers for software development and the use in production jobs on the grid - such as event generation, simulation, reconstruction and physics derivations - and in physics analysis. For this we are using Docker and Singularity which are both lightweight virtualization technologies to encapsulates a piece of software inside a complete file system. The deployment of offline releases via containers removes the interdependence between the runtime environment needed for job execution and the configuration of a computing site’s worker nodes. Once the two are decoupled from each other, sites can upgrade their nodes whenever and however they see fit. Docker or Singularity will provide a uniform runtime environment fo...

  12. Optical properties of coumarins containing copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, L.; Krupka, O.; Smokal, V.; Grabowski, A.; Naparty, M.; Derkowska-Zielinska, B.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the optical properties such as absorption coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function and energy band gap of coumarin-containing copolymers thin films by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) combined with transmittance measurements (T) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that the optical properties of coumarin-containing copolymers strongly depend from length of alkyl spacer as well as the type of substitution in coumarin moiety. In our case the refractive index as well as the energy band gap of coumarin-containing copolymer decrease with increase the length of alkyl spacer. Additionally, the lengthening of the alkyl spacer brings the bathochromic shifts of the absorption spectra towards longer wavelengths.

  13. Development of a Whole Container Seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Michael J [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for utilizing electrically conductive textiles as a whole container seal. This method has the potential to provide more robustness for ensuring that the container has not been breached versus conventional sealing methods that only provide tamper indication at the area used for normal access. The conductive textile is used as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing container tamper or breach. For sealing purposes, the conductive fabric represents a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. The well-known infinite resistance grid problem was used to model and confirm the expected accuracy and validity of this approach. An experimental setup was built that uses a multiplexed Wheatstone bridge measurement to determine the resistances of a coarse electrode grid across the conductive fabric. Non-uniform resistance values of the grid infer the presence of damage or tears in the fabric. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of disturbances in conductive fabric samples. Current work is focused on constructing experimental prototypes for field and environmental testing to gauge the performance of these whole container seals in real world conditions. We are also developing software and hardware to interface with the whole container seals. The latest prototypes are expected to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events, although detection of a penetration should be adequate for most sealing applications. We are also developing smart sensing nodes that integrate digital hardware and additional sensors (e.g., motion, humidity) into the electrode nodes within the whole container seal.

  14. HYBRID CONTROL APPROACH FOR CONTAINER CRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control approach is proposed to achieve the desired performance. Firstly a robust input shaper is designed to reduce the transient vibration and residual vibration of the container efficiently. Then a simple fuzzy logic controller is designed to eliminate the residual vibration completely in order to guarantee the positioning precision. Such a hybrid approach is simple in structure and readily realizable. Simulation results verify the fine performance of this hybrid control approach. It can achieve perfect elimination of residual vibration and concise positioning of the container load, and it is robust to parameter variations (mainly for cable length) and external disturbances.

  15. Containment: Concept and Policy. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    containment Arbatov, Georgii, 295, 297 in, 496-98 "Arc of Crisis," 209, 326 status quo in, 483-87 Arendt , Hannah . See The Origins of US expeditionary...the intellectual community, which was in those days very heavily influenced by such works as Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism, a book...and Development (OECD), China and, 597 140 containment policy of, 8, 11, 13, The OrigiWs of Totalitarianism 119, 167-69, 459-60, 705 ( Arendt ), 709

  16. Fast Generation of Container Vessel Stowage Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario

    enough detail to allow professionals from the industry to evaluate its solutions. A 2-phase hierarchical decomposition of the problem is presented. In the first phase, the problem of distributing containers to sections of the vessel is solved, and it is here that the seaworthiness of the solution...... test instances provided by a major liner shipping company. Improvements to the modeling of vessel stability and an analysis of its accuracy together with an analysis of the computational complexity of the container stowage problem are also included in the thesis, resulting in an overall in-depth...

  17. 340 Facility secondary containment and leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-31

    This document presents a preliminary safety evaluation for the 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Containment system, Project W-302. Project W-302 will construct Building 340-C which has been designed to replace the current 340 Building and vault tank system for collection of liquid wastes from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory buildings in the 300 Area. This new nuclear facility is Hazard Category 3. The vault tank and related monitoring and control equipment are Safety Class 2 with the remainder of the structure, systems and components as Safety Class 3 or 4.

  18. Spent fuel container and a material thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, Motoji; Kikuchi, Masaaki

    1998-12-04

    The material of a vessel for containing spent fuels of the present invention is prepared by compositing boron fibers in a volume rate of about 30% in a metal base of Al-Mg-Si alloy containing 3% of boron. It has characteristics of the maximum strength at break being 1.8 times or more at a room temperature and at 200degC, a neutron transmittance being about 1/4, and a specific gravity being 1/3 or less compared with those of conventional austenite stainless steel to which 6% of boron is added. With such a constitution, spent fuels can be used smoothly. (T.M.)

  19. Model Based Control of Reefer Container Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together with the Da......This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together...

  20. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  1. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  2. Simulation-Based Optimization for Storage Allocation Problem of Outbound Containers in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage allocation of outbound containers is a key factor of the performance of container handling system in automated container terminals. Improper storage plans of outbound containers make QC waiting inevitable; hence, the vessel handling time will be lengthened. A simulation-based optimization method is proposed in this paper for the storage allocation problem of outbound containers in automated container terminals (SAPOBA. A simulation model is built up by Timed-Colored-Petri-Net (TCPN, used to evaluate the QC waiting time of storage plans. Two optimization approaches, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Genetic Algorithm (GA, are proposed to form the complete simulation-based optimization method. Effectiveness of this method is verified by experiment, as the comparison of the two optimization approaches.

  3. Explosive containment and propagation evaluations for commonly used handling and storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of explosive tests were performed to establish containment integrity data for commonly used handling and storage containers of energetic materials at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The tests consisted of two phases: (1) each container was tested for explosive integrity and propagation, and (2) the data were used to evaluate a nominal donor-receptor test matrix for verifying the confinement integrity of a typical explosives service locker.

  4. Population Exposure to Phthalate-Containing Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Anne; Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Pottegård, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors. Not commonly recognised, phthalates are used as excipients in a number of drug formulations. We aimed to describe the sale of phthalate-containing drugs in Denmark from 2004 to 2015. National data on annual sale of medications (tablets only) were accesse...

  5. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  6. Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Current Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    T. Dostal; A. I. Rybin

    2001-01-01

    A special method of the nodal analysis of the circuits containing several types of the multiport current conveyors is presented in this paper. The method is based on the given regular and homogeneous models of the irregular current conveyors by the gyrators. Then a diakoptic solving and modification of the inversion of the admittance matrix is applied

  7. 27 CFR 28.143 - Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers. 28.143 Section 28.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... removal of beer for consumption or sale....

  8. Superconducting oxides containing sulphate and phosphate groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, R. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Giordanengo, B.; Elmassalami, M.; Dominguez, A. B.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of partial substitution of Sr and Ca in Y-Ba-Cu-O related materials containing sulphate and phosphate groups have been investigated. e57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on samples doped with lat. % e57Fe and the spectral components related to different Cu sites and oxygen vacancies.

  9. The Statistical Properties of Galaxies Containing ULXs

    CERN Document Server

    Ptak, A

    2004-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies containing ultraluminous X-ray objects (ULXs). Our primary goal is to establish the fraction of galaxies containing a ULX as a function of ULX luminosity. Our sample is based on ROSAT HRI observations of galaxies. We find that ~ 12% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with L_X > 10^39 erg/s and ~ 1% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with L_X > 10^40 erg/s. These ULX frequencies are lower limits since ROSAT HRI observation would miss absorbed ULXs (i.e., with N_H >~ 10^21 cm^-2) and those within ~ 10" of the nucleus (due to the positional error circle of the ROSAT HRI). The Hubble type distribution of galaxies with a ULX differs significantly from the distribution of types for nearby RC3 galaxies, but does not differ significantly from the galaxy type distribution of galaxies observed by the HRI in general. We find no increase in the mean FIR luminosity or FIR / K band luminosity ratio for galaxies with a ULX relative to galaxies observed by t...

  10. Feasibility of Magnetostrictive Sensor Inspection of Containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwun, H.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study on the feasibility of using guided waves for long-range global inspection of containment metallic pressure boundaries (i.e., steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments) in nuclear power plants. Of particular concern in this study was the potential of the guided-wave approach for remotely inspecting the regions that are inaccessible; for example, regions where the metallic pressure boundary is backed by concrete on one or both sides. The study includes a literature review on long-range guided-wave inspection techniques, a modeling study of the behavior of guided waves in plates with different boundary conditions (e.g., freestanding and backed by concrete on one or both sides), and an experimental investigation of the feasibility of a guided-wave technique called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for (1) generating and detecting guided waves in plates and (2) detecting a defect over a long range. Results of the study showed (1) that it is feasible to achieve long-range global inspection of plates, including regions that are inaccessible, using low-frequency guided waves and (2) that the MsS technique is well suited for this application. Recommendations are made to further test and develop the MsS technique for practical implementation for containment inspection in nuclear power plants.

  11. Conformal general relativity contains the quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Bonal, R; Cardenas, R

    2000-01-01

    Based on the de Broglie-Bohm relativistic quantum theory of motion we show that the conformal formulation of general relativity, being linked with a Weyl-integrable geometry, may implicitly contain the quantum effects of matter. In this context the Mach's principle is discussed.

  12. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably endot

  13. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  14. Tattoo inks in general usage contain nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Löschner, Katrin; Löf, D;

    2011-01-01

    and the coloured pigments had a size in between the two. The vast majority of the tested tattoo inks contained significant amounts of NPs except for the white pigments. The black pigments were almost pure NPs, i.e. particles with at least one dimension

  15. Stiffening in gels containing whey protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Veen, van der E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gels made only from whey protein isolate (WPI) stiffened over the first few days of storage, after which the textural properties remained nearly constant. However, protein gels containing WPI microparticles, at the same total protein content, stiffened over a longer period than those without micropa

  16. Enzyme Reactions in Nanoporous, Picoliter Volume Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuti, Piro; Retterer, Scott T.; Choi, Chang-Kyoung; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale fabrication allow creation of small volume reaction containers that can facilitate the screening and characterization of enzymes. A porous, ~19 pL volume vessel has been used in this work to carry out enzyme reactions under varying substrate concentrations. Assessment of small molecule and Green Fluorescent Protein diffusion from the vessels indicates that pore sizes on order of 10 nm can be obtained, allowing capture of proteins and diffusive exchange of small molecules. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can be contained in these structures and diffusively fed with a solution containing glucose and the fluorogenic substrate Amplex Red™ through the engineered nanoscale pore structure. Fluorescent microscopy was used to monitor the reaction, which was carried out under microfluidic control. Kinetic characteristics of the enzyme (Km and Vmax) were evaluated and compared with results from conventional scale reactions. These picoliter, nanoporous containers can facilitate quick determination of enzyme kinetics in microfluidic systems without the requirement of surface tethering and can be used for applications in drug discovery, clinical diagnostics and high-throughput screening. PMID:22148720

  17. Some NUDET effects due to water containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    1994-07-01

    The effect on the optical and acoustical signals of containing a nominal low yield nuclear device in a sphere of water is studied. The silicon photodiode optical signal is seen to be distorted by a relatively small amount of water. The acoustical signal timing and shape change little.

  18. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Pramoda; S Suresh; H S S Ramakrishna Matte; A Govindaraj

    2013-08-01

    Composites of graphene involving chemically bonded nano films of metal oxides have been prepared by reacting graphene containing surface oxygen functionalities with metal halide vapours followed by exposure to water vapour. The composites have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and other techniques. Magnetite particles chemically bonded to graphene dispersible in various solvents have been prepared and they exhibit fairly high magnetization.

  19. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  20. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  1. Containment considerations for the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, D F; Fink, R

    1991-01-01

    The handling of hazardous organisms or chemical substances in any research and development activity must be performed in such a manner as to minimize worker exposure to these materials. The term containment is used to describe the assemblage of primary and secondary preventive measures that provide personal, experimental, and environmental protection.

  2. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a {open_quotes}lower bound{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}upper bound{close_quotes} failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties.

  3. [Sublicons containing amino acids and nucleotides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭmakov, E A

    1979-01-01

    Sublicons have been obtained. Sublicons are threadlike structures appearing during sublimation of frozen solutions of small concentrations, containing racemate mixture of amino acids and nucleotides. It is suggested that close location of chains and their zonal distribution by the section of helix spire forming sublicon wall, should provide the formation of stereohomogenous and complementary successions of biomonomers of different clases.

  4. Production of nitrogen containing chemicals from cyanophycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könst, P.M.

    2011-01-01


    Currently nitrogen containing bulk chemicals are produced from naphtha. However, as explained in Chapter 1 it would be more energy efficient, less capital intensive and eventually more economical to start from functionalized compounds that already have nitrogen incorporated, such as amino aci

  5. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  6. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  7. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...

  8. Polymersomes containing quantum dots for cellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camblin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine Camblin,1 Pascal Detampel,1 Helene Kettiger,1 Dalin Wu,2 Vimalkumar Balasubramanian,1,* Jörg Huwyler1,*1Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs are highly fluorescent and stable probes for cellular and molecular imaging. However, poor intracellular delivery, stability, and toxicity of QDs in biological compartments hamper their use in cellular imaging. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple and effective method to load QDs into polymersomes (Ps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane-poly(2-methyloxazoline (PDMS-PMOXA diblock copolymers without compromising the characteristics of the QDs. These Ps showed no cellular toxicity and QDs were successfully incorporated into the aqueous compartment of the Ps as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Ps containing QDs showed colloidal stability over a period of 6 weeks if stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at physiological pH (7.4. Efficient intracellular delivery of Ps containing QDs was achieved in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2 and was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Ps containing QDs showed a time- and concentration-dependent uptake in HepG2 cells and exhibited better intracellular stability than liposomes. Our results suggest that Ps containing QDs can be used as nanoprobes for cellular imaging.Keywords: quantum dots, polymersomes, cellular imaging, cellular uptake

  9. Virtual containment system for composite flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Fuh-Wen

    2001-07-01

    There is much interest in advanced composite flywheel systems for use on satellites mainly because of the potential for considerable weight savings associated with combined energy and momentum management. The additional weight of a containment system needed to protect the satellite in the event of a flywheel failure, however, could negate the potential savings. Therefore, the development of a condition monitoring and virtual containment system is essential to ensure the wide acceptance of flywheel batteries for spacecraft applications. A virtual containment system is a near real-time condition monitoring system, plus additional logic to adjust the operating conditions (maximum rotational speed) accordingly when a flaw or fault is detected. Flaws of primary interest in this study are those unique to composite flywheels, such as delamination and debonding of interfaces. Such flaws change the balance state of a flywheel through small, but detectable, motion of the mass center and principal axes of inertia. A proposed monitoring technique determines the existence and the extent of such flaws by a method similar to the influence-coefficient rotor balancing method. Because of the speed-dependence of the imbalance caused by elastic flaws, a normalized imbalance change, which is a direct measure of the flaw size, was defined. To account for the possibility that flaw growth could actually improve the balance state of a rotor, a new concept of accumulated imbalance change was also introduced. Laboratory tests showed the proposed method was able to detect small simulated flaws that result in as little as 2--3 microns of mass center movement. Fracture mechanics concepts were used to evaluate the severity and growth rate of the detected flaw. An interesting discovery that coincided with some experimental observations reported in the literature was the energy release rate reduction with a large crack. This finding indicates a possible stress relief and crack arrest when a

  10. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR.

  11. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  12. Container inspection in the port container terminal by using 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia); Kvinticka 62, Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Obhodas, Jasmina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c.54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-07-01

    A proposal for an autonomous and flexible ship container inspection system is presented. This could be accomplished by the incorporation of inspection system on the container transportation devices (straddle carriers, yard gentry cranes automated guided vehicles, trailers). This configuration is terminal specific and it will be decided by container terminal operator. In such a way no part of port operational area will be used for inspection. The inspection scenario will include container transfer from ship to transportation device with inspection unit mounted on it, inspection during container movement to the container location. A neutron generator without associated alpha particle detection will be used. This will allow the use of higher neutron intensity (5x10{sup 9} - 10{sup 10} n/s in 4π). The inspected container will be stationary in the 'inspection position' on the transportation device while the 'inspection unit' will move along its side. Following analytical methods will be used simultaneously: neutron radiography, X-ray radiography, neutron activation analysis, (n,γ) and (n,n'γ) reactions, neutron absorption, and scattering, X-ray backscattering, Neutron techniques will take the advantage of using 'smart collimators' for neutrons and gammas, both emitted and detected. The inspected voxel will be defined by intersections/union of neutron generator and detectors solid angles. The container inspection protocol will be based on identification of discrepancies between its cargo manifest and its elemental 'fingerprint' and radiography profiles. In addition, the information on container weight will be obtained during the container transport and foreseen screening from the measurement of density of material in the container. (authors)

  13. The handling of fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town container terminal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goedhals-Gerber, LL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -SCM2014 XII International Logistics and Supply Chain Congress - "Supply Chains of the Future", Istanbul, Turkey, 30- 31 October 2014 The handling of fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town container terminal Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber1, Christo Stander...

  14. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 156 RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance Date AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... December 16, 2010. This change is being made because there is insufficient time for pesticide registrants...

  15. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  16. Development of Mullite Substrates and Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibold, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The mullite-molten silicon interaction was evaluated through fabrication of a series of bodies made with variations in density, alumina-silica ratio, and glass-crystalline ratio. The materials were tested in a sessile drop technique. None of the variations stood up to extended exposure to molten silicon sufficiently to be recommended as a container material. However, directional solidification experiments suggest that, under proper conditions, contamination of the silicon by mullite containers can be minimized. To improve an already good thermal expansion match between mullite and silicon, compositional variations were studied. Altering of the alumina-silica ratio was determined to give a continuously varying thermal expansion. A standard mullite composition was selected and substrates 40 x 4 x .040 inches were fabricated. Slotted substrates of various configurations and various compositions were also fabricated.

  17. Electric power annual 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and state levels. The Industry At A Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. 24 figs., 57 tabs.

  18. Silver nanoparticle containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamak, Semih; Aksoy, Eda Ayse; Erdogdu, Ceren; Sagıroglu, Meral; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2015-02-01

    Development of new generation bionanotextiles is an important growing field, and they have found applications as wound dressings, bandages, tissue scaffolds, etc. In this study, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) containing silk-based bionanotextiles were fabricated by electrospinning, and processing parameters were optimized and discussed in detail. AgNPs were in situ synthesized within fibroin nanofibers by UV reduction of silver ions to metallic silver. The influence of post-treatments via methanol treatment and glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor exhibited changes in the secondary structure of silk. Methanol treatment increased the tensile properties of fibers due to supported crystalline silk structure, while GA vapor promoted amorphous secondary structure. AgNP containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles had strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF OLIGOMERS CONTAINING 5-FLUOROURACIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO Aichih; SUN Shumen

    1983-01-01

    The condensation oligomers of 5-fluorouracil were prepared by reaction of 2,4-bis-(trimethyl-silyloxy)-5-fluoropyrimidine) with various dicarboxylic chlorides, e.g.R=(-CH2-)2, (-CH2-)4, (-CH2-)6, p-C6H4-, m-C6H4-, o-C6H4- The structures of obtained oligomers were characterized by IR and the oligomers were then hydrolyzed in acid, alkaline and neutral media at room temperature respectively. The amount of 5-fluorouracil released was quantitated by measuring its UV absorbance at 265.5nm. However in the case of oligomers containing phenylene moiety, 5-fluorouracil was not detected when the hydrolysis was conducted in acid or neutral medium, while in the case of oligomers containing methylene moiety, hydrolysis proceeded easily in acid, alkaline and neutral media.

  1. [Experience with gestodene-containing hormonal contraceptive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, L; Nagy, K; Godó, G

    1998-03-01

    An oral contraceptive containing gestodene (Minulet) was examined in collaborating with the Richter-Wyeth Pharmaceutical Factory. The authors present their experiences of monitoring of 591 cycles of a hundred women between 18 and 35 years of age. There were no pregnancy and severe side effects during that period. Irregular bleeding occurred in 17.5% of women in the beginning of the treatment, however it gradually decreased and ceased by the fifth cycle. Both the length and the quantity of the withdrawal bleeding decreased by the end of the sixth cycle. During the observation there was no amenorrhoea and the dysmenorrhoea presented a decreasing tendency, expressing in per cent of the cycles. Their own data support, that the oral contraceptives containing gestodene meet requirements of today's medical science, and beyond the low hormone content they also fulfil the next demands: reliable contraceptive effect, efficacy, excellent cycle control, good tolerability and limited side effects.

  2. Electrochemical Corrosion of Carbon—Containing Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZhao-you

    1994-01-01

    The electrochemical examination on the cor-rosion of carbon or carbon containing refractiories at molten slag-liquid interface has been carried out.The electromotive force(E.M.F)of cells with different molten slags:C|molten slag | Fe at elevated temperatures has been measured by means of potentiometer and it is in the range from 250 to 450mV .It is found that the carbon electrode in these cells is anode and whn a counter E.M.F.is applied externally to the cel,the corrosion of carbon electrode will be sup-pressed entirely.Test results show that the local corrosion of carbon containing refractories at slag-metal interface is mainly caused by the mechanism of electrochemical corrosion.

  3. Silver nanoparticle containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamak, Semih; Aksoy, Eda Ayse [Hacettepe University, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey); Erdogdu, Ceren; Sagıroglu, Meral [Hacettepe University, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey); Ulubayram, Kezban, E-mail: ukezban@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey)

    2015-02-15

    Development of new generation bionanotextiles is an important growing field, and they have found applications as wound dressings, bandages, tissue scaffolds, etc. In this study, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) containing silk-based bionanotextiles were fabricated by electrospinning, and processing parameters were optimized and discussed in detail. AgNPs were in situ synthesized within fibroin nanofibers by UV reduction of silver ions to metallic silver. The influence of post-treatments via methanol treatment and glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor exhibited changes in the secondary structure of silk. Methanol treatment increased the tensile properties of fibers due to supported crystalline silk structure, while GA vapor promoted amorphous secondary structure. AgNP containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles had strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  4. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  5. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  7. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  8. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Experimental Approach Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9′ serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Key Results Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose–response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9′S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Conclusions and Implications Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. PMID:24206220

  9. Containing pandemic influenza with antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Nizam, Azhar; Yang, Yang

    2004-04-01

    For the first wave of pandemic influenza or a bioterrorist influenza attack, antiviral agents would be one of the few options to contain the epidemic in the United States until adequate supplies of vaccine were available. The authors use stochastic epidemic simulations to investigate the effectiveness of targeted antiviral prophylaxis to contain influenza. In this strategy, close contacts of suspected index influenza cases take antiviral agents prophylactically. The authors compare targeted antiviral prophylaxis with vaccination strategies. They model an influenza pandemic or bioterrorist attack for an agent similar to influenza A virus (H2N2) that caused the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957-1958. In the absence of intervention, the model predicts an influenza illness attack rate of 33% of the population (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 37) and an influenza death rate of 0.58 deaths/1,000 persons (95% Cl: 0.4, 0.8). With the use of targeted antiviral prophylaxis, if 80% of the exposed persons maintained prophylaxis for up to 8 weeks, the epidemic would be contained, and the model predicts a reduction to an illness attack rate of 2% (95% Cl: 0.2, 16) and a death rate of 0.04 deaths/1,000 persons (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.25). Such antiviral prophylaxis is nearly as effective as vaccinating 80% of the population. Vaccinating 80% of the children aged less than 19 years is almost as effective as vaccinating 80% of the population. Targeted antiviral prophylaxis has potential as an effective measure for containing influenza until adequate quantities of vaccine are available.

  10. SEARCH FOR NUCLEI CONTAINING TWO STRANGE QUARKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY,M.

    1997-10-13

    This paper discusses a search for nuclei containing two strange quarks performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The goals and approach of experiment E885 are reviewed. Preliminary missing mass spectra for a subset of the data are presented, showing sensitivity for {Xi} hypernuclei and H particle searches. Existence of an angular correlation between pions in the sequential decay of {Lambda}{Lambda} hypernuclei is suggested on theoretical grounds.

  11. Search for nuclei containing two strange quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses a search for nuclei containing two strange quarks performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The goals and approach of experiment E885 are reviewed. Preliminary missing mass spectra for a subset of the data are presented, showing sensitivity for {Xi} hypernuclei and H particle searches. Existence of an angular correlation between pions in the sequential decay of {Lambda}{Lambda} hypernuclei is suggested on theoretical grounds.

  12. Viscosity estimation for slags containing calcium fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifeng Shu; Jiayun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on recently published experimental data, the Riboud model was modified for viscosity estimation of the slags containing calcium fluoride. The estimated values were in good agreement with measured data. Reasonable estimation can be achieved using the modified Riboud model for mould fluxes and ESR (eletro slag remelting) slags. Especially for ESR slags, the modified Riboud model can provide much more precise values than the original Riboud model.

  13. Laser Initiation of PETN containing Nickel Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduev, B. P.; Zvekov, A. A.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Nikitin, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral and kinetic characteristics of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) containing nickel nanoparticles glow initiated by laser pulses was studied with high temporal resolution. It was shown that glow which is chemiluminescence arises as a result of chemical reaction initiation. We suggest that the glow is concerned on excited nitrogen dioxide NO2 luminescence. The reaction propagation leads to the explosion in the microsecond time range that is accompanied by thermal glow of the reaction products with temperature T=4300 K.

  14. Use of cellulose-containing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erzinkyan, L.A.; Akhinyan, R.M.; Petrosyan, L.G.; Ngoyan, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulose containing wastes from various industries were hydrolyzed by different microorganisms to glucose. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Fusarium, and Bacterium cellaseum were the most effective organisms, catalyzing complete degradation of cellulose. The hydrolysis product (glucose) promoted the growth of various yeasts: Torulopsis pinus, Candida solani, C. guilliermondii, and C. pelliculosa. The yeast biomass yield reached 60.5% and was rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals.

  15. Prostatic cavitary lesions containing urine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokemeyer, J; Peppler, C; Thiel, C; Failing, K; Kramer, M; Gerwing, M

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the proportion of urine-containing prostatic cavitary lesions ("urinary cysts") in dogs and to describe their clinical management. The study included dogs with clinically relevant prostatic-retention cyst/abscess (n=87) treated initially by percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of the prostatic cavity. Based on a prostatic fluid:serum creatinine ratio, the study population was divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) with and group 2 (n=71) without evidence of urine within the lesion. Medical records of both the groups were reviewed. Cavitary lesions containing urine were observed in 16 of the 87 dogs (18·4%; group 1). In 10 (62·5%) of the group 1 dogs, abdominal surgery was recommended, because of recurrent filling during follow-up. In group 2, abdominal surgery was recommended in only 11 of 71 cases (15·5%). In dogs, 18·4% (95% confidence interval, 10·9 to 28·1%) of the prostatic cavitary lesions contain urine. Measurement of creatinine within the prostatic cavity fluid is a helpful tool in diagnosing a presurgical intra-prostatic urethral fistulation, and these dogs tend to require a more aggressive surgical therapy than percutaneous drainage alone. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Shielding Effectiveness of Composites Containing Flaky Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; QU Zhaoming; WANG Yilong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the quantitative relationship between the electromagnetic-shielding property of composites and the distribution of inclusions,a scheme for predicting the shielding effectiveness of composites containing variously-distributed flaky inclusions is proposed.The scheme is based on equivalent parameters of homogeneous comparison materials and the plane-wave shielding theory.It leads to explicit formulas for the shielding effectiveness of multi-layered composites in terms of microstructural parameters that characterize the shape,distribution and orientation of the inclusions.For single layer composite that contains random and aligned flaky silver-coated carbonyl-iron particles with fractions of different volume,the predicted shielding effectiveness agrees well with the experimental data.As for composites containing aligned flaky particles,the shielding effectiveness obtained by the proposed scheme and experiment data is higher than that the random case,e.g.about 20 dB higher at 750 MHz.The proposed scheme is a straightforward method for optimizing future composite designs.

  17. The Popeye domain-containing gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Popeye domain-containing gene family has been isolated on the basis of a subtractive screen aiming at the identification of novel genes with a heart-restricted gene expression pattern. The gene family codes for membrane proteins containing three transmembrane domains. The carboxy-terminal part of the protein is localized to the cytoplasm and contains a protein domain with high sequence conservation named the Popeye domain. This domain is involved in protein homo dimerization. The gene family is expressed in heart and skeletal muscle cells as well as smooth muscle cells. In addition, Popdc genes are expressed in other cell types such as neuronal cells in restricted areas of the brain, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia, and in various epithelial cells. Recently, it has been proposed that Popdc proteins may function as a novel family of adhesion proteins. That the expression pattern has been conserved during evolution and is very similar in all vertebrate classes and also in basal chordates suggests that Popdc proteins play an important role in cardiac and skeletal muscle.

  18. Welding the AT-400A Containment Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, E.

    1998-11-01

    Early in 1994, the Department of Energy assigned Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility for designing and providing the welding system for the girth weld for the AT-400A containment vessel. (The AT-400A container is employed for the shipment and long-term storage of the nuclear weapon pits being returned from the nation's nuclear arsenal.) Mason Hanger Corporation's Pantex Plant was chosen to be the production facility. The project was successfully completed by providing and implementing a turnkey welding system and qualified welding procedure at the Pantex Plant. The welding system was transferred to Pantex and a pilot lot of 20 AT-400A containers with W48 pits was welded in August 1997. This document is intended to bring together the AT-400A welding system and product (girth weld) requirements and the activities conducted to meet those requirements. This document alone is not a complete compilation of the welding development activities but is meant to be a summary to be used with the applicable references.

  19. Conceptual design of K DEMO containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kye Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Young Tae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The most important safety goal of nuclear systems is to prevent the release of radiation into the environment, and fusion power plants should not be an exception. Containment is the final wall to avoid leaking radioactive materials in malfunction of vacuum vessel and fuel cycle failure. It is important barrier to protect the plant against external events such as aircraft crashing, earthquake, and tsunami. After the Fukushima accident in Japan, the passive safety systems are being researched due to their high reliability, simple computation systems and small number of components. However, it is hard to say well because of negative points, which are low efficiency and uncontrollability. So, it is necessary to confirm its performance and suitability using simulation and experiments. Passive safety systems work on the basis of differential head, natural convection and gas compression force without operator and a power supply. Currently, safety systems using the passive power are applied in APR 1400 and next generation of power plants in domestic. However, it's hard to verify the performance of passive safety systems. Though code calculation and numerical analysis are suitable to certain extent for the system(s) with differential head and gas compressive force but these methods are difficult to apply for analysis of natural convection systems. These safety systems are mainly used in containment cooling systems. It is most plausible that such kind of containment cooling system will sustain its design in the next generation nuclear power plants. The application of this safety system requires internal authentication whereas there is not sufficient experimentation or codes for authentication. This paper is written under one program of Nuclear Fusion Research Institute (NRFI). Henceforth, the performance analysis method is being developed for the analysis of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) using the basic accident analysis code for the fission plant. The

  20. Lysolipid containing liposomes for transendothelial drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koklic Tilen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Designing efficient 'vectors', to deliver therapeutics across endothelial barriers, in a controlled manner, remains one of the key goals of drug development. Recently, transcytosis of liposome encapsulated fluorescence marker calcein across a tight cell barrier was studied. The most efficient liposomes were found to be liposomes containing sufficient amount of alkyl phospholipid (APL perifosine. APLs have similar structure as lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC, since APLs were synthesized as metabolically stable analogues of LPC, which increases endothelial permeability directly by inducing endothelial cell contraction, resulting in formation of gaps between endothelial cells. Since one of the unique properties of lysolipid, containing liposomal formulations is dynamic equilibrium of lysolipids, which are distributed among liposomes, micelles, and free form, such liposomes represent a reservoir of free lysolipids. On the other hand lysolipid containing liposomes also represent a reservoir of an encapsulated hydrophilic drug. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that free lysolipids, with highest concentration in vicinity of drug carrying liposomes, compromise endothelial integrity, primarily where concentrations of liposomes is the highest, in a similar manner as LPC, by formation of gaps between endothelial cells. Liposome encapsulated drug, which leaks from liposomes, due to liposome destabilization, caused by lysolipid depletion, can therefore be efficiently transported across the locally compromised endothelial barrier. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis could be verified: by measuring binding of perifosine and other lysolipids to albumin and to lysophospholipid receptor (LPL-R group; formation of stress fibers and subsequent cell contraction; activation of RhoA, and endothelial barrier dysfunction; by a synthesis of other LPC analogues with high critical micellar concentration and measuring their effect on

  1. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tills, J. [J. Tills and Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  2. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

  3. Sediment contamination and associates laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, L.B. [Army Corps of Engineers, New York, NY (United States); Barrows, E.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from 10 New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for metals, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples. The results highlight the range and magnitude of sediment contamination in NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of some metals in sediments, compared with NY Bight sediment, were at least 10 times higher. Total PAHs reached 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). The sum of DDT, DDD, and DDE, the dominant pesticides, exceeded 3,000{micro}g/kg (dry weight). Total PCBs approached 3,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. Metals were bioaccumulated to a lesser degree. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated contaminants, along with sediment chemistry and benthic toxicity, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  4. Spatial distribution of PAHs and associated laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, L.B. [Army Corps of Engineers, New York, NY (United States); Barrows, E.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sediment core samples from New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Sediment was also collected from a reference site in the New York Bight as a comparison. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for PAHs, sediment grain size, and total organic carbon. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples, as well as for lipid content. The results highlight the range and magnitude of PAH concentrations in sediments of NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from undetected to 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations as much as 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated compounds, along with benthic toxicity data, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 2 of -42-foot project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Kohn, N.P.; Squires, A.L. (Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. The recommended plan consists of deepening the harbor channels from the presently authorized water depth of {minus}35 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) to {minus}42 ft MLLW and supplying the harbor with adequate turning basins and berthing areas. Offshore ocean disposal of the dredged sediment is being considered, provided there is no evident of harmful ecological effects. It harmful ecological effects are not evident then the appropriate certifications from state environmental quality agencies and concurrence from the Environmental Protection Agency can be obtained to allow disposal of sediment. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) collected sediment cores from 23 stations in Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, evaluated these sediment cores geologically, performed chemical analyses for selected contaminants in sediments, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in the tissues of Macoma Nasuta. 43 refs., 26 figs., 61 tabs.

  6. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  7. 40 CFR 165.45 - Refillable container standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refillable container standards. 165.45... PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.45 Refillable container standards. (a) What Department of Transportation (DOT) standards do my refillable containers...

  8. Engineered containment and control systems: nurturing nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James H; MacDonell, Margaret M; Smith, Ellen D; Dunn, R Jeffrey; Waugh, W Jody

    2004-06-01

    The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive.

  9. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker's breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15-20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker's breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  10. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Li-Ming, E-mail: LLo@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Tsai, Candace S.-J. [Purdue University (United States); Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael [University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15–20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  11. Manganese containing layer for magnetic recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, David N.; Lee, Li-Lien; Laughlin, David E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides for a magnetic recording media incorporating Mn-containing layers between a substrate and a magnetic layer to provide media having increased coercivity and lower noise. The Mn-containing layer can be incorporated in a rotating, translating or stationary recording media to operate in conjunction with magnetic transducing heads for recording and reading of magnetic data, as well as other applications. The magnetic recording medium of the invention preferably includes a Co or Co alloy film magnetic layer, and Mn-containing layer, preferably comprised of VMn, TiMn, MnZn, CrMnMo, CrMnW, CrMnV, and CrMnTi, and most preferably a CrMn alloy, disposed between the substrate and the magnetic layer to promote an epitaxial crystalline structure in the magnetic layer. The medium can further include seed layers, preferably polycrystalline MgO for longitudinal media, underlayers, and intermediate layers. Underlayers and intermediate layers are comprised of materials having either an A2 structure or a B2-ordered crystalline structure disposed between the seed layer and the magnetic layer. Materials having an A2 structure are preferably Cr or Cr alloys, such as CrV, CrMo, CrW and CrTi. Materials having a B2-ordered structure having a lattice constant that is substantially comparable to that of Cr, such as those preferably selected from the group consisting of NiAl, AILCo, FeAl, FeTi, CoFe, CoTi, CoHf, CoZr, NiTi, CuBe, CuZn, A-LMn, AlRe, AgMg, and Al.sub.2 FeMn.sub.2, and is most preferably FeAl or NiAl.

  12. Hub Status and Indexation of Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Park

    2015-06-01

    This study develops two sub-indexes of port classification and capacity, and combines cases of these two sub-indexes into various types in order to find a proper port hub index. The paper demonstrates how different types of port hub index are useful measurements for evaluating outputs and inputs of container ports. In a case analysis we show that the indexes of period variables and lagged variables have more explanatory power with regard to changes of port throughputs and high correlation with inputs.

  13. Incarcerated umbilical cord hernia containing the gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Kulungowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 16 day-old boy infant with an umbilical mass underwent operative exploration of the umbilicus. The mass proved to be a gallbladder incarcerated in a hernia of the umbilical cord. Distinguishing an omphalocele from an umbilical cord hernia is not obvious and can be arbitrary. Morphologically, the two terms both describe congenital abdominal wall defects covered by a membrane, typically containing abdominal organs. Subtle differences and clinical features between omphalocele and umbilical cord hernia are highlighted in this report.

  14. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

  15. Preparation of Hemoglobin-Containing Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    was used in early work with the lecithin complexes, and in all the tests with EC and HESA. This procedure consists of emulsifying the aqueous Hb...mineral oil containing 0.4% lecithin (soybean) and 0.4% Span 85 (sorbitan trioleate, Atlas Chemicals) a W/O emulsifier . " Cool the emulsion in an ice...solution, pH 7 mixed with 0.l-mL Ringer Locke solution. The GA solution was either emulsified by * sonication in the lecithin solution and the emulsion

  16. Development of Enzyme-Containing Functional Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    absorbed) roentgen shake slug torr (nm Hg , 0° C) 1.000 000 X E -10 1.013 25 X E +2 1.000 000 X E +2 1.000 000 X E -28 1.054 350 X E +3 4 .184 000...nanoparticles, containing no enzyme, after particle synthesis to demonstrate that the adsorption of the enzyme or the presence of nanoparticles was not the...thermo-responsive nanoparticle nor enzyme adsorption onto the surface of the nanoparticle were responsible for artificially increasing enzymatic

  17. Endolithic chlorophyll d-containing phototrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Lars; Larkum, Anthony W D; Norman, Anders; Qvortrup, Klaus; Chen, Min; Ralph, Peter; Sørensen, Søren J; Trampe, Erik; Kühl, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Cyanobacteria in the genus Acaryochloris are the only known oxyphototrophs that have exchanged chlorophyll a (Chl a) with Chl d as their primary photopigment, facilitating oxygenic photosynthesis with near infrared (NIR) light. Yet their ecology and natural habitats are largely unknown. We used hyperspectral and variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, scanning electron microscopy, photopigment analysis and DNA sequencing to show that Acaryochloris-like cyanobacteria thrive underneath crustose coralline algae in a widespread endolithic habitat on coral reefs. This finding suggests an important role of Chl d-containing cyanobacteria in a range of hitherto unexplored endolithic habitats, where NIR light-driven oxygenic photosynthesis may be significant.

  18. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  19. Thermally Tempering Open End Glass Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    III, IV, and V 25 10 Tempering apparatus 26 11 Apparatus used for cutting glass jars and bottles (From Fisher Scientific Company catalog) 27 12 Method...of holding glass container while in the kiln 28 13 Heating curve used to heat jars and bottles for eventual tempering 29 14 Stress patterns developed...Commercially available fibers 1.72 GPa (250,000 psi) Fibers in plastic 1.06 GPa (150,000 psi) Pressed ware 55 MPa (8,000 psi) Bulk glass design strength 3.45

  20. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  1. Container Surface Evaluation by Function Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, James G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Container images are analyzed for specific surface features, such as, pits, cracks, and corrosion. The detection of these features is confounded with complicating features. These complication features include: shape/curvature, welds, edges, scratches, foreign objects among others. A method is provided to discriminate between the various features. The method consists of estimating the image background, determining a residual image and post processing to determine the features present. The methodology is not finalized but demonstrates the feasibility of a method to determine the kind and size of the features present.

  2. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...... is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  3. Remote self-contained undersea monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R. E.

    1984-10-01

    A remote oceanographic data recording system which is self-contained battery operated and removably attachable to an external surface of a submerged hull without a need to penetrate said hull is presented. The system is capable of gathering and recording oceanographic data and may be joined to the hull of a submarine without interfering in submarine operation in any way. The system receives analog ac and dc electrical input signals from a variety of oceanographic data sensors and converts the signals to digital data signals for recording on magnetic tape cassette. The housing the system is watertight and capable of withstanding external hydrostatic pressures up to 1620 psi.

  4. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  5. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for the Berth Allocation and Container Stacking Problems in Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Molins, Mario; Barber, Federico

    The Container Stacking Problem and the Berth Allocation Problem are two important problems in maritime container terminal's management which are clearly related. Terminal operators normally demand all containers to be loaded into an incoming vessel should be ready and easily accessible in the terminal before vessel's arrival. Similarly, customers (i.e., vessel owners) expect prompt berthing of their vessels upon arrival. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligence based-integrated system to relate these problems. Firstly, we develop a metaheuristic algorithm for berth allocation which generates an optimized order of vessel to be served according to existing berth constraints. Secondly, we develop a domain-oriented heuristic planner for calculating the number of reshuffles needed to allocate containers in the appropriate place for a given berth ordering of vessels. By combining these optimized solutions, terminal operators can be assisted to decide the most appropriated solution in each particular case.

  6. Optimizing Time Windows For Managing Export Container Arrivals At Chinese Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2010-01-01

    waiting time, fuel consumption associated with truck idling, storage time of the containerized cargos and yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the total cost, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to find a near optimal time window arrangement. The optimized solution involves the position......Management of truck transport in a port area is important for Chinese container ports as heavy traffic congestion not only limits the terminal capacity but also generates serious air pollution. This paper explores an effective way to manage the truck traffic of export containers based on a time...... and the length of each time window. Finally, the model and the heuristic are tested using real data from a Chinese container terminal, and the result indicates that optimization of the time window can effectively flatten the peak traffic of export container trucks - one of the primary causes of road traffic...

  7. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yan, H.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is the first step in the resolution of the Direct Containment Heating (DCH) issue for the Zion Nuclear Power Plant using the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). This report includes the definition of a probabilistic framework that decomposes the DCH problem into three probability density functions that reflect the most uncertain initial conditions (UO{sub 2} mass, zirconium oxidation fraction, and steel mass). Uncertainties in the initial conditions are significant, but our quantification approach is based on establishing reasonable bounds that are not unnecessarily conservative. To this end, we also make use of the ROAAM ideas of enveloping scenarios and ``splintering.`` Two causal relations (CRs) are used in this framework: CR1 is a model that calculates the peak pressure in the containment as a function of the initial conditions, and CR2 is a model that returns the frequency of containment failure as a function of pressure within the containment. Uncertainty in CR1 is accounted for by the use of two independently developed phenomenological models, the Convection Limited Containment Heating (CLCH) model and the Two-Cell Equilibrium (TCE) model, and by probabilistically distributing the key parameter in both, which is the ratio of the melt entrainment time to the system blowdown time constant. The two phenomenological models have been compared with an extensive database including recent integral simulations at two different physical scales. The containment load distributions do not intersect the containment strength (fragility) curve in any significant way, resulting in containment failure probabilities less than 10{sup {minus}3} for all scenarios considered. Sensitivity analyses did not show any areas of large sensitivity.

  8. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  9. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  10. Prestressed concrete containment structural element test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, W. K.; Lee, K. J.; Cho, N. H.; Kang, H. C. [Dong Ah Construction Industrial Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    This research investigates the behavior of reinforced concrete members subjected to tension through uniaxial and biaxial tests. The review of technical papers on the uniaxial and biaxial tests is included in the research. The uniaxial tension tests are done for verifying several parameters used in the biaxial direct tension tests of containment wall panels. The strength of concrete, strength of reinforcing steel, and diameter of the steel are selected as uniaxial test parameters. The tension stiffening effect of reinforced concrete members is verified by uniaxial direct tension tests. Basic data on the test parameters and test methods for biaxial direct tension tests are obtained through the uniaxial direct tension test result and concrete property test data. The reaction frame used for the biaxial direct tension test of containment wall panel are designed with consideration of construction and transportation conditions. The test parameters of preliminary test specimen for the biaxial direct tension tests are selected and dimensions of the test specimen are determined. 14 refs., 59 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  11. Real quartic surfaces containing 16 skew lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Nieto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there is an open three-dimensional subvariety Ms of the Grassmannian of lines in ℙ3 which parametrizes smooth irreducible complex surfaces of degree 4 which are Heisenberg invariant, and each quartic contains 32 lines but only 16 skew lines, being determined by its configuration of lines, are called a double 16. We consider here the problem of visualizing in a computer the real Heisenberg invariant quartic surface and the real double 16. We construct a family of points l∈Ms parametrized by a two-dimensional semialgebraic variety such that under a change of coordinates of l into its Plüecker, coordinates transform into the real coordinates for a line L in ℙ3, which is then used to construct a program in Maple 7. The program allows us to draw the quartic surface and the set of transversal lines to L. Additionally, we include a table of a group of examples. For each test example we specify a parameter, the viewing angle of the image, compilation time, and other visual properties of the real surface and its real double 16. We include at the end of the paper an example showing the surface containing the double 16.

  12. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prevent physical damage or permanent deformation of the container or cover. (d) During treatment of a..., thermal or other treatment, in a container, whenever it is necessary for the container to be open,...

  13. Simplified containment event tree analysis for the Sequoyah Ice Condenser containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galyean, W.J.; Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-12-01

    An evaluation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment was performed. In this evaluation, simplified containment event trees (SCETs) were developed that utilized the vast storehouse of information generated by the NRC's Draft NUREG-1150 effort. Specifically, the computer programs and data files produced by the NUREG-1150 analysis of Sequoyah were used to electronically generate SCETs, as opposed to the NUREG-1150 accident progression event trees (APETs). This simplification was performed to allow graphic depiction of the SCETs in typical event tree format, which facilitates their understanding and use. SCETs were developed for five of the seven plant damage state groups (PDSGs) identified by the NUREG-1150 analyses, which includes: both short- and long-term station blackout sequences (SBOs), transients, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). Steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) and event-V PDSGs were not analyzed because of their containment bypass nature. After being benchmarked with the APETs, in terms of containment failure mode and risk, the SCETs were used to evaluate a number of potential containment modifications. The modifications were examined for their potential to mitigate or prevent containment failure from hydrogen burns or direct impingement on the containment by the core, (both factors identified as significant contributors to risk in the NUREG-1150 Sequoyah analysis). However, because of the relatively low baseline risk postulated for Sequoyah (i.e., 12 person-rems per reactor year), none of the potential modifications appear to be cost effective. 15 refs., 10 figs. , 17 tabs.

  14. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.-H. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-C. [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Min-Hwei College of Health Care Management, Tainan County 736, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-K. [College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chou, M.-Y. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H., E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.t [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-20

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO{sub 2}-based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO{sub 2} on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively, along with TiO{sub 2} on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  15. Mirrors Containing Biomimetic Shape-Control Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Curved mirrors of a proposed type would comprise lightweight sheets or films containing integral, biologically inspired actuators for controlling their surface figures. These mirrors could be useful in such applications as collection of solar energy, focusing of radio beams, and (provided sufficient precision could be achieved) imaging. These mirrors were originally intended for use in outer space, but it should also be possible to develop terrestrial versions. Several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles have described a variety of approaches to the design of curved, lightweight mirrors containing integral shape-control actuators. The primary distinction between the present approach and the prior approaches lies in the actuator design concept, which involves shapes and movements reminiscent of those of a variety of small, multi-armed animals. The shape and movement of an actuator of this type can also be characterized as reminiscent of that of an umbrella. This concept can be further characterized as a derivative of that of multifinger grippers, the fingers of which are bimorph bending actuators (see Figure 1). The fingers of such actuators can be strips containing any of a variety of materials that have been investigated for use as actuators, including such electroactive polymers as ionomeric polymer/metal composites (IPMCs), ferroelectric polymers, and grafted elastomers. A mirror according to this proposal would be made from a sheet of one of the actuator composites mentioned above. The design would involve many variables, including the pre-curvature and stiffness of the mirror sheet, the required precision of figure control, the required range of variation in focal length (see Figure 2), the required precision of figure control for imaging or non-imaging use, the bending and twisting moments needed to effect the required deformations, and voltage-tomoment coefficients of the actuators, and the voltages accordingly required for actuation. A typical design would call

  16. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  17. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  18. Containing health costs in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, P

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, a series of policy measures affecting both demand and supply components of health care have been adopted in different Latin American and Caribbean countries, as well as in Canada and the United States. In applying these measures various objectives have been pursued, among them: to mobilize additional resources to increase operating budgets; to reduce unnecessary utilization of health services and consumption of pharmaceuticals; to control increasing production costs; and to contain the escalation of health care expenditures. In terms of demand management, some countries have established cost-recovery programmes in an attempt to offset declining revenues. These measures have the potential to generate additional operating income in public facilities, particularly if charges are levied on hospital care. However, only scant information is available on the effects of user charges on demand, utilization, or unit costs. In terms of supply management, corrective measures have concentrated on limiting the quantity and the relative prices of different inputs and outputs. Hiring freezes, salary caps, limitations on new construction and equipment, use of drug lists, bulk procurement of medicines and vaccines, and budget ceilings are among the measures utilized to control production costs in the health sector. To moderate health care expenditures, various approaches have been followed to subject providers to 'financial discipline'. Among them, new reimbursement modalities such as prospective payment systems offer an array of incentives to modify medical practice. Cost-containment efforts have also spawned innovations in the organization and delivery of health services. Group plans have been established on the basis of prepaid premiums to provide directly much or all health care needs of affiliates and their families. The issue of intrasectorial co-ordination, particularly between ministries of health and social security institutions, has much relevance for cost

  19. Strengthening of nitrogen-containing maraging steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaputkina, L.M.; Prokoshkina, V.G.; Uluntsev, D.Yu. [Moskovskij Inst. Stali i Splavov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    The austenitic and austenitic-martensitic aging 15Cr(5-10)Ni2CuMoV(Nb)Ti-N - based steels were elaborated and investigated. These steels combine advantages of austenitic and martensitic steels and allow wide variety of phase compositions and mechanical properties. For nitrogen-containing austenitic and austenitic-martensitic steels it is possible to achieve, due to stress-induced martensitic transformation and thermomechanical treatment optimization, the strength level of martensitic-austenitic steels in a combination with high plasticity and fracture toughness inherent in pure austenitic structures. At the same time corrosion resistance of these steels in low-aggressive media is preserved and wear resistance increases as twice. (orig.)

  20. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  1. Silver containing sorbents: Physicochemical and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Rachkovskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New silver containing sorbents, based on mineral carriers, such as alumina and silica systems with a meso- and macro- porous structure, have a higher mechanical resistance and, hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemical composition of the surface. These sorbents are easy to find and relatively inexpensive, compared to their known equivalents. They are furthermore characterised by high specific surface and simple preparation, whilst the addition of silver considerably increases their antiseptic activity. The results of research of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the developed substances, as well as bio-comparability of sorbents with biological tissues, are presented in this paper. The modified material acts simultaneously as the carrier for active substances to the area of therapeutic application and as a sorbent used to remove toxic agents from such areas. This approach led us to modify the sorbent, and prolong the delivery of substances such as silver, as an effective antibacterial and antimycotic agent.

  2. Microstructuring of triazene containing copolyester films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, C.; Kunz, T.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The growing field of microtechnology has an increasing demand for affordable functional materials. Several strategies exist for improving the ablation behaviour of standard polymers. One is the copolymerization of a standard commercial polymer with a specialty polymer, in our case of a polyester and triazene group containing polyester. For comparison of the copolymers with different fractions of triazene groups we have determined the threshold fluences and the effective absorption coefficients. With respect to these ablation parameters, only small differences were found within the set of copolymers investigated. Only with AFM and SEM it was possible to detect that a minimum content of triazene groups is necessary for defined microstructure with sharp edges, whereby a resolution in the sub {mu}m scale has been achieved. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  3. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2010-10-08

    In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________

  4. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  5. New opioid affinity labels containing maleoyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, I; Orosz, G; Rónai, A Z; Makó, E; Medzihradszky, K; Borsodi, A

    1999-01-01

    Opioid receptor binding properties and pharmacological profiles of novel peptides containing maleoyl function were determined in order to develop new affinity labels. Based on the enkephalin structure peptide ligands were synthesized and tested. Both in in vitro receptor binding experiments and pharmacological studies, all ligands showed agonist character with relatively high affinity (Ki values in the nanomolar range) and good to moderate selectivity. Replacement of Gly2 in the enkephalin frame with D-Ala led to higher affinities with a small decrease in selectivity. The longer peptide chains resulted in compounds with high percentage (up to 86%) of irreversible binding. The selectivity pattern of the ligands is in good agreement with the data obtained from the pharmacological assays (guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens bioassays). The newly synthesized peptides could be used in further studies in order to determine more detailed characteristics of the ligand-receptor interaction.

  6. Thermohydrogel Containing Melanin for Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miri; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Min Ah; Ryu, Hyanghwa; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lee, Chang-Moon

    2016-12-01

    Melanin is an effective absorber of light and can extend to near infrared (NIR) regions. In this study, a natural melanin is presented as a photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) because it provides a good photothermal conversion efficiency, shows biodegradability, and does not induce long-term toxicity during retention in vivo. Poloxamer solution containing melanin (Pol-Mel) does not show any precipitation and shows sol-gel transition at body temperature. After irradiation from 808 nm NIR laser at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 3 min, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Pol-Mel is enough to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The tumor growth of mice bearing CT26 tumors treated with Pol-Mel injection and laser irradiation is suppressed completely without recurrence postirradiation. All these results indicate that Pol-Mel can become an attractive PTA for photothermal cancer therapy.

  7. [Rat brain cells containing ezrin (cytovillin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Kirik, O V; Giliarov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Ezrin (cytovillin or p81 protein) is an actin-binding protein, a member of ERM (ezrin, radixin and moesin) family, which species contribute to stabilization of the plasma membrane-formed structures. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the ezrin-containing cells in the rat brain and to describe their topography and morphological features. The most pronounced immunohistochemical reaction to ezrin was found in the epithelium of the choroid plexus, cells of the subcommissural organ and ventricular ependyma. Moreover, ezrin staining was also detected in the unidentifiable cells in the subventricular zone, rostral migration pathway and astrocytes in various brain areas. Preferential ezrin localization in the brain cells contributing to formation of barrier structures suggests its involvement in transport processes in the CNS.

  8. Studies of phthalocyanine-containing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pui Sze Priscilla

    This thesis reports the synthesis, spectroscopic and photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of phthalocyanine-containing polymers including poly(norbornene), poly(anhydride), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone). Chapter 1 gives a general overview of phthalocyanines including their synthesis and applications. Special emphasis has been placed on hydrophilic and non-aggregated phthalocyanines and their use in photodynamic therapy. In addition, different classes of phthalocyanine-containing polymers will also be mentioned. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of a series of poly(norbornene)s with zinc(II) phthalocyanine and amino acid moieties. The copolymers were prepared by copolymerization of 2-(2-norbornenylmethoxy)phthalocyaninatozinc(II) with 5-norbornenes substituted with phenylalanine and tyrosine. As shown by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, phthalocyanines in this series of polymer exhibit a rather strong aggregation tendency. Chapter 3 presents the synthesis, characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of a related series of amino acid- and sugar-containing poly(norbornene)s connected axially to a silicon(IV) phthalocyanine core. These polymers exhibit a good solubility in common organic solvents. Due to the axial polymeric substituents, these compounds are free from aggregation and give a high singlet oxygen quantum yield. These polymers in Cremophor EL emulsions also show a high photodynamic activity against HepG2 cells, in particular the polymer with protected galactose moieties. Chapter 4 reports a series of silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted with two poly(sebacic anhydride) chains as the axial ligands. The polymers form nanoparticles in water in the presence of surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). The degradation of the nanoparticles was carried out in alkaline media and was

  9. Synthesis of Boron-Containing Primary Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsuan Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, boron-containing primary amines were synthesized for use as building blocks in the study of peptoids. In the first step, Gabriel synthesis conditions were modified to enable the construction of seven different aminomethylphenyl boronate esters in good to excellent yields. These compounds were further utilized to build peptoid analogs via an Ugi four-component reaction (Ugi-4CR under microwave irradiation. The prepared Ugi-4CR boronate esters were then successfully converted to the corresponding boronic acids. Finally, the peptoid structures were successfully modified by cross-coupling to aryl/heteroaryl chlorides via a palladium-mediated Suzuki coupling reaction to yield the corresponding derivatives in moderate to good yields.

  10. Synthesis and ceramization of polycarbosilane containing beryllium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小忠; 周珊; 程勇; 杜作娟; 段曦东; 王超英

    2014-01-01

    Polycarbosilane containing beryllium (BPCS) precursors was prepared by the reaction of polycarbosilane (PCS) with beryllium acetylacetone (Be (acac)2). The analysis of structures and components of BPCS demonstrates that their main structures are basically the same as PCS. Ceramization of BPCS precursors shows that BPCS precursors are organic below 600 °C and inorganic at 800 °C. At 1400 °C, BPCS precursors convert into silicon carbide ceramics. The ceramization of different beryllium content precursors were studied, which show that beryllium plays an important role in the inhibition of crystalline grain growth ofβ-SiC at high temperature and it can adjust the dielectric constant of silicon carbide ceramics.

  11. Incarcerated Femoral Hernia Containing Ipsilateral Fallopian Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Atmatzidis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoral hernias are more common in women and lead to a substantial higher rate for an emergency operation, due to strangulation. Incarcerated femoral hernia with fallopian tube as a content is an extremely rare condition. A 20-year-old woman presented to the emergency department complaining of a 6-day right groin swelling, which became painful and tender to palpation during the last 48 hours. Preoperative ultrasonography detected an oedematous hernia sac, above the femoral vessels, suggesting the presence of an incarcerated femoral hernia. The patient eventually underwent emergency surgery and the diagnosis of a strangulated femoral hernia sac, containing fallopian tube, was established. No resection of the uterine tube was performed and the hernia was repaired with polypropylene plug. The postoperative period was uneventful and the woman was discharged on the second postoperative day.

  12. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of microwave plasmas containing hexamethyldisiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-10-01

    Low-pressure microwave discharges containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with admixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, used for the deposition of silicon containing films, have been studied spectroscopically. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS). The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and gas mixture at relatively low pressures, up to 50 Pa, and power values, up to 2 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of seven stable molecules, HMDSO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CO and CO2, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ IRLAS using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the temperature in the plasma hot and colder zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, three different methods based on emission and absorption spectroscopy data of N2, CH3 and CO have been used. In this approach line profile analysis has been combined with spectral simulation methods. The concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in the range between 1011 to 1015 cm-3, are in the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power, pressure and gas mixture on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the HMDSO precursor gas including its fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products was analyzed in detail.

  14. Lift-based up-ender and methods using same to manipulate a shipping container containing unirradiated nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    A shipping container containing an unirradiated nuclear fuel assembly is lifted off the ground by operating a crane to raise a lifting tool comprising a winch. The lifting tool is connected with the shipping container by a rigging line connecting with the shipping container at a lifting point located on the shipping container between the top and bottom of the shipping container, and by winch cabling connecting with the shipping container at the top of the shipping container. The shipping container is reoriented by operating the winch to adjust the length of the winch cabling so as to rotate the shipping container about the lifting point. Shortening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from a horizontal orientation to a vertical orientation, while lengthening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from the vertical orientation to the horizontal orientation.

  15. Cercozoa comprises both EF-1α-containing and EFL-containing members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Yabuki, Akinori; Nakayama, Takuro; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like protein (EFL) are considered to be functionally equivalent proteins involved in peptide synthesis. Eukaryotes can be fundamentally divided into 'EF-1α-containing' and 'EFL-containing' types. Recently, EF-1α and EFL genes have been surveyed across the diversity of eukaryotes to explore the origin and evolution of EFL genes. Although the phylum Cercozoa is a diverse group, gene data for either EFL or EF-1α are absent from all cercozoans except chlorarachniophytes which were previously defined as EFL-containing members. Our survey revealed that two members of the cercozoan subphylum Filosa (Thaumatomastix sp. and strain YPF610) are EFL-containing members. Importantly, we identified EF-1α genes from two members of Filosa (Paracercomonas marina and Paulinella chromatophora) and a member of the other subphylum Endomyxa (Filoreta japonica). All cercozoan EFL homologues could not be recovered as a monophyletic group in maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses, suggesting that lateral gene transfer was involved in the EFL evolution in this protist assemblage. In contrast, EF-1α analysis successfully recovered a monophyly of three homologues sampled from the two cercozoan subphyla. Based on the results, we postulate that cercozoan EF-1α genes have been vertically inherited, and the current EFL-containing species may have secondarily lost their EF-1α genes.

  16. Effects, Uptake, and Depuration Kinetics of Silver Oxide and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Marine Deposit Feeder, Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lina; Syberg, Kristian; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ag and CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have wide applications in industry and commercial products and may be released from wastewater into the aquatic environment. Limited information is currently available on metal ENP effects, uptake, and depuration kinetics in aquatic organisms. In the pre...

  17. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits on the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Pronker, A.E.; Kube, S.; Sokolowski, A.; Sola, J.C.; Marquiegui, M.A.; Scheidek, D.; Bonga, W.S.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct populatio

  18. Effects of tidal zonation on size and genetic traits of Mytilus edulis (L.) and Macoma balthica (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Bijok, P.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic and some ecophysiological traits of mussels collected in the European Arctic, up to their northeastern distribution limit in the Barents Sea, were studied and compared with traits of mussels from the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic. The genetic traits of these populations we-re analysed b

  19. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits in the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Pronker, A.E.; Kube, S.; Sokolowski, A.; Sola, J.C.; Marquiegui, M.A.; Schiedek, D.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct populatio

  20. DISSOLUTION OF FISSILE MATERIALS CONTAINING TANTALUM METAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

    2007-05-29

    The dissolution of composite materials containing plutonium (Pu) and tantalum (Ta) metals is currently performed in Phase I of the HB-Line facility. The conditions for the present flowsheet are the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal in the 15 L dissolver using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) at 95 C for 4-6 h.[1] The Ta metal, which is essentially insoluble in HNO{sub 3}/fluoride solutions, is rinsed with process water to remove residual acid, and then burned to destroy classified information. During the initial dissolution campaign, the total mass of Pu and Ta in the dissolver charge was limited to nominally 300 g. The reduced amount of Pu in the dissolver charge coupled with significant evaporation of solution during processing of several dissolver charges resulted in the precipitation of a fluoride salt contain Pu. Dissolution of the salt required the addition of aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) and a subsequent undesired 4 h heating cycle. As a result of this issue, HB-Line Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to optimize the dissolution flowsheet to reduce the cycle time, reduce the risk of precipitating solids, and obtain hydrogen (H{sub 2}) generation data at lower fluoride concentrations.[2] Using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material, we performed three experiments to demonstrate the dissolution of the Pu metal using HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.15 and 0.175 M KF. When 0.15 M KF was used in the dissolving solution, 95.5% of the Pu in the sample dissolved in approximately 6 h. The undissolved material included a small amount of Pu metal and plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) solids. Complete dissolution of the metal would have likely occurred if the dissolution time had been extended. This assumption is based on the steady increase in the Pu concentration observed during the last several hours of the experiment. We attribute the formation of PuO{sub 2} to the complexation

  1. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  2. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  6. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  7. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  8. 40 CFR 165.25 - Nonrefillable container standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonrefillable container standards. 165... PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and Residue Removal § 165.25 Nonrefillable container standards. (a) What Department of Transportation (DOT)...

  9. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-3 - Approved container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved container. 188.10-3 Section 188.10-3 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-3 Approved container. This term means a container which is properly labeled, marked and approved by DOT for the commodity which it contains....

  11. The inner containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostermann, Dirk; Krumb, Christian; Wienand, Burkhard [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    On February 12, 2014 the containment pressure and subsequent leak tightness tests on the containment of the Finnish Olkiluoto 3 EPR trademark reactor building were completed successfully. The containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor consists of an outer containment to protect the reactor building against external hazards (such as airplane crash) and of an inner containment that is subjected to internal overpressure and high temperature in case of internal accidents. The current paper gives an overview of the containment structure, the design criteria, the validation by analyses and experiments and the containment pressure test.

  12. Ehrlich tumor inhibition using doxorubicin containing liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbialy, Nihal Saad; Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, DOX in solution or DOX encapsulated within liposomes prepared from DMPC/CHOL/DPPG/PEG-PE (100:100:60:4) in molar ratio. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC50 of liposomes containing DOX was greater than that DOX only. Tumor growth inhibition curves in terms of mean tumor size (cm(3)) were presented. All the DOX formulations were effective in preventing tumor growth compared to saline. Treatment with DOX loaded liposomes displayed a pronounced inhibition in tumor growth than treatment with DOX only. Histopathological examination of the entire tumor sections for the various groups revealed marked differences in cellular features accompanied by varying degrees in necrosis percentage ranging from 12% for saline treated mice to 70% for DOX loaded liposome treated mice. The proposed liposomal formulation can efficiently deliver the drug into the tumor cells by endocytosis (or passive diffusion) and lead to a high concentration of DOX in the tumor cells. The study showed that the formulation of liposomal doxorubicin improved the therapeutic index of DOX and had increased anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich tumor models.

  13. Nanoporous Glasses for Nuclear Waste Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is in progress to incorporate nuclear waste in new matrices with high structural stability, resistance to thermal shock, and high chemical durability. Interactions with water are important for materials used as a containment matrix for the radio nuclides. It is indispensable to improve their chemical durability to limit the possible release of radioactive chemical species, if the glass structure is attacked by corrosion. By associating high structural stability and high chemical durability, silica glass optimizes the properties of a suitable host matrix. According to an easy sintering stage, nanoporous glasses such as xerogels, aerogels, and composite gels are alternative ways to synthesize silica glass at relatively low temperatures (≈1,000–1,200°C. Nuclear wastes exist as aqueous salt solutions and we propose using the open pore structure of the nanoporous glass to enable migration of the solution throughout the solid volume. The loaded material is then sintered, thereby trapping the radioactive chemical species. The structure of the sintered materials (glass ceramics is that of nanocomposites: actinide phases (~100 nm embedded in a vitreous silica matrix. Our results showed a large improvement in the chemical durability of glass ceramic over conventional nuclear glass.

  14. Clonogenicity: holoclones and meroclones contain stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Charlotte M; Ahmed, Aamir; Masters, John R

    2014-01-01

    When primary cultures of normal cells are cloned, three types of colony grow, called holoclones, meroclones and paraclones. These colonies are believed to be derived from stem cells, transit-amplifying cells and differentiated cells respectively. More recently, this approach has been extended to cancer cell lines. However, we observed that meroclones from the prostate cancer cell line DU145 produce holoclones, a paradoxical observation as meroclones are thought to be derived from transit-amplifying cells. The purpose of this study was to confirm this observation and determine if both holoclones and meroclones from cancer cell lines contain stem cells. We demonstrated that both holoclones and meroclones can be serially passaged indefinitely, are highly proliferative, can self-renew to form spheres, are serially tumorigenic and express stem cell markers. This study demonstrates that the major difference between holoclones and meroclones derived from a cancer cell line is the proportion of stem cells within each colony, not the presence or absence of stem cells. These findings may reflect the properties of cancer as opposed to normal cells, perhaps indicating that the hierarchy of stem cells is more extensive in cancer.

  15. A versatile dinucleating ligand containing sulfonamide groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Jonas; Witt, Hannes; Cameron, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Copper, iron, and gallium coordination chemistries of the new pentadentate bis-sulfonamide ligand 2,6-bis(N-2-pyridylmethylsulfonamido)-4-methylphenol (psmpH3) were investigated. PsmpH3 is capable of varying degrees of deprotonation, and notably, complexes containing the fully trideprotonated...... ligand can be prepared in aqueous solutions using only divalent metal ions. Two of the copper(II) complexes, [Cu2(psmp)(OH)] and [Cu2(psmp)(OAc)2]-, demonstrate the anticipated 1:2 ligand/metal stoichiometry and show that the dimetallic binding site created for exogenous ligands possesses high inherent...... flexibility since additional one- and three-atom bridging ligands bridge the two copper(II) ions in each complex, respectively. This gives rise to a difference of 0.4 Å in the Cu···Cu distances. Complexes with 2:3 and 2:1 ligand/metal stoichiometries for the divalent and trivalent metal ions, respectively...

  16. Multisphere measurements in power reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Tanner, J.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W. (Battelle-Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    For more than 12 years, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has performed neutron measurements in commercial nuclear power plants to determine the response of the plant's personnel dosimeters and survey meters. The multisphere spectrometer system has been used in many of these studies because it covers a wide range of neutron energies and is widely used in the nuclear industry. The system used by PNL employs a 1.27- x 1.27-cm LiI crystal in seven moderated configurations with moderating sphere sizes ranging up to 30.5 cm in diameter. The collected count rates are unfolded using the computer code SPUNIT and a modification of the Sanna response functions. Multisphere measurements have been performed in eight different light water reactors (LWRs), including both boiling water reactor (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Unfolded energy distributions are typically low with average energies often <100 keV. Spectra in BWRs frequently show higher average energies than those in PWRs. The most useful application of multisphere measurements in LWR containments is for measuring energy distributions for comparisons to other multisphere measurements.

  17. Pharmacology of selenium-containing compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullaev, R.A.; Gusenov, D.Ya.; Babakhanov, R.A.; Mirzoev, Kh.M.

    1985-09-01

    Selenium-containing compounds are used in increasing frequency in medicine; they affect biological indices of the human body showing anti-histamine and antioxidative activity; they can cause acute intoxication, promote tumor development in liver, and help regulate the functions of the retina. A selenium compound (I) was investigated in depth. I was a colorless, crystalline powder, soluble in water with a molecular weight of 341.5, and elemental composition C/sub 13/H/sub 25/SeNO/sub 2/. On the basis of experimental data, its LD/sub 50/ on s.c. administration to white mice was 600 mg/kg. I.v. injections of I in doses of 25-50 mg/kg showed no significant effect on the heart activity. A 75 mg/kg dose was fatal within 1-2 minutes after an i.v. administration. I.V. injection to cats at a dose of 50 mg/kg resulted in a transient drop of the arterial pressure which returned to normal after 5-10 minutes. The respiration rate and its amplitude decreased and returned gradually to normal level after 20-30 minutes. 18 references, 2 figures.

  18. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  19. Fingerprinting desmosine-containing elastin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schräder, Christoph U; Heinz, Andrea; Majovsky, Petra; Schmelzer, Christian E H

    2015-05-01

    Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of jawed vertebrates and provides elasticity to numerous tissues. It is secreted in the form of its soluble precursor tropoelastin, which is subsequently cross-linked in the course of the elastic fiber assembly. The process involves the formation of the two tetrafunctional amino acids desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDES), which are unique to elastin. The resulting high degree of cross-linking confers remarkable properties, including mechanical integrity, insolubility, and long-term stability to the protein. These characteristics hinder the structural elucidation of mature elastin. However, MS(2) data of linear and cross-linked peptides released by proteolysis can provide indirect insights into the structure of elastin. In this study, we performed energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation experiments of DES, IDES, their derivatives, and DES-/IDES-containing peptides to determine characteristic product ions. It was found that all investigated compounds yielded the same product ion clusters at elevated collision energies. Elemental composition determination using the exact masses of these ions revealed molecular formulas of the type CxHyN, suggesting that the pyridinium core of DES/IDES remains intact even at relatively high collision energies. The finding of these specific product ions enabled the development of a similarity-based scoring algorithm that was successfully applied on LC-MS/MS data of bovine elastin digests for the identification of DES-/IDES-cross-linked peptides. This approach facilitates the straightforward investigation of native cross-links in elastin.

  20. Fabrication of fluorescent chitosan-containing microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang R.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intense emission peaks of Eu(DBM3Phen (DBM and Phen are dibenzoylmethane and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively in the microcapsules containing molecules of quaternary ammonium chitosan (QACS and sodium alginate are observed. The microcapsules are assembled by using CaCO3 particles as template cores by the layer-by-layer (LbL technique. Observation of microcapsules by the fluorescence mode and the transmission mode in the confocal laser scanning microscopy shows that the microcapsules are intact after core decomposition. Fluorescence under ultraviolet irradiation comes directly from the Eu(DBM3Phen. Homogeneous assembly of Eu(DBM3Phen can be deduced due to the homogeneous fluorescence of the microcapsules in the fluorescence micrographs. The microcapsules show adherence to solid substrates due to large quantities of hydroxyl groups of QACS. AFM measurements of dried hollow microcapsules with only 4 bilayers of (CS/SA fabricated with Eu(DBM3Phen show the intact shell with a thickness of 3.0 nm. Regarding the biocompatible natural polysaccharides and the intense fluorescence emission, the microcapsules in this work might be of great importance in potential application in drug delivery and bioassay.

  1. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43N/mm(2) and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference.

  2. Spinodal Decomposition in Mixtures Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenekvitz, J.

    1998-03-01

    Spinodal decomposition in mixtures containing two immiscible liquids (A and B) plus surfactant was investigated using a recently developed (J. Melenkevitz and S. H. Javadpour, J. Chem. Phys., 107, 623 (1997).) 3-component Ginzburg-Landau model. The time dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations governing the evolution of structure were numerically integrated in 2-dimensions. We found the growth rate of the average domain size, R(t), decreased with increasing surfactant concentration over a wide range of relative amounts of A and B. This can be attributed to the surfactant accumulating at the growing interface between the immiscible liquids, which leads to a reduction in the surface tension. At late times, the growth rate was noticeably altered when thermal fluctuations were added to the numerical simulations. In this case, power law behavior was observed for R(t) at late times, R(t) ~ t^α, with the exponent α decreasing as the amount of surfactant increased. The dynamics at early times were determined by linearizing the TDGL equations about a uniformly mixed state. The growth rate at ealry times was found to be strongly dependent on the model parameters describing the surfactant miscibility in A and B and the surfactant strength. Comparison with recent measurements on SBR / PB mixtures with added PB-SBR diblock copolymer will also be presented.

  3. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bum-Jin [Ministry of Science & Technology, Kyunggi-Do (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Kang, Chang-Sun, [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  4. Properties of concrete containing used engine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Shafiq

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years cement replacement materials, industrial by-products and agricultural wastes in concrete production are widely used. It imparts positive environmental effect because the waste materials are not released to the environment. It was reported that the leakage of motor oil onto concrete surfaces in old grinding units increased the resistance such concrete to freezing and thawing, it made to understand that the effect is similar to adding an air-entraining chemical admixture to the concrete. However, the hypothesis is not backed by significant research study and not reported in the available literature. This paper presents results of the experimental study conducted to investigate the effects of used engine oil on properties of fresh and hardened concrete.  With the addition of used engine oil, concrete slump was increased by 18% to 38% and air content by 26% to 58% as compare to the slump of control concrete. Porosity and oxygen permeability of concrete containing used engine oil was also reduced and the compressive strength was obtained approximately same as that of the control mix

  5. Evaluation of seedoil containing wild species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondelmann, W.; Radatz, W.

    1984-01-01

    Six herbaceous seedoil containing wild species were evaluated with respect to agronomic traits and chemical characteristics of their seeds. Furthermore, the inherent wild-type characters were defined and possibilities for their improvement discussed. It could be demonstrated that the vegetation cycle of the annual species was comparable to that of summer rape; biennials had a naturally exceptional position. Because of the very common seed-fall no exact data on yield were possible. Nevertheless, the starting point for grain yield can be considered encouraging. Also seed size (1000-kernel-weight) is favourable. Moreover, the species in question generally are adapted to modern cultivation techniques. With respect to oil content and fatty acid composition most of these species exhibited means and ranges, which are considered favourable. But, some species need a broader genetic base. From oleic acid (C18:1) to nervonic acid (24:1) all characteristic unsaturated long-chained fatty acids at least once show an order, that seems interesting for exploitation. Thus, besides seed oil quantity there is a qualitative aspect. The various wild-type characteristics are of more or less importance depending on the species in question. Using suitable selection methods, which succeeded in two cases, and for some species also a larger variability it seems to be possible to achieve an improved character expression in the long run, which finally would provide base material for breeder's use.

  6. Pattern selection in a horizontally vibrated container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J; Tinao, I; Laveron-Simavilla, A; Lopez, C A, E-mail: jeff.porter@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    We present results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the patterns realized by surface waves within an open rectangular container subjected to horizontal vibrations at frequencies of 40-100 Hz. The first instability exhibited by the primary harmonic wave field is subharmonic, and may be identified with the cross-wave instability often seen in wave tank experiments. We show that, contrary to common theoretical and experimental assumptions, and despite their name, these subharmonic waves are not oriented crosswise, but at an intermediate angle with respect to the axis of vibration. Hence, the pattern selection problem for horizontally forced Faraday waves is more complex than has previously been assumed. We establish the robustness of this obliquely oriented surface wave pattern by varying the forcing frequency and amplitude, the fluid viscosity, the fluid depth, and the boundary conditions. Previous work on cross-waves is reviewed and discussed in relation to the current results. Finally, numerical simulations using a reduced model with an appropriate forcing term are used to support the generality of the experimental observations. (paper)

  7. Properties of liposomal membranes containing lysolecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, T; Inoue, K; Nojima, S

    1976-06-01

    Liposomes have been prepared with lysolecithin (1-acyl-sn-3-glycerylphosphorylcholine), egg lecithin (3-sn-phosphatidylcholine), dicetyl phosphate, and cholesterol. The ability to function as a barrier to the diffusion of glucose marker and the sensitivities of the liposomes to hypotonic treatment and other reagents which modified the permeability were examined. Generally, lysolecithin incorporation decreased the effectiveness of the membranes as a barrier to glucose and made the membranes more "osmotically fragile." Cholesterol incorporation counteracted the effect of incorporated lysolecithin. The more cholesterol incorporated into liposomes, the more lysolecthin could be incorporated into the membrane without loss of function as a barrier. With more than 50 mole% of colesterol, lysolecithin alone could form membranes which were practically impermeable to glucose. The hemolytic activity of lysolecithin was affected by mixing with various lecithins or cholesterol. Liposomes containing lysolecithin, which have the ability to trap glucose marker, showed poor hemolytic activity, while lipid micelles with lysolecithin (which could trap little glucose) showed almost the same hemolytic activity as lysolecithin itself. There seems to be a close correlation between hemolytic activity and barrier function of lipid micelles.

  8. BEAM CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.L.; Casey, W.; Job, P.K.

    2010-05-23

    The shielding design for the NSLS-II will provide adequate protection for the full injected beam loss in two periods of the ring around the injection point, but the remainder of the ring is shielded for lower losses of {le} 10% full beam. This will require a system to insure that beam losses don't exceed these levels for a period of time that could cause excessive radiation levels outside the shield walls. This beam containment system will measure, provide a level of control and alarm indication of the beam power losses along the beam path from the source (e-gun, linac) thru the injection system and the storage ring. This system will consist of collimators that will provide limits to (and potentially to measure) the beam miss-steering and control the loss points of the charge and monitors that will measure the average beam current losses along the beam path and alarm when this beam power loss exceeds the level set by the shielding specifications. This will require some new ideas in beam loss detection capability and collimation. The initial planning and R&D program will be presented.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of proliposomes containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Mei-Ying; Guo, Ying-Zhi; Pan, Huai-Zhong; Yu, He-Ming; Gu, Zhong-Wei

    2005-06-01

    Clotrimazole (CT)-containing proliposomes were prepared by penetrating an ethanol solution of CT and Egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) into microporous sorbitol particles, followed by vacuum evaporation of the solvent. As a result, CT proliposomes with free-flowing flowability were obtained. On contact with water, the proliposomes were rapidly converted into a liposomal dispersion, in which a certain amount of CT was entrapped by the liposomes. The result in scanning electronic micrograph confirmed the formation of liposomes structures from proliposomes, and the particles revealed round or ellipse. The ratio of drug to total lipid, ratio of PC to cholesterol and ratio of lipid to sorbitol affected the entrapment efficiency (EE%). The EE% of optimized formulation (CT 10 mg, 0.1 g total lipid, PC/CH ratio is 60 : 40 and 1 g sorbitol) in this investigation was 96.2+/-1.5%. The proliposomes system can provide sustaining release in simulated vaginal fluid at 37+/-1 degrees C for 24 h. In-vivo performance of blank proliposomes, a physical mixture of sorbitol and drug, clotrimazole proliposomes and commercial ointment formulation were evaluated using antifungal activity test. At 7 d post-dose, the c.f.u. of C. albicans decreased in proliposomes-treated groups than ointment and the physical mixture (t-Student, pcandidasis with reduced dosing interval.

  10. Self-healing coatings containing microcapsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Le-ping; Wang, Si-jie; Li, Wu-jun

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of epoxy resin filled microcapsules was investigated for healing of cracks generated in coatings. Microcapsules were prepared by in situ polymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin to form shell over epoxy resin droplets. Characteristics of these capsules were studied by 3D measuring laser microscope, particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to investigate their surface morphology, size distribution, chemical structure and thermal stability, respectively. The results indicate that microcapsules containing epoxy resins can be synthesized successfully. The size is around 100 μm. The rough outer surface of microcapsule is composed of agglomerated urea-formaldehyde nanoparticles. The size and surface morphology of microcapsule can be controlled by selecting different processing parameters. The microcapsules basically exhibit good storage stability at room temperature, and they are chemically stable before the heating temperature is up to approximately 200 °C. The model system of self-healing coating consists of epoxy resin matrix, 10 wt% microencapsulated healing agent, 2 wt% catalyst solution. The self-healing function of this coating system is evaluated through self-healing testing of damaged and healed coated steel samples.

  11. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  12. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may...

  13. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.9 Transport... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  14. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Stamps, D.W.; Tadios, E.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudson, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-6075 brings to closure the DCH issue for the Zion plant. It includes the documentation of the peer review process for NUREG/CR-6075, the assessments of four new splinter scenarios defined in working group meetings, and modeling enhancements recommended by the working groups. In the four new scenarios, consistency of the initial conditions has been implemented by using insights from systems-level codes. SCDAP/RELAP5 was used to analyze three short-term station blackout cases with Different lead rates. In all three case, the hot leg or surge line failed well before the lower head and thus the primary system depressurized to a point where DCH was no longer considered a threat. However, these calculations were continued to lower head failure in order to gain insights that were useful in establishing the initial and boundary conditions. The most useful insights are that the RCS pressure is-low at vessel breach metallic blockages in the core region do not melt and relocate into the lower plenum, and melting of upper plenum steel is correlated with hot leg failure. THE SCDAP/RELAP output was used as input to CONTAIN to assess the containment conditions at vessel breach. The containment-side conditions predicted by CONTAIN are similar to those originally specified in NUREG/CR-6075.

  15. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Stamps, D.W.; Tadios, E.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudson, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-6075 brings to closure the DCH issue for the Zion plant. It includes the documentation of the peer review process for NUREG/CR-6075, the assessments of four new splinter scenarios defined in working group meetings, and modeling enhancements recommended by the working groups. In the four new scenarios, consistency of the initial conditions has been implemented by using insights from systems-level codes. SCDAP/RELAP5 was used to analyze three short-term station blackout cases with Different lead rates. In all three case, the hot leg or surge line failed well before the lower head and thus the primary system depressurized to a point where DCH was no longer considered a threat. However, these calculations were continued to lower head failure in order to gain insights that were useful in establishing the initial and boundary conditions. The most useful insights are that the RCS pressure is-low at vessel breach metallic blockages in the core region do not melt and relocate into the lower plenum, and melting of upper plenum steel is correlated with hot leg failure. THE SCDAP/RELAP output was used as input to CONTAIN to assess the containment conditions at vessel breach. The containment-side conditions predicted by CONTAIN are similar to those originally specified in NUREG/CR-6075.

  16. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture...

  17. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., by aircraft. Batteries containing liquid sodium may be transported by motor vehicle, rail car or... preventing external short circuits, such as by providing complete electrical insulation of battery terminals or other external electrical connectors. Battery terminals or other electrical connectors penetrating...

  18. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R. [Inst. for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology, Campus Nord (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  19. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint... Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service...

  20. Conjugated organometallic materials containing tungsten centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marya

    Our group is interested in the optical and electronic properties of organometallic analogues of conjugated organic compounds. Specifically, in this thesis we will discuss the properties of complexes in which W≡C moieties replace C≡C fragments within the framework of oligo(phenyleneethynylenes) and a C4-polyyne. A family of derivatives of the type Ph(C≡CC6H4 )m(L)4W≡C(C6H 4C≡C)nPh (m = 0, 1; n = 0, 1, 2) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, electronic-absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. This substitution has allowed us to directly compare the electronic and optical properties of these organometallic complexes with those of their organic analogues. We found that while these systems exhibit redox and spectroscopic properties similar to those of their organic counterparts they also exhibit new characteristics that are due to the incorporation of the metal center. The design of these compounds has also allowed us to address how the position of the metal within the backbone affects the electronic and optical properties of these compounds. We found that the position of the metal is important in controlling the electronic structure of the material, thus suggesting that the properties of these compounds can be further tuned by changing the position of the metal within the conjugated carbon chain. In addition, we have appended sulfur and isocyanide functionalities to oligo(phenyleneethynylene) analogues. A family of compounds of the type Cl(dppe) 2W(≡CC6H4-4-(C≡CC6H 4)m-4'-R) (m = l, 2; R = N≡C, SCH2CH 2Si(CH3)3) have been prepared and characterized by electronic-absorption spectroscopy and electrochemistry. Differences between the sulfur and isocyanide functionalities are examined, along with the effects of extending conjugation along the arylidyne chain. Evidence that the sulfur-containing arylidyne complexes form self-assembled monolayers on Au and Pt electrodes is presented. In addition, the electron-transfer rates for

  1. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  2. Isothermal reduction of titanomagnetite concentrates containing coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Hu; Xue-wei Lü; Chen-guang Bai; Gui-bao Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The isothermal reduction of the Panzhihua titanomagnetite concentrates (PTC) briquette containing coal under argon atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetry in an electric resistance furnace within the temperature range of 1250-1350°C. The samples reduced in argon at 1350°C for different time were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Model-fitting and model-free methods were used to evaluate the apparent activation energy of the reduction reaction. It is found that the reduction rate is very fast at the early stage, and then, at a later stage, the reduction rate becomes slow and decreases gradually to the end of the reduction. It is also observed that the reduction of PTC by coal depends greatly on the temperature. At high temperatures, the reduction degree reaches high values faster and the final value achieved is higher than at low temperatures. The final phase composition of the reduced PTC-coal briquette consists in iron and fer-rous-pseudobrookite (FeTi2O5), while Fe2.75Ti0.25O4, Fe2.5Ti0.5O4, Fe2.25Ti0.75O4, ilmenite (FeTiO3) and wustite (FeO) are intermediate products. The reaction rate is controlled by the phase boundary reaction for reduction degree less than 0.2 with an apparent activation energy of about 68 kJ·mol-1 and by three-dimensional diffusion for reduction degree greater than 0.75 with an apparent activation energy of about 134 kJ·mol-1. For the reduction degree in the range of 0.2-0.75, the reaction rate is under mixed control, and the activation energy increases with the increase of the reduction degree.

  3. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  4. Photochemical Formation of Sulfur-Containing Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2017-06-01

    In order to understand planetary climate systems, modeling the properties of atmospheric aerosols is vital. Aerosol formation plays an important role in planetary climates and is tied to feedback loops that can either warm or cool a planet. Sulfur compounds are known to play an important role in new particle aerosol formation and have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere; however, several discrepancies arise when comparing observations of the Venusian atmosphere with model predictions. This suggests that there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is concerning given recent renewed interest in sulfate injections in the stratosphere for solar radiation management geo-engineering schemes. We investigate the role of sunlight as a potential driver of the formation of sulfur-containing aerosols. I will present recent work investigating the generation of large quantities of aerosol from the irradiation of mixtures of SO_2 with water and organic species, using a solar simulator that mimics the light that is available in the Earth's troposphere and the Venusian middle atmosphere. I will present on recent work done in our lab suggesting the formation of sulfurous acid, H_2SO_3, and describe experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally I will present on new work showing the highly reactive nature of electronically excited SO_2 with saturated alkane species. The implications of this photochemically induced sulfur aerosol formation in the atmosphere of Earth and other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  5. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  6. STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

    2010-02-01

    Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

  7. On the complexity of container stowage planning problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the kk-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed in stacks such that at most kk containers must be removed in order to reach containers below them. We first solve an open problem introduced by Avriel et al. (2000) by showing...... that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the complexity of this problem from NP-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of the current state-of-the-art abstraction of container ship stowage planning, wherein containers and slots are grouped together. To do this, we define...... the hatch overstow problem, in which a set of containers are placed on top of the hatches of a container ship such that the number of containers that are stowed on hatches that must be accessed is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-complete by a reduction from the set-covering problem, which means...

  8. Polythiophenes containing in-chain cobaltabisdicarbollide centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bruno; Hao, Erhong; Lejeune, Zorabel M; Amuhaya, Edith K; Barrière, Frédéric; Garno, Jayne C; Vicente, M Graça H

    2010-03-01

    New cobalt(III) bis(dicarbollide) complexes covalently linked to two 2-oligothienyl units have been synthesized and electropolymerized in acetonitrile electrolyte in order to produce the corresponding polythiophene films containing in-chain metallic centers. The polymer films electrogenerated from the bithienyl (4b) and terthienyl (4c) derivatives display redox processes attributed to the Co(III)/Co(II) couple at ca. -1.1 V vs SCE and to the p-doping/undoping of the expected quaterthienyl and sexithienyl segments at ca. 0.8 V vs SCE. In contrast, the anodic oxidation of the thienyl (4a) derivative leads to passivation of the electrode surface. As the length of the oligothiophene substituents increases, the metallic and dicarbollide cage carbon atoms contributions in the HOMO decrease dramatically so that the highest occupied frontier orbitals of 4b and 4c can be considered as almost purely oligothiophene-based. From further UV-vis spectroscopy analysis, it is demonstrated that the polymer incorporating the sexithienyl segments is more conjugated than that with the quaterthienyl segments as the absorption maximum for the interband pi-pi* transition was observed at 410 and 448 nm for poly(4b) and poly(4c) respectively. Furthermore, these polymers display a more extended degree of conjugation than the parent oligothiophenes. Such features indicate a significant electronic delocalization through the cobaltabisdicarbollide moiety. Their conducting probe atomic force microscopy characterization indicates that poly(4b) and poly(4c) behave like heavily doped semiconductors rather than pure semiconductors. Mean conductivity values extracted from the current-voltage profiles are 1.4 x 10(-4) and 7.5 x 10(-4) S cm(-1) for poly(4b) and poly(4c), respectively. Such materials are found to be efficient for the electrocatalytic reduction of protons to dihydrogen, as exemplified for poly(4b). The overpotential for hydrogen evolution is significantly decreased by ca. 230 mV with

  9. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  10. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  11. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, J W.

    1998-10-20

    The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of explosive at the same height and located anywhere within 2 feet of the edge of a region on the floor called the anvil. Other requirements were that the chamber be able to accommodate the penetrations of the existing bullnose of the Bunker 801 flash X-ray machine and the roof of the underground camera room. These requirements and provisions for blast-resistant doors formed the essential basis for the design. The design efforts resulted in a steel-reinforced concrete snucture measuring (on the inside) 55 x 5 1 feet by 30 feet high. The walls and ceiling are to be approximately 6 feet thick. Because the 60-Kg charge is not located in the geometric center of the volume and a 35-K:: charge could be located anywhere in a prescribed area, there will be different dynamic pressures and impulses on the various walls floor, and ceiling, depending upon the weights and locations of the charges. The detailed calculations and specifications to achieve the design criteria were performed by Parsons and are included in Reference 1. Reference 2, Structures to Resist the E xts of Accidental L%plosions (TMS- 1300>, is the primary design manual for structures of this type. It includes an analysis technique for the calculation of blast loadings within a cubicle or containment-type structure. Parsons used the TM5- 1300 methods to calculate the loadings on the various fling chamber surfaces for the design criteria explosive weights and locations. At LLNL the same methods were then used to determine the firing zones for other weights and elevations that would give the same or lesser loadings. Although very laborious, a hand

  13. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  14. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  15. Water Balance Covers For Waste Containment: Principles and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Balance Covers for Waste Containment: Principles and Practices introduces water balance covers and compares them with conventional approaches to waste containment. The authors provided detailed analysis of the fundamentals of soil physics and design issues, introduce appl...

  16. An overview of Linux container based network emulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peach, Schalk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Container-Based Emulator, based on the requirements of the end user. The paper concludes with a summary of the current state of Container-Based Emulators, and proposes future research areas to be explored....

  17. Storage Optimization for Export Containers in the Port of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Türsel Eliiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider a real-life export container storage problem at an important container terminal in the Port of Izmir, Turkey. Currently, the container storage decisions at the port are taken by operators manually, which leads to continuous unnecessary re-handling movements of the containers. High transportation costs, waste of time, and inefficient capacity utilization in the container storage area are the consequences of non-optimal decisions. The main goal of this study is to minimize the transportation costs and the number of re-handling moves while storing the export containers at the terminal yard. We formulate the problem in two stages. While the first stage assigns the containers of the same vessel to a group of yard bays via an optimization model, the second stage decides on the exact location of each container with the help of an efficient heuristic approach. The experimental results with real data are presented and discussed.

  18. Container Management: A Necessary Strategy for Improved Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    one-stop shop for newly purchased containers. This would allow containers just purchased by DoD to be fully inspected, get the “G” sticker applied...contain Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID ) to maintain ITV if the pallet is downloaded or transloaded. The Army Container Asset Management System...and AV systems are not effective in theater. In October 2010, a DoD inspection of RFID tags at the Hairaton border crossing in Afghanistan revealed

  19. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  20. 46 CFR 205.5 - Contracts containing disputes article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts containing disputes article. 205.5 Section 205... AUDIT APPEALS; POLICY AND PROCEDURE § 205.5 Contracts containing disputes article. When a contract contains a disputes article, the disputes article will govern the bases for negotiating disputes...

  1. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SOME COPPER CONTAINING HERBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, V. Hazeena; Elango, V.; Manju, R.

    1997-01-01

    Siddha system specifies medicinal plants containing various metal constituents for curing ailments. The plants reported as copper containing were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometic analysis. Among these mangifera indica and coccinia indica were found to contain comparatively higher content of copper while manganese was move in coccinia indica aloe perfoliata, cassia auriculata and Nelumbium nicifera. PMID:22556811

  2. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped... commercial designation of the respirator it contains and all appropriate approval labels....

  3. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped... commercial designation of the respirator it contains, and all appropriate approval labels....

  4. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    A container for storage of radioactive material comprises a container body and a closure member. The closure member is coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open).

  5. Developing New Methods for Efficient Container Stacking Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Gharehgozli (Amir)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContainerized transportation has become an essential part of the intermodal freight transport. Millions of containers pass through container terminals on an annual basis. Handling a large number of containers arriving and leaving terminals by different modalities including the new mega-

  6. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  7. 7 CFR 915.305 - Florida Avocado Container Regulation 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida Avocado Container Regulation 5. 915.305... AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.305 Florida Avocado Container Regulation 5. (a) No handler shall handle any avocados for the fresh market from the production area to...

  8. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  9. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing... protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Evaluating impact of truck announcements on container stacking efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco); B. Borgman (Bram); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContainer stacking rules are an important factor in container terminal efficiency. We build on prior research and use a discrete-event simulation model to evaluate the impact of a truck announcement system on the performance of online container stacking rules. The information that is con

  12. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  13. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for...

  14. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for...

  15. 7 CFR 920.303 - Container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container marking regulations. 920.303 Section 920.303... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.303 Container marking regulations. No handler shall ship any kiwifruit except in accordance with the following terms and conditions: (a) Each package or container of kiwifruit shall bear...

  16. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  17. Transient Spectroscopic Properties of [60]Fullerene-Containing Cyclic Sulphoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The properties of the triplet excited state of [60]fullerene-containing cyclic sulphoxide have been investigated by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Transient absorption bands of [60]fullerene-containing cyclic sulphoxide showed two decay-components, which were attributed to triplet excited states of different spin multiplicity. The properties of photoexcited states of [60]fullerene-containing cyclic sulphoxide are also reported.

  18. 40 CFR 156.140 - Identification of container types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of container types. 156... PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.140 Identification of container types. For products other than plant-incorporated protectants, the following statements,...

  19. Generating Optimal Stowage Plans for Container Vessel Bays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Schulte, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Millions of containers are stowed every week with goods worth billions of dollars, but container vessel stowage is an all but ne- glected combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we introduce a model for stowing containers in a vessel bay which is the result of prob- ably the longest...

  20. 7 CFR 52.774 - Fill of container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fill of container. 52.774 Section 52.774 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Fill of Container § 52.774 Fill of container. (a) FDA requirements. Canned red tart pitted cherries shall meet the fill of...

  1. 19 CFR 4.7d - Container status messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container status messages. 4.7d Section 4.7d... TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.7d Container status messages. (a) Container status messages required. In addition to the advance filing requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 59.103 - Container labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.103... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.103 Container... automobile refinish coating or coating component container or package, the day, month, and year on which...

  3. Computer simulation study International Container Terminal "Tanjung Perak", Surabaya, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Wanders, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Tanjung Perak harbour of the city of Surabaya on the island Java, Indonesia has experienced a considerable growth of container traffic. In order to adequately deal with the expected continuing increase of container traffic in the future, the International container terminal is presently being ex

  4. 40 CFR 59.405 - Container labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.405... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.405 Container... section on the coating container in which the coating is sold or distributed. (1) The date the coating...

  5. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  6. Containment response to a main steam-line break using CONTAIN, RIS, and TRAC/BF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Baratta, A. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)); Talens, H. (N.V. KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes containment analyses performed using the CONTAIN, RIS, and TRAC/BF1 computer codes. Although each of these codes is a containment response code, they differ in their approaches to modeling the various phenomena that occur in the containment. The work was initiated to evaluate the ability of these codes to predict containment response during a main steam-line break (MSLB). This project expands on previous analysis performed by KEMA using the RIS and TRAC/BF1 codes to include CONTAIN results. In the course of this project, all three codes demonstrated their usefulness. Although all three codes predicted satisfactory results, the RIS and CONTAIN codes seem best suited for this type of transient. The TRAC/BF1 code should be used for transients where the interactions between the primary and containment system are though to be large.

  7. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  8. Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Allen, Jeremy G; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Taylor, Charlotte M

    2014-07-30

    Many plants worldwide contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death in livestock. These plants are primarily found in the southern continents of Africa, Australia, and South America, where they negatively affect livestock production. This review highlights past and current research investigating (1) the plants reported to contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death; (2) the mode of action, clinical signs, and pathology associated with poisoning by monofluoroacetate-containing plants; (3) chemical methods for the analysis of monofluoroacetate in plants; (4) the coevolution of native flora and fauna in Western Australia with respect to monofluoroacetate-containing plants; and (5) methods to mitigate livestock losses caused by monofluoroacetate-containing plants.

  9. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟永林; 张锦

    2002-01-01

    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  10. Characterization of Settler Tank, KW Container and KE Container Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-04-01

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL in February 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. A third simulant, KE Container Sludge Simulant was received by PNNL in December 2010. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

  11. Containment performance evaluation of prestressed concrete containment vessels with fiber reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Park, Hyung Kui [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Fibers in concrete resist the growth of cracks and enhance the postcracking behavior of structures. The addition of fibers into a conventional reinforced concrete can improve the structural and functional performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants. The influence of fibers on the ultimate internal pressure capacity of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was investigated through a comparison of the ultimate pressure capacities between conventional and fiber-reinforced PCCVs. Steel and polyamide fibers were used. The tension behaviors of conventional concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete specimens were investigated through uniaxial tension tests and their tension-stiffening models were obtained. For a PCCV reinforced with 1% volume hooked-end steel fiber, the ultimate pressure capacity increased by approximately 12% in comparison with that for a conventional PCCV. For a PCCV reinforced with 1.5% volume polyamide fiber, an increase of approximately 3% was estimated for the ultimate pressure capacity. The ultimate pressure capacity can be greatly improved by introducing steel and polyamide fibers in a conventional reinforced concrete. Steel fibers are more effective at enhancing the containment performance of a PCCV than polyamide fibers. The fiber reinforcement was shown to be more effective at a high pressure loading and a low prestress level.

  12. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 m(sup.2)/g to 2600 m(sup.2)/g, and a method of making the same.

  13. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, and a method of making the same.

  14. Sensitivity of Sump Water Temperature to Containment Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This paper is focused on the containment behavior analysis in the above described cases using GOTHIC-IST (generation of thermal-hydraulic information for containments, industry standard toolset). GOTHIC-IST version 7.2a is an integrated, general purpose thermal-hydraulics software package for design, licensing, safety and operating analysis of nuclear power plant containments and other confinement buildings. In this study, we perform the sensitivity the sump water temperature to containment integrity. For 35% RIH break accident with the malfunction of spray system, local air coolers, ECC(emergency core cooling) pump and heat exchanger, the peak pressure at boiler room do not exceed the design pressure 124kPa(g) of the containment and containment integrity is secured. If accompanied the malfunction of heat exchanger or pump in the time of low pressure safety injection, of ECCS, it will be one of the aggravating factors to the integrity of core and containment.

  15. Apparatus and method for inspecting a sealed container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, J Frank [Pocatello, ID; Jones, James L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Spaulding, Randy J [Pocatello, ID; Smith, Michael [Phoenix, AZ

    2009-03-24

    An apparatus for inspecting a sealed container is disclosed and which includes a pulsed electron accelerator which is positioned in spaced relation relative to a first side of the sealed container, and which produces a pulsed beam of photons which passes through the sealed container and any contents enclosed within the sealed container; a detector positioned in spaced relation relative to a second, opposite side of the sealed container, and which receives the pulsed beam of photons which passes through the contents of the sealed container, and which produces an output signal; and a computer for developing a visible image from the output signal of the detector which depicts the contents of the sealed container.

  16. NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIAL CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerger, L.; Mcclard, J.; Traver, L.; Grim, T.

    2010-02-01

    The first nondestructive examination (NDE) of 3013-type containers as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) was performed in February, 2005. Since that date 280 NDE surveillances on 255 containers have been conducted. These containers were packaged with plutonium-bearing materials at multiple DOE sites. The NDE surveillances were conducted at Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Savannah River Site (SRS). These NDEs consisted of visual inspection, mass verification, radiological surveys, prompt gamma analysis, and radiography. The primary purpose of performing NDE surveillances is to determine if there has been a significant pressure buildup inside the inner 3013 container. This is done by measuring the lid deflection of the inner 3013 container using radiography images. These lid deflection measurements are converted to pressure measurements to determine if a container has a pressure of a 100 psig or greater. Making this determination is required by Surveillance and Monitoring Plan (S&MP). All 3013 containers are designed to withstand at least 699 psig as specified by DOE-STD-3013. To date, all containers evaluated have pressures under 50 psig. In addition, the radiography is useful in evaluating the contents of the 3013 container as well as determining the condition of the walls of the inner 3013 container and the convenience containers. The radiography has shown no signs of degradation of any container, but has revealed two packaging anomalies. Quantitative pressure measurements based on lid deflections, which give more information than the 'less than or greater than 100 psig' (pass/fail) data are also available for many containers. Statistical analyses of the pass/fail data combined with analysis of the quantitative data show that it is extremely unlikely that any container in the population of 3013 containers considered in this study (e.g., containers packaged according to

  17. Longitudinal surface cracks on continuous casting slabs of P and Cu containing container steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Wang; Zhiyuan Zhu; Li Zhang; Guodong Xu

    2003-01-01

    The fact that the amount of the mold flux components differs at different locations on the cracking surface indicates that the longitudinal surface cracks are initially formed in the mold and are enlarged in the secondary cooling zone. Based on the hot ductility measurement of two typical container used steels, it is known that the steels are in severe embrittlement state in the temperature range of 825-775℃. By means of increasing Cr/Ni plating thickness on the upper part of the mold, reducing mold heat flux, adopting new secondary cooling pattern, etc., the occurrence of the surface longitudinal cracks on the steel CC (continuous casting) slabs has been significantly reduced.

  18. Strange behavior of rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement of particles containing and not containing leading quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Kalyan; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2017-09-01

    Rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement factors for the identified particles have been studied with the help of a string based hadronic transport model UrQMD-3.3 (Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics) at FAIR energies. A strong rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement could be observed with our generated data for Au + Au collisions at the beam energy of 30A GeV. The strangeness enhancement is found to be maximum at mid-rapidity for the particles containing leading quarks while for particles consisting of produced quarks only, the situation is seen to be otherwise. Such rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement could be traced back to the dependence of rapidity width on centrality or otherwise on the distribution of net-baryon density.

  19. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  20. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  1. Process Analysis in Container Shipping Network Structure Form Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the influence of ship-size and cargo-demand changes on container shipping networks, to reveal the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form, this paper respectively designed the operation models for two major container shipping networks structure forms: Multi-port-calling network and Hub-and-spoke network, to maximizing the investment efficiency. Based on the above models, a comprehensively integrated operation model of container shipping networks is built and the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form with changing of both ship-size and cargo demands is analyzed. Finally, through a case study, results show that the comprehensive integrated operation model is very effective in the analysis of evolution process of container shipping networks structure forms.

  2. On the Complexity of Container Stowage Planning Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the k-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed with at most k rehandles. We first solve an open problem showing that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the problem complexity from NP-complete to polynom......The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the k-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed with at most k rehandles. We first solve an open problem showing that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the problem complexity from NP......-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of an abstraction of the current state-of-the-art container ship stowage planning, the hatch overstow problem. We show that this problem is NP-complete, which means that even abstract formulation of container ship stowage planning is intractable....

  3. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size.

  4. Characterization of Titanium-Containing Compounds in Gray Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Daxin; ZHANG Yuanhao; LIU Jianyong; HE Hanjun; HONG Xiaoxian

    2008-01-01

    Titanium produces different compounds in gray iron. In order to determine their characteristics, a scanning electron microscope, an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and an optical microscopy were used to analyze the morphology, distribution, and composition of titanium-containing compounds in metal-lographic specimens and machined surfaces in four gray irons. The results show that the titanium-containing compounds in the gray irons are complex compounds containing V, Nb, Mn, S, and other metals, depending on the concentration of these elements in the iron. The number of titanium-containing compounds increases with increasing Ti content in the gray iron. Most of the titanium-containing compounds are located in the peariite matrix, with some in the steadite and carbides. The results suggest that titanium-containing com-pounds reduce tool lifetime.

  5. Storage Allocation in Automated Container Terminals: the Upper Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjue Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays automation is a trend of container terminals all over the world. Although not applied in current automated container terminals, storage allocation is indispensable in conventional container terminals, and promising for automated container terminals in future. This paper seeks into the storage allocation problem in automated container terminals and proposed a two level structure for the problem. A mixed integer programming model is built for the upper level, and a modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is applied to solve the model. The applicable conditions of the model is investigated by numerical experiments, so as the performance of the algorithm in different problem scales. It is left to future research the lower level of the problem and the potential benefit of storage allocation to automated container terminals.

  6. Containment of high-speed rotating disk fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-jun XUAN; Lu-lu LIU; Yi-ming FENG; Qing HE; Juan-juan LI

    2012-01-01

    Disk burst accidents sometimes happen in aeroengines.To avoid tragic consequences,aeroengine casings must have sufficient containment capability.Experiments and simulations need to be conducted to study the impact,distortion,and perforation caused by disk burst and which may give important clues to potential failure mechanisms.This paper presents some containment tests of high-speed rotating disk fragments,in which the original disks were burst into three equal fragments within a predetermined rotating speed range.The failure modes of the containment casing varied significantly with the thickness of the containment casing.Shearing,tearing,tensile fracture,and large plastic stretching deformation occurred in a thin-walled containment casing,while a thick-walled casing could contain disk fragments and withstand large plastic deformation.Numerical simulations were carried out to study the impact process and failure modes further.Good agreement was found between the results of the simulations and the tests.

  7. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report. FY14 Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, Larry L; Louie, David L.Y.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the preliminary implementation of the sodium thermophysical properties and the design documentation for the sodium models of CONTAIN-LMR to be implemented into MELCOR 2.1. In the past year, the implementation included two separate sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laboratory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to model the nuclear fusion safety research. To minimize the impact to MELCOR, the implementation of the fusion safety database (FSD) was done by utilizing the detection of the data input file as a way to invoking the FSD. The FSD methodology has been adapted currently for this work, but it may subject modification as the project continues. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. Preliminary testing and results from this implementation of sodium properties are given. In this year, the design document for the CONTAIN-LMR sodium models, such as the two condensable option, sodium spray fire, and sodium pool fire is being developed. This design document is intended to serve as a guide for the MELCOR implementation. In addition, CONTAIN-LMR code used was based on the earlier version of CONTAIN code. Many physical models that were developed since this early version of CONTAIN may not be captured by the code. Although CONTAIN 2, which represents the latest development of CONTAIN, contains some sodium specific models, which are not complete, the utilizing CONTAIN 2 with all sodium models implemented from CONTAIN-LMR as a comparison code for MELCOR should be done. This implementation should be completed in early next year, while sodium models from CONTAIN-LMR are being integrated into MELCOR. For testing, CONTAIN decks have been developed for verification and validation use.

  8. In vitro toxicological characterisation of three arsenic-containing hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Kevin; Meyer, S. de; Matissek, M.; Müller, S. M.; Taleshi, M. S.; Ebert, F.; Schwerdtle, T. (Tanja)

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons are one group of fat-soluble organic arsenic compounds (arsenolipids) found in marine fish and other seafood. A risk assessment of arsenolipids is urgently needed, but has not been possible because of the total lack of toxicological data. In this study the cellular toxicity of three arsenic-containing hydrocarbons was investigated in cultured human bladder (UROtsa) and liver (HepG2) cells. Cytotoxicity of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons was comparable to th...

  9. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça; Lucas Gonçalves Ribeiro; José Roque Azevedo Assunção; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; Josival Santos Souza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container) and 10 repetitions, with 64 s...

  10. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B.; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present...

  11. Axially perpendicular offset Raman scheme for reproducible measurement of housed samples in a noncircular container under variation of container orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Pham K; Chang, Kyeol; Sriphong, Lawan; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-03-17

    An axially perpendicular offset (APO) scheme that is able to directly acquire reproducible Raman spectra of samples contained in an oval container under variation of container orientation has been demonstrated. This scheme utilized an axially perpendicular geometry between the laser illumination and the Raman photon detection, namely, irradiation through a sidewall of the container and gathering of the Raman photon just beneath the container. In the case of either backscattering or transmission measurements, Raman sampling volumes for an internal sample vary when the orientation of an oval container changes; therefore, the Raman intensities of acquired spectra are inconsistent. The generated Raman photons traverse the same bottom of the container in the APO scheme; the Raman sampling volumes can be relatively more consistent under the same situation. For evaluation, the backscattering, transmission, and APO schemes were simultaneously employed to measure alcohol gel samples contained in an oval polypropylene container at five different orientations and then the accuracies of the determination of the alcohol concentrations were compared. The APO scheme provided the most reproducible spectra, yielding the best accuracy when the axial offset distance was 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the characteristics of photon propagation in the APO scheme and to explain the origin of the optimal offset distance that was observed. In addition, the utility of the APO scheme was further demonstrated by analyzing samples in a circular glass container.

  12. Mechanical and Thermal Tests of the Containers of Liquid Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Borra, E F; Tremblay, G; Daigle, A; Huot, Y

    2003-01-01

    We give a generic description of a liquid mirror system and summarize some practical information useful to making them. We compare laboratory measurements of deformations, due to the weight of mercury on the container of a 3.7-m mirror and to temperature changes on a 1-m container, to finite element computer simulations. We find that the measurements agree reasonably well with the numerical simulations. The measurements on the 1-m container show no evidence of fatigue after a few thermal cycles. These results validate the computer models of containers described in a companion article.

  13. Evaluation of containers as a virtualisation alternative for HEP workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gareth; Washbrook, Andrew; Crooks, David; Qin, Gang; Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Stewart, Gordon; Britton, David

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the emerging technology of Linux containers is examined and evaluated for use in the High Energy Physics (HEP) community. Key technologies required to enable containerisation will be discussed along with emerging technologies used to manage container images. An evaluation of the requirements for containers within HEP will be made and benchmarking will be carried out to asses performance over a range of HEP workflows. The use of containers will be placed in a broader context and recommendations on future work will be given.

  14. Rapidly Progressive Gas-containing Lumbar Spinal Epidural Abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Keun-Tae

    2015-09-01

    Gas-containing (emphysematous) infections of the abdomen, pelvis, and extremities are well-known disease entities, which can potentially be life-threatening. They require aggressive medical and often surgical treatment. In the neurosurgical field, some cases of gas-containing brain abscess and subdural empyema have been reported. Sometimes they progress rapidly and even can cause fatal outcome. However, gas-containing spinal epidural abscess has been rarely reported and clinical course is unknown. We report on a case of rapidly progressive gas-containing lumbar spinal epidural abscess due to Enterococcus faecalis in a 72-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus.

  15. 3013 DE INNER CONTAINER CLOSURE WELD CORROSION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2013-09-30

    Destructive evaluation (DE) of 3013 containers is one part of the U. S. Department of Energy Integrated Surveillance Program. During standard DE of 3013 containers, visual examinations for pitting and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) are performed on the accessible surfaces of the outer, inner, and convenience containers, which make up the 3013 container. As a result of 3013 DE additional analysis, the area near the inner container closure weld has been identified as being a region of increased corrosion susceptibility, which may provide a pathway for corrosive gases to the outer container. This area has a higher residual stress, an altered microstructure, and less corrosion resistant weld oxides as a result of the welding process as well as a lower temperature than other areas of the container, which may increase the absorption of moisture on the surface. The deposition of moisture in this stressed region could lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. During FY2013, the inner container closure weld area was more closely evaluated on several archived samples from DE containers. These containers included FY09 DE2, FY12 DE4, FY12 DE6 and FY12 DE7 and the Hanford High Moisture Container. The additional examinations included visual observations with a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and serial metallography of the sidewall and lid that are part of the inner container closure weld region. Pitting was observed in all the samples taken from the closure weld regions of the examined inner containers. This pitting was generally less 20 μm with most less than 5m. These pits were similar in depth to those observed in the vapor exposed surfaces of teardrops in the shelf life corrosion testing. Cracking was not observed on either the vapor-exposed surfaces of the teardrop coupons or the inner container closure weld region. Further testing is necessary to determine if the conditions

  16. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HETEROAROMATIC POLYMERS CONTAINING PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanfeng; WANG Xiaolong; ZHANG Shujiang

    2006-01-01

    The progress on the molecular design, synthesis and characterizations of some kinds of pyridine-containing heteroaromatic polymers in main chain were reviewed in this paper, they would include polyimides (PIs), polypyrrolones (PPYs), poly(pyrrolone-imide)s (PPIs), and poly(pyrrolone-benzimidazone)s (PPBs) containing pyrldine moieties. The pyridine-containing polymers reported all exhibit good processability, excellent thermal properties and mechanical properties. However, the contribution of pyridine ring to polymers properties is still need to research further, the heteroarornatic polymers containing pyridine moieties have focused by more and more researchers.

  17. Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbring, Lori C

    2006-03-17

    This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container.

  18. Information for Owners and Managers of Buildings that Contain Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal requirements for the renovation and demolition of buildings and guidance on developing and maintaining an operations and maintenance program to manage asbestos-containing materials in buildings.

  19. Wind loads on post-panamax container ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of the container configuration on the deck of a 9000+ TEU container ship on wind forces has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests with a 1:450 scale model. An analysis of earlier studies was used to select a series of appropriate loading conditions...... are presented as two different types of non-dimensional coefficients. It was apparent, as expected, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck. The test results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container...

  20. Container effect in nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohong; Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Chunming; Zheng, Xinyue; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yichi; Guan, Naijia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Stucky, Galen D

    2011-09-21

    We report a general reaction container effect in the nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides. The size and shape of the container body in conjunction with simply modifying the container opening accessibility can be used to control the escape rate of water and other gas-phase byproducts in the calcination process, and subsequently affect the nanocrystal growth of the materials inside the mesopore space of the template. In this way, the particle size, mesostructure ordering, and crystallinity of the final product can be systemically controlled. The container effect also explain some of the problems with reproducibility in previously reported results.

  1. Design of liquid container handles in accordance with user preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H S; Jung, H-S

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a prototype liquid container combined with auxiliary handles was designed to increase the safety of manual handling and to protect users of these containers from hand contamination. A Likert summated rating method as well as a pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate the user preferences for handles provided for the container under the conditions of different shapes and positions. The results show that the participants preferred perpendicular orientation of the handle on the top of the liquid container while carrying the containers and the crosswise position of the handle at the side of the container while pouring the liquid. In order to satisfy both conditions, the container needs to be designed with handles in perpendicular as well as crosswise positions for selective application. A prototype liquid container with provided auxiliary handles was developed based on the results of the evaluation. It is recommended that a liquid container provides extra handles to reduce musculoskeletal stress and in turn increase user satisfaction.

  2. A new approach to the Container Positioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmt, Jonas; Sigtenbjerggaard, Jonas Skott; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the Container Positioning Problem is revisited. Thisproblem arises at busy container terminals and requires one to minimize the use ofblock cranes in handling the containers that must wait at the terminal until their nextmeans of transportation. We propose a new Mixed Integer...... Programming model thatnot only improves on earlier attempts at this problem, but also better reflects reality.In particular, the proposed model adopts a preference to reshuffle containers in linewith a just-in-time concept, as it is assumed that data is more accurate the closer to acontainer’s scheduled...

  3. Managing breaches of containment and eradication of invasive plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Cameron S; Westcott, David A; Murphy, Helen T; Grice, Anthony C; Clarkson, John R

    2015-02-01

    Containment can be a viable strategy for managing invasive plants, but it is not always cheaper than eradication. In many cases, converting a failed eradication programme to a containment programme is not economically justified. Despite this, many contemporary invasive plant management strategies invoke containment as a fallback for failed eradication, often without detailing how containment would be implemented.We demonstrate a generalized analysis of the costs of eradication and containment, applicable to any plant invasion for which infestation size, dispersal distance, seed bank lifetime and the economic discount rate are specified. We estimate the costs of adapting eradication and containment in response to six types of breach and calculate under what conditions containment may provide a valid fallback to a breached eradication programme.We provide simple, general formulae and plots that can be applied to any invasion and show that containment will be cheaper than eradication only when the size of the occupied zone exceeds a multiple of the dispersal distance determined by seed bank longevity and the discount rate. Containment becomes proportionally cheaper than eradication for invaders with smaller dispersal distances, longer lived seed banks, or for larger discount rates.Both containment and eradication programmes are at risk of breach. Containment is less exposed to risk from reproduction in the 'occupied zone' and three types of breach that lead to a larger 'occupied zone', but more exposed to one type of breach that leads to a larger 'buffer zone'.For a well-specified eradication programme, only the three types of breach leading to reproduction in or just outside the buffer zone can justify falling back to containment, and only if the expected costs of eradication and containment were comparable before the breach.Synthesis and applications. Weed management plans must apply a consistent definition of containment and provide sufficient implementation detail

  4. Final Report Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL; Ellingwood, B R [Georgia Institute of Technology; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    The Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program had primary objectives of (1) understanding the significant factors relating corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments; (2) providing the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments, and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; (3) providing recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation; and (4) providing technical assistance to the USNRC (as requested) related to concrete technology. Primary program accomplishments have included development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of high-frequency acoustic imaging, magnetostrictive sensor, electromagnetic acoustic transducer, and multimode guided plate wave technologies for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; development of a continuum damage mechanics-based approach for structural deterioration; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion. In addition, data and information assembled under this program has been transferred to the technical community through review meetings and briefings, national and international conference participation, technical committee involvement, and publications of reports and journal articles. Appendix A provides a listing of program reports, papers, and publications; and Appendix B contains a listing of

  5. Prediction of the Containment Pressure under Severe Accidents Using CFNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Young Do; Choi, Geon Pil; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is important to keep containment integrity by measuring main risk factors such as temperature and hydrogen concentration that occur pressure rise in the containment and by operating safety features at the right time. In this study, the circumstance that instrumentation equipment in NPPs is uncertain under severe accidents after DBA is assumed. This is to keep containment integrity by manually generating the safety injection actuation signal (SIAS) and to assess integrity of accident equipment through early prediction of the containment pressure under extreme circumstances when main factors such as temperature and hydrogen concentration that rise pressure in containment may not be adequately measured. In this study, the cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model is used to predict containment pressure using LOCA break sizes as input data. Because the real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents, they were gained by numerically simulating severe accident scenarios of the optimized power reactor (OPR1000) using modular accident analysis program (MAAP) code. Temperature and hydrogen concentration in the containment are risk factors that increase containment pressure under severe accidents. Therefore, LOCA sizes as the input data for the CFNN model are used to predict the containment pressure. This input data is the simulation data obtained by using MAAP4 code for the OPR1000 reactor. As a result of using the CFNN model, the RMS errors are within 0.4% to 1.4. Accordingly, The CFNN could be a model that reliably predict the containment pressure and the data through CFNN model could figure out the containment integrity and assess the survivability of severe accident equipment under accidents.

  6. Absorbent pads for Containment, Neutralization, and Clean-Up of Environmental Spills Containing Chemically-Reactive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemical spill towards the absorbent interior containing the chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  7. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfection. 83.7 Section 83.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored by...

  8. PA103 Container Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on PA103 containers unitized on a pallet with dunnage assemblies...supplied by Olin Ordnance. This report contains test results with the palletized unit load tested failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for

  9. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84..., Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided...

  10. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a...

  11. [The toxicological aspects of poisonings by psilocybine-containing mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanian, R V; Bushuev, E S; Kazankov, S P; Kostyrko, T A

    1997-01-01

    Cases involving the investigation of psylocybin-containing mushrooms became more frequent in forensic chemical and criminological expert evaluation in recent years. The authors present the data on the main chemical factors contained in these mushrooms, on the mechanism of their toxic effect, clinical picture of poisoning, and methods of chemical and toxicological analysis.

  12. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... officer that such bottle is not an approved container for distilled spirits for consumption in the...

  13. An approach for designing robotized marine container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saanen, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    International transportation is rapidly growing. Even during the recent recession, trade growth percentages world-wide exceeded 5-10%. As a consequence, container handling capacity is rapidly growing as well. Larger vessels, bigger container terminals: it appears to be an on-going process of which t

  14. An approach for designing robotized marine container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saanen, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    International transportation is rapidly growing. Even during the recent recession, trade growth percentages world-wide exceeded 5-10%. As a consequence, container handling capacity is rapidly growing as well. Larger vessels, bigger container terminals: it appears to be an on-going process of which

  15. An approach for designing robotized marine container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saanen, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    International transportation is rapidly growing. Even during the recent recession, trade growth percentages world-wide exceeded 5-10%. As a consequence, container handling capacity is rapidly growing as well. Larger vessels, bigger container terminals: it appears to be an on-going process of which t

  16. A GRASP algorithm for the container stowage slot planning problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parreno, Francisco; Pacino, Dario; Alvarez-Valdes, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a generalization of the Slot Planning Problem which raises when the liner shipping industry needs to plan the placement of containers within a vessel (stowage planning). State-of-the-art stowage planning relies on a heuristic decomposition where containers are first distributed...

  17. Battery, especially for portable devices, has an anode containing silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The anode (2) contains silicon. A battery with a silicon-containing anode is claimed. An Independent claim is also included for a method used to make the battery, comprising the doping of a silicon substrate (1) with charge capacity-increasing material (preferably boron, phosphorous or arsenic),

  18. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Jesús; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80l to containers of 2400l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60l or 80l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of erosion by protein-containing toothpastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.; Vissink, A.; Timmer, C.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Vieira, A.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of protein-containing toothpastes on the progression of dental erosion in situ (with pellicle) and in vitro (without pellicle). METHODS: A combined split-mouth (extraoral water or toothpaste brushing) and crossover (type of toothpaste) setup was used. Two protein-containing

  20. Reduction of Erosion by Protein-Containing Toothpastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vissink, A.; Timmer, C. J.; Bronkhorst, E.; Vieira, A. M.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of protein-containing toothpastes on the progression of dental erosion in situ (with pellicle) and in vitro (without pellicle). Methods: A combined split-mouth (extraoral water or toothpaste brushing) and crossover (type of toothpaste) setup was used. Two protein-containing