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Sample records for mackerel trachurus picturatus

  1. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population.

  2. Preservation of blue-jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus Bowdich) silage by chemical and fermentative acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enes Dapkevicius, M.L.N.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Houben, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared acidified and lactic acid fermented silage approaches for the preservation of blue-jack mackerel. Silages acidified with formic and propionic acids had stable pH (3.8) and low (19 mg/g N) levels of volatile nitrogen compounds (total volatile basic nitrogen, TVBN), but relatively high (82

  3. Larval trypanorhynchs (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from black-scabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus in Madeira (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Veltkamp, C J; Chubb, J C

    2003-12-01

    Four different types of trypanorhynch postlarvae were found attached to the stomach mucosa, external stomach wall or free in the body cavity of two marine fishes from Madeira, namely blackscabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus. Morphological features shown by SEM indicated that the postlarvae belonged to the species Tentacularia coryphaenae, Sphyriocephalus tergestinus, Nybelinia lingualis and possibly N. yamaguitii. Prevalence [mean intensity (range)] of T. coryphaenae, S. tergestinus and Nybelinia spp. in A. carbo (n = 135) was 12.6% [1.65 +/- 1.27(1-6)], 5.9% [1.57 +/- 0.79 (1-3)] and 2.2% [1.33 +/- 0.58 (1-2)] respectively. The prevalence of T. coryphaenae and S. tergestinus showed some seasonality, with a rise in prevalence of T. coryphaenae corresponding to a decrease in prevalence of S. tergestinus. However these differences were not significant. In T. picturatus (n = 304) only N. lingualis was found at a prevalence of 9.6%. Both S. tergestinus and N. lingualis were recovered only from the stomach mucosa or external stomach wall, while T. coryphaenae was observed either attached to the stomach mucosa or free in the visceral cavity of the fish. The paper presents the first scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of Sphyriocephalus tergestinus and a new geographical record of N. lingualis in T. picturatus.

  4. New insights about the population structure of the blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus in the NE Atlantic using otolith stable isotope ratios

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    Cláudia Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus is a pelagic fish widely distributed in the NE Atlantic and also found in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It is an economically important resource in the Macaronesian islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, but despite its fishery value and ecological importance, fluctuations in the landings are difficult to explain since studies regarding the population dynamics, stocks structure, fish movements and habitat connectivity are inexistent. The populations of marine pelagic fishes, in particular the migratory ones, such as T. picturatus,, may be erroneously considered an homogenous population unit because they show broad geographic distributions, large population sizes and high migratory movements. Stable isotope ratios, namely δ18O and δ13C, measured by standard mass spectrometric techniques in whole otolith samples of T. picturatus adults sampled in the fishery grounds of the Islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, and at the Portuguese mainland (Matosinhos, Peniche and Portimão during the spring-summer of 2013 were analysed. The 18O signatures followed the general tendency taking into account the seawater temperatures of the sampling regions. 13C signatures showed however differences between the oceanic or continental origin of the fish. Both variables provided location-specific signatures. Further studies including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA studies are also been conducted to acquire new knowledge for fisheries conservation purposes.

  5. Preliminary data on Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825 phylogeography inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data

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    Cláudia Filipa Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The populations of marine pelagic fishes, in particular the migratory ones as the Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich 1825, may be erroneously considered an homogenous population unit because they show broad geographic distributions, large population sizes and high migratory movements. The blue jack mackerel, T. picturatus is widely distributed in the NE Atlantic and also found in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It is an economically important resource in the Macaronesian islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, but despite its fishery value and ecological importance, fluctuations in the landings are difficult to explain since studies regarding the population dynamics, stocks structure, fish movements and habitat connectivity are inexistent. Moreover, genetic methods that can act as a complementary tool for stock identification and population dynamics have never been applied to this species. The blue jack mackerel was sampled by artisanal fleets in the Islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, and at the Portuguese mainland - Matosinhos, Peniche and Portimão -during the spring-summer of 2013. A tissue sample was taken from each individual and stored in 96% ethanol for molecular analysis. Total DNA was successfully extracted, followed by a Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of part of the cytochrome b gene (Cyt b. Amplifications and sequencing of the Cyt b gene were carried out using published primers used for the Carangidae family (Cárdenas et al. 2005. Sequences from Greece and Turkey, available on GenBank, were added to our sequences and all analysed together. In total 46 sequences were analysed, including the closely related outgroup (Trachurus Trachurus. Preliminary results show that there are sequences in the GenBank that are incorrectly assigned to this species. In addition, within the samples collected one was proven to be T. Trachurus. Preliminary phylogeographic analyses revealed a very shallow phylogenetic tree and a star

  6. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis fishery off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    demersal trawl industry began targeting horse mackerel in the 1960s, as did ..... Cape Columbine in the first quarter of the year (Fig. 2). These were mainly ..... characteristics of the migrations are useful for delimiting the core sampling area of ...

  7. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  8. Digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in the Turkish Black Sea coast

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    Türkay Öztürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (L., 1758, in the Turkish Black Sea coast for the first time. Fish were collected throughout a year period from local fishermen in Sinop. A total of 256 fish specimens were weighed and measured, subsequently examined for parasites using conventional methods under an Olympus microscope (BX53 equipped with a digital camera (DP50. The examination included gills, pharynx, body cavity and visceral organs (stomach, intestine, liver, swim bladder and gonads. Parasites recovered were fixed and preserved using methods commonly applied. A total of five species including adults of Prodistomum polonii (Molin 1879 Bray and Gibson 1990, Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819 Looss, 1907, Lasiotocus typicus (Nicoll, 1912 and metacercaria of Stephanostomum cesticillum (Molin, 1858 Looss, 1899 were identified. Each parasite species were counted, their prevalence (% and mean intensity values were determined according to Bush et al. (1997. Kruskal-Wallis test (Non-parametric ANOVA was performed to find out the significant differences in the mean intensity values of the parasite for two length classes of fish as well as for the seasons. All the statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 5%. The calculated overall infection prevalence (% and mean intensity values were 48.8% and 3.78±0.34, respectively. This data is the first on the digenean parasite fauna of the Atlantic horse mackerel collected from the Turkish Black Sea coast. Lasiotocus typicus and Stephanostomum cesticillum are new parasite records for Turkey.

  9. Effect of different icing conditions on lipid damage development in chilled horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus muscle

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    Aubourg, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the effect of including a mixture of natural organic acids (citric, ascorbic and lactic in the icing medium employed during the chilled storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. To this end, two aqueous solutions including 0.005% and 0.020% (w/v of each acid (P-1 and P-2 conditions, respectively were employed as icing systems. The effects on lipid damage development in fish muscle were monitored for up to a 13- day storage period; complementary chemical quality and sensory acceptance analyses were carried out. According to peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assessment, a slight inhibitory effect was concluded as a result of the acid mixture present in the chilling medium. At the same time, P-2-treated fish showed a longer shelf life than their counterparts belonging to P-1 and control conditions. No effect of the acid presence in the icing system could be outlined on the nucleotide degradation or the free fatty acid formation.Se estudió el empleo de hielo conteniendo una mezcla de ácidos orgánicos naturales (cítrico, ascórbico, láctico como método de refrigeración en jurel (Trachurus trachurus. Para ello, se aplicó hielo incluyendo dos concentraciones (0.005 y 0.020 %; p/v de cada ácido (condiciones P-1 y P-2, respectivamente. Se estudiaron los efectos producidos sobre el desarrollo de la alteración lipídica en el músculo de pescado conservado durante 13 días; asimismo, se realizaron análisis químicos complementarios de calidad y de aceptación sensorial. Como resultado de la presencia de los ácidos, se observó un pequeño efecto inhibidor de la formación de peróxidos y de sustancias reactivas con ácido tiobarbitúrico. Asimismo, las muestras correspondientes al tratamiento P-2 reflejaron un tiempo de vida útil mayor que las pertenecientes a las condiciones P-1 y control. La presencia de ácidos en el hielo no produjo diferencias en la degradación de nucle

  10. Linking spatial distribution and feeding behavior of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

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    Rumolo, Paola; Basilone, Gualtiero; Fanelli, Emanuela; Barra, Marco; Calabrò, Monica; Genovese, Simona; Gherardi, Serena; Ferreri, Rosalia; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a semi-pelagic fish species with a wide geographical distribution and commonly found on the continental shelf. In recent years, the species has received some attention due to its ecological role in pelagic food webs. Stable isotope of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C) and Stomach Content Analysis (SCA) of T. trachurus were adopted as tools to provide necessary knowledge on its feeding habits in the Strait of Sicily. The strong correlation found between δ15N and δ13C values with body length, together with significant ontogenetic shift evidenced by SCA, could be associated to changes in food availability, which in turn is triggered by environmental conditions. Spatial distribution of T. trachurus in the study area, mainly for small and medium size specimens, is linked to lower temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PARsat) values with higher aggregations on the Adventure Bank (i.e., an area characterized by periodic upwelling events). Larger size specimens mostly inhabited shallower waters characterized by higher temperature, salinity and PAR values, typical of the central-eastern part of the study area. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behavior of T. trachurus is strictly linked to environmental factors (i.e. chiefly oceanographic conditions of the water column and day duration) that in turn influences the distribution of its prey. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis.

  11. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

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    Bertrand, A.; Habasque, J.; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, N.T.; Ricardo, Oliveros Ramos; Gutierrez, M.; Demarcq, Herve; Gerlotto, F.

    2016-01-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The unce

  12. Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    on oxidation. Subsequently the different products were stored for up to 96 h at 5 degrees C and samples were taken out regularly for analysis. Lipid oxidation was investigated by measuring primary oxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products (volatiles). Protein oxidation...... was followed by determination of protein solubility, protein thiol groups and protein carbonyl groups using colorimetric methods as well as western blotting for protein carbonyl groups. Lipid and protein oxidation markers indicated that both lipid and protein oxidation took place during processing......Protein and lipid oxidation was followed during processing and storage of mince and washed minces prepared from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachunts). Briefly horse mackerel mince (MO) was washed with three volumes of water, mimicking the surimi production and different washed products were obtained...

  13. Evolution of the indigenous microbiota in modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) identified by conventional and molecular methods.

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    Alfaro, Begoña; Hernandez, Igor

    2013-10-15

    A combination of conventional methods and genetic identification (PCR sequencing) was used to study the dynamics of the bacterial population during the spoilage of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) fillets. The cultivable microflora in Atlantic horse mackerel samples packaged in a modified atmosphere (48% CO2, 50% N2 and 2% O2) at refrigeration temperature (6 °C) was measured on days 1, 5 and 7 using non-selective (Long and Hammer agar) and selective media (Kligler's iron agar, STAA and MRS). The microflora was genetically characterised using partial amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 309 bacterial isolates obtained from Long and Hammer agar. At the end of the shelf life (5 days), the total viable counts (TVC) on Long and Hammer agar were not significantly different to the LAB counts on MRS agar (p>0.05). The molecular approach showed that Photobacterium, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudoclavibacter (44.5% of total) dominated the microbial composition of the fish at the beginning of storage. However, Serratia, Shewanella and Yersinia dominated at the late spoilage stages (over 57.2% of the total). Carnobacterium was the most important species of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and was identified at the beginning and end of the storage period. Vibrio spp. was only found at the end of the shelf life. This research demonstrates that the microbial biodiversity in MAP Atlantic horse mackerel is enormous and the dominant species change over the storage time. The results presented here on the dominant communities in fish products will make it possible to accurately select the best preservation practices. © 2013.

  14. Anisakis simplex (Nematoda: Anisakidae from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in Atlantic coast of Morocco

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    Nizar Shawket

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the description of the Anisakis simplex (A. simplex parasites of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Atlantic coast of Mehdia (Kenitra, Morocco from December 2014 to November 2015. Methods: A total of 1 012 Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 obtained from commercial fishing were performed autopsy for their parasitic Nematoda. Then 6 695 specimens of A. simplex were collected from their abdominal cavity. These parasites were attached on different organs particularly on ovaries and testes. All parasites were counted, measured and photographed under microscopy. Results: The infection levels of fishes by larval A. simplex are expressed by prevalence (35.28%, mean intensity (18.75 and abundance (6.6. The effect of parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations were found between host length and A. simplex occurrence, and abundance. The variation observed in the infection levels was discussed within the seasons and climatic change.

  15. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Habasque, Jérémie; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, Niels T.; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Demarcq, Hervé; Gerlotto, François

    2016-08-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The uncertainty associated to jack mackerel population structure currently hampers management. Several hypotheses have been proposed from a single population up to several discrete populations. Still no definitive answer was given. Determining how environmental conditions drive jack mackerel distribution can provide insights on its population structure. To do so, here we performed in three steps. First, we used satellite data to develop a statistical model of jack mackerel horizontal habitat suitability. Model predictions based on interaction between temperature and chlorophyll-a match the observed jack mackerel distribution, even during extreme El Niño event. Second, we studied the impact of oxygen and show that jack mackerel distribution and abundance is correlated to oxygen over a wide variety of scales and avoid low oxygen areas and periods. Third, on the basis of the above we built a conceptual 3D model of jack mackerel habitat in the Southeastern Pacific. We reveal the presence of a low suitable habitat along the Chilean and Peruvian coast, figuratively presenting a closed door caused by a gap in the horizontal habitat at ∼19-22°S and a shallow oxycline off south-centre Peru. This kind of situation likely occurs on a seasonal basis, in austral summer but also at longer temporal scales. A lack of exchanges at some periods/seasons partially isolate jack mackerel distributed off Peru. On the other hand the continuity in the habitat during most of the year explains why exchanges occur. We conclude that the more likely population structure for jack mackerel is a pelagic metapopulation.

  16. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

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    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat.

  17. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  18. Effect of radurization on the extention of storage life of horse mackerel ''trachurus trachurus''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztasiran, I.; Aksut, G.; Ersen, S.; Kargici, B. (Lalahan Nuclear Research Institute in Animal Health, Ankara (Turkey))

    1983-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of radurization on the extension of storage time of horse mackerel. The fresh fish samples obtained from the fish market in Ankara, were irradiated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses. Microbiological, chemical and organoleptic analyses were done on unirradiated and irradiated fish samples kept in the cold-room at +3 +-1 degC. It was observed that irradiation doses of 2 and 3 kGy significantly extended the storage life of horse mackerel and a dose of 2 kGy was found to be preferable.

  19. Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarki, Raouf [Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, La Goulette 2060 (Tunisia); Sadok, Saloua [Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, La Goulette 2060 (Tunisia)], E-mail: salwa.sadok@instm.rnrt.tn; Barkallah, Insaf [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires, Sidi-Thabet 2020 (Tunisia)

    2009-04-15

    Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using {gamma} irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

  20. Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Raouf; Sadok, Saloua; Barkallah, Insaf

    2009-04-01

    Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using γ irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

  1. Effect of a previous high hydrostatic pressure treatment on lipid damage in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi

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    Maluenda, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid damage evolution was analyzed in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi previously treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP technology. Different pressure levels and pressure holding times were tested. In addition, fish corresponding to pre- and post-rigor mortis (RM stages were comparatively studied. Previous HHP treatment led to a marked lipid hydrolysis inhibition in chilled fish. Increasing the pressure level and pressure holding time led to a lower free fatty acid content, with the effect of pressure being more relevant. According to the analysis of different types of lipid oxidation indexes, no effect of the previous HHP treatment on the lipid oxidation development could be determined in chilled jack mackerel. Concerning the effect of the RM stage of raw fish, a higher primary and secondary lipid oxidation development was observed in fish corresponding to the post-RM condition throughout the chilled storage; although a definite effect on lipid hydrolysis could not be found.Se estudió la evolución de la alteración lipídica en jurel chileno (Trachurus murphyi refrigerado previamente tratado a altas presiones hidrostáticas (HHP. Se aplicaron distintos valores de presión y tiempo de presurización; asimismo, se analizó de forma comparativa la respuesta al proceso del pescado inicial en estados pre- y post-rigor mortis (RM. El tratamiento previo por HHP produjo inhibición de la hidrólisis lipídica en pescado refrigerado, siendo más intenso el efecto de la presión que el del tiempo de presurización. De acuerdo con el análisis de distintos índices de oxidación, no se concluyó un efecto determinante sobre la oxidación lipídica por parte del tratamiento previo de HHP. En relación al efecto del estado de RM del pescado inicial, se observó una oxidación primaria y secundaria mayor en jurel correspondiente a la condición post-RM durante la conservación en refrigeración; sin embargo, no se detectó un efecto

  2. The fate of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and sardine (Sardina pilchardus in relation to prevailing currents in the Bay of Biscay: Could they affect larval survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvarez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine, in the Bay of Biscay was studied in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The spatial distribution was clearly different between the years studied and corresponds quite precisely to different water circulation regimes. Mackerel and horse mackerel larvae are more affected by the prevailing currents than sardine, as their spawning grounds are located offshore, far from the shelf break where the current velocities are higher. Survival rates for mackerel and horse mackerel were higher in 2001, when the offshore larval transport was stronger. However, for sardine, the mortality rate hardly varied between years. The abundance of 25-day-old larvae, considered as an index of the survival rate, appears to be a good recruitment indicator, at least for 1998, 2001 and 2004. Our results did not support the hypothesis of Bakun (1996, which states that dispersion of early life stages towards open ocean waters should cause high larval mortality. At least under the conditions observed for the years studied, the retention of larvae offshore appears to have a positive effect on larval growth and/or survival.

  3. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, José M; Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel.

  4. Standardization of CPUE for Chilean Jack Mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) from Chinese Trawl Fleets in the High Seas of the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; ZOU Xiaorong; CHEN Xinjun; ZHOU Yinqi; ZHANG Min

    2013-01-01

    The generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel from Chinese factory trawl fishing fleets in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2010 by removing the operational,environmental,spatial and temporal impacts.A total of 9 factors were selected to build the GLM and GAM,i.e.,Year,Month,Vessel,La Ni(n)a and El Niio events (ELE),Latitude,Longitude,Sea surface temperature (SST),SST anomaly (SSTA),Nino3.4 index and an interaction term between Longitude and Latitude.The first 5 factors were significant components in the GLM,which in combination explained 27.34% of the total variance in nominal CPUE.In the stepwise GAM,all factors explained 30.78% of the total variance,with Month,Year and Vessel as the main factors influencing CPUE.The higher CPUE occurred during the period April to July at a SST range of 12-15℃ and a SSTA range of 0.2-1.0℃.The CPUE was significantly higher in normal years compared with that in La Ni(n)a and E1 Ni(n)o years.The abundance of Chilean jack mackerel declined during 2001 and 2010,with an increase in 2007.This work provided the relative abundance index of Chilean jack mackerel for stock assessment by standardizing catch and effort data of Chinese trawl fisheries and examined the influence of temporal,spatial,environmental and fisheries operational factors on Chilean jack mackerel CPUE.

  5. Organization of the histaminergic system in the brain of the teleost, Trachurus trachurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, N; Panula, P; Yamatodani, A; Wada, H

    1991-08-01

    To accumulate phylogenetic information on the central histaminergic system, we investigated the histaminergic system in the brain of a teleost, the jack mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), using the indirect immunofluorescent method with antiserum against histamine. A small number of histamine-immunoreactive cell bodies were observed in the posterior hypothalamus around the posterior recess. Histamine-immunoreactive fibers innervated the telencephalon, diencephalon, tegmentum, and rostral part of the medulla oblongata. The immunoreactive fibers were very sparse or absent in the olfactory bulb, optic tectum, cerebellum, caudal part of the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and hypophysis. Ascending fiber bundles were seen in the basal hypothalamus, supplying fiber collaterals to the telencephalon and diencephalon, whereas descending fibers were observed in the midline of the lower brainstem. These findings suggest that the central histaminergic system of the jack mackerel is homologous to those of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, although poorly developed compared with them. The histamine-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies found in the border area between the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon of the river lamprey were not detected in the brain of the jack mackerel.

  6. Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock in the South Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Corten, A.A.H.M.; Gerlotto, F.; Brunel, T.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study on Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock (Trachurus murphyi) in the South Pacific is currently one year underway. The main achievement consisted of collecting detailed datasets on Chilean, Peruvian and European fisheries activities and information on the hydrographical / biochemical and envi

  7. Metal levels in Trachurus trachurus and Cyprinus carpio in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mehmet; Bal, Tulin; Yaman, Ibrahim H

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of five toxic metals were determined in two fish species from Turkish cities during 2010-2011. The obtained lead concentrations for all of the studied Trachurus trachurus (mean 777 μg kg(-1)) and Cyprinus carpio (mean 439 μg kg(-1)) samples were found to be higher than the maximum level (ML) of 300 μg kg(-1), while Cd concentrations in the same samples were lower than the ML. Mean chromium (501 μg kg(-1)), Ni (272 μg kg(-1)) and Cu (785 μg kg(-1)) concentrations in T. trachurus were significantly higher than in C. carpio (336 μg Cr kg(-1), 229 μg Ni kg(-1) and 394 μg Cu kg(-1)), similar to those of Pb and Cd. Measured Pb concentrations in T. trachurus tissues are significantly higher than the ML, while those of Cd in both T. trachurus and C. carpio species were lower than the ML values.

  8. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes.

  9. Occurrence of Kudoa sp. (Myxozoa in Trachurus trachurus L. (Osteichthyes in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz C.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Trachurus trachurus L., obtained monthly in a fish market of Oporto from October 1998 to August 19 99, were examined for the presence of Kudoa in the muscle. Kudoa sp. spores were found in 84.7 % of the specimens (n = 209, The prevalence was not significantly different between seasons and was not related to the host's length. The infection does not seem to have negative effects on the fish quality once no macroscopic pseudocysts or myoliquefaction were detected.

  10. Impact of environmental factors on recruitment and hatching patterns of Horse Mackerel (L. collected in a nearshore rocky reef system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Linnaeus, 1758 is a highly exploited fish species, common throughout the North-East Atlantic. As a pelagic-neritic fish it typically occurs over the shelf at 100-200 m depth on sandy bottom and most research has focused on adults or early life stages (eggs and larvae, caught or examined in deeper waters. Nevertheless, larvae and early stages of Trachurus species have been observed in the nearshore environment of a rocky reef system in Portugal. More research is needed in order to understand the importance of nearshore environments for horse mackerel. In addition little is known on how environmental processes might affect early life parameters of this species. In this study we monitored the arrival of early juvenile horse mackerel to the reef environment at a fine time scale, and analyzed the relationship of environmental factors with patterns of recruitment and hatching, revealed by otolith microstructure analysis. In total around 2500 fish were collected with Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fish (SMURF and a distinct depth preference was recorded as 99% of fish were sampled with surface SMURFs. A GAM and GAMM analysis of the recruitment and hatching pattern, respectively, revealed a strong relationship with the lunar cycle and local up-welling. Both recruitment and hatching had a periodic pattern with peaks near the new moon; upwelling had a negative impact. Further, the study indicated that the nearshore environment might be an important nursery area for the post-larval growth of horse mackerel.

  11. Proteomics analysis in frozen horse mackerel previously high-pressure processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Méndez, Lucía; Vázquez, Manuel; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2015-10-15

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) (150, 300 and 450 MPa for 0, 2.5 and 5 min) on total sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-soluble and sarcoplasmic proteins in frozen (-10 °C for 3 months) horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) was evaluated. Proteomics tools based on image analysis of SDS-PAGE protein gels and protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were applied. Although total SDS-soluble fraction indicated no important changes induced by HPP, this processing modified the 1-D SDS-PAGE sarcoplasmic patterns in a direct-dependent manner and exerted a selective effect on particular proteins depending on processing conditions. Thus, application of the highest pressure (450 MPa) provoked a significant degradation of phosphoglycerate mutase 2, glycogen phosphorylase muscle form, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, beta-enolase and triosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase-1. Conversely, protein bands assigned to tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, fast myotomal muscle troponin T and parvalbumin beta 2 increased their intensity after applying a 450-MPa processing.

  12. Applying biomass dynamic models to the southern horse mackerel stock (Atlantic waters of Iberian Peninsula. A comparison with VPA-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Abaunza

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus fishery of the Northeast Atlantic, is currently subject to assessment and management in the ICES area. Assessment of the Southern horse mackerel (ICES Divisions VIIIc and IXa is made with Virtual Population Analysis (VPA, using time series of catch-at-age data and catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE from 1985 to present. The application of biomass-dynamic models to the assessment and catch prediction of this stock has never been attempted before. In this paper, a production model is applied to the Southern horse mackerel stock. To quantify uncertainty in parameter estimates, bootstrap confidence intervals were computed, which showed that estimates could be considered as reliable. The bootstrap standard deviations of Ft, r, MSY and FMSY were relatively small, despite the lack of trends in the available effort series. On the contrary, the catchability, q, showed a coefficient of variation of 74%. The current level of fishing mortality for 1998 was considered as unsustainable for the resource, being well above FMSY according to the biomass-dynamic models, and above Fpa according to the age-structured model. Both models were in close agreement on the time series of fishing mortality and in the perception of the state of the stock. Differences existed in the changes in stock biomass especially over the last years. Over this time period the age-structured model showed an increasing trend in biomass. The estimates of MSY and FMSY were in accordance with the precautionary approach philosophy. The biomass-dynamic model used here was usefully applied to the Southern horse mackerel stock, giving complementary information to the age-structured model, both in the perception of the state of the stock and in the definition of management targets.

  13. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    as it resulted in low levels of peroxide value, volatiles, carbonyl compounds and protected against the loss of α-tocopherol and tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Water extracts was less efficient especially at higher concentrations, which might be due to lower phenolic content or due to the pro-oxidative nature...

  14. Rhadinorhynchus oligospinosus n. sp. (Acanthocephala, Rhadinorhynchidae) from mackerels in the Pacific Ocean off Peru and related rhadinorhynchids in the Pacific, with notes on metal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Specimens of a new species of Rhadinorhynchus Lühe, 1911 are described from the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (Scombridae) and the Chilean Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (Carangidae) (possibly a subspecies of Trachurus symmetricus) from the Pacific Ocean off the Peruvian coast at the Port of Chicama, La Libertad. Specimens of Rhadinorhynchus oligospinosus n. sp. are somewhat small having 11-14 rows of alternating proboscis hooks with 20-22 hooks each with posteriormost hooks in a continuous ring. Ventral hooks are robust with prominent roots but dorsal hooks are slender and shorter with discoid roots. Trunk spines are in two zones separated by a non-spiny region. Anterior trunk spines are in 2-3 complete circles but posterior spines are only ventral and lateral, and do not extend posterior to the level of the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle in both sexes. The new species is closest to Rhadinorhynchus seriolae (Yamaguti, 1963) Golvan, 1969 found in Japanese and Australian waters, but not as close to 19 other species found in the same Pacific waters off Australia, Japan, and Vietnam. In R. seriolae, posterior trunk spines extend well past the receptacle in females, among other diagnostic differences. Proboscis hooks of the new species were analyzed for chemical elements using X-ray in conjunction with EDAX (energy-dispersive analysis for X-ray) software; sulfur had a higher concentration at the edge than the middle of cut hooks. © O.M. Amin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  15. Histological and electrophysiological properties of crypt cells from the olfactory epithelium of the marine teleost Trachurus symmetricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2006-03-01

    Crypt cells from the olfactory epithelium of the Pacific jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus were characterized by light and electron microscopy and analyzed in dissociation with the patch-clamp technique in its cell-attached, perforated patch and normal whole-cell mode. Isolated crypt cells remained united with their supporting cells, and both were electrically coupled through gap junctions. Under voltage-clamp, depolarizing voltage steps triggered a transient sodium current, a sustained calcium current, and two types of potassium currents with fast and slow inactivation kinetics. No calcium-dependent potassium current could be observed. The sodium current was blocked by saxitoxin, the calcium current by cobalt and furnidipine, and the potassium currents by tetraethylammonium chloride. In the cell-attached configuration, crypt cells displayed spontaneous spike activity and responded to amino acid solutions with dose-dependent excitation, followed by a period of spike inhibition. These first recordings of individual crypt cells provide the basis for future studies of their odorant specificity, transduction mechanism, and overall function in the fish olfactory epithelium.

  16. Quality assesment of a lot of frozen mackerel, respective frozen handcut mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruenner, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    At the request of Van Ameyde Marine in Amsterdam, RIVO BV assessed the quality of a number of blocks of frozen mackerel and a number of blocks of frozen handcut mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) by means of sensorial and chemical analysis. The samples were taken from a lot, which was partial "dama

  17. Influence of the blood meal source on the biology of Meccus picturatus Usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ibarra José Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, time-lapse between presenting the blood meal and beginning of feeding, feeding time, postfeed defecation delay,life time, mortality and fecundity for each stage of Meccus picturatus, life-cycle were evaluated and compared in two cohorts of M. picturatus fed on hens or rabbits. The hatching rate observed for each of the two studied groups of eggs was 78.1% (n = 2298 on the group fed on hens and 82.1% (n = 2704 on that fed on rabbits, and the average time of hatching was 20 days. Mean time-lapse for beginning feeding was under 3 min in nymphal stages and postfeed defecation delay was under 10 min in all stages, in both cohorts. Mean feeding time was significantly (P 0.05 differences were recorded among the average times from NI to adult in the cohort fed on hens (196.8 ± 15.8 days and the average time in the cohort fed on rabbits (189.5 ± 22.9. The average span in days for each stage fed on hens was not significantly different to the average span for each stage fed on rabbits. The number of blood meals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 6 in both cohorts. The mortality rates were higher on fifth nymphal stage, in both cohorts. No significant (P > 0.05 differences were recorded on mortality rates on most nymphal stages of both cohorts. The average number of eggs laid per female from the cohort fed on hens in a 9-month period was 791.1, whereas the average number of eggs in the cohort fed on rabbits was 928.3.

  18. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation.

  19. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due...... to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics...... model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  20. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance.

  1. Pseudocollapse and rebuilding of North Sea mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis

    2014-01-01

    The largest observed change in mackerel (Scomber scombrus) abundance in the North Atlantic happened when the so-called “North Sea mackerel” collapsed due to overfishing. Despite protection, it has remained in a depleted state. Central to this interpretation was that the “North Sea mackerel...

  2. AFSC/REFM: Atka mackerel Tagging Studies, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1999-2015, approximately 130,000 Atka mackerel have been tagged and released in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, specifically at Seguam Pass, Tanaga Pass, Amchitka...

  3. QUALITY CONTROL OF Scomber Scombrus (MACKEREL MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Dobrinas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Different types of Scomber Scombrus (mackerel available on the Romanian market (frozen, smoked, oil canned have been analyzed, in order to highlight the differences in chemical composition between foods obtained using different preservation methods. For this, water content, total acidity, NaCl content, ammonium, total nitrogen and eight essential and/or potentially toxic elements (Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Mg were determined in five types of mackerel commercial products. The analyses were completed with sensorial analysis, and qualitative identification of antiseptic preservatives (hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde and benzoic acid has been performed. Hydrogen sulfide was not detected in any of the products studied, but benzoic acid and formaldehyde were detected in frozen and canned mackerel samples. The highest concentrations of essential elements were observed in frozen mackerel muscles, except iron (the highest value was found in canned mackerel. It can be concluded that concentrations of many essential elements decreased in the fish muscle due to smoking and sterilization. This study showed that the analyzed mackerel samples contain potentially toxic elements at levels without health risks.

  4. Diet diversity of jack and chub mackerels and ecosystem changes in the northern Humboldt Current system: A long-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Espino, Marco; Espinoza, Pepe; Dioses, Teobaldo; Ñiquen, Miguel; Navarro, Iván; Simier, Monique; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (JM) and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (CM) are medium size pelagic fish predators and highly exploited resources. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of JM and CM diet composition using a large dataset of stomach samples collected from 1973 to 2013 along the Peruvian coast. In total 47,535 stomachs (18,377 CM and 29,158 JM) were analysed, of which 23,570 (12,476 CM and 11,094 JM) were non-empty. Results show that both species are opportunistic and present a trophic overlap. However, despite their smaller maximal size, CM consumed more fish than JM. Both diets presented high spatiotemporal variability. Spatially, the shelf break appears as a strong biogeographical barrier affecting prey species distribution and thus CM and JM diet. Opportunistic foragers are often considered as actual indicators of ecosystem changes; we show here that diet composition of CM and JM reveal ecosystem changes but is not always a good indicator of changes in prey biomass as prey accessibility and energy content can also play an important role. In addition we found that El Niño events have a surprisingly weak effect on stomach fullness and diet. Finally our results show that the classic paradigm of positive correlation between diversity and temperature is unlikely to occur in the Humboldt Current system where productivity seems to be the main driver. We show how energy content of forage species and the strength of the oxygen minimum zone most likely play an important role prey diversity and accessibility, and thus in fish foraging behaviour.

  5. Influence of exercise on the activity and the distribution between free and bound forms of glycolytic and associated enzymes in tissues of horse mackerel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushchak V.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of short-term burst (5 min at 1.8 m/s swimming and long-term cruiser (60 min at 1.2 m/s swimming on maximal enzyme activities and enzyme distribution between free and bound states were assessed for nine glycolytic and associated enzymes in tissues of horse mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus. The effects of exercise were greatest in white muscle. The activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK, pyruvate kinase (PK, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM all decreased to 47, 37, 37 and 67%, respectively, during 60-min exercise and all enzymes except phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI and PGM showed a change in the extent of binding to subcellular particulate fractions during exercise. In red muscle, exercise affected the activities of PGI, FBPase, PFK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and altered percent binding of only PK and LDH. In liver, exercise increased the PK activity 2.3-fold and reduced PGI 1.7-fold only after 5 min of exercise but altered the percent binding of seven enzymes. Fewer effects were seen in brain, with changes in the activities of aldolase and PGM and in percent binding of hexokinase, PFK and PK. Changes in enzyme activities and in binding interactions with subcellular particulate matter appear to support the altered demands of tissue energy metabolism during exercise.

  6. Opportunistically recorded acoustic data support Northeast Atlantic mackerel expansion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, vander Jeroen; Fassler, S.M.M.; Stephens, D.; Readdy, Lisa; Scott, B.; Roel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries independent monitoring of widely distributed pelagic fish species which conduct large seasonal migrations is logistically complex and expensive.One of the commercially most important examples of such a species in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is mackerel for which up to recently only an int

  7. Migration and fisheries of North East Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in autumn and winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, A.; Kelly, C.;

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate...... correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March....... The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations...

  8. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Defatted Mackerel Protein with Low Bitter Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hu; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the 'Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50℃, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH,16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0(1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

  9. Escala de madurez gonadal del jurel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe la escala de madurez gonadal macroscópica del jurel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920, validada con estudios microscópicos y en uso en Perú. La escala consta de seis estadios de maduración para hembras y machos, que van desde el estadio 0 (virginal al estadio V (recuperación en hembras, posexpulsante en machos. Para el estudio, se contó con 350 ejemplares provenientes del plan de seguimiento de la pesquería pelágica y de cruceros de evaluación de recursos pelágicos; dichos ejemplares fueron colectados desde el 2006 al 2009. La escala cataloga a los individuos virginales en el denominado estadio 0, lo cual permite la separación práctica entre juveniles (estadio 0 y adultos (estadios I a V. Se discute las bondades de la escala validada para el jurel T. murphyi, la cual se compara con otras escalas de madurez propuestas para especies de la misma familia. El análisis de las características microscópicas de los ovarios confirman la tipificación de desove parcial ya descrita por otros autores.

  10. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the... future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagics fishery..., the Council recommended a new control date of September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel....

  11. Life in 3-D: life history strategies in tunas, mackerels and bonitos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Jorda, Maria Jose; MOSQUEIRA SANCHEZ IAGO; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) sustain some of the most important fisheries in the world and their sustainable management depends on better understanding of their life history strategies. Here, we first assemble life history information on maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity and spawning duration and interval for all scombrid species.

  12. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (psausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (psausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat.

  13. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR...... are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat...... and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management...

  14. HÁBITOS ALIMENTICIOS DEL JUREL Trachurus murphyi (Nichols) EN LA ZONA NOR-CENTRAL DEL MAR PERUANO

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego, Henry; Facultad de Pesquería, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apdo. 12-056, Lima 100-Perú.; Mendo, Jaime; Facultad de Pesquería, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apdo. 12-056, Lima 100-Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Trachurus murphyi es una de las especies más importantes de la red trófica del ecosistema pelágico-oceánico y representa una de las pesquerías industriales de mayor significancia de la costa del Perú. Con la finalidad de conocer el comportamiento dietario de esta especie se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de 3 175 ejemplares capturados  a bordo de embarcaciones industriales arrastreras semi-pelágicas y cerqueras en la zona norte y centro del Perú respectivamente desde 1995 hasta 1997. L...

  15. The international regulation of herring, blue whiting and mackerel fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysov A. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the fisheries management is to provide the conditions for long-term, high and sustainable fishing. Most of the fish stocks in the North-East Atlantic's are transboundary and straddling, and some international agreements in the field of regulation of their fishing are required for effective management. Achieving multilateral international agreements in the field of fisheries is very difficult and long-term process, because it affects the economic and political interests of the contracting parties. The paper considers results of the analysis of stock dynamics of the most important fishery resources in the North-East Atlantic – herring, blue whiting and mackerel – in different historical periods. As in the past few decades, we have seen periods of both managed and unmanaged fisheries and in relation to the value of stocks of pelagic fish there have been significant fluctuations, in this paper the authors have attempted to estimate the value of concerted international fisheries management to maintain a stable state of stocks of pelagic fish. Implementation of scientific recommendations agreed by the participating countries of ICES and the joint management of the herring stock management contribute to the preservation of stock stable and optimal levels of withdrawal of the object. The historical experience of the international fishing of blue whiting has shown that compliance by states involved in the fishery advice of ICES and its reserve management activities and promotes the good stock condition. To save the mackerel stock within safe biological boundaries it is necessary to achieve the agreed long-term plan for managing its fisheries between all participants in the fishery. In the long term for the conservation of stocks of herring, blue whiting and North East mackerel in the safe biological boundaries, the international regulation of their fisheries based on the scientific recommendations of ICES in the framework of NEAFC and

  16. Edad y crecimiento del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teobaldo Dioses

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la edad y se estimó el crecimiento del jurel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920, mediante la lectura y medición de anillos anuales de crecimiento en 977 pares de otolitos de especímenes entre 3 y 71 cm de longitud total colectados dentro del dominio marítimo peruano durante el año 1978 y parte de 1977 y 1979. Se comprobó la validez de las marcas anuales en 50 otolitos con 5 marcas o zonas anuales, y también con el análisis del incremento marginal mensual en 240 otolitos de especímenes entre 35 y 39 cm obtenidos entre julio 1977 y junio 1979. A partir de las medidas de los anillos anuales y sus respectivas tallas retrocalculadas se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento en longitud y peso de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy: longitud infinita (L ∞ =80.77 cm, peso infinito (W ∞ = 3744.10 g, coeficiente de crecimiento (k = 0.155 y edad teórica a la longitud 0 (t 0 = –0.356. Se discuten las diferencias y semejanzas con las curvas y parámetros de crecimiento calculados por otros autores, haciendo énfasis en aquéllos cuyos resultados contribuyen a validar los estimados en el presente trabajo. Según los parámetros estimados, el T. murphyi peruano tendría una velocidad de crecimiento mayor que el T. murphyide más al sur.

  17. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  18. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen;

    2015-01-01

    (LGC) process geostatistical model incorporating spatio-temporal correlations. A statistically significant correlation between the modelled catch rates in adjacent quarters 4 and 1 (Q4 and Q1) demonstrates that bottom-trawl surveys in winter are an appropriate platform for sampling juvenile mackerel...... the correlation between the derived annual recruitment index and recruitment estimated by backcalculation of adult mackerel data. Square root transformation led to the strongest correlation, so this is recommended for further analysis of mackerel abundance. Finally,we provide maps of spatial distributions...

  19. Patrones de distribución y abundancia del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teobaldo Dioses

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza información de cruceros bio-oceanográficos del IMARPE con estaciones hasta 100 mn de la costa y entre 0 y 180 m de profundidad entre 1961 y 2011; información de observadores científicos a bordo de buques arrastrero-factoría de media agua nacionales, soviéticos y cubanos que operaron entre 1983 y 1998; y series de tiempo de anomalías de temperatura superficial del mar, profundidad de la isoterma de 15 °C y salinidad de 1950 a la fecha. Se identifican y describen tres patrones de distribución vertical y profundidad de las capturas de jurel Trachurus murphyien relación a cambios en condiciones ambientales: (1 cuando ocurren fenómenos El Niño (EN fuertes los cardúmenes se distribuyen entre 100 y 200 m de profundidad, las capturas son altas y varían poco entre día y noche; (2 cuando hay fuertes afloramientos los cardúmenes se distribuyen entre 0 y 75 m de profundidad, la pesca es más oceánica y superficial y (3 cuando se refuerza la Extensión Sur de la Corriente de Cromwell (ESCC, los cardúmenes están entre 0 y 300 m de profundidad, la pesca es más costera, a mayor profundidad de día y más superficial de noche. T. murphyies menos abundante en períodos fríos, cuando dominan Aguas Costeras Frías (ACF y se alejan de la costa las Aguas Subtropicales Superficiales (ASS, y más abundante en periodos cálidos, asociados a eventos EN y dominancia de la ESCC. Se observa segregación latitudinal por tamaños en relación a la Oscilación Decadal del Pacífico.

  20. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA523 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  1. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from Atka mackerel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atka mackerel Pleurogrammus monopterygius were captured and tagged with depth and temperature recording devices (archival tags) on 23 July 2000 in Seguam Pass,...

  2. An electrophoretic study of the soluble lens proteins from the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens nuclei proteins of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta were studied by cellogel electrophoresis, to see whether there are any intra species variations. A distinct pattern characterised by the number of bands, mobility...

  3. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) at various storage temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yu; Hou, Xiyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U...

  4. Diel feeding pattern and diet of rough scad Trachurus lathami Nichols, 1920 (Carangidae from the Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Diel changes in feeding activity and dietary composition of the rough scad Trachurus lathami were investigated through the analysis of stomach contents of 307 fish sampled over a 24-h period on the continental shelf off Ubatuba (23º 35'S 45ºW. Stomach contents were analyzed by frequency of occurrence (O%, percent number (N%, percent mass (M%, and feeding index (FI% = O% * M%. Rough scad fed on mollusks (Gastropoda, Crepidula sp., crustacean (Ostracoda, Copepoda, decapod larvae, chaetognat and teleostean fish. The main items were calanoid copepods (Eucalanus sp. and Centropages sp.. According to the analysis of the stomach fullness and prey digestion, T. lathami is both a diurnal and nocturnal feeder, showing some seasonal variation in feeding time. According to the Chronobiology concept, it was raised the hypothesis of circadian rhythm in feeding of this fish, probably synchronized by light/dark cycle.

  5. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U/g at 37 °C. Meanwhile, fish samples stored at 25 and 37 °C for 18 h, formed histamine at above 50 mg/100 g of the potential hazard level. In contrast, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled for 36 h by cold storage at low temperature (4 °C. Therefore, strict temperature control was necessary for preservation and processing of chub mackerel in order to assure this marine fish safety.

  6. Oxidative stability of frozen mackerel batches ― A multivariate data analysis approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Ekgreen, M.; Frosch, Stina; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    2011-01-01

    such as mackerel can lead to a significant loss in fish quality primarily due to oxidation of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids. These quality changes results in significant loss for the fish processing industries and in fish with poor eating quality. In order to investigate batch-to-batch variation due...... to different catching methods and different freezing procedures 6 batches of frozen mackerel were obtained from the local producer of caned mackerel. Fish were processed as soon as possible after landing i.e. headed, gutted and individually frozen at the industry. However, one of the catch was abused...... and stored on ice for 8 days before entering the production line. Subsequently, samples from the catches were sent to our laboratory where they were stored frozen at -30 °C for a period of 12 months. At intervals of 6 weeks samples were taken and analysed for proximate analysis as well as for oxidative...

  7. Diel feeding pattern and diet of rough scad Trachurus lathami Nichols, 1920 (Carangidae from the Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Diel changes in feeding activity and dietary composition of the rough scad Trachurus lathami were investigated through the analysis of stomach contents of 307 fish sampled over a 24-h period on the continental shelf off Ubatuba (23º 35'S 45ºW. Stomach contents were analyzed by frequency of occurrence (O%, percent number (N%, percent mass (M%, and feeding index (FI% = O% * M%. Rough scad fed on mollusks (Gastropoda, Crepidula sp., crustacean (Ostracoda, Copepoda, decapod larvae, chaetognat and teleostean fish. The main items were calanoid copepods (Eucalanus sp. and Centropages sp.. According to the analysis of the stomach fullness and prey digestion, T. lathami is both a diurnal and nocturnal feeder, showing some seasonal variation in feeding time. According to the Chronobiology concept, it was raised the hypothesis of circadian rhythm in feeding of this fish, probably synchronized by light/dark cycle.O estudo da dieta e do padrão diário e sazonal de atividade alimentar do chicharro Trachurus lathami foi realizado através de análises dos conteúdos estomacais de 307 peixes amostrados em estações fixas de coleta de 24 horas na plataforma continental ao largo de Ubatuba (23º 35'S 45ºW. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados através da freqüência numérica (N%, massa porcentual (M% e freqüência de ocorrência (O% dos itens alimentares, e índice alimentar (O% * M%. A espécie caracterizou-se por ingerir principalmente copépodes calanóides (ex. Eucalanus sp. e Centropages sp., além de outros crustáceos (Ostracoda, larva de decápodes, moluscos (Gastropoda: Crepidula sp., quetognatos e peixes teleósteos. De acordo com o grau de repleção estomacal e grau de digestão das presas, T. lathami ingeriu alimento tanto na fase clara quanto na fase escura do dia, apresentando variação sazonal no horário de tomada de alimento. De acordo com os conceitos da Cronobiologia foi levantada a hipótese de ritmo circadiano na atividade

  8. Optimal Control of a Mackerel-Mimicking Robot for Energy Efficient Trajectory Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seunghee Lee; Jounghyun Park; Cheolheui Han

    2007-01-01

    A robotic fish, BASEMACK1, is designed and fabricated by mimicking the shape of a live mackerel. Three DC servo-motors are serially linked together and actuated to mimic the mackerel's Carangiform motion. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a fish-mimetic test model are experimentally identified and utilized in order to numerically simulate fish swimming.The discrete set of kinematic and dynamic parameters are obtained by considering required horizontal and lateral forces and minimum energy consumption. Using the optimized parameter set, optimal control of the robot is studied.

  9. Production of purple potato mackerel balls%紫薯鲐鱼鱼丸的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2015-01-01

    Fish ball is popular among consumers for its deliciousness, nutritiousness and conven-ience. The mackerel and purple potato were taken as main raw materials to make fish balls. Through the quality evaluation,the effect of purple potato mackerel ball was satisfying.%鱼丸以其美味、营养与便捷倍受消费者青睐. 本文以紫薯和鲐鱼为主要原料试制紫薯鲐鱼丸,紫薯鲐鱼丸产品经质量评价,效果令人满意.

  10. Geographical patterns of parasite infracommunities in the rough scad, Trachurus lathami Nichols, in the Southwestern Atlantic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicovich, Paola E; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2012-08-01

    We assessed temporal variability in parasite infections of rough scad (Trachurus lathami) in 3 samples from Miramar (MI) in 2008, separated by periods of 1 mo, and 2 samples from Villa Gesell (VG), 1 each in 2008 and 2009 (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), respectively. A sample was also obtained from Cabo Frio (CF) (Brazil) in 2009 to compare differences in parasite communities between fish from this locality and each Argentinean locality. All rough scad were parasitized by at least 1 of 27 parasite species. Similarity-based multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between localities, but temporal homogeneity in each Argentinean locality. Overall, prevalence and abundance of parasite species were most similar between samples from MI and VG, while the greatest differences occurred between samples from MI and CF. A canonical analysis of principal coordinates showed significant differences among samples. Grillotia carvajalregorum was the most important species in determining the position of Argentinean samples, especially those from MI, while Ectenurus virgulus , Raphidascaris sp., and Hysterothylacium sp. were the most important species related to fish from CF. The parasite assemblage of T. lathami showed a notable temporal persistence within the same locality and a high variability at the spatial scale, suggesting the existence of 3 independent stocks of T. lathami in South Atlantic waters.

  11. 77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648- XB145 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  12. Investigation of a growth model incorporating density dependence for the mackerel management plan simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, T.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a framework to model density dependent growth for the North East Atlantic mackerel. The model used is the classical von Bertalanffy equation, but modified so that growth is reduced when stock size increases. The model developed was able to reproduce quite closely the trends in t

  13. Investigation of a growth model incorporating density dependence for the mackerel management plan simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, T.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a framework to model density dependent growth for the North East Atlantic mackerel. The model used is the classical von Bertalanffy equation, but modified so that growth is reduced when stock size increases. The model developed was able to reproduce quite closely the trends in

  14. A note on the record of Rastrelliger (Mackerel) larvae from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.

    from Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea They resemble the larvae of a scombrid relative, the Pacific mackerel Pneumatophorous diego, but differ in having less pigmentation and deeper body The larvae have a fairly stubby body, with 30 myomeres big eyes...

  15. Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

  16. 76 FR 8306 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... proposed rule ended on December 17, 2010. Details concerning the Council's development of these measures... a 3-year lifespan, should not control the $50-million Loligo fishery. TrawlWorks stated that Loligo... identification and development of joint U.S./Canada research priorities for mackerel is the subject of...

  17. 77 FR 74159 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Adjustment 7, are available from: Dr. Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery... Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) (75 FR 11441, March 11, 2010) as a...: December 10, 2012. Alan Risenhoover, Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, performing the...

  18. Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Verónica; Nolf, Dirk; Clarke, Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    The diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species representing 17 families and fish from 33 species representing 18 families were identified, representing over 70 prey species and trebling what was previously known. Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae and Cranchiidae were the only cephalopod families present every year and represented two thirds of the cephalopods' consumption by number. Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus was the most abundant prey species present in 1998 and 2002 but was absent in 1999 and 2000, representing on average 57.2% of prey by number in the years it occurred. Apart from blue jack mackerel, most fish species were present in very low numbers with the exception of Cubiceps gracilis, Scomberesox saurus and Maurolicus muellerii. Diaphus adenomus, was recorded for the first time for the Azores archipelago.

  19. Ecología trófica del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú entre 1977 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la dieta de jurel Trachurus murphyi frente a Perú de 1977 a 2011. Un total de 21058 estómagos fueron analizados utilizando métodos bivariados y el Modelo de Árbol de Regresión Multivariado (ARM. Se utilizó como variable respuesta la composición gravimétrica de la dieta, con respecto a diferentes variables predictivas como años, profundidad de la isoterma de 15 °C, Índice de Oscilación del Sur (IOS, Índice de Oscilación Decadal del Pacífico (PDO, anomalía de la temperatura superficial del mar, zona (norte, centro y sur y distancia de la costa. Nuestros resultados nos permitieron identificar dos escenarios diferentes, uno desde el año 1977 al 2000, donde la dieta del jurel T. murphyi estuvo fuertemente dominada por Euphausiidae, y otro escenario después del 2000, donde el jurel T. murphyi consumió mayor diversidad de presas, principalmente Euphausiidae, camaroncito rojo Pleuroncodes monodon y Zoeas. Se destaca que el primer escenario corresponde a condiciones cálidas y el segundo a condiciones frías, ambas coincidentes con los periodos multidecadales. A diferencia de estudios anteriores que muestran que la anchoveta Engraulis ringenses una presa abundante, en este estudio no fue significativamente importante. Espacialmente, los Euphausiidae dominaron la dieta en el norte-centro de Perú, mientras que al sur, la composición de las presas fue más diversa. La dieta también varió significativamente según la distancia a la costa, con mayor proporción de P. monodoncerca a la costa y con respecto a su etapas de desarrollo ontogenético.

  20. Variabilidad espacial y temporal de larvas de jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú entre 1966 –2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ayón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El análisis espacial y temporal de larvas de jurel Trachurus murphyien el mar peruano entre los años 1966 y 2010 confirma su presencia constante durante todo el periodo estudiado. En general, en este periodo la abundancia de larvas de jurel T. murphyimuestra una tendencia ligeramente ascendente destacándose cambios en la distribución espacial y una alta variabilidad interanual, con cortos periodos de alta abundancia promedio, intercalados con periodos más prolongados y de baja abundancia. El promedio anual estimado varió entre 3 y 79 larvas/ m2 . La distribución espacial presentó tres periodos importantes: uno con mayores densidades de larvas al sur de los 14°S, entre 1970 y 1979; cambió hacia el norte de esta latitud, entre 1980 y 1999; y otro de mayor densidad al sur de los 18°S, en el último periodo 2000 – 2010. Los centros de gravedad de la distribución de larvas presentaron tres periodos muy notorios: fueron más costeros hacia el sur de los 14°S, entre 1966 y1978; más oceánicos y al norte de los 14°S, entre 1979 y 1994; y con una posición intermedia entre 1995 – 2010. Se discute la relación entre la distribución de las larvas con las variables oceanográficas y la distribución de T. murphyiadultos y juveniles, además se destaca que el mar del Perú es un centro principal y permanente de actividad reproductiva de esta especie.

  1. Biomasa acústica y distribución del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

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    Marceliano Segura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los resultados de las evaluaciones hidroacústicas del recurso jurel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920 realizadas en aguas peruanas entre 1983 – 2012. Desde 1983 se incluyó al T. murphyicomo especie de estudio durante los cruceros de evaluación de recursos pelágicos ejecutados por el Instituto del Mar del Perú. Debido al énfasis en la estimación de biomasa de la anchoveta Engraulis ringens y de la sardina Sardinops sagax cuando esta última es más abundante, los cruceros se llevan a cabo durante el verano austral y las áreas de evaluación están circunscritas a las zonas más costeras hasta 100 mn, con sólo algunas exploraciones en otras estaciones y hasta 200 millas. El máximo valor de biomasa de 8.51 millones de toneladas de T. murphyien aguas peruanas estimado con las evaluaciones hidroacústicas fue encontrado durante el crucero realizado en otoño (marzo-mayo de 1983. En los años siguientes los estimados de biomasa acústica fluctuaron entre 180 mil toneladas en 1985 y otro máximo de 8.47 millones de toneladas en 1993, para luego disminuir gradualmente hasta un mínimo de 1239 t en 2010, con una ligera recuperación en los años 2011 y 2012. El área de distribución de T. murphyifue muy fluctuante en todo el periodo observado.

  2. Análisis de la pesquería del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

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    Miguel Ñiquen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del jurel Trachurus murphyi ha sido registrado en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal en Perú desde 1907. A partir del año 2000, las capturas de T. murphyise ubicaron en el tercer lugar después de la anchoveta Engraulis ringensy el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas. Las capturas de T. murphyison realizadas por la flota artesanal, industrial cerquera y barcos arrastreros factoría. En el año 2011, la flota industrial cerquera con permiso de pesca para T. murphyien la costa peruana estaba constituida por 62 embarcaciones industriales de acero (30177 m 3 y 42 industriales de madera (3082 m 3 . Las capturas de T. murphyituvieron un notable incremento a partir de 1972, alcanzando sus máximos valores en 1977, 1996-97 y 2001, a los que siguieron años de muy baja disponibilidad que llevó al mínimo registro en las capturas en 2010. Sin embargo en el 2011 se revirtió esta baja disponibilidad y las capturas alcanzaron casi las 260000 toneladas. En el periodo 1972 – 2012 se observó una relación inversa entre los estimados de biomasa acústica del jurel T. murphyiy los desembarques anuales de anchoveta E. ringens. Las capturas mensuales de T. murphyipor la flota industrial y artesanal antes del 2002 fueron altas en la zona norte de Perú (Mancora-Chimbote, mientras que después del 2002 las capturas fueron altas en la zona centro-sur (Huacho-Ilo.

  3. Genetic divergence between the scad subspecies Trachurus Mediterraneus (Carangidae, pisces from the Black Sea and the Mediterranean

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    I.S. DOBROVOLOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of myogen and eleven enzymes (AAT, ADH, EST, GPI, IDHP, LDH, MDH, MEP, PGDH, PGM and SOD were carried out by using starch gel and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis on thinlayer and ultrathin polyacrylamide ampholine and servalite gels in scad species from the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean. Data from electrophoretic investigations was used to clarify the population structure of the scad migrating in the Bulgarian aquatory of the Black Sea and consisting of two main subpopulations: a a "Black Sea" one hibernating in this sea only, and b a "Sea of Marmara" one hibernating in that sea and contiguous Black Sea regions around the Bosporus. Non-specific muscular esterases were used, because they were appropriate for identification of both subspecies: Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev and Tr.m.mediterraneus Steindachner. Nei's genetic distance (D=0,0113 was used as an indication of their isolation dated back to the Carangate Period. An attempt was made to check the hypothesis of the origin of "large" ("giant" scad in the Black Sea as a result of the heterozygotic interbreeding between Tr.m.ponticus Aleev and Tr.m.mediterraneus Steindachner. A new allele Est-1E as well as the previously known alleles Est-1A and Est-1-B, were found in Mediterranean scad Tr.m.mediterraneus caught off Nice (France. It's proposed that the presence of the large form of large scat in this area is also a consequence of the heterozytic efect from the interbreeding between a population marked by Est-1-A and Est-1-B and a population marked by Est-1-E, probably inhabiting the waters around Gibraltar in the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Medidas de conservación y ordenación pesquera del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

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    Jorge Zuzunaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las pesquerías peruanas como actividades realizadas sobre recursos naturales renovables son reguladas por un marco jurídico, cuyo objetivo es asegurar su conservación y uso sostenible. La Ley General de Pesca (DL N°. 25977 señala que para cada tipo de pesquería y según la situación del recurso explotado debe establecerse un sistema de ordenamiento que concilie el principio de sostenibilidad de los recursos pesqueros o conservación en el largo plazo, con la obtención de los mayores beneficios económicos y sociales. En el ordenamiento pesquero del jurel Trachurus murphyi, las medidas incluyen entre otras, el régimen de acceso constituido por las autorizaciones de incremento de flota y permisos de pesca, que se otorgan solo a los buques cuyas capturas son destinadas únicamente para el consumo humano directo, de acuerdo a lo dispuesto en el Reglamento de Ordenamiento Pesquero (DS N.° 011-2007-PRODUCE. La obligación de destinar los recursos sardina Sardinops sagax, jurel T. murphyiy caballa Scomber japonicus al consumo humano directo rige desde septiembre 2002 (DS N°. 001-2002-PRODUCE. Otras medidas vigentes restringen el tamaño mínimo de malla de las redes, prohíben la captura de ejemplares menores de 31 cm de longitud total, determinan el inicio y cierre de las temporadas de pesca, los límites de captura o cuotas anuales. Estas disposiciones son complementadas por medidas de seguimiento, control y vigilancia para la efectiva conservación y uso sostenido del recurso.

  5. Comparative evaluation of gum arabic coating and vacuum packaging on chilled storage characteristics of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Sahu, Upali; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of edible coating using gum arabic on biochemical, microbiological, textural and sensory characteristics of fresh gutted mackerel stored at 4 °C was investigated. The results were further compared against the samples packed under vacuum (VP) and conventional polyethylene pouches (CP). Coating with gum arabic (GC) markedly retarded lipid oxidation process in gutted mackerel compared to VP and CP samples. Moreover, VP and CP samples showed higher degree of textural deterioration compared to GC samples. Microbiologically, the shelf life of chilled gutted Indian mackerel was estimated to be 7-8, 17 and 19-20 days for CP, GC and VP samples, respectively. The sensory analysis scores confirmed the efficacy of gum coating in retarding the spoilage process during chilled storage. The current study identifies the potential of edible coating with gum arabic to improve the overall quality of Indian mackerel and extend its storage life during chilled storage.

  6. Thermal Niche Tracking and Future Distribution of Atlantic Mackerel Spawning in response to Ocean Warming

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    Antoine eBruge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North-east Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution has shifted northward in the last three decades probably in response to global sea warming. Yet, uncertainties subsist regarding on the shift rate, causalities, and how this species will respond to future conditions. Using egg surveys, we explored the influence of temperature change on mackerel’s spawning distribution (western and southern spawning components of the stock between 1992 and 2013, and projected how it may change under future climate change scenarios. We developed three generalized additive models: (i a spatiotemporal model to reconstruct the spawning distribution for the north-east Atlantic stock over the period 1992-2013, to estimate the rate of shift; (ii a thermal habitat model to assess if spawning mackerel have tracked their thermal spawning-niche; and (iii a niche-based model to project future spawning distribution under two predicted climate change scenarios. Our findings showed that mackerel spawning activity has shifted northward at a rate of 15.9 ± 0.9 km/decade between 1992 and 2013. Similarly, using the thermal habitat model, we detected a northward shift of the thermal spawning-niche. This indicates that mackerel has spawned at higher latitudes to partially tracking their thermal spawning-niche, at a rate of 28.0 ± 9.0 km/°C of sea warming. Under future scenarios (mid and end of the century, the extrapolation of the niche-based model to coupled hydroclimatic and biogeochemical models indicates that centre of gravity of mackerel spawning distribution is expected to shift westward (32 to 117 km and northward (0.5 to 328 km, but with high variability according to scenarios and time frames. The future of the overall egg production in the area is uncertain (change from -9.3% to 12%. With the aim to allow the fishing industry to anticipate the future distribution of mackerel shoals during the spawning period, future research should focus on reducing uncertainty in

  7. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    , and that the LCG model is successful in extracting a population abundance signal fromthe data. In this regard, the model performed appreciably better than a more commonly used raising algorithm based on survey swept-area estimates. Therefore, the LCG model was expanded to include data from the entire survey time...... the correlation between the derived annual recruitment index and recruitment estimated by backcalculation of adult mackerel data. Square root transformation led to the strongest correlation, so this is recommended for further analysis of mackerel abundance. Finally,we provide maps of spatial distributions......, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  8. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  9. Fatty acid composition of horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla and croaker (Otolithes ruber

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    Rasool Abdul Nazeer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the proximate and fatty acid composition of muscle, viscera, skin and bone of marine fish’s horse mackerel and croaker. Methods: Freshly collected fishes were dissected and their moisture, ash and protein content were estimated gravimetrically by AOAC procedure and the lipid was extracted using chloroform, methanol and water in a ratio proposed by Bligh and Dyer. Extracted lipid was injected into gas chromatography connected to BPX-70 glass column to evaluate the fatty acid composition. Results: All the body parts analyzed had varying moisture content in between 73%-83%. Horse mackerel contained less than 3% and croaker had above 4% of lipid in all the body parts except muscle (1.4%. Fatty acid and lipid class composition was determined for all the body parts and the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Conclusion: Both the fish species showed variation, in protein content, lipid content and fatty acid composition. However, croaker had more remarkable quantity of lipid than horse mackerel.

  10. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

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    Eneko Bachiller

    Full Text Available The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS herring (Clupea harengus, blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou and Northeast Atlantic (NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of

  11. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  12. Possible role of the leptin system in controlling puberty in the male chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Hirata, Daisuke; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    Leptin directly regulates kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus and gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary, making it a central player in the onset of mammalian puberty. Recently, we identified two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a single leptin receptor (lepr) in the marine perciform fish chub mackerel; however, the expression of these genes did not correlate with the expression of important reproductive genes or ovarian stage during female puberty. Here, we expand upon these initial observations by evaluating the expression of lepa, lepb, and lepr during pubertal transition and under differential feeding conditions in the male chub mackerel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that lepa was primarily expressed in the liver of pubertal and gonadal recrudescence adults, as well as in the brain of adult fish; lepb was primarily expressed in the brain of all fish tested; and lepr was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant increases in the hepatic expression of lepa in accordance with testicular stage, whereas pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (fshβ) expression increased in unison with hepatic lepa. In contrast, expression of both brain lepa and lepb dramatically decreased during pubertal transition, with brain kisspeptin 1 (kiss1) expression strongly correlating with leptin expression patterns. In pre-pubertal males, lepa, lepb, and lper gene expression in the brain, pituitary gland, and liver decreased in fish given a high feed diet, relative to the controlled feeding group. Taken together, these results indicate high sexual specificity of leptin expression, suggesting a possible role for leptin signaling in endocrine and neuroendocrine functions during spermatogenesis in the pubertal male chub mackerel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling...... suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting...

  14. Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for the Production of Iron-Binding Peptides from Mackerel Processing Byproducts

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    Pan-Feng Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was focused on optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for the production of iron-binding peptides from marine mackerel processing byproducts. The marine mackerel processing byproducts protein were hydrolyzed using trypsin, Protamex, Flavourzyme, Alcalase and Neutrase. Alcalase and Protamex proteolytic hydrolysates exhibited the highest iron-binding capacity; however, Alcalase proteolytic hydrolysate had higher degree of hydrolysis than that of Protamex. A four-factor-three-level composition central design experiment in response surface methodology was used to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of Alcalase. The optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 46.0°C, time of 2.01 h, pH 8.35 and enzyme to substrate 6460 U/mL. The quadratic model predicted well about the actual measured value. The average iron-binding capacity of three verification experiment was 6.62 mg-EDTA/g-protein, which was much closed to model predicted value of 6.69 mg-EDTA/g-protein.

  15. Nutrient-driven poleward expansion of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus stock: A new hypothesis

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    Selma V. Pacariz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus stock has increased and expanded its summer feeding migration west- and northwards since 2006, entailing large geopolitical challenges for the countries harvesting this species. A common perspective is that climatic warming opens up new regions for biota in the north. It has also been suggested that the presently large pelagic fish stocks deplete prey resources in the eastern North Atlantic during their summer feeding phase, forcing the stocks west towards the Irminger Sea in their search for food. Here, we suggest that the declining nutrient (silicate concentrations observed along the northern European continental slope reduce primary and thus secondary production, exacerbating food scarceness in the east and adding to the incentive to migrate westward. The new westward feeding route requires that the fish cross the Iceland Basin, which during the summer season quickly becomes nutrient-depleted and thus might act as a barrier to migration after the spring bloom. Using mackerel and zooplankton abundance data from the International Ecosystem Summer Surveys in the Nordic Seas, we suggest that the oligotrophic waters in the central Iceland Basin force the fish to migrate through a narrow ‘corridor’ along the south Iceland shelf, where nutrients are replenished and both primary and secondary production are higher.

  16. "Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

    2013-01-01

    Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

  17. Economic gains from introducing international ITQs - the case of the mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Fitzpatrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities is one of the major challenges in European fisheries. One way to achieve this is to introduce individual tradable quotas or similar management measures. In several mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic, such...

  18. FORMULASI LEDOK INSTAN YANG DITAMBAHKAN IKAN TONGKOL DAN RUMPUT LAUT [Instant Ledok Formulation by Addition of Frigate Mackerel and Seaweed

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    I Ketut Suter*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ledok is a traditional food from Nusa Penida, Bali, in form of non-rice porridge. The main ingredients of ledok are corn and cassava, and other ingredients are peanut, red bean and spinach. These ingredients are locally available. In this study, nutrient content of instant ledok was increased through improving the formulation by adding frigate mackerel and seaweed. The study was conducted in order to find out the best formulation of instant ledok. The experiment was carried out through a Random Block Design, with five formulations of frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio in two replicates. The treatment was ratio of frigate mackerel and seaweed: (1 RI = 0 : 0, (2 R2 = 0 : 30, (3 R3 = 10 : 20, (4 R4 = 20 : 10 and (5 R5 = 30 : 0. The characteristics of instant ledok observed were: sensory characteristics and nutrient contents. The results of the study showed that there was no significant effect of formulation to acceptability of colour and odour, but there were significant effects to taste, texture and general acceptability of instant ledok. The best formulation of instant ledok was formulation R5 with addition of frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio of 30 : 0.The nutrition contents of this instant ledok were 79.60% of water, 0.74% of ash, 3.17% of protein, 3.85% of fat, 12.64% of carbohydrate, 21.15 mg/100 g of vitamin C and 3.43% of vitamin C.

  19. Preparatory selection of sterilization regime for canned Natural Atlantic Mackerel with oil based on developed mathematical models of the process

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    Maslov A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of preparatory parameters for sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" is the aim of current study. PRSC software developed at the department of automation and computer engineering is used for preparatory selection. To determine the parameters of process model, in laboratory autoclave AVK-30M the pre-trial process of sterilization and cooling in water with backpressure of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" in can N 3 has been performed. Gathering information about the temperature in the autoclave sterilization chamber and the can with product has been carried out using Ellab TrackSense PRO loggers. Due to the obtained information three transfer functions for the product model have been identified: in the least heated area of autoclave, the average heated and the most heated. In PRSC programme temporary temperature dependences in the sterilization chamber have been built using this information. The model of sterilization process of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been received after the pre-trial process. Then in the automatic mode the sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected using the value of actual effect close to normative sterilizing effect (5.9 conditional minutes. Furthermore, in this study step-mode sterilization of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected. Utilization of step-mode sterilization with the maximum temperature equal to 125 °C in the sterilization chamber allows reduce process duration by 10 %. However, the application of this regime in practice requires additional research. Using the described approach based on the developed mathematical models of the process allows receive optimal step and variable canned food sterilization regimes with high energy efficiency and product quality.

  20. Estimación del crecimiento del jurel Trachurus murphyicapturado en el Perú, a partir del análisis de las frecuencias por tallas

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    Erich Díaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las estimaciones de los parámetros de crecimiento del modelo de von Bertalanffy para el jurel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920 capturado en el mar peruano entre 1972 y 2012, a partir de análisis de frecuencias por tallas. La L ∞ fue estimada a partir de la máxima talla observada a lo largo de la historia de su pesquería y se le mantuvo como parámetro fijo en la estimación del parámetro de crecimiento k a partir del ajuste directo de una curva de crecimiento sobre la progresión mensual de modas. Los valores estimados fueron: L ∞ = 81.6 cm y k = 0.167 año -1 . Se destaca que este valor de k es similar al estimado por otros autores y con otros métodos para el Perú, y es a su vez más alto que el estimado para el T. murphyi capturado frente a las costas de Chile. Estos resultados sugieren que el T. murphyien el Perú tiene una velocidad de crecimiento más alta que el T. murphyide Chile.

  1. Development of a real-time PCR method for the identification of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Amaya; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Icíar; Santaclara, Francisco J; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2013-12-01

    A Real Time-PCR method based on TaqMan technology for the identification of Scomber scombrus has been developed. A system of specific primers and a Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b region was designed. The method was successfully tested in 81 specimens of S. scombrus and related species and validated in 26 different commercial samples. An average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 15.3 was obtained with S. scombrus DNA. With the other species tested fluorescence signal was not detected or Ct was significantly higher (P<0.001). The efficiency of the assay was estimated to be 92.41%, with 100% specificity, and no cross reactivity was detected with any other species. These results reveal that the developed method is a rapid and efficient tool to unequivocally identify S. scombrus and may aid in the prevention of fraud or mislabelling in mackerel products.

  2. Life-history traits and population decline of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrusin the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghesso, C; Riginella, E; La Mesa, M; Donato, F; Mazzoldi, C

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated demographic structure and reproductive characteristics of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, in relation to landing trends in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. Results highlighted the occurrence of only small-sized and young-age individuals, and a marked decline from the 1990s to the present in maximum age (from 8 to 3 years) and total length (L(T); from 420 to 360 mm). Fecundity ranged between 40,000 and 190,000 eggs, and was related to female L(T). High levels of atresia implied lower values of actual fecundity. Sexual maturity was attained by 72·8% of individuals in their first year of life at 200 mm. The reduction in maximum L(T) resulted in a marked decline in the population egg production, while the reduction in maximum age implied that females participated in fewer spawning events.

  3. Tambora and the mackerel year: Phenology and fisheries during an extreme climate event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Karen E.; Leavenworth, William B.; Willis, Theodore V.; Hall, Carolyn; Mattocks, Steven; Bittner, Steven M.; Klein, Emily; Staudinger, Michelle; Bryan, Alexander; Rosset, Julianne; Carr, Benjamin H.; Jordaan, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Global warming has increased the frequency of extreme climate events, yet responses of biological and human communities are poorly understood, particularly for aquatic ecosystems and fisheries. Retrospective analysis of known outcomes may provide insights into the nature of adaptations and trajectory of subsequent conditions. We consider the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora and its impact on Gulf of Maine (GoM) coastal and riparian fisheries in 1816. Applying complex adaptive systems theory with historical methods, we analyzed fish export data and contemporary climate records to disclose human and piscine responses to Tambora’s extreme weather at different spatial and temporal scales while also considering sociopolitical influences. Results identified a tipping point in GoM fisheries induced by concatenating social and biological responses to extreme weather. Abnormal daily temperatures selectively affected targeted fish species—alewives, shad, herring, and mackerel—according to their migration and spawning phenologies and temperature tolerances. First to arrive, alewives suffered the worst. Crop failure and incipient famine intensified fishing pressure, especially in heavily settled regions where dams already compromised watersheds. Insufficient alewife runs led fishers to target mackerel, the next species appearing in abundance along the coast; thus, 1816 became the “mackerel year.” Critically, the shift from riparian to marine fisheries persisted and expanded after temperatures moderated and alewives recovered. We conclude that contingent human adaptations to extraordinary weather permanently altered this complex system. Understanding how adaptive responses to extreme events can trigger unintended consequences may advance long-term planning for resilience in an uncertain future. PMID:28116356

  4. Purification and characterization of four antibacterial peptides from protamex hydrolysate of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaas, Nadia; Hammami, Riadh; Beaulieu, Lucie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-07-03

    Proteins from fish by-product sources are valuable source of bioactive peptides and show promise as functional foods ingredients. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize antibacterial peptides from protamex hydrolysates of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by-products. Four sequences SIFIQRFTT (P4), RKSGDPLGR (P8.1), AKPGDGAGSGPR (P8.2) and GLPGPLGPAGPK (P11) were identified in peptide fractions separated using RP-HPLC. At 200 μg mL(-1), while peptides P8.1, P8.2 and P11 exhibited partial inhibition, P4 totally inhibited tested Gram-positive (Listeria innocua) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. These results suggest that the protein hydrolysate derived from mackerel by-products could be used as an antimicrobial ingredient in both functional food and nutraceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of Morganella morganii Histidine Decarboxylase Activity and Histamine Accumulation in Mackerel Muscle Derived from Filipendula ulumaria Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoko; Yasukata, Fumiko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Ito, Mikiko; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Ueno, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, also known as meadowsweet, is an herb; its extract was examined for the prevention of histamine production, primarily that caused by contaminated fish. The efficacy of meadowsweet was assessed using two parameters: inhibition of Morganella morganii histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and inhibition of histamine accumulation in mackerel. Ellagitannins from F. ulmaria (rugosin D, rugosin A methyl ester, tellimagrandin II, and rugosin A) were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of human HDC; and in the present work, these compounds inhibited M. morganii HDC, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.5, 4.4, 6.1, and 6.8 μM, respectively. Application of the extracts (at 2 wt%) to mackerel meat yielded significantly decreased histamine accumulation compared with treatment with phosphate-buffered saline as a control. Hence, F. ulmaria exhibits inhibitory activity against bacterial HDC and might be effective for preventing food poisoning caused by histamine.

  6. Maximum sustainable speeds and cost of swimming in juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, C; Dickson, K A

    2000-10-01

    Tunas (Scombridae) have been assumed to be among the fastest and most efficient swimmers because they elevate the temperature of the slow-twitch, aerobic locomotor muscle above the ambient water temperature (endothermy) and because of their streamlined body shape and use of the thunniform locomotor mode. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that juvenile tunas swim both faster and more efficiently than their ectothermic relatives. The maximum sustainable swimming speed (U(max), the maximum speed attained while using a steady, continuous gait powered by the aerobic myotomal muscle) and the net cost of transport (COT(net)) were compared at 24 degrees C in similar-sized (116-255 mm fork length) juvenile scombrids, an endothermic tuna, the kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) and the ectothermic chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). U(max) and COT(net) were measured by forcing individual fish to swim in a temperature-controlled, variable-speed swimming tunnel respirometer. There were no significant interspecific differences in the relationship between U(max) and body mass or fork length or in the relationship between COT(net) and body mass or fork length. Muscle temperatures were elevated by 1.0-2.3 degrees C and 0.1-0.6 degrees C above water temperature in the kawakawa and chub mackerel, respectively. The juvenile kawakawa had significantly higher standard metabolic rates than the chub mackerel, because the total rate of oxygen consumption at a given swimming speed was higher in the kawakawa when the effects of fish size were accounted for. Thus, juvenile kawakawa are not capable of higher sustainable swimming speeds and are not more efficient swimmers than juvenile chub mackerel.

  7. Identification and Characterization of a New IgE-binding Protein in Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bangping; LI Zhenxing; ZHENG Lina; LIU Yixuan; LIN Hong

    2011-01-01

    As fish is one source of the 'big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years.In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28kDa protein from local mackerel (Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e.triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius (Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis)and crangon (Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  8. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  9. Validación del ritmo de formación de los anillos de crecimiento en otolitos del jurel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Goicochea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados de la validación del crecimiento del jurel Trachurus murphyipor tres técnicas: 1 validación del primer anillo anual mediante lectura de microincrementos diarios; 2 análisis del crecimiento del radio del otolito entre el segundo y tercer anillo, siguiendo una cohorte; y, 3 lectura convencional de anillos anuales. Los resultados demostraron que la edad promedio de jureles T. murphyicon el primer anillo completamente formado fue de 364.8 días, con una talla media de 19.5 cm, y que el incremento promedio del segundo al tercer anillo fue de 0.62 mm. Se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento L oo= 75.17 cm, k= 0.165/año, t o = -0.817año y se discuten estos resultados destacándose que estos parámetros indican que el jurelT. murphyiperuano crece más rápido que el jurel T. murphyichileno. Las mediciones del radio del primer anillo anual alcanzaron valores hasta 18% más altos que los reportados por otros autores para el jurel chileno, y las medidas del radio de otolitos de individuos de dos y tres años fueron hasta 20% más altas. La longitud promedio de ejemplares de jurel peruano de un año de edad es aproximadamente 35% mayor que la del jurel chileno obtenida por otros autores. El índice de crecimiento phi prima (Ø’de jurel peruano obtenido en este estudio y en otros, evidencia patrones de crecimiento similares, por el bajo valor del coeficiente de variación (1%, y que es menor al 7% obtenido por otros autores para el jurel T. murphyide más al sur.

  10. The Distribution of Capture Fisheries Based Small Pelagic - Mackerel Fish Species In Balikpapan Waters, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Abdusysyahid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE In the utilization of common property resource, long term balance in aquaculture is difficult to maintain as people trying to maximize their profit leading to considerable extensification. The objective of this research was to analyze the number of stock, production, and effort of Mackerel fish (Scomberomorus commersonii resource based on bio-economic approach. Primary data was collected based on purposive sampling method where the respondents in this research were Small Pelagic fishers which determined deliberately due to specific consideration. Secondary data used in this research was obtained from several sources. Data production and effort (input or effort was arranged in a time sequence according to the type of fishing gears and their targets of fishery resource being studied and then determined the value of CPUE (catch per unit effort. Mathematically, the input gear to be standardized is calculated from fishing power index multiplies with input (effort of standardized gear. The result shows that the renewable capacity begins to decrease leading to a condition of biologically over fishing. Aside from that, the Mackerel fish resource in this area also experiences economically over fishing condition which indicated by higher economic calculation value and lower capture yield. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  11. Dim-light photoreceptor of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and the photoresponse upon illumination with LEDs of different wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Chul; Choi, Mi-Jin; Yang, Yong-Soo; Lee, Hyung-Been; Yu, Young-Moon; Kim, Jong-Myoung

    2016-06-01

    To study the absorption characteristics of rhodopsin, a dim-light photoreceptor, in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the relationship between light wavelengths on the photoresponse, the rod opsin gene was cloned into an expression vector, pMT4. Recombinant opsin was transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. Cells containing the regenerated rhodopsin were solubilized and subjected to UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis in the dark and upon illumination. Difference spectra from the lysates indicated an absorption maximum of mackerel rhodopsin around 500 nm. Four types of light-emitting diode (LED) modules with different wavelengths (red, peak 627 nm; cyan, 505 nm; blue, 442 nm; white, 447 + 560 nm) were constructed to examine their effects on the photoresponse in chub mackerel. Behavioral responses of the mackerels, including speed and frequencies acclimated in the dark and upon LED illumination, were analyzed using an underwater acoustic camera. Compared to an average speed of 22.25 ± 1.57 cm/s of mackerel movement in the dark, speed increased to 22.97 ± 0.29, 24.66 ± 1.06, 26.28 ± 2.28, and 25.19 ± 1.91 cm/s upon exposure to red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs, respectively. There were increases of 103.48 ± 1.58, 109.37 ± 5.29, 118.48 ± 10.82, and 109.43 ± 3.92 %, respectively, in the relative speed of the fishes upon illumination with red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs compared with that in the dark (set at 100 %). Similar rate of wavelength-dependent responses was observed in a frequency analysis. These results indicate that an LED emitting a peak wavelength close to an absorption maximum of rhodopsin is more effective at eliciting a response to light.

  12. Combined effects of vacuum packaging and mint extract treatment on the biochemical, sensory and microbial changes of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, P; Panda, S K; Mohan, C O; Bindu, J; Ravishankar, C N; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of vacuum packaging and mint extract treatment on the quality changes of gutted Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at 0-2 °C for 22 days. Biochemical, total viable count and sensory quality of chill stored mackerel were analysed at periodic intervals. Mint extract treated [dipping in 0.5% (w/v) solution of mint extract for 30 min] and vacuum packed fishes (MEVP) had significantly lower total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen compared to those packed under vacuum (CVP) and air (CAP) without mint extract treatment. Nucleotide degradation rate was lower in MEVP followed by CVP and CAP. Vacuum packaging in combination with ME treatment significantly inhibited lipid hydrolysis and lipid oxidation in mackerel as observed from its lower free fatty acid, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values. Synergistic use of mint extract and vacuum packaging has markedly controlled microbial proliferation in the samples. Based on sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel stored at 0-2 °C was determined as 13 days for CAP group, 16 days for CVP group and 21 days for MEVP group, respectively. The present study revealed that combination of vacuum packaging and mint extract treatment can be a promising technology to improve the storage quality of chill stored gutted mackerel.

  13. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CHUB MACKEREL EXTRACT ON LIPID METABOLISM OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented chub mackerel extract(FCME on lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. Four week-old male Wistar rats were divided into threegroups based on weight. All rats were induced with diabetes mellitus by single intraperitoneal injectionof streptozotocin at 45 mg/kg body weight. Thereafter, they were randomly distributed to threetreatments with 7 rats assigned to each treatment. One group was the control with no additive, and twotreatmentgroups were given the purified diets supplemented with 1% or 2% FCME. Experimentalresults showed that in comparison to the control, diabetic rats fed FCME increased feed intake (P<0.01and body weight gain (P<0.05. FCME inclusion significantly reduced the activities of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase (P<0.01 and fatty acid synthetase (P<0.05 in diabetic rats. FCME significantly increasedcholesterol 7 -hydroxylase with no effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. FCME had no effect onhepatic triglyceride, free cholesterol and phospholipid. FCME inclusion at 1% level significantlyreduced serum triglyceride. FCME significantly increased HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05 with no effect onLDL + VLDL-cholesterol, and significantly reduced atherogenic index. FCME did not significantlyaffect serum insulin and glucose concentration. In conclusion, FCME supplementation altered lipidmetabolism in diabetic rats. FCME supplementation reduced the risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic rats.

  14. Effect of freezing time on the quality of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmisha, I P; Ravishankar, C N; Ninan, G; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K S

    2008-09-01

    The present study aims to find the effect of freezing methods on the quality of mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in commercial plate and air blast freezers during freezing and subsequent frozen storage (-18 degrees C). Total time for freezing was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to plate freezer where protein content decreased in both the samples. Upon freezing and during frozen storage, lipid oxidation products (peroxide value, thiobarbutiric acid value, and free fatty acid value) and volatile bases (total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen) showed an increasing trend in both the samples with values slightly higher in air blast frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The total plate counts showed a significantly (P frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The taste and overall acceptability was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to air blast frozen samples on 3rd month. Both samples were in acceptable condition up to 3 mo but the plate frozen samples quality was slightly better than the air blast frozen samples.

  15. Kinetics of color change of osmotically dehydrated chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo CHECMAREV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature on the kinetics of color change of chub mackerel dehydrated in a ternary solution (water, glycerol and salt and vacuum packaged in films. The color of processed fish can change because of lipids and protein oxidation during storage. Samples were stored at 7, 25 and 35 °C for seven months and kinetic models of 0, 1 and 2 order were applied to describe the color changes. It was observed that an increase in the storage temperature improved the changes in the CIE color values (L*, a* and b*. First-order reaction had the best statistical parameters for a* at the three temperatures tested. The temperature dependence of parameter a* indicated an Arrhenius relationship and the activation energy (Ea was 44.33 kJ/mol. The parameter b* fitted to the proposed models only in samples stored at 35 °C. The L* value decreased during storage at 25 and 35 °C (pale to dark. Storage at refrigeration temperature (7 °C minimized the color changes.

  16. Mackerel (Scomber Scrombrus Oil Extraction and Evaluation as Raw Materials for Industrial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. BAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, evaluation and refining of fish oil from mackerel (scomber scrombrus has been conducted in this work. The total percentage oil yield using solvent extraction and total moisture content was 28.24% and 56.50 %respectively, which were found to increase linearly with time. The analytical properties of the crude and the refined oil were evaluated. It was observed that the crude oil consist from: acid value 2.5 mg/KOH, peroxide value 2.19 mEq/kg, saponification value 201.6 mgKOH/g, iodine value 108.09 I2/100g, specific gravity 0.911, refractive index 1.485 and reddish brown colour. The refined oil was also evaluated as follows: acid value 2.27 mg/KOH, peroxide 1.00 meq/kg, saponification value 147.84 mgKOH/g, iodine value 106.93 I2 /100g and golden brown colour. These values fall within the acceptable standard values. The refining of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of the taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g(-)(1) wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  18. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  19. Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

    2008-11-01

    Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

  20. Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Collagen Hydrolysates from Spanish Mackerel Skin as Influenced by Average Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ≤ AMW ≤ 47.82 kDa from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates.

  1. Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hyeon Ahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R, stage 2 = well-done (W, and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O. Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O, e.g., 465 (trimethylamine and 106 ppb (acetic acid. In contrast, at stage 2 (W, the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O. As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality.

  2. Age and Growth of Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas Using Sectioned Otolith Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; CHEN Xinjun; FENG Bo

    2008-01-01

    Although chub mackerel (Scomberjaponicus) is a primary pelagic fish species,we have only limited knowledge on itskey life history processes.The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas.Agewas determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercialpurse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawn-ing ground in May 2006.The difference between the assumed birth date of 1 st April and date of capture was used to adjust the agedetermined from counting the number of complete translucent rings.The parameters of three commonly used growth models,the vonBertalanffy,Logistic and Gompertz models,were estimated using the maximum likelihood method.Based on the Akaike InformationCriterion (AIC),the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model.The size-at-age and size-at-maturityvalues were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s,which was caused by heavy exploitationover the last few decades.

  3. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Effective Population Size with Immigrants from Divergent Populations: A Case Study on Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Gilbert Michael; Broderick, Damien; Buckworth, Rik C; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2013-03-11

    Estimates of genetic effective population size (Ne) using molecular markers are a potentially useful tool for the management of endangered through to commercial species. But, pitfalls are predicted when the effective size is large, as estimates require large numbers of samples from wild populations for statistical validity. Our simulations showed that linkage disequilibrium estimates of Ne up to 10,000 with finite confidence limits can be achieved with sample sizes around 5000. This was deduced from empirical allele frequencies of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in a commercially harvested fisheries species, the narrow barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). As expected, the smallest standard deviation of Ne estimates occurred when low frequency alleles were excluded. Additional simulations indicated that the linkage disequilibrium method was sensitive to small numbers of genotypes from cryptic species or conspecific immigrants. A correspondence analysis algorithm was developed to detect and remove outlier genotypes that could possibly be inadvertently sampled from cryptic species or non-breeding immigrants from genetically separate populations. Simulations demonstrated the value of this approach in Spanish mackerel data. When putative immigrants were removed from the empirical data, 95% of the Ne estimates from jacknife resampling were above 24,000.

  4. Possible role for cryostabilizers in preventing protein and lipid alterations in frozen-stored minced muscle of Atlantic mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J; Bernárdez, Marta; Sampedro, Gabriel; Cabo, Marta L; Pastoriza, Laura

    2006-05-03

    Adding DE 18 maltodextrin (80 g kg(-1)) to high-fat minced mackerel was highly effective against lipid oxidation and protein and color changes during frozen storage. It increased the temperature of ice-melting onset (Tm') and decreased freeze concentration of solutes in the unfrozen water (UFW) phase, which would have allowed it to effectively slow such perturbations. This maltodextrin showed a higher effectiveness against lipid oxidation, but was slightly less effective in preventing the loss of protein solubility than common cryoprotectants, that is, an equiproportional mixture of sucrose and sorbitol. Such differences in effectiveness were much higher in low-fat minces, in which lipid oxidation proceeded to a much lower extent. Consequently, prior to replacing traditional cryoprotectants with maltodextrins, it should be known which processes limit the shelf life of the food. Decreasing (from 80 to 50 g kg(-1)) the proportion of maltodextrin added to high-fat minced mackerel showed that although it affected only slightly the effectiveness against lipid oxidation, it did notably affect the effectiveness in preventing the loss of protein solubility and color changes. Therefore, such a decrease could be accepted only if lipid oxidation is the most limiting process of shelf life, but does not seem appropriate when protein changes are important.

  5. First-year survival of North East Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) from 1998 to 2012 appears to be driven by availability of Calanus, a preferred copepod prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis

    2016-01-01

    Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is one of the ecologically and economically most important fish species in the Atlantic. Its recruitment has, for unknown reasons, been exceptional from 1998 to 2012. The majority (75%) of the survivors in the first winter were found north of an oceanographic division ...

  6. Investigating agreement between different data sources using Bayesian state-space model: an application to estimating NE Atlantic mackerel catch and stock abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmonds, E.J.; Portilla, E.; Skagen, D.; Beare, D.J.; Reid, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are ideally suited to analyses of situations where there are a variety of data sources, particularly where the uncertainties differ markedly among the data and the estimated parameters can be correlated. The example of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel is us

  7. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  8. Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2013-08-15

    Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C.

  9. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds.

  10. Influence of Thawing Methods and Storage Temperatures on Bacterial Diversity, Growth Kinetics, and Biogenic Amine Development in Atlantic Mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onyang, S.; Palmadottir, H.; Tomason, T.

    2016-01-01

    of mackerel. Thawing was either done fast in 18 degrees C water for 2 h or slowly at 30 degrees C overnight. Subsequent storage was at 30 degrees C (ambient) for 36 h and 2 to 5 degrees C (refrigerated) for 12 days. The cultivation methods used were total viable counts, hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria......, and Pseudomonas. Maximum growth rate, population density, and lag time were fitted on the counts using the Baranyi model. The bacterial diversity and succession were based on sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, and biogenic amines were quantified on high-pressure liquid chromatography UV. The results show that lag...... time of hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria was significantly affected by both thawing methods, and further, the interaction between thawing and storage significantly affected the maximum growth rate of these bacteria. However, the maximum growth rate of Pseudomonas was higher during refrigerated...

  11. Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

  12. Classification stages of novel atretic structure in short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1865 from the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinlapachai Senarat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of atretic follicles in wild population is required before investigating the reproductive cycle and spawning season but these follicles have never been reported on adult short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1865. Histology and histochemistry were used to classify the stage of atretic follicles in R. brachysoma, obtained from the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Microscopically, it was clear that under atretic processing this species could be successively divided into two phases: atretic follicle during previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages, in which the latter was also classified into five steps (I, II, III, IV, and V. Histochemically the cortical alveoli, yolk granules and basement membrane were observed and discussed in this study.

  13. Functional analysis of kisspeptin peptides in adult immature chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) using an intracerebroventricular administration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Selvaraj, Sethu; Adachi, Hayato; Imanaga, Yui; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2014-02-21

    In vertebrates (including teleosts), the pivotal hierarchical factor in the control of gonadotropin secretion is the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide, which regulates the release of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Recently, kisspeptins encoded by the Kiss1 gene have been shown to act as upstream endogenous regulators of GnRH neurons in mammals. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses two kiss genes (kiss1 and kiss2) that show sexually dimorphic expression profiles during the seasonal gonadal cycle. In the present study, we evaluated the biological potency of kisspeptin peptides to induce transcriptional changes in gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic GnRH form in this species), fshβ and lhβ during the immature stage of adult chub mackerel (2+ years old). Synthetic Kiss1 pentadecapeptide (Kiss1-15) or Kiss2 dodecapeptide (Kiss2-12) at a dose of 100 ng were administered into the intracerebroventricular (ICV) region, and brains were sampled at 6 and 12 h post-injection. In female fish, gnrh1 levels decreased in the presence of both kisspeptin peptides at 12 h post-injection. No significant variation was observed in male fish. In contrast, ICV administration of Kiss2-12 (but not Kiss1-15) significantly increased fshβ and lhβ mRNAs at 12 h post-injection compared to a saline injected control in both sexes. These results suggested that synthetic Kiss2-12 could induce transcriptional changes in gnrh1 and gths.

  14. Fish Stock Endogeneity in a Harvest Function: ‘El Niño’ Effects on the Chilean Jack Mackerel Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Vergara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several examples of pelagic fisheries that have experienced fishing collapse when facing downward abundance cycles. Improving understanding about pelagic catch’s stock dependence can help avoid new cases of fishing collapse. This paper analyses the possible endogeneity of the fish stock variable in a pelagic fishery harvest function. The harvest function is estimated using panel data and ‘El Niño’ episodes as instrumental variable for the Chilean jack mackerel biomass. This strategy produces consistent estimates of the fish biomass coefficient. The paper makes two contributions. First, it corrects for endogeneity of the fish stock variable, an issue often underestimated in empirical fishery economics. Secondly, it shows that ‘El Niño’ episodes have negative effects on the Chilean jack mackerel biomass.

  15. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel inferred from RAD-seq derived SNP markers: effects of sequence clustering parameters and hierarchical SNP selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-03-03

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and related methods are revolutionizing the field of population genomics in non-model organisms as they allow generating an unprecedented number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) even when no genomic information is available. Yet, RAD-seq data analyses rely on assumptions on nature and number of nucleotide variants present in a single locus, the choice of which may lead to an under- or overestimated number of SNPs and/or to incorrectly called genotypes. Using the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) and a close relative, the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias), as case study, here we explore the sensitivity of population structure inferences to two crucial aspects in RAD-seq data analysis: the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides insights into the effects of alternative RAD-seq data analysis strategies on population structure inferences that are directly applicable to other species.

  16. Evolutionary origin of the Scombridae (tunas and mackerels: members of a paleogene adaptive radiation with 14 other pelagic fish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Miya

    Full Text Available Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences and (ii subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae "Pelagia" in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

  17. Effect of vacuum packaging and low-dose irradiation on the microbial, chemical and sensory characteristics of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Raouf; Ben Miloud, Najla; Selmi, Salah; Dhib, Soukeina; Sadok, Saloua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by gamma irradiation treatment (1.5 kGy) on the shelf-life of fillets of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were examined, during chill storage. The control and the treated packs were analyzed periodically for chemical (TMA, TBARS, biogenic amines) and microbial characteristics. Based on chemical and microbial data, vacuum packaging - by itself - was improper in extending the shelf-life of chub mackerel, estimated to 7 days. On the 7th day, TMA and Histamine contents reached the defect action levels, associated with the presence of mesophiles (3.7 log UFC/g); total coliforms (3.5 log UFC/g); staphylococci (1.9 log UFC/g) and the emergence of Pseudomonas (1.7 log UFC/g), in both the control and the vacuum packaged lots. Combination of vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiation was found to delay the spoilage during 14 days of refrigerated storage, based on chemical and microbial analyses. Similarly, consumer hedonic tests were performed to determine the effect of different treatments on the taste of fish fillets. For all treatments, consumers failed to discriminate treated samples from the control, on the 2nd day of storage (p > 0.05). The acceptability test showed that low-dose irradiation (1.5 kGy) optimised the sensory quality, on the 3rd day of storage (p vacuum packaging combined to a low-dose gamma-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on chub mackerel is recommended to enhance microbiological quality (4 log reduction), alleviate chemical changes and extend the shelf-life by 7 days, leading to consumer appreciation of these products.

  18. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna...... (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many...

  19. Demersal trawling in the nearshore region between Cape Seal and Klippen Point, Republic of South Africa, 1977-1979.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M Crawford

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Annual landings of fishes trawled demersally in the vicinity of the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park increased by almost 75 between 1977 and 1979. Catches of sole Austroglossus pectoralis showed a large decrease over the same period, but catch rates for other species remained relatively constant suggesting that they have not yet been overexploited. Hake Merluccius capensis and horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus dominated the landings in all three years.

  20. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

  1. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

  2. 福建近海竹荚鱼线粒体DNA控制区和细胞色素b遗传多态性%Genetic polymorphism of mitochondrial control region and cyt b in Trachurus japonicus from Fujian coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛素芳; 苏永全; 王军; 张丽艳; 曾华嵩; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    Trachurus japonicus is a pelagic fish in Carangidae family mainly distributing in coastal waters of China, Japan and Korea. It has been an important commercially marine fish in China since 1960s. But the natural population genetics and resource quantity of T. japonicas have been declined rapidly due to over-fishing, degradation of its natural habitats and so on in recent years, whereas little knowledge is available about its population genetic structure. The distribution of genetic diversity and genetic structure in wild stocks of T, japonicus seems emergent and the conservation strategies should be developed nowadays. The complete mitochondrial DNA control region (861-866 bp) was amplified by means of PCR and sequenced from two T. japonicus populations collected from coastal waters in Eastern Fujian(n=30)and Southern Fujian(n=30)o The result showed that 66 variable nucleotide sites were detected and 53 haplotypes were identified in two populations for control region sequence,but only three shared haplotypes were observed. The global haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π)were 0.993 and 1.093, respectively. Thirty-seven variable sites were recoded in the aligned sequences of partial cytochrome b gene(930 bp), and 25 haplotypes were recovered in 41 specimens. The average haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) of two populations were 0.937 and 0.336, respectively. Cytochrome b gene encoded 330 amino acids and the amino acid chain had only one haplotype. Each population had good haplotypic diversity and low nucleotide diversity in both mtDNA control region and cytochrome b, and the genetic diversity in Southern Fujian population was higher than that in Eastern Fujian one. Decapterus maruadsi was chosen as out-group in this study, and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the haplotypes from the two populations of T. japonicus. The result showed that the two populations might have originated from one clade

  3. Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n = 15) measuring 9.5-11.4 μm in width, 7.3-8.6 μm in suture width, 8.9-10.9 μm in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 μm in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 μm by 1.8-2.3 μm. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n

  4. Quantifying changes in abundance, biomass and spatial distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic Seas from 2007 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøttestad, Leif; Utne, Kjell Rong; Óskarsson, Gudmundur .J.;

    2016-01-01

    on coordinated and standardized swept-area surface trawling in July–August from IESSNS increased from 1.96 million t [relative standard error (RSE) ¼ 30.35%] in 2007 to 8.77 million t (RSE ¼ 7.95%) in 2014. Simultaneously, the mackerel stock expanded its geographic range during the feeding season from 1.......3 million km2 in 2007 to at least 2.9 million km2 in 2014, mainly towards western and northern regions of the Nordic seas. Estimates of abundance indices by age group were fairly precise (RSE 20%) for ages 3–12, while the precisionwas poorer for ages 1 and 2 and for age groups 13 and older (RSE . 50...

  5. Characterization of digestive enzymes from de-oiled mackerel (Scomber japonicus) muscle obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide and n-hexane extraction as a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2015-06-01

    The oil in mackerel muscle was extracted using an environmental friendly solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and an n-hexane. The SC-CO2 was carried out at temperature 45 °C and pressures ranging from 15 to 25 MPa. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant at the entire extraction period of 2 h. The highest oil extracted residues after SC-CO2 extraction was used for activity measurement of digestive enzymes. Four digestive enzymes were found in water soluble extracts after n-hexane and SC-CO2 treated samples. Amylase, lipase and trypsin activities were higher in water soluble extracts after SC-CO2 treated samples except protease. Among the four digestive enzymes, the activity of amylase was highest and the value was 44.57 uM/min/mg of protein. The water soluble extracts of SC-CO2 and n-hexane treated mackerel samples showed same alkaline optimum pH and pH stability for each of the digestive enzymes. Optimum temperature of amylase, lipase, protease and trypsin was 40, 50, 60 and 30 °C, respectively of both extracts. More than 80 % temperature stability of amylase, lipase, protease and trypsin were retained at mentioned optimum temperature in water soluble extracts of both treated samples. Based on protein patterns, prominent protein band showed in water soluble extracts after SC-CO2 treated samples indicates no denaturation of protein than untreated and n-hexane.

  6. Two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene of female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression in different obesity indices and pubertal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that regulates the amount of fat stored in the body and conveys nutritional status to the reproductive axis in mammals. In the present study we identified two subtypes of leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor gene (lepr) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and there gene expression under different feeding conditions (control and high-feed) and pubertal development stages was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein lengths of LepA, LepB and LepR were 161 amino acids (aa), 163 aa and 1149 aa, respectively and both leptin subtypes shared only 15% similarity in aa sequences. In pubertal females, lepa was expressed in the brain, pituitary gland, liver, adipose tissue and ovary; however, in adult (gonadal maturation after the second in the life) females, lepa was expressed only in the liver. lepb was expressed primarily in the brain of all fish tested and was expressed strongly in the adipose tissue of adults. lepr was characterized by expression in the pituitary. The high-feed group showed a high conditioning factor level; unexpectedly, hepatic lepa and brain lepr were significantly more weakly expressed compared with the control-feed group. Furthermore, the expression levels of lepa, lepb and lepr genes showed no significant differences between pre-pubertal and post-pubertal fish. On the other hand, pituitary fshβ and lhβ showed no significant differences between different feeding groups of pre-pubertal fish. In contrast, fshβ and lhβ expressed abundantly in the post-pubertal fish of control feed group. Based on these results, whether leptin plays an important role in the nutritional status and pubertal onset of chub mackerel remains unknown.

  7. Biodiversity and species-environment relationships of the demersal fish assemblage at the Great Meteor Seamount (subtropical NE Atlantic), sampled by different trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, H.; Uiblein, F.; Köster, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    .e. utilisation of prey from a diurnally moving sound-scattering layer for the bentho-pelagic community. This is probably augmented by concentration effects in a circular current around the seamount (Taylor-column). Long-term changes are discussed with respect to a decrease in biodiversity due to considerable...... increases in Macroramphosus scolopax and Capros aper. In 1998, the increase of abundance of Trachurus picturatus and the respective decreases for genuine benthic species were likely to have been caused by a change of gear....

  8. Analysis of bacterial community structure in Saba-Narezushi (Narezushi of Mackerel) by 16S rRNA gene clone library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroki; Tsuchiya, Rie; Isobe, Yuka; Narita, Miyo

    2013-08-01

    Narezushi, a derivation of sushi, is a traditional Japanese food made by fermenting salted fish meat and cooked rice together. In this study, the microbial diversity of saba-narezushi (narezushi of mackerel, Scomber japonicus) was analyzed by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library method. Chemical composition was also analyzed to compare with different kinds of narezushi. The chemical composition of the narezushi was similar to those obtained from samma-narezushi. Ninety-four clones were randomly selected and DNA sequences of cloned fragments (approx. 890 bp) were analyzed. The DNA sequences obtained were phylogenetically analyzed. The expected operational taxonomy units (OTUs) by Chao1 estimates and Shannon-Wiener index (H') at 97% identity threshold were 48 and 1.822, respectively. The sequence similarity of the cloned fragment was equal to or higher than 98% of the sequence of cultivated bacterial species in the public database. Most of the clones (85%) belonged to lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus curvatus was the most abundant species followed by Lactococcus piscium and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, suggesting that these bacteria play important roles in the fermentation of saba-narezushi.

  9. A diet enriched with mackerel (Scomber scombrus)-derived products improves the endothelial function in a senior population (Prevención de las Enfermedades Cardiovasculares: Estudio Santoña--PECES project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berrazueta, J R; Gómez de Berrazueta, J M; Amado Señarís, J A; Peña Sarabia, N; Fernández Viadero, C; García-Unzueta, M T; Sáez de Adana, M; Sanchez Ovejero, C J; Llorca, J

    2009-03-01

    Regular consumption of fish reduces cardiovascular risks. Here, we investigate if the consumption of products with mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with 8.82 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content per 100 g of product improves parameters of endothelial function in a controlled population. Subjects maintained a 12-week diet with products with mackerel. The population consisted of 58 senior subjects (12 withdrawals, 25 women), aged 82.08 +/- 8.13 years (Group A). Twenty-three senior subjects (13 women) on a regular diet were used as the control group (Group B). Subjects of Group A received 57 portions throughout 12 weeks (four to five portions a week of products with a mean EPA + DHA content of 2.5 g a day). A continuous follow-up and a final evaluation were performed to determine the level of consumption. Plasma samples were stored at -70 degrees C for a biochemical study. Endothelial function was analysed by reactive hyperemia with a mercury strain gauge plethysmography with measurement of blood flow in the forearm, both baseline and at the end of the 12-week diet. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation significantly increased in Group A subjects (P < 0.001). No changes were found in Group B. The subgroup analyses showed that improvements were produced in Group A subjects without cardiovascular disease (P < 0.001). Nitrites/nitrates and von Willebrand factor plasma concentrations were higher in participants after the 12-week diet. The consumption of mackerel meat products improves endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilatation in a senior population. This finding might explain some of the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

  10. Preliminary Study on Chub Mackerel Resources in Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea in Different Historical Periods%不同历史时期渤海莱州湾鲐鱼资源初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖清霞

    2014-01-01

    The Laizhou Bay is one of the three bays in the Bohai Sea .From ancient times to today , the changes of chub mackerel resources of the Laizhou Bay have been obvious ,w hose notable feature is that chub mackerel can come and go from time to time .The reason is that chub mackerel is not suit-able to live in the muddy waters .Soil erosion in the Loess Plateau leads to the increase of silt content of the Yellow River ,and the Yellow River inflowing into the Bohai Sea affects the transparency of the Laizhou Bay .In recent decades ,the Laizhou Bay has suffered from the industrial pollution along the coast and land-based pollution in the rivers on the ground ,which worsens the marine environment of the Laizhou Bay .Nowadays ,chub mackerel has almost disappeared in the Laizhou Bay due to a varie-ty of intertwined factors .%莱州湾是渤海的三大海湾之一。从古至今,莱州湾的鲐鱼资源变动就十分明显,显著特征是时有时无。其主要原因为鲐鱼不适宜在浑浊的海水里生存。黄土高原的水土流失导致了黄河泥沙含量的提高,而黄河注入到渤海中则影响了莱州湾海水的透明度。近几十年来,莱州湾还受到了沿岸的工业污染和地上河流的陆源污染,这使得莱州湾的海洋环境更加恶化。现如今,多种因素交织导致鲐鱼基本上在莱州湾消失了。

  11. Extracción, Caracterización Parcial y Termoestabilidad de la Enzima Transglutaminasa en Surimi, en Músculo Blanco de Jurel y en Miofibrillas de Carne de Vacuno Extraction, Partial Characterization and Thermostability of Transglutaminase of Surimi and Jack Mackerel White Muscle and for Myofibrils of Bovine Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia M Curotto; Marta L Dondero; Cristián J Muñoz; Lorena A Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la presencia de transglutaminasa en los extractos de surimi, músculo blanco de jurel (Trachurus murphyi) y en miofibrillas de carne de vacuno. Esto, con el fin de evaluar su termoestabilidad y los parámetros cinéticos más relevantes para proyectar la utilización de estos tejidos en la industria de nuevos productos alimentarios. Las actividades de transglutaminasa fueron 4.7 x 10-3, 13.0 x 10-3 y 53.0 x 10-3 UI/g tejido para surimi, músculo blan...

  12. Influencia de la Temperatura de Conservación sobre la Formación de Histamina en Caballa (Scomber japonicus Influence of Storage Temperature on Histamine Formation in Mackerel ( Scomber japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S Gozzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del presente trabajo fue estudiar la influencia de la temperatura sobre la frescura de la caballa (Scomber japonicus asociada con los cambios químicos y los atributos organolépticos de los ejemplares conservados en diferentes condiciones. La calidad del pescado se determinó por evaluación sensorial mientras que la inocuidad se estableció midiendo el contenido de histamina a 6 ºC durante una semana realizando el muestreo después de transcurridos uno, tres, cinco y siete días en condiciones de refrigeración. A la temperatura ambiente de 20 ºC el muestreo se efectuó diariamente durante tres días. Las caballas refrigeradas superaron los niveles aceptables de histamina al tercer día antes de ser rechazadas por los panelistas sensoriales. Cuando las muestras se mantuvieron a temperatura ambiente alcanzaron niveles peligrosos de histamina al segundo día en coincidencia con el rechazo determinado por el panel de evaluación sensorial.The aim of the present work was to study the influence of storage temperature on the freshness of mackerel ( Scomber japonicus associated with chemical changes and organoleptic attributes of the samples maintained under different environmental conditions. Fish quality was assessed by sensory evaluation while safety was determined through histamine development during refrigerated storage at 6 ºC during a week, sampling for analysis after periods of one, three, five and seven days. At room temperature of 20 ºC samples were analyzed daily during three days. Refrigerated mackerel became unsafe for human consumption, reaching unacceptable histamine levels after three days, before being rejected by the sensory panel. At room temperature samples were discarded due to their high histamine content on the second day, in agreement with the rejection decision of the sensory evaluation panel.

  13. KOMBINASI BUMBU DAN ASAP CAIR DALAM MEMINIMALKAN PEMBENTUKAN HISTAMIN PADA IKAN KEMBUNG PEREMPUAN (Rastrelliger neglectus ASAP [Combination of Spice and Liquid Smoke in Minimizing Histamine Formation in the Smoked Mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Tawali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Four spices (clove, cinnamon, tamarind and ginger were combined and applied to produce smoked female mackerel. The use of liquid smoke was compared with redistilled liquid smoke. The result showed that there was lower histamine content in smoked fish treated with spices after the use of liquid smoke and redistilled liquid smoke at (1.00 – 1.20mg/100g compared with the raw material (1.55mg/100g. Histamine content in all treatments increased during storage from 0.96 – 1.13 mg/100g to 6.40 -20.29mg/100g. The phenol content decreased during storage from 2.19% - 2.44% to 0.72% - 0.84%. Using of liquid smoke in combination with spice as well as without spice,resulted in decreasing of the free fatty acid (FFA content until 20 days of storage then increased, whereas using redistilled liquid smoke, resulted decreased of FFA during 10 days storage before increased. Total psychrophilic microbe was not detectable at 0 and 10 days storage but then increased at 20 and 30 days storage to 6.5x103 – 10.1x103cfu/ml and 7.5x103 – 15.5x103cfu/ml, respectively. Overall, combination between clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke which was applied to female mackerel showed the best result i.e.: lower histamine content, lower FFA, lower total psychrophilic microbe and lower phenol content than other treatments. The acceptability of smoked fish treated with clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke after 30 days storage showed higher value than other treatments.

  14. A model of trophic flows in the northern Benguela upwelling system during the 1980s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shannon, L.J.; Jarre, Astrid

    1999-01-01

    in the northern Benguela had both undergone a decline, yet were still heavily fished. Horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis had increased over the previous decade and was the dominant pelagic species during the 1980s, with high catches. Production by some groups, such as goby Sufflogobius bibarbatus...... in the northern Benguela during the 1980s was high, comparable to that of the Peruvian system in the 1960s and almost double that of the northern Benguela during the 1970s. Horse mackerel and hake catches were both high, with fishing on hake being ecologically more expensive. Biomass of benthic producers, meio......- and macrobenthos were a quarter of the total biomass of these groups in the southern Benguela. The sensitivity of the model to parameter estimates is highlighted. Uncertainty about some of the parameters, thought to have major influences on the functioning of the model, is explored...

  15. 不同温度储藏条件下鲅鱼生物胺变化的研究%Changes of biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel under different temperatures during the storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中辉; 林洪; 李振兴

    2011-01-01

    为研究鲭鱼中毒的组胺来源以及温度对鲅鱼生物胺的影响,通过HPLC-柱后衍生-FLD检测技术分析了鲅鱼体内7种生物胺(酪胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、胍丁胺、亚精胺、精胺)的含量以及在不同储藏温度的变化情况.结果表明,新鲜鲅鱼肌肉中没有检出组胺.鲅鱼体内生物胺的变化随温度的升高而加快,0℃(冰藏)、4℃、20℃储藏8d的生物胺总量变化范围分别为3.09~6.77、16.28~274.65、154.96~1846.29mg/kg.因此,细菌是引起组胺中毒的主要来源,低温储藏是控制鲅鱼产生生物胺的有效措施.%In order to research on the source of scombroid poisoning and changes of biogenic amines under different temperatures in Spanish mackerel, seven amines ( tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine)were analyzed by RP-HPLC and post-column derivatization with fluorescence detector ( FLD).Then, no histamine was detected in the fresh muscle,which means no histamine from the metabolism of fish become the source of scombroid poisoning.In addition,the higher the temperature was,the faster the formation of total amines was.And the concentrations of total amines during 8 days at 0℃( in ice) ,4℃ and 20℃ were 3.09~ 6.77, 16.28~ 274.65 and 154.96 ~ 1846.29mg/kg, respectively.In conclusion, bacteria were the main source of scombroid poisoning and low- temperature preservation was better to control biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel.

  16. Screening and Identification of Histamine-Producing Bacteria from Chub mackerel Meat%鲭鱼鱼肉中组胺产生菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫枫; 汤海青; 贺林娟; 杨华; 欧昌荣

    2012-01-01

    A two-step procedure was performed to isolate and screen histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) from Chub mackerel meat according to their histamine-producing capability. The screened strains were identified by physiological and biochemical analysis combined with 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The results showed that among five HPB strains isolated from Chub mackerel meat, two strains were gram-negative bacteria and the other three strains were gram-positive bacteria. These five HPB isolates were separately inoculated into a medium containing 2.0 g/100 mL histidine and cultured for 24 h at 36 ℃ to obtain histamine concentrations of 210.5, 823.0, 130.5, 229.0 mg/L and 217.0 mg/L, respectively. They were identified as Pseudomonas monteilii, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus sphaericus, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Staphylococcus sciuri according to their physiological and biochemical charactefistcs and molecular biological analysis.%根据产组胺能力,采用二步筛选法从鲭鱼肉中分离、筛选组胺产生菌(HPB),并通过生理生化实验结合16S rRNA序列同源性分析,对分离得到的HPB进行鉴定。结果表明:筛选出的5株组胺产生菌中,2株为革兰氏阴性菌、3株为革兰氏阳性菌,将5株菌接种到含2.0g/100mL组氨酸的培养基中,36℃条件下培养24h,培养液中组胺产量分别为210.5、823.0、130.5、229.0、217.0mg/L。根据生理生化特性与16S rRNA序列同源性分析,分离得到的HPB分别为蒙氏假单胞菌(Pseudomonas monteilii)、弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)、球形芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sphaericus)、溶酪大球菌(Macrococcus caseolyticus)以及松鼠葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus sciuri)。

  17. Contaminación de alimentos marinos por cadmio en Lima, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Marín Vallejos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron determinar las concentraciones de cadmio en ocho especies de alimentos marinos y comparar con los valores máximos permitidos según la Comisión de la Unión Europea en su Reglamento (CE Nº 1881/2006 y su modificatoria Reglamento (UE N° 488/2014. La investigación fue de carácter descriptivo, trasversal. Las muestras fueron de 100 g de cada ejemplar de pescado en tres oportunidades; los ejemplares fueron: jurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi, langostinos (Penaeus vannamei, conchas abanico (Argopecten purpuratus, conchas blancas (Semele sp, choros (Aulacomya ater, almejas (Gari solida, machas (Mesonesma donacium y pota (Dosidicus gigas recolectadas al azar en el terminal pesquero de Villa María del Triunfo, provenientes del litoral de la región Lima, sub área 3: Chorrillos – Islas Pachacámac. El proceso de análisis se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Como resultados de los promedios de las concentraciones de cadmio tenemos: en pescados, jurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi fue 0,35 mg/kg peso fresco; en crustáceos, langostino (Penaeus vannamei fue 0,42 mg/kg peso fresco; en moluscos bivalvos tenemos conchas blancas (Semele sp, conchas abanico (Argopecten purpuratus, choros (Aulacomya ater, machas (Mesonesma donacium y almejas (Gari solida fueron 0,82 – 0,83 – 1,00 – 1,28 y 1,39 mg/kg peso fresco respectivamente. Con este estudio se concluyó que las concentraciones de cadmio en pescados, en moluscos bivalvos y cefalópodos superan los límites permitidos, pero en crustáceos no superan estos límites.

  18. A Dynamic Bio-Economic Model Combined with Discount Rate for Chub Mackerel in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea%基于贴现率的东黄海鲐鱼动态生物经济模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅丽; 陈新军; 李纲

    2011-01-01

    渔业资源是一种可再生资源,其资源的可持续利用不仅与其种群大小有关,而且还与作业规模、单位作业的经济成本和贴现率等有关。传统生物经济模型通常忽视了贴现率对渔业资源配置的影响。本文根据1999年-2009年中、日、韩三国在东黄海捕捞的鲐鱼渔获量以及生产成本数据,结合贴现率和渔获价格等数据,构建基于贴现率的东黄海鲐鱼动态生物经济模型。结果表明,贴现率为10%,30%时,短期利益占长期利益的10%~20%.渔获价格在(2327—4654)元/t时,可保证鲐鱼渔获量低于最大可持续产量,从而有效地控制捕捞强度,确保鲐鱼资源的可持续利用。%Fishery resources are renewable. Previous studies were primarily focused on theoretical investigation into bio-economical models of fishery resources. Sustainable use of its resources is not only related to its population size, but also related to fishing scale, fishing cost per unit of effort, and discount rate. In the traditional bio-economical models, only two extreme cases, i.e., the discount rates are zero or infinity, are considered. However, the impact on fisheries resources by the discount rate is often ignored. In this paper, a dynamic bio-economical model was established using fishery data and fishing economic data from China, Japan, and South Korea during the period 1999-2009, and considering the effect of the discount rate on resources exploitation of Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the East China sea and Yellow sea. The dynamic bio-economical model was designed to estimate the stock and yield under different management goals. An appropriate discount rate is used to determinate the number of D accepted by current society, which is the proportion of immediate interests. The discount rate-supply curve was plotted for investigation into the development and management of fishery resources carried out in the catch

  19. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  20. 北部湾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)的摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化%Feeding Habits and Ontogenetic Diet Shifts of Mackerel Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿鑫; 李永东; 何雄波; 卢伙胜; 颜云榕

    2015-01-01

    To study the mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) feeding habits and its ontogenetic diet shifts, 435 mackerel tuna were collected for an annual research from September 2008 to September 2009 in the main fishing ports such as Beihai, Basuo, Sanya and Jianghong of the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. Results showed that the mackerel tuna of the Beibu Gulf was omnivorous and it predated not only the small pelagic fish but also the benthic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods. Pisces were dominant in the diets with the percentage of Index of Relative Importance (IRI%) of 98.57%. Among these, 21 species were identified. As indicated with IRI%, Bregmaceros rarisquamosus (45.50%), Stolephorus zollingeri (11.81%), Theyssa setirostris (5.89%), and Sardinella aurita (5.87%) were principal in the food cons-ituent. The main species changed monthly and it was Sardinella aurita in January; Bregmaceros rarisquamosus in February, March, November, December; Unidentified Pisces from April to July;Sardinella aurita in August; Leignathus riviulatus in September; Stolephorus zollingeri in October. The prey weight and numbers increased when body size of mackerel tuna was less than 340 mm (SL<340 mm), but there were decreased when body size of mackerel tuna was from 341 to 520 (341-520 mm). The spawning periods of the mackerel tuna were spring and summer, mainly from April to August. There were two spawn peaks, June and August, which were recognized by the female gonad somatic index (GSI) that maintained strong feeding intensity during the reproduction periods. Moreover, the peak periods were consistent with the water temperature of pelagic layers provided by France CATSAT fisheries remote sensing system.%基于2008年9月-2009年9月在北部湾逐月采集的435尾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)生物学数据,对鲔生长、摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化进行了分析。结果显示,北部湾鲔属于广食性鱼类,主要摄食中上层小型鱼类,另外还包括底栖鱼类、

  1. Assessment of Washing with Antioxidant on the Oxidative Stability of Fatty Fish Mince during Processing and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Fatty fish have been recognized as potential raw material for the production of surimi; however, they can easily oxidize. The ability of antioxidants added in the washing water to reduce oxidation during the washing and subsequent storage needs to be evaluated. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus......) mince was washed three times with 3 volumes of cold water (W) or the antioxidant solutions caffeic acid (CA) or propyl gallate (PG), at concentrations of 100 mg/kg, or spermine (SP), at a concentration of 400 mg/kg. Accumulation of antioxidant in the mince at each washing step was evaluated...... performed. Results indicated that the antioxidants were accumulated differently, but all antioxidants tested were able to prevent lipid oxidation in fatty fish mince during washing and subsequent storage. The ranking in terms of oxidative stability of the washed minces was CA = PG > SP > W. The antioxidants...

  2. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  3. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  4. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus, spearfish (Tetrapturus belone and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, blue shark (Prionace glauca, leerfish (Lichia amia, bonito (Sarda sarda, striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga, amberjack (Seriola dumerili, blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola, bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, mackerel (Scomber scombrus and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish, most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  5. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  6. 鲐鱼软骨糖胺聚糖的硫酸软骨素的结构及其与生长因子的相互作用%Chondroitin Sulfate in the Preparation of Glycosaminoglycan from Mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus Houttuyn) Nasal Cartilage and Its Interaction with Growth Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃钢

    2012-01-01

    为了开发具有药用价值的硫酸软骨素(chondroitin sulfate,CS)的新资源,从鲐鱼(Pneumatop horus japonicus Houttuyn)软骨蛋白聚糖(proteoglycan,PG)制备了糖胺聚糖(glycosaminoglycan,GAG),用酶降解和阴离子交换HPLC法测定了GAG的CS的组成及其含量,用凝胶层析法测定了GAG的分子量,用表面等离子体谐振(surface plasmon resonance,SPR)法测定了其与多效生长因子(PTN)、中期因子(MK)和肝细胞生长因子(HGF)相互作用的动力学参数结合速率常数(ka)、解离速率常数(kd)和平衡解离常数(KD).结果显示,鲐鱼软骨GAG含量约为651 μg/mg PG或1.09 μmol/mg PG(按照二糖单位计算),主要含CS (1.03μmol/mg PG,按照二糖单位计算),CS酶解产生的主要二糖单位是ΔDi-6S(38.8%)和ΔDi-4S(46.3%),有少量的ΔDi-0S(8.4%)和ΔDi-diSD(6.5%).GAG (CS)的分子量为78 kD.GAG(CS)与生长因子的相互作用的动力学参数ka((mol/L)-1·S-1)、kd(s-1)和KD (nmol/L)分别为(2.77±0.17) x105、(7.74±1.56) ×105和(0.28 ±0.06) (MK),(1.05 ±0.22)×104、(4.16±0.80)x 10-3和(417±131.3)(PTN),(7.04±0.94)×105、(7.84±2.82)× 10-3和(1 1.1±3.80)(HGF).该GAG同MK、HGF和PTN有高的或较高的亲和性,暗示鲐鱼软骨GAG的CS有可能通过调节生长因子的信号转导途径而对某些疾病发挥治疗作用,具有潜在进一步药用开发价值.%To search for new resource of chondroitin sulfate (CS) for therapeutics, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was isolated from nasal proteoglycan (PG) of mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus Houttuyn). The disaccharide composition of CS in the GAG preparation was determined by anion-exchange HPLC after digestion with chondroitinase. The molecular size of GAG was determined by gel filtration, and the interaction of GAG with growth factors was analyzed to determine the kinetic parameter ^(association rate constant) ^ kd (dissociation rate constant) and KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) through surface plasmon resonance

  7. Isolation of Histamine-degrading Enzyme Producing Bacteria from Mackerel and Characteration of Enzyme Concerned%鲭鱼中组胺降解酶产生菌的分离筛选和基本酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧昌荣; 汤海青; 张宇琼; 郑洁; 李海波

    2012-01-01

    Marine fishes, scombroid species in paticular, are susceptible to producing histamine during processing and storage, as has been reported in incidents of scombroid fish poisoning. To understand the relationship between the producing and degrading of histamine and the microorganism concerned in fish, the bacterials with the capacity of producing histamine-degrading enzyme are screened from skin, flesh, entrails and gills of mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) by plate and shaking flask culture, followed with testing the enzyme activity by pectrofluorimetry method. A gram-negative rod bacterium producing histamine-degrading enzyme is isolated from entrails of mackerel. The enzyme is presumed to be primary metabolite according to the growth and enzyme production curves. The optimum pH and temperature of the crude enzyme activity to histamine is found to be 7.2 and 35 ℃ respectively, and a high stability of the enzyme is observed at 20-35 ℃ and pH 6.0-8.0. It is activated by 5 mmol·L^-1 of ions such as Mn^2+, Ca^2+, Na^-, Mg^2+, K^+, but inhibited by Zn^2+, Al^3+, Fe^3+, Fe^2+, Cu^2+, and completely inhibited by EDTA. The results of kinetic studies show that the kinetic parameter Km of the enzyme was 0.22 mg.mL^-1, and the Vmax of the enzyme is 156.25 U.mL^-1. This paoer presents the first domestic report oh histamine-degrading enzyme producing bacteria, and the study is believed to be important to seek biological control of histamine in food processing in the future.%鲭鱼亚目的海洋鱼类在捕获后易产生组胺,导致鲭鱼中毒.为研究组胺消长与微生物的关系,通过平板分离和摇瓶发酵,以荧光光度法测定酶活力,从鲭鱼(Pneumatophorus japonicus)皮肉、内脏和腮中分离筛选组胺降解菌,并对所产组胺降解酶的酶学性质进行研究和分析.结果表明:自内脏中分离筛选到一株组胺降解酶活力较高的革兰氏阴性杆菌,从生长产酶曲线推

  8. Optimal utilization of bio-economic social model for chub mackerel in the East and Yellow seas%东、黄海鲐鱼生物经济社会综合模型的优化配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王从军; 陈新军; 李纲

    2013-01-01

    鲐鱼是我国近海重要经济鱼类,其资源的可持续利用和科学管理一直受到人们的关注和重视.以Gordon-Schaefer生物经济模型为理论依据,采用中、日、韩3国1998-2008年灯光围网渔业的生产作业数据以及相关的经济数据,估算东、黄海鲐鱼的最大可持续产量(MSY)、最大经济产量(MEY)和生物经济平衡点(BE)及其对应的捕捞努力量.在此基础上,设计出多种基于不同权重的生物、经济和社会目标的捕捞方案,建立东、黄海鲐鱼生物经济社会综合模型,比较其在不同捕捞方案下的短期(1~5年)、中期(10年)、长期(20年)的经济效益和社会效益以及渔业资源状况.结果表明,东、黄海鲐鱼资源量正处于或已经处于过度捕捞状态;以MEY为管理目标的长期经济效益为最大,且资源状况保持最好,但社会就业率较低;以BE为管理目标的当前以及短期效益较大,且可以解决大量就业问题,但长期经济效益为最低,且资源状况最差;而捕捞方案9的经济和社会综合效益为最好,且资源状况也较佳.研究认为,综合各方面因素,最佳的捕捞方案为方案9,即适宜捕捞努力量应控制在19 889网次.研究亮点:渔业资源开发和利用不仅是资源利用的问题,更是一个社会和经济问题.本研究以东黄海鲐鱼为例,首次构建了基于生态、经济和社会综合效益的Gordon-Schaefer生物经济模型,估算了在不同捕捞策略下短期、中期、长期的综合效益和资源状况,研究结果为科学制定鲐鱼资源管理策略提供了依据.%Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is an important economic species in the coastal waters of China,and its sustainable utilization and scientific management has been attractive and attentions by peoples.In this paper,based on Gordon-Schaefer bio-economic model,we use the catch data of purse seine fishery and economic data from China,Japan and Korea from 1998 to 2008 to

  9. Intra- and inter-specific variability in total and methylmercury bioaccumulation by eight marine fish species from the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Maria C; Costa, Valentina; Menezes, Gui M; Pinho, Mário R; Santos, Ricardo S; Monteiro, Luís R

    2007-10-01

    We relate fish biological and ecological characteristics to total and organic mercury concentrations to determine whether accumulation is influenced by trophic level, Hg concentration in the diet, and vertical distribution. Levels of total mercury and methylmercury were determined in the muscle tissue of eight species of fish: Pagellus acarne, Trachurus picturatus, Phycis phycis, P. blennoides, Polyprion americanus, Conger conger, Lepidopus caudatus and Mora moro, caught in the Azores. All such fishes are commercially valuable and were selected to include species from a wide range of vertical distributions from epipelagic (300 m) environments. Methylmercury was the major form accumulated in all species, comprising an average of 88.1% of total mercury. Concentrations of mercury (total and methylmercury) increased with age, length and weight. Based on data from other studies, mercury concentrations in fish diet were estimated. Mercury levels in food ranged from 0.08 to 0.32 ppm, dry weight. Hg concentrations in the food and in muscle tissue from different species were positively correlated. Total Hg levels in the muscles were approximately nine times those estimated in food. Total mercury concentrations in muscle were positively correlated with both trophic level and median depth. Such enhanced mercury bioaccumulation in relation to depth appears to be determined primarily by concentrations in food and ultimately by water chemistry, which controls mercury speciation and uptake at the base of the food chain.

  10. Pelagic resources landings in central-southern Chile under the A2 climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Eleuterio; Plaza, Francisco; Silva, Claudio; Sánchez, Felipe; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict landings of anchovy ( Engraulis ringens), common sardine ( Strangomera bentincki), and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) in central-southern Chile. Twelve environmental variables were considered along with fishing effort (fe) and landing statistics from 1973 to 2012. During external validation, the best models with all of the selected variables gave r 2 values of 90 % for anchovy, 96 % for common sardine, and 88 % for jack mackerel. The models were simplified by considering only fe and sea surface temperature from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (SST-NOAA), and very similar fits were achieved (87, 92, and 88 %, respectively). Future SSTs were obtained from the A2 climate change scenario and regionalized using statistical downscaling techniques. The downscaled SSTs were used as input for landings predictions using ANN simplified models. In addition, three scenarios of future fishing efforts (2010-2012 average, average + 50 %, and average - 50 %) were used as the input data for landing simulations. The results of the predictions show a decrease of 9 % in future landings of sardine and an increase of 17 % for jack mackerel when comparing 2015 and 2065 monthly projections. However, no significant differences are shown when comparing the estimated landings for the three fishing effort scenarios. Finally, more integrative and complex conceptual models that consider oceanographic-biophysical, physiological, environmental-resource, and interspecies processes need to be implemented.

  11. Determination of nitrofuran metabolic residues in Spanish mackerel by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spetrometry%液相色谱串联质谱法测定巴鱼中硝基呋喃代谢物的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雪琪; 何凤芹

    2013-01-01

    建立巴鱼中呋喃唑酮、呋喃它酮、呋喃西林和呋喃妥因的代谢物残留量液相色谱-串联质谱的方法。分析物采用电喷雾电离正离子( ESI +)、多反应监测(M RM )模式检测,内标法定量。本实验对固相萃取法提取和乙酸乙酯提取净化前处理方法进行比对,4种硝基呋喃代谢物的混合标准溶液的浓度在0.5~50ng/mL范围线性良好,相关系数均大于0.9981,4种化合物的检测限为0.5μg/kg。添加浓度1μg/kg、2.5μg/kg、5μg/kg范围内得出4种代谢物固相萃取净化法的回收率在81.1%~104.1%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于5.7%.乙酸乙酯提取净化法的回收率在88.5%~108.2%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD )小于6.1%。结论证明乙酸乙酯提取法方法前处理简单、快速、稳定性好,适用于大量样品的同时检测。%A method was established to detect nitrofuran metabolic residues in Spanish mackerel by liq-uid chromatography tandem mass spetrometry (LC-MS/MS) .Theanalvtes were detected by LC-MS/MS (ESI) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM ).The result indicated that the calibration curves were in good linearity between the peak area and the concentration of 0.5-50ng/ml for nitrofuran metabolic with correlation cofficients not less than 0.9981.The limits of detection for four nitrofuran metabolics were 0.5μg/kg. .Then analytes were extracted by spe or ethyl acetat the average recoveries were 81.1%-104.1% or 88.5%-108.2% and the related standard deviations less than 5.1 or 6.1% at the three levels 1μg/kg、2.5μg/kg、5μg/kg.The proposed method was simple ,rapid ,the stability was good and suitable for the simultaneous quantitative detection.

  12. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). King Mackerel and Spanish Mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    hippurus, sobre la biologia pesquera de la captured in the western tlantic 411w i sierra Scomberomorus maculatus Ocean off Hatteras, North Carolina... Mendoza 1968; Sutherland and Fable October (Beaumariage 1973). Multiple 1980). spawning is suggested by bimodal dis- tributions of mean oocyte diameter...females col- (Powell 1975). Mendoza (1968) and Doi lected were 14 years of age or older: and Mendizabal (1979) also used a 1.4 m FL fish from Louisiana

  13. [Use of properties and regulation peculiarities of enzymes of glycogenolysis in fish skeletal muscle depending on peculiarities of motor activity of species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrenikova, T P; Nesterov, V P

    2008-01-01

    Levels of activity, properties, and peculiarities of activation of glycogen phosphorylase (GP; EC 2.4.1.1) and glycogen phosphorylase kinase (GPK; EC 2.7.1.38) were studied in the white skeletal muscle of fish differing in motor behavior. No differences in the GP and GPK activity levels were revealed in laskir Diplodus annularis (L.), horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, salmon Salmo trutta morphario, scorpena Scorpaena porcus, Scophtalnus maeoticus, and carp Cyprinus carpio; however, properties of the isolated enzymes and peculiarities of formation of their activated forms during swimming in a hydrodynamic tube are determined by functional peculiarities of the muscle tissue and are associated with the motor activity character of the species. In fish capable for the spurt type of swimming (scorpena, salmon) the more rapid ion regulation plays the predominant role. In other species, the glycogenolysis hormonal regulation leading to a change of the GPK activity index has been found.

  14. Comparison of the catches of European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758 taken with experimental gillnets of different mesh sizes in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sbrana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the gillnet fishery on Merluccius merluccius (European hake was investigated in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, western Mediterranean. Four mesh sizes were tested: 53, 62.5, 70 and 82 mm. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, hake and tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna dominated the catches, from a minimum of 89% (82 mm mesh to a maximum of 97.8% (70 mm of the biomass caught. Efficiency of the four meshes was not significantly different with respect to the total hake catches. Selectivity on M. merluccius was assessed by Sechin and SELECT methods. Tangling was an important catch modality for hake, as evidenced by the results of the Sechin model which described only the first mode of the size distributions corresponding to the entangled specimens. SELECT showed that the bi-modal function gave the best adjustment to the length-frequency distributions; the modal catch sizes were 33, 39.2, 43.6 and 51 cm total length respectively for the 53, 62.5, 70 and 82 mm mesh sizes. Taking into account the size of first maturity for females (35.1 cm TL, 62.5 mm is the most adequate mesh for exploiting hake as it gives some protection to both immature specimens and large females.

  15. Inter-annual and inter-specific differences in the drift of fish eggs and yolksac larvae in the North Sea: A biophysical modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron A. Peck

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We employed 3-D biophysical modeling and dispersion kernel analysis to explore inter-annual and inter-specific differences in the drift trajectories of eggs and yolksac larvae of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, sprat (Sprattus sprattus and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in the North Sea. In this region, these four species exhibit peak spawning during the boreal winter, late winter/early spring, late spring/early summer, and mid-summer respectively, but utilize the same spawning locations (our simulations included Dogger Bank, Southern Bight and the German Bight. Inter-annual differences in the temperature history, and an increase in the area of dispersion and final distribution at the end of the yolksac phase were more pronounced (and related to the North Atlantic Oscillation for winter- and early spring-spawners compared to late spring/summer spawners. The progeny of the latter experienced the largest (up to 10-fold inter-annual differences in drift distances, although absolute drift distances were modest (~2 to 30 km when compared to those of the former (~ 20 to 130 km. Our results highlight the complex interplay that exists between the specific life history strategies of the different species and the impacts of the variability in (climate-driven physical factors during the earliest life stages of marine fish.

  16. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial-temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis; Christensen, Asbjørn; Madsen, Kristine S.; van Deurs, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    We tested the feasibility of imposing mesozooplankton mortality into a 3D model based on estimated consumption rates of the dominant planktivorous fish in the North Sea-Kattegat area. The spatial biomass distribution of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sandeel (Ammodytidae) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was derived from quarterly scientific trawl surveys and Danish commercial catches. Spatio-temporal indices of mortality were created based on the estimated biomasses and ingestion rates from the literature. The fish larvae grazing pressure was obtained from a spatial, size-based larval community model. In this model, larvae, herring and sandeel were the most important fish predators on mesozooplankton, but these groups had different spatial and temporal (seasonal) distributions. Fish larvae were particularly dominant in the eastern and southern areas in early summer. Herring and sandeel had the highest consumption in the central and north-western areas and were more important in late summer. The fish index changed the perceived annual, seasonal and spatial patterns in modelled mesozooplankton biomass, production and mortality. In the present study, the index was kept relatively simple and can be further developed with respect to the description of fish as well carnivorous zooplankton ingestion rates. The data input required to create the fish index is (i) planktivorous fish stock biomasses and (ii) relative fish spawning distribution information and (iii) physics (ocean currents and temperatures) for the region and situation of interest. The fish index seems promising as a realistic mortality term for lower trophic levels in 3D ecosystem models in areas with available data on fish stocks to improve management of marine resources.

  17. Genetic markers in the study of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860): larval identification and genetic relationships with other species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, S; Paggi, L; Nascetti, G; Portes Santos, C; Costa, G; Di Beneditto, A P; Ramos, R; Argyrou, M; Cianchi, R; Bullini, L

    2002-03-01

    Genetic variation at 21 gene-enzyme systems was studied in a sample of an adult population of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860) recovered in the dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis from the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The characteristic alleles, detected in this population, made it possible to identify as A. typica, Anisakis larvae with a Type I morphology (sensu Berland, 1961) from various fishes: Thunnus thynnus and Auxis thazard from Brazil waters, Trachurus picturatus and Scomber japonicus from Madeiran waters, Scomberomorus commerson, Euthynnus affinis, Sarda orientalis and Coryphaena hippurus from the Somali coast of the Indian Ocean, and Merluccius merluccius from the Eastern Mediterranean. Characteristic allozymes are given for the identification, at any life-stage and in both sexes, of A. typica and the other Anisakis species so far studied genetically. The distribution of A. typica in warmer temperate and tropical waters is confirmed; the definitive hosts so far identified for this species belong to delphinids, phocoenids and pontoporids. The present findings represent the first established records of intermediate/paratenic hosts of A. typica and extend its range to Somali waters of the Indian Ocean and to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable genetic homogeneity was observed in larval and adult samples of A. typica despite their different geographical origin; interpopulation genetic distances were low, ranging from D(Nei)=0.004 (Eastern Mediterranean versus Somali) to D(Nei)=0.010 (Brazilian versus Somali). Accordingly, indirect estimates of gene flow gave a rather high average value of Nm = 6.00. Genetic divergence of A. typica was, on average, D(Nei)=1.12 from the members of the A. simplex complex (A. simplex s.s, A. pegreffii, A. simplex C) and D(Nei)=1.41 from A. ziphidarum, which all share Type I larvae; higher values were found from both A. physeteris (D(Nei)=2.77)

  18. Dynamic height: A key variable for identifying the spawning habitat of small pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rebecca G.; Checkley, David M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes off southern California exhibit interannual variations in the regions they occupy. An enhanced understanding of these fluctuations could improve fisheries management and predictions of fish's responses to climate change. We investigated dynamic height as a variable for identifying the spawning habitat of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus). During cruises between 1998 and 2004, dynamic height was calculated from temperature and salinity profiles, while fish egg concentration was measured with obliquely towed bongo nets and the Continuous, Underway Fish Egg Sampler. Dynamic height ranged between 68 and 108 cm, with values increasing offshore. The greatest probability of encountering anchovy, sardine, and jack mackerel eggs occurred at dynamic heights of 79-83 cm, 84-89 cm, and 89-99 cm, respectively. Four mechanisms were proposed to explain how dynamic height affects egg distribution: (1) dynamic height is a proxy for upper water column temperature and salinity, which are known to influence spawning habitat. (2) Low dynamic heights are indicative of coastal upwelling, which increases primary and secondary productivity. (3) Egg concentration is greater at dynamic heights coincident with geostrophic currents that transport larvae to favorable habitats. (4) Eddies delineated by dynamic height contours retain eggs in productive habitats. To evaluate these mechanisms, a generalized linear model was constructed using dynamic height, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, zooplankton volume, geostrophic currents, and eddies as independent variables. Dynamic height explained more variance than any other variable in models of sardine and anchovy spawning habitat. Together temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll accounted for 80-95% of the dynamic height effect, emphasizing the importance of the first two mechanisms. However, dynamic height remained statistically significant in the

  19. Different Levels of Hypoxia Tolerance during Early Life History Stages of Key Fish Species from the Northern Benguela Upwelling Ecosystem Inferred from the Comparison of Eco-Physiological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, S. J.; Imam, R. M.; Kunzmann, A.; Ekau, W.

    2016-02-01

    Global change factors such as a pronounced Oxygen Minimum Zone and the shoaling of hypoxic waters are assumed to play a major role in controlling the recruitment of fish stocks in Upwelling Systems by affecting the planktonic early life history stages. Ecological and ecophysiological traits in the larval stages of five key fish species in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System (Sardine, Sardinops sagax; Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus; Cape horse mackerel, Trachurus capensis; Cape hake, Merluccius sp.; Pelagic goby, Sufflogobobius bibarbatus) were investigated during the GENUS (Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling Ecosystem) research project . Analysis of vertical larval distributions in relation to the depth of hypoxic water layers showed gradual interspecific differences, suggesting lower hypoxia tolerance levels of the small pelagics Sardine and Anchovy. Cape horse mackerel juveniles and larvae exhibited very high tolerance levels to short-term hypoxia in respirometry stress experiments, close to the levels of the extremely hypoxia-tolerant Pelagic goby. In the latter two species, we also measured the highest activities of anaerobic enzymes (pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in early and late larval stages, compared to very low activities in Sardine larvae. A higher amount of anaerobic enzymatic activity is related to a higher capacity to break down metabolites that build up during phases of oxygen debt and thus help the larvae to quickly recover from hypoxia exposure. In consequence, a high hypoxia tolerance during their early life stages allows Cape horse mackerel and Pelagic goby to successfully reproduce in an environment characterized by frequent hypoxic events. The low hypoxia tolerance of Sardine larvae, eventually resulting in higher mortality rates, is likely to be an important factor to understand the poor reproductive success and continuing recruitment failures of this formerly dominant fish species of the NBUS during the last

  20. Physical study of minced fish muscle with a white-grape by-product added as an ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alonso, I; Solas, M T; Borderías, A J

    2007-03-01

    Functional properties of a white grape dietary fiber concentrate (WGDF) obtained from wine industry residues were determined with a view to their use as potential functional ingredient in seafood products. The main features of interest of WGDF are that it is a natural product containing high concentrations of dietary fiber (DF) with a high-soluble DF (sDF)/insoluble DF (iDF) ratio and associated bioactive compounds; as such it is considered potentially suitable for use as dietary fiber in the enrichment of foods. WGDF was therefore added to minced fish muscle (MFM) of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) to take advantage of its technological properties, and also to enrich a food product that is a functional product in itself but does not contain dietary fiber. WGDF was added (2% and 4%) to MFM, which was stored for 6 mo at -20 degrees C, and a further lot was vacuum packed. Physical and mechanical properties, sensory and color analyses, microscopy, and electrophoretic profiles were all done in samples every month. The results indicate that WGDF had good functional properties, high water and oil retention capacity, and considerable swelling properties, which would make it useful as a natural ingredient in foods. The addition of WGDF to MFM augmented aggregation of myofibrillar proteins in the course of frozen storage, although electrophoretic profiles were very similar in samples with and without WGDF. The addition of WGDF to MFM made samples softer and less springy and cohesive. SEM showed good dispersion of WGDF in MFM but the matrix was more discontinuous than in the control. Water retention was significantly enhanced when WGDF was added, and the cooking yield improved. In sensory evaluation, samples containing 2% of WGDF scored highest in overall acceptance as compared with the control. Vacuum packing did not significantly affect the properties considered during frozen storage.

  1. Variation and temporal patterns in the composition of the surface ichthyoplankton in the southern Bay of Biscay (W. Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elbée, Jean; Castège, Iker; Hémery, Georges; Lalanne, Yann; Mouchès, Claude; Pautrizel, Françoise; D'Amico, Frank

    2009-05-01

    From September 2000 to December 2006, surface plankton samples were collected on a monthly basis, from a station located in the southern Bay of Biscay (43°37N; 1°43W France), near the deep Capbreton canyon. In this paper, the results for the ichthyoplankton assemblage are presented. Among the 62 taxa recorded, only 35 were present in the larval stage whilst only 10 were represented by their eggs. Taxa represented by both stages (eggs+larvae; N=17) had the highest abundance. The presence in the surface plankton assemblage of species, at either or both stage, is interpreted within the context of the bathymetric distribution of species. The maxima in abundance and diversity occurred in February-March, for eggs, and May-June, for larvae. This 3-month time-lag between the stages is proposed to be related to the timing of egg spawning and larval recruitment to the pelagic environment. Mean egg abundances (82.4±29.8 eggs/10 m 2) were 10-fold higher than the larval abundances (7.1±1.8 larvae/10 m 2). Despite pronounced monthly variability, no statistically significant decrease in either egg or larvae abundance was observed during this 6-year study period. Compared with previous published studies, this study shows that the peak in ichthyoplankton diversity occurred two months earlier. In addition, the spawning period occurred over the whole year, even during autumn and winter. Using ordination techniques, the annual sequence appearance of taxa are described at the study site: Gadiforms, Ammodytidae and Pleuronectiforms were present during the winter whilst Sparidae, Blennidae, Labridae and Gobiidae, formed the summer group. Only three species, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, European pilchard Sardina pilchardus and Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus were recorded throughout the year.

  2. Basis for calculating technological parameters of preparation of minced salted fish products of intermediate moisture with specified physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanenko E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of water activity on basic physical and chemical characteristics of salted fish products with intermediate moisture has been defined. During the research the product quality has been assessed by the organoleptic method; determination of the water mass fraction has been carried out by the drying method; the salt mass fraction – by the argentometric method; water activity has been measured by a cooled mirror dew-point sensor. Based on experimental data the dependence of Aw on concentration of sodium chloride in the salt semi-finished products of pollock (Theragra chalcogramma, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias, blue whiting (Micromesistius, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus has been established. The empirical formula showing the correlation of the parameter (Aw with mass fraction of sodium chloride and water has been derived; on its basis it is possible to calculate the parameters of semi-finished product in order to obtain a final minced salt product of intermediate moisture with desired microbial stability upon storage. The relations between the salt mass fraction and water mass fraction excluding bacterial spoilage and mold growth has been determined, they make up S ≥ 0,135 ∙ W and S ≥ 0,34 ∙ W respectively, where S – the mass fraction of salt, %, W – the mass fraction of water, %. An example of calculating the required dosage of sodium chloride in the semi-finished minced salmon has been described to produce the finished product with the exactly given values of humidity and water activity. During the process of minced salted fish products' dehydration the basic physical and chemical parameters – the mass fraction of salt and water affecting the water activity (Aw – have been changing. Determination of these parameters' relationship provides the ability to predict the qualitative changes of salted fish products of intermediate moisture

  3. Larval fish assemblages across an upwelling front: Indication for active and passive retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Maik; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In upwelling areas, enrichment, concentration and retention are physical processes that have major consequences for larval fish survival. While these processes generally increase larval survival, strong upwelling can also increase mortality due to an offshore transport of larvae towards unfavorable habitats. In 2013 a survey was conducted along the Senegalese coast to investigate the upwelling effect with regard to larval fish assemblages and possible larval fish retention. According to water column characteristics two distinct habitats during an upwelling event were discriminated, i.e. the inshore upwelled water and the transition area over the deepest part of the Senegalese shelf. Along the two areas 42,162 fish larvae were collected representing 133 species within 40 families. Highest larval fish abundances were observed in the inshore area and decreasing abundances towards the transition, indicating that certain fish species make use of the retentive function of the inner shelf area as spawning grounds. Two larval fish assemblages overlap both habitats, which are sharply delimited by a strong upwelling front. One assemblage inhabited the inshore/upwelling area characterized by majorly neritic and pelagic species (Sparidae spp., Sardinella aurita), that seem to take the advantage of a passive retention on the shelf. The second assemblage consisted of a mix of pelagic and mesopelagic species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Carangidae spp. and Myctophidae spp.). Some species of the second assemblage, e.g. horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus and Trachurus trecae), large finned-lantern fish (Hygophum macrochir) and foureyed sole (Microchirus ocellatus), revealed larval peak occurrences at intermediate and deep water layers, where the near-ground upwelling layer is able to transport larvae back to the shelf. This indicates active larval retention for species that are dominant in the transition area. Diel vertical migration patterns of S. aurita, E. encrasicolus and M

  4. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  5. Data evaluation of data limited stocks: Dab, flounder, Witch, Lemon Sole, Brill, Turbot and Horse mackerel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der T.; Poos, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several commercially important demersal fish stocks for the North Sea fisheries are classified by ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) as “data limited” stocks, which are stocks for which the data are insufficient to perform a full analytical assessment and forecast (ICES 2012

  6. 76 FR 66260 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... (ABC), preventing overfishing, maximum sustainable yield, and achieving rebuilding targets. The ABC is... exploitation (1976-2009). The SSC interpreted this level of exploitation to be sustainable over the long term...) diamond mesh, inside stretch measure, applied throughout the codend for at least 100 continuous...

  7. 77 FR 69426 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... for acceptable biological catch (ABC), preventing overfishing, maximum sustainable yield, and.... Risenhoover, Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, performing the functions and duties of the Deputy... the EEZ may only fish with nets having a minimum codend mesh of 3 inches (7.62 cm) diamond...

  8. 75 FR 11441 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... revenue impacts associated with GRAs and larger minimum mesh sizes. These include revenue loss due to... revenue related to Loligo escapement from the larger mesh sizes imposed in the proposed GRAs. While the... techniques while maximizing coverage of the full fleet, and is further exploring methods to test for observer...

  9. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts.

  10. A partial skeleton of a new lamniform mackerel shark from the Miocene of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kriwet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenozoic lamniform sharks are mostly represented by isolated teeth and vertebrae, whereas articulated skeletal remains are usually very scarce. Here, we describe a partial skeleton of an extinct lamniform shark consisting of 42 slightly disarticulated teeth, 49 vertebrae, and additional unidentifiable cranial and postcranial remains. The specimen originates from the Miocene mica-clay of Groß Pampau (North Germany, which is of late Langenfeldian age (= Serravallian-Tortonian boundary; middle–late Miocene. A total of 13 measurements of each tooth, as well as morphological features, were used to reconstruct the dentition of this specimen and to provide detailed taxonomic information. Additionally, the total body size and age at death were established using methodologies based on vertebral and tooth measurements and vertebral centra growth ring counts, respectively. The specimen undoubtedly represents the most complete individual of “Carcharodon (= Isurus escheri”, previously known only from a few isolated teeth. The dental pattern (e.g., marked dignathic and monognathic heterodonty patterns; only slightly labio-lingually compressed upper teeth; upper teeth slender with distally inclined or curved main cusps; massive, hook-like upper intermediate tooth; main cusps with crenulated cutting edges; lateral cusplets in teeth of all ontogenetic stages clearly separates this shark from all hitherto known Cenozoic and Recent lamnids and a new genus, Carcharomodus, consequently is introduced. Carcharomodus escheri comb. nov. is a characteristic element of late early Miocene to the Pliocene Western and Central European fish faunas. All previously identified Pacific occurrences represent a different taxon. We estimate that the specimen had a total body length of about 4 m and that it was older than 10 years and thus might have reached maturity before death, as indicated by all available evidence.

  11. 76 FR 13887 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... emergency can be addressed through emergency regulations for which the immediate benefits outweigh the value....regulations.gov without change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name, address, etc... lower range of ABC values for 2011 that were previously considered in its May 2010 deliberations. It...

  12. 77 FR 71720 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... society, having a degree in naval architecture, etc., it is not possible for us to verify the...: November 27, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, Performing the...

  13. 77 FR 16472 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and other applicable laws. The Council prepared an... material, including, but not limited to, nets, net strengtheners, ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the...

  14. 75 FR 5537 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and other applicable law. This action is authorized by 50 CFR part..., ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the top of the regulated portion of a trawl net that results in an... possessing Loligo may use net strengtheners (covers), splitting straps, and/or bull ropes or wire around...

  15. 77 FR 51853 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 648.20) and a risk policy (Sec. 648.21) to guide the Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee... the best available scientific information. Thus, provided that the SSC can demonstrate that the method... trends in abundance, and for which there is robust scientific information to suggest that an...

  16. Genetic and morphological variations in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) from the Goa region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Naik, S.; Martins, M.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  17. 77 FR 67305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    .... These specifications promote the utilization and conservation of the butterfish resource. DATES... that fishery to 3,165 mt (a 720-mt increase from status quo). Recently available data indicate that the... and rapid utilization of the lower (2,445-mt) butterfish mortality cap made the possibility of...

  18. Oil sardine and Indian mackerel: Their fishery, problems and coastal oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Nair, K.N.V.; Nair, S.R.S.

    -leading to the productivity are examined to find their relationship to the fishery. However, this study attempts to point out the drawbacks in our understanding and proposes research problems that could be pursued...

  19. 77 FR 58507 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Framework Document, are available from: Dr. Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid- Atlantic Fishery...-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Amendment 11 to the MSB FMP (76 FR 68642, November 7, 2011... reporting requirements. Dated: September 17, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director, Office of...

  20. 76 FR 47492 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... for Fisheries, NOAA, finds good cause under section 553(b)(B) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA... under section 553(d) of the APA to waive the 30-day delay in effectiveness. This emergency rule has been...

  1. 76 FR 45742 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... measurement done by a certified marine surveyor is estimated to cost $4,000. An estimated 74 vessels would.... The proposed regulations for both actions will present adjustments to the existing regulatory text. In..., Tier 1 and Tier 2 vessels would be required to obtain a fish hold capacity measurement from a...

  2. 77 FR 51858 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... determined from the stock assessment, or if a proxy is not provided by the Scientific and Statistical... precision occurs because the average becomes less variable as the number of tows used for inference... variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions, are used...

  3. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Trachurus trachurus capensis and other deep-reef species was of concern, because these species would form a significant ..... reefs, where hard corals, bryozoans and sponges support ... Pagrus auratus in Australia (Kailola et al. 1993) ...

  4. Demersal fish assemblages off the Seine and Sedlo seamounts (northeast Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Gui M.; Rosa, Alexandra; Melo, Octávio; Pinho, Mário R.

    2009-12-01

    Seamounts are thought to support special biological communities, and often maintain high standing stocks of demersal and benthopelagic fishes. Seamount fish fauna have been described in several studies but few works have included species taken below 600 m. The demersal fish assemblages of the Seine and Sedlo seamounts (northeast Atlantic) from the summits to 2000 m depth were investigated based on longline survey catch data, conducted as part of the OASIS project. A total of 41 fish species from 24 families were caught at Seine near Madeira, and 30 species from 19 families were caught at Sedlo north of the Azores. Both fish faunas have high affinities with the neighbouring areas of the Azores, Madeira and with the eastern North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Overall abundances and mean body weights were slightly higher at Sedlo seamount, appearing in conformity with the latitudinal effect of increasing species abundance and productivity from south to north. The differential influence of the Mediterranean Water at each seamount may contribute to explain (a) the differences found in vertical distribution of common species, which tend to distribute deeper at Seine, and (b) the observed changes in the species composition and dominance in deeper waters. Multivariate analysis revealed a vertical structure that is approximately coincident with the expected zonation of water masses at each seamount. Physiological tolerance to the prevailing vertical hydrological conditions may explain the species distribution and the large-scale vertical assemblage structure found. However, further ecological factors like productivity patterns affecting the amount and quality of the available food appear to shape the abundance, diversity or dominance patterns of functional groups within those main assemblages. At Seine, the species Trachurus picturatus dominated the catches, mainly at the shallower edge of the plateau, appearing consistent with the sound-scattering layer interception

  5. Nematodos anisákidos de interés en salud pública en peces comercializados en Valdivia, Chile Anisakid nematodes of interest in public health in fishes commercialized in Valdivia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TORRES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, la infección humana por larvas de nematodos anisákidos se asocia con el consumo de peces marinos crudos ("cebiche" o ahumados. Durante 1994 se examinó microscópicamente la musculatura de 125 peces marinos, distribuidos en 10 especies, comercializados para su consumo humano en la ciudad de Valdivia, Chile. Las siguientes especies de peces resultaron infectadas (peces infectados/examinados con Anisakis simplex (As, Pseudoterranova decipiens (Pd o Hysterothylacium sp. (H sp., pescadas, Merluccius gayi (As 1/17, Pd 4/17, merluzas, Macrouronus magellanicus (Pd 1/4, H sp. 1/4, congrios colorados, Genypterus chilensis (Pd 9/18, lenguados, Paralichthys microps (As 1/10, Pd 7/10 y jureles, Trachurus murphyi (As 2/16, Pd 5/16. La totalidad de las larvas de anisákidos aisladas se encontraban vivas en la musculatura. El número máximo de anisákidos por pez (4 larvas fue observado en M. gayi y T. murphyi. La densidad máxima de larvas/100 g de musculatura alcanzó a 3,3 parásitos en P. microps. El número de parásitos en los hospedadores examinados fue escaso, pero su presencia en peces frescos comercializados en Valdivia, sin previa congelación o inspección sanitaria, significa un riesgo potencialIn Chile, infection by Anisakid nematodes has been reported in humans associated with raw ("cebiche" and smoked marine fishes consumption. During 1994, 125 fresh marine fishes commercialized in markets from Valdivia, Chile, were microscopically examined for anisakids in the musculature. From the 10 species examined the following fish species were infected (n of infected/examined fishes with Anisakis simplex (As, Pseudoterranova decipiens (Pd and Hysterothylacium sp. (H sp.: the Chilean hake, Merluccius gayi (As 1/17; Pd 4/17, the tail-hake, Macrouronus magellanicus (Pd 1/4; H sp. 1/4, the red-conger-eel, Genypterus chilensis (Pd 9/18, the flat-fish, Paralichthys microps (As 1/10; Pd 7/10 and the Chilean mackerel, Trachurus murphyi (As 2/16; Pd

  6. Trends in spatio-temporal distribution of Peruvian anchovy and other small pelagic fish biomass from 1966-2009 Tendencias espacio-temporales en la distribución de la biomasa de anchoveta peruana y de otros peces pelágicos pequenos entre 1966 y 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in abundance and distribution of anchovy and other species of pelagic fish of the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS are driven by environmental forcing variations in different time and spatial scales between the coastal 'cold' ecosystem and the 'warm' oceanic one. Data to study these fluctuations have come mostly from the fishery to show how anchovy (Engraulis ringens increases when sardine (Sardinops sagax declines and vice versa. However, using acoustic data on latitudinal biomass we show that other species as mackerel (Scomber japonicus and jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi also follow the same opposed trend, then the fishery data hides the true dimension of the balance of abundance among species. Based on Hovmoller diagrams we scrutinized the changes in interannual latitudinal acoustic biomass, landings and influence of El Nino events from 1966 to 2009 in order to describe: 1 how the anchovy decadal distribution pattern moved from south to north since the 1960's; 2 how there have been produced concomitant changes in the latitudinal abundance and distribution of other species such as sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel before, during and after El Nino events; and 3 what was the overall effect of the succession of El Nino events on all these pelagic species. We concluded that: a every El Nino event has had an effect on the expansion or contraction of pelagic species distribution and abundance, with different latitudinal effects; and b the El Nino 1997-98 did not trigger but accelerated a decline phase on the abundance of sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel by a reduction of their ideal habitat due to an expansion of the coastal ecosystem caused by a shallower location of the upper limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ These findings observed using past data might be taken into consideration for fishery management purposes when considering future scenarios.Los cambios en la abundancia y distribución de anchoveta y de otras especies

  7. The impact of environmental variability on Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus larval abundance to the west of the British Isles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitois, Sophie G.; Jansen, Teunis; Pinnegar, John

    2015-01-01

    abundances of zooplankton and the larger phytoplankton groups, to a system characterized by higher temperature, lower salinities, lower abundances of zooplankton and larger phytoplankton and higher abundances of the small phytoplankton species. Analysis revealed a very weak positive correlation between...... where other data (such as egg surveys) are drawn in to compensate for the spatial issues could prove to be the way forward. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  8. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would..., Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  9. Genetic divergence in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv) from the coastal waters of Peninsular India and the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Naik, S.; Martins, M.

    in the distribution of genetic distances. Between the west coast/east coast and the Andaman samples the average D was0.059. This value lies on the higher range of values suggested for local races of a species....

  10. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    and protein oxidation, as it resulted in low levels of peroxide value, volatiles and carbonyl compounds and protected against the loss of α-tocopherol and tryptophan residues. In spite of the higher phenolic content, the absolute ethanol extracts of both species showed a pro-oxidative tendency in minced...

  11. Structural classifications in the digestive tract of short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1865 from Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinlapachai Senarat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was the first attempt on the classification of the gross anatomy with histological structures of the digestive tract in the Rastrelliger brachysoma. Based on gross anatomical analysis, the digestive tract (65.68±7.06 cm, n = 25 is distinctly composed of four parts; oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine, respectively. Base on the histological analysis of the digestive tract, it is composed of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The epithelial lining of anterior oesophagus was shown to be a simple squamous epithelium whereas posterior oesophagus, stomach and intestine were simple columnar epithelium. The surface of this epithelium positively stained with both Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB. The posterior oesophagus exclusively showed high longitudinal fold with numerous gastric glands in the mucosal layer, which is similar to the stomach structure (cariac and pylorus. Numerous pyloric caeca about 220-225 pieces, were detected between the stomach and intestine regions. Finally, the intestinal coefficient (IC was 3.69±0.47 cm. The anterior intestine presented either various longitudinal folds or various goblet cells. The short longitudinal folds of posterior intestine were in the higher number of goblet cell than the previous part.

  12. Comparative phylogeography of two monogenean species (Mazocraeidae) on the host of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, along the coast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Pin; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, the phylogeographies of two monogenean species, Pseudokuhnia minor and Kuhnia scombri, on the same species of host, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were sequenced for 264 individuals of P. minor and 224 individuals of K. scombri collected from 10 localities along the coast of China. Genetic diversity of K. scombri was higher than that of P. minor, which may imply that P. minor has a lower evolution rate and/or is a younger species. The neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of both parasites were comprised of two clades without association to sample sites, which is the signature of remixing populations following past division. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index revealed different genetic structures for the populations of these two closely related species along the coast of China: P. minor without significant genetic structure, while K. scombri has some genetic differentiation. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution suggested that the populations of these two species of parasites experienced population expansion in the late Pleistocene era due to the glacial-interglacial cycles induced by climatic oscillations.

  13. 75 FR 62109 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Avenue, Suite 1100, Tampa, FL 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive....--The Mackerel Management Committee will discuss the scoping document for King Mackerel Latent...

  14. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  15. Food web and fish stock changes in central Chile: comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) predation, the environment, and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Sergio; Arancibia, Hugo

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed recent food web and fish stock changes in the central Chile marine ecosystem, comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) as predator, the environment, and fishing. To accomplish this we used food web modeling and the Ecopath with Ecosim software (EwE). The principal fish stocks have experienced wide decadal fluctuations in the past 30 years, including stock collapses of horse mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) and hake (Merluccius gayi), and there was a large influx of jumbo squid during the mid-2000s. We used two EwE models representing the food web off central Chile to test the hypothesis that predation by jumbo squid has been significant in explaining the dynamics of the main fishing resources and other species in the study area. Results indicate that predation by jumbo squid on fish stocks is lower than that of other predators (e.g. hake) and the fishery. Long-term fluctuations (1978-2004) in the biomass of the main fish stocks (as well as other components of the food web) seem to be related to fishing and to variation in primary production, rather than to predation by jumbo squid alone. Jumbo squid seems to play a role as predator rather than prey in the system, but its impacts are low when compared with the impacts of other predators and fishing. Therefore, we conclude that jumbo squid predation on its prey was not the primary force behind the collapse of important fish stocks off central Chile. Future efforts should be directed to better understanding factors that trigger sudden increases in jumbo squid abundance off central Chile, as well as modeling its trophic impacts.

  16. Biases in determining the diet of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off southern-central Chile (34°S-40°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Christian M.; Arancibia, Hugo; Cubillos, Luis A.

    2008-12-01

    The diet of jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) off southern-central Chile is described to examine potential biases in the determination of their main prey. Specimens were collected from catches using different fishing gear (jigging, trawl and purse-seine), from July 2003 to January 2004, and from December 2005 to October 2006. The stomach contents were analyzed in terms of frequency of occurrence, number, and weight of prey items and the diet composition was analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In the industrial purse-seine fleet for jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi), the dominant prey of D. gigas was T. murphyi. In the industrial mid-trawl fishery for Patagonian grenadier ( Macruronus magellanicus), the dominant species in the diet of D. gigas was M. magellanicus. Similarly, Chilean hake ( Merluccius gayi) was the main prey in the diet of D. gigas obtained in the industrial trawl fishery for Chilean hake; and, in both artisanal fisheries (purse-seine for small pelagics and jigging), small pelagic fish and D. gigas were the main prey in the stomach contents of D. gigas. Cannibalism in D. gigas varied between different fleets and probably is related to stress behavior during fishing. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordination showed that the main prey in the diet of D. gigas is associated with the target species of the respective fishery. Consequently, biases are associated with fishing gear, leading to an overestimate in the occurrence of the target species in the diet. We recommend analyzing samples from jigging taken at the same time and place where the trawl and purse-seine fleets are operating to avoid this problem, and the application of new tools like stable isotope, heavy metal, and fatty acid signature analyses.

  17. METALES PESADOS (CD Y PB) Y COMPUESTOS ORGANICLORADOS (PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS Y BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS) EN PECES DE DIFERENTES NIVELES TROFICOS (ENGRAULIS RINGENS, TRACHURUS MURPHYI Y MERLUCCIUS GAYI), EN LA REGION DEL BIOBIO, CHILE.

    OpenAIRE

    FUENTEALBA CRUZ, MARTA

    1998-01-01

    Las hipótesis que explican la presencia de contaminantes en los tejidos de organismos visos, incluyen la biomagnificación y la hidrot'ohicidad la prinlera, señala que algunos contaminantes pueden aumentar sus niveles a través de las cadenas tróficas, por 91p.

  18. Hydrolysis of lipids in chub mackerel surimi using alkaline lipase%碱性脂肪酶酶解鲐碎肉脂肪的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉民; 沈莲清; 桑卫国; 董明敏; 黄晓春; 黄光荣

    2001-01-01

    采用扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum)PF868产生的碱性脂肪酶为酶源,酶解脱脂鲐碎肉,其最适条件为:32~34℃,pH 9.3,酶活浓度40 u/ml,碎肉的质量与酶液体积比为1g:5ml,脱脂时间50min.鲐碎肉的干基残脂率低于4.0%.

  19. Freshness assessment of mackerel fillets stored under different temperatures%不同温度下鲐鱼片鲜度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利格; 郝亚南; 黄健花

    2014-01-01

    以去皮鲐鱼片为研究对象,通过30、20、10和4℃下的保藏实验来研究其鲜度的生化变化.测定了挥发性盐基氮(TVBN)、三甲胺氮(TMAN),过氧化值(PV)、硫代巴比妥酸值(TBARS)及肌肉的pH值,发现其在各温度下的货架期分别约为11,15,25和96 h.TMAN和TBARS与TVBN的相关系数分别为0.928和0.846,这2种指标在试验温度下的腐败限量分别为12.8 mg/100 g鱼肉和12.5 mg MDA/kg鱼肉.PV和pH值也呈现一定的变化,但不适合作为鲜度或者腐败的有效指标.

  20. Production Process of Intensified Dried Jack Mackerel Floss%竹荚鱼强化鱼松的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕士川; 黄冬梅; 罗建平

    2003-01-01

    @@ 智利竹荚鱼隶属于硬骨鱼纲,鲈形目,鲹科,为中上层暖温性鱼类,主要分布于东太平洋的中部及南部,自然资源十分丰富.近几年来,智利竹荚鱼的捕捞量连年增长,已成为我国外海捕捞的主要经济鱼之一.

  1. Population dynamics parameters of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson (Lacèpéde, 1800, from commercial catch in the northern Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassir Niamaimandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics parameters of Scomberomorus commerson in Bushehr area waters of Iran were analyzed between October 2011 and September 2012. Fork length frequencies were collected from the gill net commercial catch. Von Bertalanffy growth function was used to estimate growth parameters K and L∞. Instantaneous total mortality rate (Z, instantaneous natural mortality rate (M and the instantaneous fishing mortality rate (F were also calculated. Resource status was evaluated by comparing estimates of the fishing mortality rate with target (Fopt and limit (Flimit biological reference points. FiSAT program was used to assess growth and mortality parameters. Based on the growth curve analysis, growth parameters were: K=0.5year−1 and L∞=148cm. Instantaneous total mortality was Z=0.97year−1. The estimate of M=0.56year−1 and F=0.41year−1, resulting in an exploitation rate (F/Z of E=0.42year−1. Target and limit biological reference points were: Fopt=0.28year−1 and Flimit=0.37year−1. Size at capture at probabilities of 0.25 (L25, 0.5 (L0.5 and 0.75 (L0.75, were 46.3 cm, 55 cm and 60.2 cm respectively. Longevity (Tmax was calculated as 3/K equal to 6 years. The exploitation rate (E did not indicate overfishing; however, Fopt and Flimit rates were lower than fishing mortality (F, suggesting that overexploitation occurred. Growth parameters in the present study showed that the gillnet fishery catches of S. commerson that are of ages 1 or 2, which may not have reached maturity. Gillnet mesh size can be a factor why the catch is composed of mostly small, immature fish. Therefore, changes in mesh size and net size should be considered.

  2. Occurrence of hybrids and laboratory evidence of fertility among three species of the Phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In seven studied communities of Western Mexico, triatomine specimens were sympatrically collected, some with atypical morphological characteristics in contrast to pure specimens, which were presumed to be hybrids. More than 200 specimens of Meccus pallidipennis and Meccus longipennis with brown-yellow markings on dorsal connexival segments were collected in Ahuacapán and Quitupan. In La Mesa, more than 60 specimens similar to Meccus picturatus in most morphological characteristics (including size were collected, although they presented a largely yellowish corium like M. pallidipennis. Interfertility was proven between all of the studied wild hybrid specimens, as well as between all the experimental laboratory hybrids. Two different phenotypes (M. picturatus and M. longipennis were obtained from crosses between M. picturatus x M. picturatus and M. longipennis x M. longipennis from the three studied localities in state of Nayarit as from La Mesita. Results support the hypothesis that the subspecific ranking of those triatomines may, therefore, be more appropriate because reproductive isolation has not been developed and complete interbreeding was recorded.

  3. Occurrence of hybrids and laboratory evidence of fertility among three species of the Phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Vences, Mauro Omar; Tapia-González, José María; Espinoza-Gutiérrez, Bertha

    2009-12-01

    In seven studied communities of Western Mexico, triatomine specimens were sympatrically collected, some with atypical morphological characteristics in contrast to pure specimens, which were presumed to be hybrids. More than 200 specimens of Meccus pallidipennis and Meccus longipennis with brown-yellow markings on dorsal connexival segments were collected in Ahuacapán and Quitupan. In La Mesa, more than 60 specimens similar to Meccus picturatus in most morphological characteristics (including size) were collected, although they presented a largely yellowish corium like M. pallidipennis. Interfertility was proven between all of the studied wild hybrid specimens, as well as between all the experimental laboratory hybrids. Two different phenotypes (M. picturatus and M. longipennis) were obtained from crosses between M. picturatus x M. picturatus and M. longipennis x M. longipennis from the three studied localities in state of Nayarit as from La Mesita. Results support the hypothesis that the subspecific ranking of those triatomines may, therefore, be more appropriate because reproductive isolation has not been developed and complete interbreeding was recorded.

  4. 75 FR 29724 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery... Fish; AP Selection; SSC Selection; SEDAR Selection; Coastal Migratory Pelagics (Mackerel); Spiny... Mackerel Limited Access Privilege Program Advisory Panel, the Ad Hoc Reef Fish Limited Access...

  5. timating the abundance of pelagic fish in the Benguela system off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE ACOUSTIC TARGET STRENGTH OF. CAPE HORSE MACKEREL .... Estimated speed of sound (m s-1). 1 500. Absorption ..... because horse mackerel react strongly to light (Koike et al. 1991, Barange and ...

  6. 76 FR 81479 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Spanish Mackerel and Cobia AGENCY: National...: Notice of SEDAR Workshops for South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Spanish mackerel and cobia. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of Spanish mackerel and cobia will...

  7. RESTAURANT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Duozuo Japanese Restaurant Every year in Japan from August until early December mackerel pikes will come down from Hokkaido to the South Ocean of Japan. Since the mackerel pike’s laying season is in summer, most of the mackerel pikes will be fully grown by the autumn.

  8. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al using eight sediment cores taken from sites under the influence of the oxygen minimum zone off Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, Mejillones Bay: 23° S, Concepción: 36° S. Off northern Chile (Iquique and Mejillones, fish scales from anchovy (Engraulis ringens and the Myctophidae family are dominant (mean = 90 and 120 scales 1,000 cm-3, respectively, whereas off central-southern Chile (Concepción, jack mackerel (Trachurus murphy scales are the most abundant (mean = 140 scales 1,000 cm-3. The abundance of hake (Merluccius gayi gayi and sardine (Sardinops sagax scales is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of anchovy or jack mackerel. In general, the highest valúes and widest ranges of variation in the Mo/Al, S/Al, and Fe/Al ratios are found in Mejillones (Mo/Al ~ 0.8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0.2-4.6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0.3-0.7 g g-1, followed by Iquique (Mo/Al ~ 0.2-1.8, S/Al 0.2-0.7, Fe/Al 0.5-0.8; Concepción has lower, less variable valúes (Mo/Al ~ 0.07, S/Al ~ 0.15, Fe/Al ~ 0.5. According to the Mo/Al ratio, used as an indicator of paleo-oxygenation, reducing conditions in the Mejillones Bay and Iquique sediments are relatively more intense than in those off Concepción. At all three sampling sites, the relationship between the abundance of anchovy scales and the logarithm of the Mo/Al ratio is statistically significant (r² = 0.46, P 1 mg g-1.

  9. Factors controlling the quality and safety of fish using mackerel (Scomber scombrus) shelf-life model in the context of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures for The Gambian fisheries.

    OpenAIRE

    Banja, Bamba A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/769 on 06.20.2017 by CS (TIS) Food quality, including safety, is a major concern facing the food industry today. The effects of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in the fisheries sector of The Gambia including the factors affecting the safety and spoilage of fish were investigated. Effects of SPS measures are important impediments for exporting fish and fishery products originating from The Gambia to the international food commodity ...

  10. 电子鼻识别技术在鲐鱼鲜度评价中的应用研究%Application of electronic nose in freshness evaluation of mackerel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璇; 邓尚贵; 张宾; 林雪; 梁锐

    2013-01-01

    以新鲜鲐鱼为原料,采用感官评价与TVBN检测、组胺含量测定方法确定其新鲜度,建立新鲜度关键指标与PEN3电子鼻主成分与线性判别的关系式,以期实现鲐鱼新鲜度的电子鼻快速检测,为海水产品船上运输、码头验收以及工厂加工和市场销售的品质评价奠定理论基础.

  11. 黄海北部日本鲭繁殖生物学特征的年代际变化%Inter-decadal variation in the reproductive characteristics of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the northern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建生; 严利平; 胡芬

    2014-01-01

    根据1986年和2010年在黄海北部取样测定的日本鲭(Scomber japonicus)产卵群体基础生物学数据以及怀卵量计数结果,对其繁殖生物学特征的年代际变化进行了研究。结果表明,在日本鲭产卵群体基础生物学特征方面,1986年的叉长、体质量、纯体质量和性腺重这4项基本生物学指标的范围和平均值均明显大于2010年,年龄结构从1986年由1+~7+龄组成,2+龄和3+龄为优势组,改变为2010年由1+~3+龄组成,2+龄为优势组。在性腺成熟度组成和性腺指数(GSI)方面,2次采样均发现日本鲭雌鱼性腺成熟度以Ⅳ期和Ⅴ期为主;开始排卵前, GSI随性腺成熟度的增加而增加;相同叉长组而言,2010年平均GSI较1986年呈现增加趋势。相同叉长组的繁殖力分析表明,相对于1986年,2010年体质量相对繁殖力升高了11.93%,而绝对繁殖力则下降了18.45%。这些繁殖生物学特征的变化可能是由于日本鲭群体年龄结构简单化、个体小型化、生长速度加快等原因造成的。为了今后更好地保护并可持续利用日本鲭资源,在现有的围网休渔制度的基础上,建议在东黄海日本鲭各主要产卵场及其产卵期制定其他相应的保护措施,以限制其他捕捞网具对该物种产卵群体的过度捕捞。%We evaluated the changes in the reproductive traits of Scomber japonicus spawning stocks in the northern Yellow Sea between 1986 and 2010. The range and mean values of the four basic biological indicators (fork length, weight, net weight, and gonad weight) were significantly higher in 1986 than in 2010. In 1986, the age structure ranged from age 1+ to 7+and was dominated by age 2+-3+individuals. In 2010, the age range was reduced (1+-3+) and the dominant age was 2+. In 1986, the range in GSI was 3.43-21.87 (mean 11.63) and the mean GSI varied significantly among fish of different lengths. In 2010, the GSI ranged between 8.33 and 20.50 (mean 13.16) and there was little dif-ference in mean GSI among different length groups. In both years, the gonads of female fish were primarily at stagesⅣ and Ⅴ and the GSI increased with increase in gonad maturity before spawning. The mean GSI increased between 1986 and 2010 for the same sized fish. The absolute fecundity (F) was in the range of 7.5167×104-100.7746×104 grains (mean:50.2502×104±1.2615×104) and the most common value was between 40×104 and 70×104 grains in 1986. In 2010, the range was 23.4520×104-62.0805×104 grains (mean:40.7312×104±2.1458×104 grains) and the most common group was 30×104-50×104 grains. In 1986, the relative fecundity (r/L) was in the range of 269-2 519 grains/mm (mean: 1 467±33 grains/mm) with most fish being in the range 100-1 600 grains/mm). The relative fecundity r/W was in the range 303-1 552 grains (mean:1 041±21 grains/g) with most fish being in the range 900-1 300 grains/g). In 2010, the relative fecundity (r/L) was in the range of 798-1 864 grains/mm (mean:1 279±36 grains/mm) with most fish being in the range 900-1 300 grains/mm). The relative fecundity r/W was in the range 705-1 724 grains/g (mean: 1 170±31 grains/g) with most fish being in the range 1000-1 300 grains/g). Compared with 1986, the relative fecundity r/W in-creased by 11.93%in 2010, while the absolute fecundity decreased by 18.45%within the same fork length range. These changes in the reproductive characteristics may be caused by simplification of the age structure, individual miniaturization, or growth acceleration in Scomber japonicus stocks. To better protect and sustain Scomber japonicus resources, we suggest the fishery administrative department should consider additional protective measures at the primary spawning ground and during the spawning period to limit the over harvest of spawning stocks in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea.

  12. The reproductive biology of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in Wen-Tai fishing ground%温台渔场日本鲭的繁殖生物学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建生; 严利平; 胡芬; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    利用2012年春季在温台渔场对日本鲭(Scomber japonicus)繁殖群体连续6批取样的生物学测定数据,对其繁殖生物学特征进行了研究。结果表明,叉长340 mm以下群体中,雌雄比基本符合1∶1的性比关系;叉长340 mm以上群体中,雌鱼显著多于雄鱼(P 340 mm group. Variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) over time showed that the main breeding season lasted from mid-March to mid-April in this location. Female and male GSI values showed significant differences in the time periods, and the overall performance for females was higher than in males. We found the average feeding intensity to be greater in males than in females in the different gonadal stages. The liver index showed significant differences in the different female and male gonadal stages, with values for females higher than males. Absolute fecundity was 44 017–734 684 grains (mean ±SD, 173 867 ± 15 719 grains), while the dominant group was 10–30×104 grains (70.37%). Relative fe-cundity was 187–1403 grains/g (mean ± SD, 538 ± 31 grains/g), and the dominant group was 390–700 grains/g (66.67%). Egg size was 0.27–1.22 mm (mean ± SD, 0.86 ± 0.01 mm), while the dominant group ranged from 0.7 to 1.1 mm. The absolute fecundity of S. japonicus in the Wen-Tai fishing ground was found to be less than that of the northern Yellow Sea and higher than that of the Taiwan Strait. Relative fecundity was higher than historic levels, but the mean egg size was found to be lower than in the 1980s, and the minimum fork length of males and females at maturity ex-perienced a certain degree of reduction. This suggests that reproductive interventions (i.e., increasing relative fecundity, reducing egg sizes, and promoting early sexual maturity in the fish) are needed to cope with the high fishing intensity and environment stresses that had threaten Scomber japonicus reproductive stocks.

  13. Influence of. gamma. -irradiation and ice storage on fat oxidation in three Indian fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadi, S.V.; Venugopal, V. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1991-01-01

    The influence of low-dose {gamma}-irradiation (up to 5 kGy) on fat oxidation in skin and flesh fractions of some commercially important fishes (Indian mackerel, white pomfret and seer) during ice storage was examined. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased in both control and irradiated fish particularly in mackerel and seer meat. In mackerel, the TBA values declined towards later part of storage. Pomfret skin, but not mackerel and seer skin, showed radiation-induced oxidation, which increased further during ice storage. (author).

  14. 75 FR 44226 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Ocean Planning Committee, its Squid, Mackerel, and Butterfish (SMB) Committee, and its Executive... Science Center's (NEFSC) Ecosystems Branch by Dr. Michael Fogerty. The SMB Committee will review Amendment...

  15. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin D, as do fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel. Many dietary supplements, like multivitamin supplements, contain vitamin D. Exercise Physical activity Everyone needs physical activity. ...

  16. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharon H. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Hamilton, Christine D. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spencer, Gregory C. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ogston, Heather O. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-05-12

    southern California to Washington, and occasional, seasonal, or transitory associations of coastal pelagic fishes such as jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) may also occur at WECs in these waters. Importantly, our review indicated that negative effects of WEC structures on special-status fish species, such as increased predation of juvenile salmonids or rockfishes, are not likely. In addition, WECs installed in coastal California, especially in southern California waters, have the potential to attract high densities of reef-associated fishes and may even contribute to rockfish productivity, if fish respond to the WECs similarly to oil and gas platforms, which have some of the highest secondary production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat studied globally (Claisse et al. 2014). We encountered some information gaps, owing to the paucity or lack, in key locations, of comparable surrogate structures in which fish assemblages and ecological interactions were studied. TECs are most likely to be used in the Puget Sound area, but suitable surrogates are lacking there. However, in similarly cold-temperate waters of Europe and Maine, benthopelagic fish occurred around tidal turbines during lower tidal velocities, and this type of interaction may be expected by similar species at TECs in Puget Sound. To address information gaps in the near term, such as whether WECs would function as FADs in temperate waters, studies of navigation buoys using hydroacoustics are recommended.

  17. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners commissi

  18. 75 FR 14428 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Council (Council) and its Squid, Mackerel, and Butterfish (SMB), Joint Dogfish, Research Set- Aside (RSA..., April 15, 2010. On Tuesday, April 13, The Squid, Mackerel, and Butterfish (SMB) Committee will meet from... itself are: On Tuesday, April 13, The SMB Committee will review Amendment 11 public comments; select...

  19. Egg and larval distributions of seven fish species in north-east Atlantic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibaibarriaga, L.; Irigoien, X.; Santos, M.; Eltink, A.T.G.W.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of egg and larvae of mackerel, horse mackerel, sardine, hake, megrim, blue whiting and anchovy along the European Atlantic waters (south Portugal to Scotland) during 1998 is described. Time of the year, sea surface temperature and bottom depth are used to define the spawning habitat

  20. 50 CFR 679.7 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating as a tender vessel. (18) Pollock, Pacific Cod, and Atka Mackerel Directed Fishing and VMS. Operate... Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) and complies with the requirements in § 679.28(f). (19) Atka Mackerel HLA... any habitat protection area described in Tables 22, 23, and 26 of this part. (21) VMS on vessels...

  1. 50 CFR 622.30 - Fishing years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Spanish mackerel. The fishing year for the king and Spanish mackerel bag limits specified in § 622.39(c)(1) is January 1 through December 31. The following fishing years apply only for the king and Spanish.... (2) Gulf migratory group Spanish mackerel—April through March. (3) South Atlantic migratory...

  2. 78 FR 76595 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD034 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Data Webinar for Gulf of Mexico and South... King Mackerel. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic King Mackerel...

  3. 50 CFR 622.34 - Gulf EEZ seasonal and/or area closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Martin Luther King Jr. Federal holiday. The gillnet fishery also is closed during all subsequent weekends and observed Federal holidays, except for the first weekend following the Martin Luther King Jr... of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery. The gillnet fishery for Gulf group king mackerel...

  4. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners

  5. Local Wisdom of Smoked Fish Processing as Tourism Product in Situbondo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Junianingsih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine and fisheries resources in Situbondo Regency were potential to supports seafood processing, e.g. traditional smoked processing of mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis Cantor based on local wisdom. This research was aimed to assess and analyzes: the processing of smoked mackerel tuna based on local wisdom, public perception towards the processing of smoked mackerel tuna, and the quality of smoked mackerel tuna. The research carried out on January to April 2014, in Jangkar Village, Situbondo regency. The study included depth interview from key persons with questionnaire and organoleptic test. The public perception on smoked mackerel tuna was taken by questionnaire from 85 respondents, whereas the quality of smoked mackerel tuna was analyzed with laboratory proximate test. Result of this research showed that smoked mackerel tuna processing used traditional smoking instrument and fuel material. The smoking stall used several banana midrib stem above the furnace that made of cement and bricks, while the fuel use coconut coir which created the typical flavors of the smoked mackerel tuna. The average organoleptic value of the smoked mackerel tuna appearance is 7.89 (intact, clean, brown, very shiny specific type, flavors of 8.24 (less fragrant, smoked enough, without additional disturbing odor, taste of 8.41 (delicious, savory, texture of 7.40 (solid, compact, fairly dry, tight inter-flesh tissue, and colour of 7.20 (attractive, specific, shiny brown colour type. Public perception showed that the community knowledge on smoked mackerel tuna processing is good, creates good flavors of smoked mackerel tuna and favored by the community, thus also encourage the community to support the conservation of this traditional smoked processing. Lab analysis showed that the proximate value of 0.99% carbohydrates, 29.59% protein, 1.14% fat, 2.89% mineral, 1.88% ash, and 63.4% water. Processing of smoked mackerel tuna as tourism product of Situbondo Regency is

  6. Before You're Pregnant - Methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain fish, including swordfish , tilefish , king mackerel , and shark . Eating these fish can be harmful to your ... Some fish and shellfish contain higher levels of mercury that may harm an unborn baby or young ...

  7. Tips for Pregnant Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high risk of falling • Do not eat tilefish, shark, swordfish, and king mackerel or injury. since they have high levels of mercury. Learn about other nutrition assistance programs: http: / / www. ...

  8. HealthLines for Pregnancy …healthy eating, exercising, and 10 more handy sources of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beverage. Fish that may have high levels of mercury (a substance that can build up in fish and harm an unborn baby). Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish during pregnancy. Eat ...

  9. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to avoid fish that are high in mercury, namely, shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish. When you do eat fish, it’s important to eat varieties that contain less mercury, such as canned light tuna, shrimp, salmon, pollock, ...

  10. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0002, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  11. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9903, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  12. Faune française de l’Atlantique. Requins .1. Hexanchiformes & Lamniformes (Craniata : Elasmobranchii)

    OpenAIRE

    Quero, Jean-claude; Spitz, Jerome; Leaute, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    French Atlantic fauna. Sharks .1. Hexanchiformes & Lamniformes (Craniata : Elasmobranchii). The fauna of cow sharks (2 species), frilled sharks (1 species) and mackerel sharks (7 species) from the French Atlantic fauna is given.

  13. The World According to Malthus and Volterra: The Mathematical Theory of the Struggle for Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Constantine

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the mathematical model presented by Vito Volterra to describe the dynamics of population density. Discusses the predator prey relationship, presents an computer simulated model from marine life involving sharks and mackerels, and discusses ecological chaos. (MDH)

  14. 76 FR 30920 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... its Squid, Mackerel, Butterfish (SMB) Committee will hold public meetings. DATES: The meetings will be... The SMB Committee will meet as a Committee of the Whole to develop 2012 quota specifications and...

  15. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0201, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  16. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0101, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  17. Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables, which contain important vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin E. Eat foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as cold water fish (salmon, mackerel, and herring), flaxseed, rapeseed (canola) oil, soybeans, ...

  18. Vegetarian diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from these foods: Fatty fish, such as sardines, salmon, and mackerel (this only applies to pescetarians and semi-vegetarians) Egg yolks Foods that are fortified with vitamin D, such as orange juice, cow's milk, soymilk, ...

  19. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon. Some types of fish may contain high levels ... cholesterol. However, liver is rich in iron and vitamins. A small serving (3 ounces) is OK about ...

  20. Osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These include foods that are naturally rich in vitamin D, such as oily fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines) and egg yolks. Also look for foods that are fortified with vitamin D, such as cereal, bread, milk and yogurt. ...

  1. 50 CFR 648.21 - Procedures for determining initial annual amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES... (Monitoring Committee) shall meet annually to develop and recommend the following specifications for...: (A) Total world export potential of mackerel producing countries. (B) Total world import demand...

  2. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0302, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  3. 77 FR 51771 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel and Cobia AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE...

  4. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. Eyabi Eyabi G. D ... smoke process technology, packaging and storage ... Materials and Methods. 1. Samples of ..... some additives for improving preservation and quality of traditionally ...

  5. Global scombrid life history dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; MOSQUEIRA SANCHEZ IAGO; Freire, Juan; FERRER-JORDÁ E.; Dulvy, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The scombrids (Family Scombridae), commonly known as tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels, and mackerels, play an important role as predators and prey in coastal and oceanic marine ecosystems, and sustain some of the most important fisheries in the world. Knowledge of their basic biology and life history traits, such as growth, age and maturity, is fundamental to sustainably manage these species, and maintain their critical role in marine ecosystems. Given their economic and socia...

  6. 冷海水保藏下鲐鱼(Pneumatophorus japonicus)菌相变化规律及优势腐败菌的分离鉴定%Microflora Composition Variation in Mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicas) Stored in Refrigerated Seawater, and Isolation and Identification of the Dominant Spoilage Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振霄; 周聃; 冯俊丽; 金仁耀; 戴志远

    2016-01-01

    以冷海水保鲜的鲐鱼为研究对象,通过选择性生培养基和16S rDNA序列分析法探究其在冷海水保鲜过程中的菌相变化,确定了鲐鱼在冷海水保鲜条件下的优势腐败菌,并通过MEGA5.2软件构建了贮藏末期代表菌株的系统发育树.结果表明:冷海水保鲜鲐鱼样品在贮藏初期(第0d)的微生物比较复杂,优势种群是假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.)和嗜冷菌属(Psychrobacter sp.),还有少量的类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus sp.)、希瓦氏菌属(Shewanella sp.)、蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)、枯草芽孢杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.);随着贮藏时间的延长,鲐鱼样品中的菌相逐渐变的单一,假单胞菌属迅速下降,希瓦氏菌属迅速增加;贮藏末期希瓦氏菌属和肠杆菌属(Enterobacter sp.)的比例迅速增加,其中希瓦氏菌属呈上升趋势且到贮藏后期数量占绝对优势,被确定为鲐鱼冷海水保鲜条件下的优势腐败菌.

  7. Role of the raw composition of pelagic fish muscle on the development of lipid oxidation and rancidity during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Rodrigo; Pazos, Manuel; Medina, Isabel

    2011-06-08

    The muscle composition of a pelagic fish species, Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), has been studied to determine the relationship with its susceptibility to develop lipid oxidation during chilled storage. For such an aim, the initial concentrations of the major components (water, total lipids, protein, and PUFAs) and minor pro-oxidant and antioxidant components (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, hemoglobin, total iron, LMW-iron, copper, and zinc) of different batches of mackerel were characterized. For the study, several batches of mackerel were caught during the spring and summer periods. The different batches were subjected to chilled storage, and the onset of lipid oxidation was statistically related with the initial muscle composition. Results showed significant compositional differences among the mackerel lots, especially for the muscle lipid content (2.83-9.50%). In a first step, a Pearson correlation test was used to check the influence of each component on the progress of lipid oxidation. Results showed a significant relationship between shelf life and water and total lipid contents. Multiple regression was performed to reveal the contribution of each component to the susceptibility to lipid oxidation. The model obtained combines the content of PUFAs, total iron, hemoglobin, and ascorbic acid. An accurate prediction of shelf life in terms of rancidity was achieved by the model created (R(2) = 0.9975). These results establish that the levels of endogenous pro-oxidants and antioxidants present in fish muscle together with the polyunsaturated lipids are relevant factors affecting the shelf life of mackerel muscle.

  8. Direct assessment of anchovy by the PELGAS05 acoustic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Masse, Jacques; Beillois, Pierre; Duhamel, Erwan

    2005-01-01

    An acoustic survey was carried out in the bay of Biscay from May 3rd to June 1st on board the French research vessel Thalassa. The objective of PELGAS05 survey was to study the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay. The target species were mainly anchovy and sardine and were considered in a multi-specific context. The results have to be used during ICES working groups in charge of the assessment of sardine, anchovy, mackerel and horse mackerel and in the frame of t...

  9. The rise and fall of the NE Atlantic blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Egan, Afra; Fässler, Sascha M. M;

    2012-01-01

    The Northeast Atlantic blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) stock has undergone striking changes in abundance in the last 15 years. The stock increased dramatically in the late 1990s due to a succession of eight unusually strong year classes and dropped again equally dramatically after 2005 when...... are reviewed that may explain these observed changes, with two major candidate hypotheses being identified. One hypothesis suggests that the large mackerel (Scomber scombrus) stock in this region may feed on the pre-recruits of blue whiting, with the spatial overlap between blue whiting and mackerel being...

  10. Hiding and feeding in floating seaweed: Floating seaweed clumps as possible refuges or feeding grounds for fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Messiaen, Marlies; O'Flynn, Sarah; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Floating seaweed is considered to be an important habitat for juvenile fishes due to the provision of food, shelter, a visual orientation point and passive transport. The importance of the presence of the highly dynamical seaweed clumps from the North Sea to juvenile neustonic fishes was investigated by analysing both neuston samples (without seaweed) and seaweed samples concerning fish community structure, and length-frequency distributions and feeding habits of five associated fish species. While the neustonic fish community was mainly seasonally structured, the seaweed-associated fish community was more complex: the response of the associated fish species to environmental variables was species specific and probably influenced by species interactions, resulting in a large multivariate distance between the samples dominated by Chelon labrosus and the samples dominated by Cyclopterus lumpus, Trachurus trachurus and Ciliata mustela. The results of the stomach analysis confirmed that C. lumpus is a weedpatch specialist that has a close spatial affinity with the seaweed and feeds intensively on the seaweed-associated invertebrate fauna. Similarly, C. mustela juveniles also fed on the seaweed fauna, but in a more opportunistic way. The shape of the size-frequency distribution suggested enhanced growth when associated with floating seaweed. Chelon labrosus and T. trachurus juveniles were generally large in seaweed samples, but large individuals were also encountered in the neuston. The proportion of associated invertebrate fauna in their diet was of minor importance, compared to the proportions in C. lumpus. Individuals of Syngnathus rostellatus mainly fed on planktonic invertebrates but had a discontinuous size-frequency distribution, suggesting that some of the syngnathids were carried with the seaweed upon detachment and stayed associated. Floating seaweeds can therefore be regarded as ephemeral habitats shared between several fish species (mainly juveniles) that use

  11. Seven species of Pseudopecoeloides Yamaguti, 1940 (Digenea, Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia, including five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Aken’Ova

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Pseudopecoeloides including five new are described from marine fishes in the waters off the coasts of Queensland, and West and South Australia. The new species are Pseudopecoeloides hickmani n. sp. from Pseudocaranx wrighti (Carangidae, P. lesteri n. sp. from Pseudocaranx dentex and Pseudocaranx wrighti, P. arripi n. sp. from Arripis georgianus (Arripidae, P. atherinomori n. sp. from Atherinonmorus ogilbyi (Atherinidae, P, hafeezullahi n. sp. from Trachurus novaezealandiae (Carangidae. Pseudopecoeloides scomberi Hafeezullah, 1971, which was transferred to Opecoeloides (Odhner, 1928 by Madhavi (1975 is reported from Scomberoides lysan (Carangidae and returned to Pseudopecoeloides. Pseudopecoeloides tenuis Yamaguti, 1940 is reported from a new host species, Priacanthus macracanthus (Priacanthidae.

  12. 76 FR 4854 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... as monitored stocks (jack mackerel, northern anchovy, and market squid). During public meetings each... sardine are landed with other CPS so as to minimize the targeting of Pacific sardine. In the event that an... greatly on market forces within the fishery, and on the regional availability of the resource to...

  13. 76 FR 38650 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    .../wcm.html . EIS No. 20110200, Final Supplement, TVA, TN, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2, License... Habitat; Establish a Mackerel Recreational Allocation; Establish a Cap to Limit the At-Sea Processing of.../ Accountability Measures Amendment for the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council's Red Drum, Reef Fish, Shrimp...

  14. 77 FR 73005 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... current estimate of stock biomass. The harvest control rule in the CPS FMP is HG = [(Biomass-Cutoff... control rules in the FMP. The specific harvest control rule is applied to the current stock biomass... to conserve and manage the Pacific mackerel stock off the U.S. West Coast. DATES: Comments must be...

  15. Alternate Boost Vehicle (ABV) Verification Tests. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in parentheses are based on a reference temperature of 25°C and a reference pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury (1,013.2 millibar); ppm in this...jack mackerel, and squid), groundfish (including species of rockfish, shark , and cod), and highly migratory fish (tunas, marlin, and swordfish

  16. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a week, but avoid eating fish with high mercury levels. Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish, and limit albacore tuna to 6 ounces a week. If you eat fish caught in local waters, check for advisories about mercury or other pollutants. If no information is available, ...

  17. 78 FR 19216 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    .... Special Accommodations The meeting is physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign... areas for inclusion in Amendment 16 to the Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan... address the need for a refined set of deep sea coral protection area options for inclusion in Amendment...

  18. Target Tracking and Interception by Aggressive Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    targets can hinder, prevent or endanger attacks to the centrally-located targets. Figure 15. Percentage of strikes (totalling 100%) to each of the...adjusted, 53  to minimize the drag that is produced by the medium through which they move. For example, 54  sharks , tuna and mackerel possess fusiform shapes

  19. Incidence of Larval Anisakiosis in Ocean Fish Sold Through Network of Supermarket Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted on a sample of 33 ocean fish of consumption, mackerel and herring uneviscerated and frosen, packed in plastic bags, different weights and purchased from supermarket chain stores, concerning the incidence and intensity of parasitism by larvae of Anisakis sp. to gut and visceral level, lesion picture caused and also some morphological measurements, reveals an incidence of anisakiasis of 60.0% to 72.2% in mackerel and respectively in herring. Regarding the infestation intensity of Anisakis larvae sp., infestations dominate weakly the mackerel (44.4%, followed by medium (33.3% and massive (22.0%. In contrast to the herring are dominant the medium infestations (46.1%, followed by massive (30.7% and low infestations (23.1%.Table of lesion caused by larval stages in gut and visceral level is characterized by intestinal congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and hemoragico – necrotic and the presence of larval cystic foci on serous of gut, kidneys, liver and gonads. Morphological investigations carried out on a sample of 20 larvae, collected from herring and mackerel, regarding biometric aspects, cuticular and of color, body size variables highlights from 13.0 mm / 0.6 mm minimum to 27.0 / 0.6 mm maximum, with an average of 20.0 mm / 0.5 mm, comparable to those presented in the speciality literature.

  20. 50 CFR Table 32 to Part 679 - Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool 32 Table 32... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 32 Table 32 to Part 679— Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool Amendment 80 species Management area Amendment 80 initial QS pool in units Atka mackerel BS/541542 543 Σ Highest Five Years...

  1. Nourish Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acids is fatty fish (for example sardines, tuna, salmon, mackerel, and herring). Try to eat this type of fish once or twice a week.Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking vitamins or supplements. Depending on your overall health and ...

  2. High Doses of Vitamin D Fail to Cut Cancer Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supplements, she said. Few foods naturally contain vitamin D: fatty fish -- including salmon, mackerel and tuna -- and fish liver oil are the richest sources. In the United States, milk is fortified with vitamin D, as are many breakfast cereals. The trial ...

  3. How a Healthy Diet Helps You Breastfeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you live. Instead, you should look to get vitamin D from foods such as salmon, mackerel, fortified milk or orange juice, and yogurt. Some ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin D. You can get vitamin D from supplements, ...

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the foods you eat. Foods with natural vitamin D include: • Certain fish: salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna • Cod liver oil • Shiitake mushrooms • Egg yolks Foods that often have added vitamin D include: • Dairy products • Orange juice • Infant formula • ...

  5. 75 FR 27990 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... multi-disciplinary study looking at adaptation to climate change in a human-natural coupled system. The...Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Mid-Atlantic... recent Transboundary Resource Assessment Committee's (TRAC) review of the status of Atlantic mackerel. 10...

  6. 76 FR 45516 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Avenue, Suite 1100, Tampa, FL 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive... Selection; Joint Mackerel, Reef Fish and Red Drum; Artificial Reef; Data Collection; Budget/Personnel; and... permits (EFPs), if any; Final Actions on Reef Fish Amendment 32, the Generic Annual Catch...

  7. KONTRIBUSI INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN HASIL PERIKANAN TRADISIONAL TERHADAP PENDAPATAN NELAYAN PENGOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernik Yuliana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional fish processing industries in Muara Angke Jakarta have been involving many labor from the local fishermen or others. This study describes the contributions of many small industry to the labor incomes based on every small industry profit distribution. Survey method had been applied to collect the data. The population are all small traditional fish processing industries in Muara Angke. The samples are chosen based on their product, either salty fish or smoked fish. “Hayami method” was applied to calculate the added value of each small industry. The results of this study shows that salty squid has the highest value added (Rp2167,61/kg and highest profits (Rp2072,61/kg, Indian mackerel smoked fish gives the highest contributions to labor incomes (Rp663,36/kg. Sardinella salty fish gives the highest profit level, followed by salty squid and salty mackerel scad. Salty stingray and salty Indian mackerel gives high value for labor return. In addition, salty sardinella, salty squid, and salty “lesi” fish have high added value ratio. Salty stingray gives the highest other input contribution, followed by smoked Indian mackerel.

  8. 75 FR 1745 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of... for actively managed species (Pacific sardine and Pacific mackerel) are based on formulas applied to... ``Assessment of Pacific Sardine Stock for U.S. Management in 2010'' (see ADDRESSES). The formula in the CPS...

  9. Game theory and fish wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Thøgersen, Thomas Talund

    2015-01-01

    in 2010 and that the EU, Norway and the Faroe Islands reached a bargaining solution in 2014 cannot be explained by simple cooperative game theory. However, actual behavior during the mackerel crisis can be explained by opportunity costs, including alternative fishing possibilities and regulations, rather...

  10. 78 FR 48852 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... use of vessel monitoring systems (VMS), as well as the submission of daily VMS catch reports, for...; Require a 6-hr pre-landing notification via VMS in order to land more than 20,000 lb (9.07 mt) of mackerel... Act. Based on DOC's advice, there is no current legal mechanism to allow cost-sharing of at-sea costs...

  11. In Silico Design of Smart Binders to Anthrax PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    34GRAMM-X public web server for protein-protein docking," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 34, pp. 310-314, 2006. [3] A. Saladin, et al., "PTools: an...Online]. [13] H. M. Berman, et al., "The Protein Data Bank," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 28, pp. 235-242, 1999. [14] J. A. D. MacKerell, et al

  12. 78 FR 30866 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Mackerel) Schedule and Terms of Reference (TOR); SEDAR 32 (Gray Triggerfish and Blueline Tilefish) and SEDAR 36 (Snowy Grouper) TOR review; and participants for SEDAR 38 and SEDAR 36. Note: There will be an... SEDAR Research Plan. The Council is scheduled to approve the following: SEDAR 38 Schedule and TOR;...

  13. [Determination of histamine content in canned fish products determined by the colorimetry method of Hardy and Smith].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, B; Grochowska, A; Sciezyńska, H; Górecka, K; Fonberg-Broczek, M

    1992-01-01

    The content of histamine in 79 samples of imported canned fish products (sardines, mackerel) was determined. Histamine was assayed by colorimetric method of Hardy and Smith. In 18% of tested products (sardines) levels of histamine were exceeded 20 mg/100 of product. Usefulness of this method in routine quantitative determination of histamine content in canned fish products was documented.

  14. Impact of quality parameters on the recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fish using methanol-hydrochloric acid solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nicole L; Pivarnik, Lori F; Ellis, P Christopher; Lee, Chong M

    2011-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) extraction by AOAC Official Method 996.07 has resulted in low amine recoveries in fresh fish tissue. Addition of 25% 0.4 M HCl to the 75% methanol-water extraction solvent resulted in higher recoveries of putrescine and cadaverine. Average putrescine recovery increased from 55 to 92% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 92 to 98% in mackerel; and from 83 to 107% in processed mackerel. Average cadaverine recovery increased from 57 to 95% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 91 to 97% in mackerel; and from 92 to 108% in processed mackerel. Fish stored on ice for 12 days also showed differences between background concentrations determined with the two solvents. However, the values decreased with storage time, indicating that degradation of the protein matrix may cause more comparable measurements between the two solvents. However, consistently higher putrescine and cadaverine measurements were determined using MeOH-HCl. Although significant differences in the extraction of amines from the high-fat fish tissue were not seen between MeOH and MeOH-HCl, it would be ideal to have one solvent for biogenic amine extraction. This study confirms that MeOH-HCl is a better solvent for complete extraction and recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fresh and processed fish tissues.

  15. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    DCj,i is the average fraction of i in the diet of j (in terms of mass), ... per unit biomass (Q/B), assimilation efficiency, diet composition ..... imum biomass necessary to sustain the food require- ments for .... species may benefit from energy made available when another fish .... pelagic fish, and horse mackerel, which supplement.

  16. 77 FR 11065 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...: The SEDAR 28 assessments of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic stocks of Spanish mackerel and cobia... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB022 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  17. 78 FR 68817 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine... 38 stock assessment of South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico King Mackerel: A Data Workshop; an... stock assessment and input data. Participants for SEDAR Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico...

  18. 77 FR 70149 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... 28 Gulf of Mexico Spanish mackerel and cobia assessment Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC328 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  19. 76 FR 77491 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    .... SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessments of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic stocks of Spanish mackerel and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA863 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  20. 77 FR 35358 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Four Assessment...: The SEDAR 28 Assessment Workshops via webinar will be held July 10, 2012, July 24, 2012, August 9...

  1. 77 FR 43049 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish mackerel and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  2. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  3. 75 FR 59645 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... populations. The primary concern is preventing the transmission of disease from the large numbers of African... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) is a law that was passed to prevent... horse mackerel has replaced sardines. (5) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that avian cholera...

  4. 78 FR 15707 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Management Council will convene a meeting of the Standing, Special Mackerel and Ecosystem Scientific and... Integrated Ecosystems Assessment (IEA) project being conducted by the Southeast Fisheries Science Center. The... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC548 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...

  5. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be accomplished through written reviews because delays in completing the assessments prevented their consideration at the SEDAR 28 Review Workshop. This workshop is being held by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council to consider recommendations from the written reviews and develop recommendations for the......

  6. 76 FR 20959 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Pacific mackerel stock assessment for 2011, in order to inform fisheries management decisions for the 2011... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA366 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  7. Histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Victor E; Lescano, Andres G; Huamán, Alfredo A; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L

    2009-05-01

    Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of > 500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had > 10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (> 1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of > 10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru.

  8. Histamine Levels in Fish from Markets in Lima, Perú†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Victor E.; Lescano, Andres G.; Huamán, Alfredo A.; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of >500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had >10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (>1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman’s rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of >10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru. PMID:19517744

  9. Contents of cadmium, mercury and lead in fish from the Atlantic sea (Morocco) determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahid, Adil; Hilali, Mustapha; Benlhachimi, Abdeljalil; Bouzid, Taoufiq

    2014-03-15

    As a part of a specific monitoring program, lead (Pb) cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in important species of fish from various fishing ports of the southern Kingdom of Morocco (Sardina pilchardus, Scomber scombrus, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus, Octopus vulgaris, Boops boops, Sarda sarda, Trisopterus capelanus, and Conger conger) were investigated by the Moroccan Reference Laboratory (NRL) for trace elements in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples were analysed for lead and cadmium by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS); and for mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The results were expressed as μg/g of wet weight (w/w). The levels of Cd, Pb and Hg in muscles of fish were 0.009-0.036, 0.013-0.114 and 0.049-0.194 μg/g, respectively. The present study showed that different metals were present in the sample at different levels but within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the EU for the fish and shellfish from these areas, in general, should cause no health problems for consumers.

  10. A SEARCH ON HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SCADS CAUGHT IN THE GULF OF İZMİT AND OFF TEKİRDAG PROVINCE IN THE SEA OF MARMARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omca DEMİRKOL

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals which contaminate water due to ındustrialization cause a great deal of environmental pollution. In addition to that these metals threaten human health by accumulating in organismas which leave in rivers and seas and being used as nutriment.The aim of this resarch is to determine the mercury, lead and cadmium accumulation in scads (Trachurus trachurus caught in the Gulf of İzmit and near Tekirdag in the sea of Marmara. The resarch was carried out in April, May and June 1996. Fish sample analysed for mercury, lead and cadmium elements. Heavy metal contents of fish caught in the Gulf of İzmit were all higher than those of caught in Tekirdag . Avarege mercury contents were 0.316 ppm and 0.029 ppm in the Gulf of fishes and Tekirdag fishes respectively. Average lead contents were 0.269 ppm and 0.038 ppm in the Gulf fishes and Tekirdag fishes respectively. Average cadmium contents was 0.061 ppm in the Gulf fishes. No cadmium was determined in Tekirdağ fishes.

  11. Project INOVEMAR: Innovation in Sea Produce Processment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alberta Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Following information conveyed by Docapesca, the less valued species captured in the region are different mackerel species, Atlantic horse mackerel, pout, octopus and mullet. Mackerel and Atlantic horse mackerel, due to their high subcutaneous fat were used for smoking and for the production of canned smoked fillets and patés, with different sauces.The smoking process included: washing fresh fish, 30 minutes immersion in a 80º brine, followed by dripping and drying for 48h. Smoking was carried out at 70ºC during 3h, with a final stage at 90ºC. Several paté formulations were developed with mackerel and atlantic horse mackerel, with different types and quantities of ingredients and flavourings to obtain different products. Special attention was paid to the amounts of thickeners and emulsifiers to attain a pleasant spread ability. All preparations were sterilized for 15 minutes at 121ºC. A sensory panel with 10 judges and a consumer panel with 59 consumers were used to test the developed products. The 59 consumers (17-25 years of age classified smoked products as moderately pleasant. 82% of the consumers tested expressed willingness to purchase the product. In what concerns patés, sensory judges as well as consumers rated the majority of products as very good in the several parameters under evaluation, indication that there is a great potential for these type of commodities. Several fish species are being studied for pre-cooking conservation. In all the cases studied, typical Portuguese cuisine is being used, followed by rapid chilling and packing with modified atmospheres. Preparations, preservation and subsequent consumption are being carried out at the school's canteen. The results obtained until now show that low commercial valued species can be used with success, providing some culinary expertise is added. This is a very important aspect since, transferring this technology to industry, may lead to the development of new products and help an easy flow of

  12. Changes in the northern Benguela ecosystem over three decades: 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heymans, J.J.; Shannon, L.J.; Jarre, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    high catches, and had large populations of a few planktivorous fish. In the 1980s, the planktivorous fish species were expanded (horse mackerel, mesopelagic fish, and other small pelagics), although anchovy and sardine biomass was reduced. Catches remained high in the 1980s and the system was well...... connected. In the 1990s, the system was severely stressed, catches were much lower and omnivory was reduced. Most of the energy flowed through few pathways in the 1990s, and the energy was not transferred as efficiently up the trophic chain as in the 1980s. The fishery operated at the highest trophic level...... during the 1980s and there are some indications of "fishing down the foodweb" in this ecosystem between the 1980s and the 1990s. The high catches of sardine and hake in the 1970s are reflected in the high primary production required (PPR) by those compartments; the high catches of horse mackerel...

  13. Trends in marine fish catches at Pattani Fishery Port (1999-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop statistical models for forecasting the quantity of the various types of marine fish landed at Pattani Fishery Port, allowing for trend and seasonality, using official data during 1999-2003. The data comprise daily and monthly totals by weight for eight types of fish (mackerel, other food fish, squid, scads, trash fish, shrimp, lobster and crab. The statistical methods are one-way analysis of variance, multiple linear regression and time series forecasting using trend and seasonal models. It is found that mackerel, other food fish and squid catches tend to decrease, whereas the catches of scads tend to increase, and trash fish catches have no detectable trend up or down. Shrimp and lobster tend to decrease exponentially, and the trend of crab catch is constant. This study raises questions about the ecological and economic sustainability of the current fisheries policy in Thailand.

  14. Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Khoi; Bandi, Mahesh M; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Fish behaviour and its ecological niche require modulation of its fin stiffness. Using mathematical analyses of rayed fish fins, we show that curvature transverse to the rays is central to fin stiffness. We model the fin as rays with anisotropic bending that are connected by an elastic membrane. For fins with transverse curvature, external loads that bend the rays also splay them apart, which stretches the membrane. This coupling, between ray bending and membrane stretching, underlies the curvature-induced stiffness. A fin that appears flat may still exhibit bending-stretching coupling if the principal bending axes of adjacent rays are misaligned by virtue of intrinsic geometry, i.e. morphologically flat yet functionally curved. Analysis of the pectoral fin of a mackerel shows such functional curvature. Furthermore, as identified by our analyses, the mackerel's fin morphology endows it with the potential to modulate stiffness over a wide range.

  15. [Antibacterial activity of essential oil vapor for histamine-producing bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of essential oil vapors against histamine-producing bacteria Morganella morganii NBRC3848 and Raultella planticola NBRC3317. We measured the minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 14 essential oils towards these two strains. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and salicylaldehyde (SA) vapors showed higher antibacterial activity than the other 12 essential oil vapors. Both AIT and SA vapors suppressed growth of total aerobic bacteria and histamine-producing bacteria in bigeye tuna and mackerel meat during storage at 12°C. These vapors also inhibited histamine accumulation in bigeye tuna meat and mackerel meat. Thus, application of AIT and SA vapors is effective for preventing increase of histamine-producing bacteria and histamine formation in fish meat.

  16. Effect of an Artificial Caudal Fin on the Performance of a Biomimetic Fish Robot Propelled by Piezoelectric Actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a biomimetic fish robot actuated by piezoceramic actuators and the effect of artificial caudal fins on the fish robot's performance. The limited bending displacement produced by a lightweight piezocomposite actuator was amplified and transformed into a large tail beat motion by means of a linkage system. Caudal fins that mimic the shape of a mackerel fin were fabricated for the purpose of examining the effect of caudal fin characteristics on thrust production at an operating frequency range. The thickness distribution of a real mackerel's fin was measured and used to design artificial caudal fins. The thrust performance of the biomimetic fish robot propelled by fins of various thicknesses was examined in terms of the Strouhal number, the Froude number, the Reynolds number, and the power consumption. For the same fin area and aspect ratio, an artificial caudal fin with a distributed thickness shows the best forward speed and the least power consumption.

  17. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Payne, Mark R.; Boje, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    for Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed...... to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change...... impacts is restructuring the food web in east Greenland waters....

  18. Pro cessing tce hniques of the wolfberry mackerelbreakfast sausage%枸杞鲐鱼早餐肠的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2016-01-01

    Wolfberry , mackerel and pork were taken as the main raw materials to make the break-fast sausage .The processing technology and formula of the breakfast sausage wereemphatically intro-duced.The breakfast sausage of wolfberry mackerel had higher nutritive value andbetter quality indica -tor.%试验以枸杞、鲐鱼和猪肉为主要原料制作早餐肠,重点介绍了该早餐肠的加工工艺和配方,制作出的枸杞鲐鱼早餐肠营养价值较高,具有较好的质量指标。

  19. Forage fish, their fisheries, and their predators: who drives whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhard, Georg H.; Peck, Myron A.; Rindorf, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    The North Sea has a diverse forage fish assemblage, including herring, targeted for human consumption; sandeel, sprat, and Norway pout, exploited by industrial fisheries; and some sardine and anchovy, supporting small-scale fisheries. All show large abundance fluctuations, impacting on fisheries...... exist, as in the North Sea. Sandeel appears to be the most important prey forage fish. Seabirds are most dependent on forage fish, due to specialized diet and distributional constraints (breeding colonies). Other than fisheries, key predators of forage fish are a few piscivorous fish species including...... saithe, whiting, mackerel, and horse-mackerel, exploited in turn by fisheries; seabirds and seals have a more modest impact. Size-based foodwebmodelling suggests that reducing fishing mortality may not necessarily lead to larger stocks of piscivorous fish, especially if their early life stages compete...

  20. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    and vegetables: 4 - 5 of each/day; • Eat cold water fish ( salmon , halibut, scallops,tuna, mackerel,cod, shrimp, snapper, and sardines) ≥ 2x...Oats • Soy • Brown rice • Wheat • Cold-water fish Dietary Supplements • Glucosamine/Chondroitin sulfate • Vitamins C and E • Selenium...Omega-3 Fatty Acids • Calcium and Vitamin D • Coenzyme Q10 • Capsaicin Cream (chili peppers) Summary Musculoskeletal health requires: • A

  1. Susceptibility the antimicrobial and profile of strength in strains plasmid Escherichia coli isolated freshwater fish and marine, marketed in Fortaleza - Ce.

    OpenAIRE

    Adalva Lopes Machado

    2015-01-01

    The marketing of fish has shown substantial increase; however, their place of origin and ways of handling and storage may pose health risk. The microorganisms in the food chain and in capture environments cause concern over the risk of disease transmission and the multiple resistance to several drugs. This study aimed at characterizing the antimicrobial resistance of 191 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from 20 fish samples, ten saltwater samples: (5) mackerel (S. cavalla) and (5) snapper...

  2. Operational Efficiency and Environmental Impact Fluctuations of the Basque Trawling Fleet Using LCA+DEA Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), suggests that natural fluctuations in stock abundance in fisheries may cause high variability in environmental impacts related to the Atlantic mackerel fishery in the Basque Country. The aim of this study is to analyze environmental fluctuations through time of a demersal species, European hake (Merluccius merluccius), caught by Basque bottom trawlers in European waters. The three-step LCA+DEA method, which combines LCA with data envelopm...

  3. Report of the BOBLME Regional Fisheries Management Advisory Committee, Bangkok, Thailand, 25-26 June, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The BOBLME Project supports member countries to produce fishery management plans for hilsa and Indian Mackerel using an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). The EAFM has three tiers: technical studies to provide information; a Regional Fisheries Management Committee (RFMAC) to interpret the information and deliver ecosystem based fisheries management advice; and a Regional Fisheries Management Forum to deliberate on the advice as it relates to national actions.

  4. The conservation and management of tunas and their relatives: setting life history research priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Juan-Jordá

    Full Text Available Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species.

  5. Biological Activity at Oceanic Fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    and/or phytoplankton concentrations between the adjacent areas. High particle concentrations are associated with a front east of the Galapagos Islands...yeTlowfin, albacore, and bluefin tunas, mackerel, salmon, and some whales (Uda, 1938, 1952,. 9.=, 1973; Uda and Ishino, 1958). Behavioral responses of...Marine mammals ,Gaskin, 1976) also utilize tidal fronts. Minke whales were observed to feed on herring or capelin collected in fronts and fin whales fed

  6. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Stancheva, M; Galunska, B.; Dobreva, A. D.; Merdzhanova, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus), Round Goby (Neogobius rattan), Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus) and Shad (Alosa pontica). Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously usi...

  7. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Birgitte Geert; Widding, Sofie Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from thetinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package ofsliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project "User‐friendlyPackaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcomeof the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The proj...

  8. Trophodynamics and diet overlap of small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, E

    2015-08-27

    Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  9. Quantification of total and specific gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria species in fish using an MPN real-time PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Jones, Jessica L; Benner, Ronald A; Burkhardt, William

    2011-10-01

    Quantification of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) is necessary in order to elucidate the role that HPB play in scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning. We report here the evaluation of a real-time PCR method for the quantification of total and specific Gram-negative HPB species in fish using a most probable number (MPN) format. The species-specific real-time PCR assay was 100% inclusive for independently detecting Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella planticola/ornithinolytica and Photobacterium damselae and did not cross react with other histamine- or non- histamine-producing bacteria. The efficiency of the reactions in the absence and presence of Spanish mackerel enrichment containing 1 × 10(6) CFU/ml of background microflora were 93-104 and 92-99%, respectively. The MPN-real-time PCR assay accurately quantified total and specific HPB in spiked mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculates) samples. These methods were used to quantify total and specific HPB in naturally contaminated, decomposing mahi-mahi, Spanish mackerel and tuna (Thunnus albacares) samples. The results of this study indicate that MPN-real-time PCR assays can be used to accurately enumerate total and specific HPB in fish samples. These assays can be applied to assess the effectiveness of mitigation strategies and understand the relationship between HPB and histamine production in decomposing fish.

  10. ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS ESTIMATES OF COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIES USING HYDRO-ACOUSTIC METHOD IN JAKARTA BAY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Ansri Utama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jakarta Bay is known as a fishing ground area for several traditional types of fishing gears. The fishery has important role to provide nutrition, sustainable livelihoods, and poverty alleviation around the area. Abundance estimation of commercial fish species in the Jakarta Bay is essential particularly comparable of series data in order to evaluate the potential changes in distribution and abundance. The purpose of this study is analyzing the distribution of commercial fish species in the Jakarta Bay and estimate their abundance and biomass. Fish assemblages were concentrated in the eastern and central part of bay. Apparently salinity and DO associated with rich density of phytoplankton and zooplankton may explain the spatial variability of short-bodied mackerel and pony fish, while assemblages pattern of spiny hairtail and croaker might be driven by the availability of small planktivorous fish as their diet. The most abundant commercial fish in the Jakarta Bay are Short-bodied mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma, Ponyfish (Leiognathus sp., Croaker (Johnius sp. dan Spiny hairtail (Lepturacanthus savala respectively. Furthermore, biomass estimates for those species showed short-bodied mackerel has the highest biomass followed by spiny hairtail, croaker, and ponyfish.

  11. Evaluating machine-learning techniques for recruitment forecasting of seven North East Atlantic fish species

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different factors (spawning biomass, environmental conditions) on recruitment is a subject of great importance in the management of fisheries, recovery plans and scenario exploration. In this study, recently proposed supervised classification techniques, tested by the machine-learning community, are applied to forecast the recruitment of seven fish species of North East Atlantic (anchovy, sardine, mackerel, horse mackerel, hake, blue whiting and albacore), using spawning, environmental and climatic data. In addition, the use of the probabilistic flexible naive Bayes classifier (FNBC) is proposed as modelling approach in order to reduce uncertainty for fisheries management purposes. Those improvements aim is to improve probability estimations of each possible outcome (low, medium and high recruitment) based in kernel density estimation, which is crucial for informed management decision making with high uncertainty. Finally, a comparison between goodness-of-fit and generalization power is provided, in order to assess the reliability of the final forecasting models. It is found that in most cases the proposed methodology provides useful information for management whereas the case of horse mackerel is an example of the limitations of the approach. The proposed improvements allow for a better probabilistic estimation of the different scenarios, i.e. to reduce the uncertainty in the provided forecasts.

  12. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  13. Does the association of young fishes with jellyfishes protect from predation?A report on a failure case due to damage to the jellyfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martini Bonaldo

    Full Text Available The fish-jellyfish association is regarded as a temporary symbiosis believed to protect the fishes from predators. Here we report on juvenile scads (Trachurus lathami associated with the jellyfish Chrysaora lactea, opportunistically preyed on by the grouper Mycteroperca acutirostris while the medusa was being damaged. The predation instances occurred when a couple of the filefish Stephanolepis hispidus approached the jellyfish to nibble on its umbrella. The feeding of the filefish caused a momentary disturbance of the defensive association, perceived and capitalised on by the watchful grouper, an opportunistic and versatile hunter. Before and after the disturbance, the protection offered to the young fish by the jellyfish showed to be effective, which strengthens the hypothesis of defensive function of this association.

  14. Molecular Detection of the Three Major Pathogenic Vibrio Species from Seafood Products and Sediments in Tunisia Using Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdoura, Morsi; Sellami, Hanen; Nasfi, Hanen; Trabelsi, Rahma; Mansour, Sabeur; Attia, Touraya; Nsaibia, Siwar; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Gdoura, Radhouane; Siala, Mariam

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio spp. have emerged as a serious threat to human health worldwide. V. parahaemolyticus , V. cholerae , and V. vulnificus pose a considerable public health risk in Tunisia because they cause sporadic and epidemic foodborne infections associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. More recently, toxR-positive V. alginolyticus was also reported to be a potential source of contaminated seafood. A total of 247 samples, including 113 fishes ( Labrus viridis , Penaeus kerathurus , Diplodus annularis , Diplodus sparaillon , Scorparna porcus , Sarpa salpa , Dentex dentex , Scorparna scrofa , Sardinella aurita , Trachurus trachurus , Synodus saurus , Pagellus erythrinus , and Metapenaeus monoceros ), 83 clams ( Ruditapes decussatus species), 30 seawater samples, and 21 sediment samples were analyzed using traditional culture methods (ISO/TS 21872-1; International Organization for Standardization 2007) and a conventional PCR method for Vibrio spp. A rapid, sensitive, and highly reproducible real-time PCR assay was developed to detect the three major Vibrio spp. pathogenic for humans in Tunisian seafood products and sediments. A conventional culture method found 102 (41.3%) of 247 analyzed samples positive for Vibrio spp.; a conventional PCR method found 126 (51%) of the 247 samples positive. Real-time PCR assay found 126 (51.1%) samples positive; V. alginolyticus toxR was the most common, found in 99 (78.57%) of samples, followed by V. parahaemolyticus in 26 (20.63%) and V. cholerae in 1 (0.7%). All culture-positive samples were PCR positive. However, 24 samples that were positive by conventional PCR and real-time PCR were culture negative. Our findings indicate that retail seafood is commonly contaminated with Vibrio spp. and presents a potential risk to human health in Tunisia. These data also indicate that real-time PCR can provide sensitive species-specific detection of Vibrio spp. in seafood without prior isolation and characterization

  15. DINAMIKA POPULASI IKAN TENGGIRI (Scomberomorus commerson DI PERAIRAN TELUK KWANDANG, LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegoeh Noegroho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tenggiri merupakan komoditas penting yang pengusahaannya telah dilakukan secara intensif untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar, baik dalam negeri  maupun ekspor.Belum adanya kontrol baik penangkapan dan biologi terhadap pemanfaatannya dapat membahayakan keberlanjutan perikanan ikan tenggiri. Penelitian telah dilakukan pada Februari-Desember 2012 di Kwandang, Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara yang potensial sebagai daerah produsen ikan tenggiri. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis parameter dinamika populasi seperti laju pertumbuhan, tingkat kematian, tingkat eksploitasi, dan pola rekrutmen ikan tenggiri (Scomberomorus commerson. Sampel ukuran ikan tenggiri diambil secara acak dari hasil tangkapan kapalpurse seine(pajeko dan pancing ulur (handline. Data ukuran ikan yang diperoleh digunakan untuk perhitungan frekuensi panjang, hubungan panjang berat, dan dinamika populasi. Beberapa parameter dinamika populasi diestimasi dengan menggunakan program FISAT II. Dari parameter pertumbuhan Von Bertalanffy diperoleh L∞ (cm dan laju pertumbuhan (K masing-masing 142,3 cm dan 0,81/ tahun. Laju mortalitas total (Z sebesar 1,19 per tahun. Tingkat kematian karena penangkapan (F sebesar 0,53/tahun lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan tingkat kematian alami (M sebesar 0,66/tahun. Tingkat eksploitasi (E ikan tenggiri di Teluk Kwandang adalah 0,39/tahun, yang artinya dalam kondisi hampir fullexsploited (Eoptimalsebesar 0,40/tahun. Pola rekrutmen ikan tenggiri terjadi dua kali, puncak pertama terjadi pada Maret-Juli (76,37%, dan yang kedua pada September-Oktober (23,63%. Narrow barred spanish mackerel is an an important commodity that has commercialized intensively to fulfill needs of the market, both domestic and exports. A research has been conducted in February-December 2012 in Kwandang, North Gorontalo regency. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamics of population parameters such as growth rate, mortality rate, exploitation rates, and recruitment

  16. Arreglo de los polígonos del exocorion de huevos eclosionados de algunas especies de los géneros Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En este trabajo se estudiaron estructural y cuantitativamente las celdas exocoriales de huevos eclosionados de Triatoma infestans (Klug, Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, Triatoma maculata (Erichson, Triatoma sordida (Stal, Meccus picturatus (Usinger, Meccus longipennis (Usinger, Meccus pallidipennis (Stal and Nesotriatoma flavida (Neiva. Los huevos se analizaron por regiones: caudal, media y cefálica. Se encontró que el hexágono fue el polígono más abundante en todas las regiones del huevo y en todas las especies, seguido del pentágono y del heptágono; se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el número tanto de hexágonos y pentágonos entre regiones de una misma especie y entre la misma región de las diferentes especies, sin embargo, el número promedio de heptágonos no varió al comparar la región media entre las diferentes especies y al comparar las diferentes regiones en una misma especie. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el promedio de polígonos, segmentos totales, heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, al comparar las especies examinadas del género Meccus. Se propone un protocolo de identificación y análisis de teselaciones, con el cual se encontró que en 108 campos examinados de 385.000 µm2 cada uno, se identificaron teselaciones compartidas en los 108 campos observados con determinadas combinaciones de heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, y se observaron teselaciones no compartidas en la totalidad de los campos, con combinaciones de polígonos de cuatro a nueve lados, y cada teselación se representó por un grafo. Se discuten las implicaciones taxonómicas, funcionales, filogenéticas y construccionales de los arreglos poligonales descritos.Arragement of exochorial polygons of hatched eggs in several species of the genera Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae. Abstract. In this study a structural and quantitative

  17. Importance of species of Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Grant-Guillén, Y; Morales-Corona, Z Y; Haro-Rodríguez, S; Ventura-Rodríguez, L V; Nogueda-Torres, B; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiological risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in human populations of western Mexico is still under study. Although most vectors in this region and their vector capability are already known, new studies estimating the risk and the importance of individual Triatominae species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) for T. cruzi transmission are necessary. For 1 yr, every month, > 400 human dwellings and their surroundings in eight communities of two western Mexico states were searched for triatomines. More than 1,000 specimens representing four species were collected and checked for T. cruzi infection. Based on the usual entomological indices, only the inhabitants of Gavilán El Progreso-La Villita are at serious risk of vectorial infection by T. cruzi. A population of Meccus longipennis (Usinger) was found living in peridomestic rock pile boundary walls after an insecticide spraying. It was confirmed the major role of peridomestic habitats as shelter areas for triatomines, particularly in rock pile boundary walls and chicken roosts. Triatominae presence also was verified in certain sylvatic habitats, including primarily heaps of stones. The important role of M. longipennis in the potential transmission of T. cruzi in the region and the secondary role of M. picturatus (Usinger) and Triatoma barberi Usinger also were confirmed. Null colonization of houses by T. barberi, which was collected primarily in peridomestic habitats, differs from its common intradomiciliary collection in other studies. Meccus pallidipennis (Stål) most probably does not exist in Nayarit. Meccus mazzottii (Usinger) and Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) are no longer found in Nayarit and Jalisco. Additional studies are necessary to determine the current epidemiological situation in other areas of western Mexico.

  18. Ecología trófica de la caballa (Scombridae, Scomber japonicus marplatensis del Atlántico sudoccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Angelescu

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the scheme of the interspecific trophic relationships in the pelagic zone of the Argentine continental shelf in the coastal water region along the Province of Buenos Aires, in which the mackerel occupies the trophic levels corresponding to a plankton feeder of copepods of the zooplankton (third level, and to a small predator of the micronecton fish (fourth and fifth levels. The specific food spectrum is wide in the taxonomic composition and it consists of: Copepods, Amphipods, Euphausiids, Decapods (larval and postlarval stages, Chaetognats, small squids and fish, mainly anchovy in all development stages. The size of food species varies from 1 to 140 mm in length and the maximum diameter of the body from 0,8 to 20 mm; the diet is that of a small carnivorous fish tending to the euphagy characteristics of an opportunistic feeder. During the summer months some qualitative, Quantitative and chronological variations in the specific composition of the diet become erudent; these derive from the relative abundance of food species and the monthly sequence of the dominant modal classes in the shoals in this period, the anchovy is always frequent in the stomach contents of youngs and adults of the mackerel, such as larval and postlarval stages, young and adult fish. The capacity of food ingestion varies considerably between 5 and 22% with respect to the body weight of the consumer and the number of ingested specimens with the size of food species. The trophic equivalences calculated between the different food species also show qualitative and quantitative variations, mostly caloric and gravimetric in relation with the anchovy taken as basic food standard; therefore the adults of this species are considered as having the greatest utilitary value for the feeding of the mackerel during the period from October to April. The trophic habitat of the mackerel is included in the spawning and growing area of the anchovy, that at the same time is

  19. A New model to forecast fishing ground ofScomber japonicus in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; CHEN Xinjun; GUAN Wenjiang; LI Gang

    2016-01-01

    The pelagic species is closely related to the marine environmental factors, and establishment of forecasting model of fishing ground with high accuracy is an important content for pelagic fishery. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is an important fishing target for Chinese lighting purse seine fishery. Based on the fishery data from China’s mainland large-type lighting purse seine fishery for chub mackerel during the period of 2003 to 2010 and the environmental data including sea surface temperature (SST), gradient of the sea surface temperature (GSST), sea surface height (SSH) and geostrophic velocity (GV), we attempt to establish one new forecasting model of fishing ground based on boosted regression trees. In this study, the fishing areas with fishing effort is considered as one fishing ground, and the areas with no fishing ground are randomly selected from a background field, in which the fishing areas have no records in the logbooks. The performance of the forecasting model of fishing ground is evaluated with the testing data from the actual fishing data in 2011. The results show that the forecasting model of fishing ground has a high prediction performance, and the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) attains 0.897. The predicted fishing grounds are coincided with the actual fishing locations in 2011, and the movement route is also the same as the shift of fishing vessels, which indicates that this forecasting model based on the boosted regression trees can be used to effectively forecast the fishing ground of chub mackerel in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.

  20. Effects of environmental exposure and diet on levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in eggs of a top predator in the North Atlantic in 1980 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leat, Eliza H.K. [College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bourgeon, Sophie [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Strom, Hallvard [Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Hanssen, Sveinn A. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Petersen, AEvar [Icelandic Institute of Natural History, IS-105 Reykjavik (Iceland); Olafsdottir, Kristin; Magnusdottir, Ellen [University of Iceland, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Fisk, Aaron T.; Ellis, Sandra [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Bustnes, Jan O. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Furness, Robert W., E-mail: bob.furness@glasgow.ac.uk [College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Concentrations of POPs in Great skua eggs from Shetland are among the highest in North Atlantic seabirds, with up to 11,600 {mu}g/kg (ww) DDE and up to 17,900 {mu}g/kg ww {Sigma}PCB. Concentrations of legacy POPs were significantly lower in 2008 than 1980. Decreases were greatest for least persistent compounds. Median {Sigma}PBDEs increased from 99 {mu}g/kg ww in 1980 to 173 {mu}g/kg ww in 2008. There were changes in Great skua breeding season diet, with more adult Herring and Mackerel and less Sandeel. These changes increase exposure to POPs, since Herring and Mackerel accumulate more POPs than Sandeels. In both years, eggs with higher {delta}{sup 15}N had higher POP concentrations. In 1980, birds feeding more on demersal discard fish from trawl fisheries and less on Sandeels, had higher POP levels in eggs. In 2008, individuals feeding more on Herring and Mackerel, and less on discards, had higher POP levels in eggs. - Highlights: > POP levels in Great skua eggs are among the highest in North Atlantic seabirds. > Legacy POPs decreased from 1980 to 2008 but PBDEs increased. > Decreases in legacy POPs were greatest for least persistent compounds. > Levels in eggs varied between nests according to diets of individual females. > Levels of POPs were influenced slightly by changes in diet between decades. - Great skua eggs from Shetland show a decrease in legacy POPs and an increase in PBDEs between 1980 and 2008, and an influence of diet composition.

  1. Historical spatial reconstruction of a spawning-aggregation fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sarah M; Thurstan, Ruth H; Tobin, Andrew; Pandolfi, John M

    2017-03-29

    Aggregations of individual animals that form for breeding purposes are a critical ecological process for many species, yet these aggregations are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. Studies of the decline of exploited populations that form breeding aggregations tend to focus on catch rate and thus often overlook reductions in geographic range. We tested the hypothesis that catch rate and site occupancy of exploited fish-spawning aggregations (FSAs) decline in synchrony over time. We used the Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) spawning-aggregation fishery in the Great Barrier Reef as a case study. Data were compiled from historical newspaper archives, fisher knowledge, and contemporary fishery logbooks to reconstruct catch rates and exploitation trends from the inception of the fishery. Our fine-scale analysis of catch and effort data spanned 103 years (1911-2013) and revealed a spatial expansion of fishing effort. Effort shifted offshore at a rate of 9.4 nm/decade, and 2.9 newly targeted FSAs were reported/decade. Spatial expansion of effort masked the sequential exploitation, commercial extinction, and loss of 70% of exploited FSAs. After standardizing for improvements in technological innovations, average catch rates declined by 90.5% from 1934 to 2011 (from 119.4 to 11.41 fish/vessel/trip). Mean catch rate of Spanish mackerel and occupancy of exploited mackerel FSAs were not significantly related. Our study revealed a special kind of shifting spatial baseline in which a contraction in exploited FSAs occurred undetected. Knowledge of temporally and spatially explicit information on FSAs can be relevant for the conservation and management of FSA species. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Status and trends of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic fish stocks in the North Sea : Thirty-year overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serchuk, F.M.; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Daan, N.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the status of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic stocks in the North Sea over the past 30 years are reviewed. Synopses are presented on trends in catches, fishing mortality, spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment for eight stocks (cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole......, herring, and mackerel), together with an evaluation of the current state of these resources and the most resent management advice provided by the ICES Advisory, Committee on Fishery Management. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  3. Isolasi dan karakterisasi bakteri berpotensi probiotik pada ikan kembung (Rastrelliger sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Dewi Safrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics bacteria are beneficial microbes to improve microbial balance in the digestive tract. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of potential probiotic bacteria in mackerel fish (Rastrelliger sp.. The research was done from April to August 2012 at Laboratory of Microbiology Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. Isolation and characterization used dilution and scratches quadrant methods. The result showed that there were five potential isolates of probiotic bacteria varied morphological colony and cell. The isolate have circular form (100%, entire margin (80%, flat (60%, cream color (40%, gram positive bacteria (80%, coccus shape (100% and non motile (60%. Keywords: Probiotics,

  4. Hipótesis interpretativa de un sillar con relieves de Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera Celdrán, José Miguel

    1993-01-01

    In the Municipal Archeologiacal Museum of Cartagena (Spain) (formerly Carthago Nova) there is á massive block of stone, discovered in the city in a place, ata a time and in circumstances which are unknown. On the front side there is a series of reliefs (human head, boat hollk, club, axe and cooking pot), which may be interpreted as pertaining to a scene connected with the catching of tuna and mackerel and their subsequent transformation into garum and other salted products. The block, whose d...

  5. A polarizable model of water for molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Guillaume; Harder, Edward; Vorobyov, Igor V.; Roux, Benoît; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2006-01-01

    The SWM4-DP polarizable water model [G. Lamoureux, A.D. MacKerell, Jr., B. Roux, J. Chem. Phys. 119 (2003) 5185], based on classical Drude oscillators, is re-optimized for negatively charged Drude particles. The new model, called SWM4-NDP, will be incorporated into a polarizable biomolecular force field currently in development. It is calibrated to reproduce important properties of the neat liquid at room temperature and pressure: vaporization enthalpy, density, static dielectric constant and self-diffusion constant. In this Letter, we also show that it yields the correct liquid shear viscosity and free energy of hydration.

  6. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial–temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis

    2014-01-01

    ), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sandeel (Ammodytidae) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was derived from quarterly scientific trawl surveys and Danish commercial catches. Spatio-temporal indices of mortality were created based on the estimated biomasses and ingestion rates from the literature...... fish spawning distribution information and iii) physics (ocean currents and temperatures) for the region and situation of interest. The fish index seems promising as a realistic mortality term for lower trophic levels in 3D ecosystem models in areas with available data on fish stocks to improve...

  7. Effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of canned Portuguese sardines (Sardina pilchardus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Pinheiro; Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-01-01

    Canned foods have a long history of success and are likely to remain popular for the foreseeable future owing to their convenience, long shelf life and economy. Interest in fish consumption has increased in recent years due to the wide range of its health benefits. In addition to fresh product, canned fish enables a delayed consumption of this appreciated kind of food. Among the different types of fish, in Portugal, the most used in canning manufacture are sardines, tuna, anchovies, mackerels. Ve...

  8. Cross-Validation, Bootstrap, and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Tsujitani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the applications of resampling methods to support vector machines (SVMs. We take into account the leaving-one-out cross-validation (CV when determining the optimum tuning parameters and bootstrapping the deviance in order to summarize the measure of goodness-of-fit in SVMs. The leaving-one-out CV is also adapted in order to provide estimates of the bias of the excess error in a prediction rule constructed with training samples. We analyze the data from a mackerel-egg survey and a liver-disease study.

  9. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Payne, Mark; Boje, Jesper;

    since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species into the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts......, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11o C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed to a warming trend...

  10. Bioinspired swimming simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michel; Iollo, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to simulate the flow past bioinspired swimmers starting from pictures of an actual fish. The overall approach requires i) a skeleton graph generation to get a level-set function from pictures; ii) optimal transportation to obtain the velocity on the body surface; iii) flow simulations realized with a Cartesian method based on penalization. This technique can be used to automate modeling swimming motion from data collected by biologists. We illustrate this paradigm by simulating the swimming of a mackerel fish.

  11. Disentangling the Functional Roles of Morphology and Motion in the Swimming of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, Eric D.; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Baker, T. Vernon; Anderson, Erik J.; Lauder, George V.

    2010-01-01

    In fishes the shape of the body and the swimming mode generally are correlated. Slender-bodied fishes such as eels, lampreys, and many sharks tend to swim in the anguilliform mode, in which much of the body undulates at high amplitude. Fishes with broad tails and a narrow caudal peduncle, in contrast, tend to swim in the carangiform mode, in which the tail undulates at high amplitude. Such fishes also tend to have different wake structures. Carangiform swimmers generally produce two staggered vortices per tail beat and a strong downstream jet, while anguilliform swimmers produce a more complex wake, containing at least two pairs of vortices per tail beat and relatively little downstream flow. Are these differences a result of the different swimming modes or of the different body shapes, or both? Disentangling the functional roles requires a multipronged approach, using experiments on live fishes as well as computational simulations and physical models. We present experimental results from swimming eels (anguilliform), bluegill sunfish (carangiform), and rainbow trout (subcarangiform) that demonstrate differences in the wakes and in swimming performance. The swimming of mackerel and lamprey was also simulated computationally with realistic body shapes and both swimming modes: the normal carangiform mackerel and anguilliform lamprey, then an anguilliform mackerel and carangiform lamprey. The gross structure of simulated wakes (single versus double vortex row) depended strongly on Strouhal number, while body shape influenced the complexity of the vortex row, and the swimming mode had the weakest effect. Performance was affected even by small differences in the wakes: both experimental and computational results indicate that anguilliform swimmers are more efficient at lower swimming speeds, while carangiform swimmers are more efficient at high speed. At high Reynolds number, the lamprey-shaped swimmer produced a more complex wake than the mackerel-shaped swimmer

  12. Dietary evidence of mesopelagic and pelagic foraging by Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Droplaug; MacKenzie, Brian; Chosson-P, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    , north Atlantic temperatures and fish species distributions, including some ABFT prey species (e.g., mackerel) have been changing in the 2000s. New knowledge of ABFT diets in previously understudied parts of the species range will be useful for understanding factors affecting the trophic role, migration...... behavior, and bioenergetics of ABFT. Here, we report the dietary composition of ABFT during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin south of the continental shelf of Iceland. A total of 36 prey species or higher taxa were observed in 421 stomach samples: 17 teleost fishes, 4 squid, 1 octopus, 12 crustaceans...

  13. Distributional shifts of species in the North Atlantic: the rule or the exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark

    This work addresses recent shifts in the distribution of marine pelagic fish in the northern North Atlantic and attempts to set them in the context of climate variability, climate change, population dynamics and migration processes. Shifts in the distribution of North-east Atlantic mackerel...... and discussed here. These examples are then used to illustrate the potential importance of various mechanisms that can control the distribution of these species, such as climate variability and change, and population and migration dynamics. A set of simple analytical approaches is demonstrated that can be used...

  14. Contamination status and accumulation characteristics of metals and a metalloid in birds on Teuri Island, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Chihiro; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Suzuki, Yuya; Watanuki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Teuri Island, Hokkaido in Japan is an important place for seabirds breeding. We measured the concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) (n = 7), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) (n = 2), spectacled guillemot (Cepphus carbo) (n = 6), slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus) (n = 15), jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) (n = 3), Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonica) (n = 6) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus azonus) (n = 2). Spectacled guillemot had high As concentrations, with its source being their feeding habitat. Concentration of Hg in kidney of jungle crow was higher than other seabird species at Teuri.

  15. Variación de la intensidad de infestación con formas infectantes del isópodo Ceratothoa gaudichaudii en salmones de cultivo en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SIEVERS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en un centro de cultivo de salmones de la isla Guar, X Región, Chile (50º, 44'S.; 74º, 30'O.. En una jaula aislada se mantuvieron salmones (Salmo salar desde mayo de 1993 a agosto de 1994. Cada tres meses se muestrearon, al azar, 500 peces y se determinó el número y el tamaño de los parásitos de la especie Ceratothoa gaudichaudii ubicados en la cavidad bucal y en las branquias. La prevalencia de la parasitosis aumentó de 33.4% a 98.8% en los 16 meses de observaciones. Las formas infestantes (mancas del parásito se presentaron en mayor número a fines de primavera y durante el verano, lo que se tradujo en aumento de los ejemplares de tamaño pequeño en otoño e invierno. El número de parásitos medianos y grandes aumentó durante los meses del verano. Se discute la importancia de los jureles (Trachurus murphyi como hospedador normal de C. gaudichaudii y su rol como fuente de infección para los salmones cultivadosVariation of infestation intensity with infective stages of the isopod Ceratothoa gaudichaudii in farmed salmon in the south of Chile The study was carried out at a salmon farm located on Guar Island (42º, 41'S.; 73º, 01'E., Xth Region, Chile. 500 salmon (Salmo salar were sampled randomly from an isolated cage every three months. On each occasion the number and the size of the isopod parasite Ceratothoa gaudichaudii settled in the oral cavity and gills were determined. Prevalence ranged from 33.4% to 98.8% in the 16 months of the assay. The highest number of infective stages (mancas of the parasite were found in spring and during the summer; this produced the increment of small size parasites in autumn and winter. The number of medium and large size parasites increased during the summer months. The importance of wild fish, and specially of Trachurus murphyi, as the normal host of C. gaudichaudii and its role as a main source of infestation for cultured salmon is discussed.

  16. Validation of the Biofish-300 HIS Enzymatic Biosensor for the Detection of Histamine in Fishery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleres, Sandra; González, Irune; Arantzamendi, Alai; González, Roberto; Maza, Sonia; Jaureguibeitia, Arrate; Hungerford, James M; DeWitt, Christina A; Benner, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    The Biofish-300 HIS method is a simple, reliable, and specific enzymatic biosensor for the detection of histamine. This technology is highly specific and selective and allows quantification of histamine in fishery products (fresh/frozen and processed) in a short time frame (2-3 min). Histamine in raw tuna, raw mackerel, raw sardine, raw anchovy, boiled tuna, canned tuna in water, canned tuna in oil, canned mackerel in tomato sauce, canned pickled sardine, and canned salted anchovy was analyzed using a water-based extract. Matrix-specific assay procedures and calibration curves were used to enable analyses to be carried out across multiple sample types. The performance of this assay was examined using samples that were naturally contaminated (reference materials and interlaboratory studies) and spiked with histamine. All data were judged against previously established acceptance criteria. Performance measures were evaluated for linearity, selectivity, matrix, lot consistency, and robustness. Results produced in all performance measures, except robustness, were within acceptable ranges. Out-of-range robustness results reflected deviation in sample volume compared to the standard assay procedures. Positive interferences from the presence of agmatine were shown.

  17. Metal concentrations in selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and target hazard quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn) were determined in selected brands of canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of metals and lifelong health hazards associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The mean concentrations of metals in canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna were found as 0.04-0.58, 0.06-0.44, 0.32-0.83 μg/g for Cd; 0.05-2.82, 0.70-2.98, 0.23-2.56 μg/g for Pb, 1.33-11.33, canned fish were above their permissible limits while other metals occurred at levels below their permissible limits. The estimated daily intakes of metals from consumption of 20.8 g fish per day by a 60 kg body weight adult were below the provisional tolerable daily intakes for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu and recommended daily intakes for Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The estimated target hazard quotients of the examined metals were less than 1 in the majority of the samples indicating no long-term health hazard at the present circumstance.

  18. Heavy metal residues in canned fishes in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshdy, Alaa Eldin M A; Hafez, Abd-El Salam E; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Tharwat, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    A total of 75 random canned fish samples, 25 each of canned (canned tuna, sardine and mackerel) during 2009, were collected from Zagazig Markets for determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and tin residues using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The obtained results revealed that the mean values of the lead residues in the examined canned tuna, sardine and mackerel were 0.127 +/- 0.02, 0.013 +/- 0.004 and 0.023 +/- 0.01 (ppm) respectively. The mean concentrations of cadmium residues were 0.022 +/- 0.001, 0.048 +/- 0.003 and 0.027 +/- 0.003 ppm, respectively. While in case of zinc, the residual levels were 1.97 +/- 0.12, 2.369 +/- 0.32 and 1.126 +/- 0.24 ppm, respectively. Copper residual levels in the examined samples were 0.293 +/- 0.08, 0.221 +/- 0.03 and 0.08 +/- 0.02 ppm, respectively. In case of tin, the residual levels were 1.496 +/- 0.30, 1.209 +/- 0.26 and 0.379 +/- 0.11 ppm respectively.

  19. Concentration and exposure assessment of mercury in commercial fish and other seafood marketed in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mughairi, Sabra; Yesudhason, Poulose; Al-Busaidi, Moza; Al-Waili, Aaliah; Al-Rahbi, Waleed A K; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud H

    2013-07-01

    The results of this study present analytical data of the mercury levels in several fish and shellfish species to create awareness among individuals of the risks associated with consuming fish contaminated with mercury. Mercury concentrations varied from a mean of 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.19 mg/kg in shark in both fresh and frozen fish, from 0.02 mg/kg in sardines to 0.18 mg/kg in skipjack tuna in canned fish, and from 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.79 mg/kg in shark in dried fish. Shellfish contained a slightly higher amount of mercury than fresh or frozen fish with a mean of 0.09 mg/kg. Trophic position, followed by habitat, was the most important factors for variability in mercury concentrations in fish and shellfish. The maximum safe weekly intake (MSWI) values of mercury were significantly higher for herbivores than for carnivores. The MSWI value for total mercury in the case of consuming most (72%) fish species was more than 5 kg; however, the MSWI value was never more than 5 kg in most (66%) shellfish species. Risks were identified upon consumption of 120 g of dried shark when exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake threshold (1.6 μg/kg) for methylmercury. Therefore, fish-eating populations should reduce the quantity of dried shark to efficiently diminish the exposure to mercury.

  20. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 22...... mu g/kg in smoked mackerel prepared in an electric oven to 1387 mu g/kg in herring smoked by direct smoking. The concentration of benzo[a] pyrene for all sample types were below the maximum level of 5 mu g/kg for smoked fish and meat set by the European Commission. Results from this survey confirm...... that the actual level of individual PAH in fish products is dependent on variables such as the type of wood used in the smoking process. Furthermore, the use of the benzo[a] pyrene approach for estimation of the carcinogenicity of PAH in food is confirmed. The Danish intake of benzo[a] pyrene from these smoked...

  2. The response of the diets of four carnivorous fishes to variations in the Yellow Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo; Xue, Ying

    2010-06-01

    The stomach contents of Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius), snailfish ( Liparis tanakae), anglerfish ( Lophius litulon), and Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) from the Yellow Sea during 1985-1987 and 2000-2002 were analyzed. The diets of these four carnivorous species changed over time, showing that the importance of the previous major prey, Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), had greatly decreased, owing to its declining abundance, and that intake of Crangon affinis had increased. Spanish mackerel foraged for more food, particularly for other small pelagic species in addition to Japanese anchovy, causing an increase in its niche width in recent years, whereas the other three demersal carnivorous species had mainly targeted the small benthic shrimp C. affinis, and their niche widths had reduced in the later years. This phenomenon may be an adaptive response to changes in the food availability of the ecosystem, indicating a change in the food web and community structure of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. Changes in the composition of the diet of major predators may be an indicator of changes in a marine ecosystem.

  3. Abyssal Scavenging Communities attracted to Sargassum and fish in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Aharon G.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2013-02-01

    Deep-sea communities rely on epipelagic surface production as a primary source of energy and food. The flux of phytodetritus drives many abyssal ecological processes but the flux of large particles such as nekton carcasses, macroalgae, and wood may also be important. Recent baited camera experiments noted that some abyssal fish consumed spinach and phytoplankton placed on the seafloor. To evaluate if fish or other scavengers would consume natural plant or macroalgal material falling to the deep-sea floor we conducted camera experiments using Sargassum or mackerel bait in the Sargasso Sea. A benthic community of invertebrates was attracted to Sargassum, which naturally falls to the seafloor in this area. In five instances it was observed that an isopod Bathyopsurus sp. removed a piece of Sargassum from the main clump and left the field of view with it. An ophiuroid is also observed handling a piece of Sargassum. The group of scavengers attracted to mackerel bait was very different and was dominated by large ophidiid fish. In contrast to studies elsewhere in the abyssal North Atlantic, only a small number of rattails are observed, which could be related to water depth or an ichthyofaunal zonal change between oligotrophic and eutrophic regions.

  4. Species-and tissue-specific mercury bioaccumulation in five fish species from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinhu; CAO Liang; HUANG Wei; DOU Shuozeng

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in the tissues (muscle,stomach,liver,gills,skin,and gonads)of five fish species (mullet Liza haematocheilus,flathead fish Platycephalus indicus,sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus,mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius and silver pomfret Pampus argenteus) collected from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China were investigated.The results indicate that Hg bioaccumulation in the five fish was tissue-specific,with the highest levels in the muscle and liver,followed by the stomach and gonads.The lowest levels were found in the gills and skin.Fish at higher trophic levels (flathead fish and sea bass) exhibited higher Hg concentrations than consumers at lower trophic levels.Mercury bioaccumulation tended to be positively correlated with fish length in mullet,silver pomfret,mackerel,and flathead fish,but was negatively correlated with fish length in sea bass.The Hg concentrations in the muscles of all fish species in Laizhou Bay were within the permissible limits of food safety set by national and international criteria.However,the suggesting maximum consumption of sea bass is 263 g per week for human health.

  5. Linkages between the biomass of Scomber japonicus and net primary production in the southern East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Wenjiang; CHEN Xinjun; GAO Feng; LI Gang

    2014-01-01

    Fish biomass is a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management and it is often estimated from ocean primary production (OPP). However, the relationship between the biomass of a fish stock and OPP is always complicated due to a variety of trophic controls in the ecosystem. In this paper, we examine the quantitative relationship between the biomass of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and net prima-ry production (NPP) in the southern East China Sea (SECS), using catch and effort data from the Chinese mainland large light-purse seine fishery logbook and NPP derived from remote sensing. We further discuss the mechanisms of trophic control in regulating this relationship. The results show a significant non-linear relationship exists between standardized CPUE (Catch-Per-Unit-Effort) and NPP (P<0.05). This relationship can be described by a convex parabolic curve, where the biomass of chub mackerel increases with NPP to a maximum and then decreases when the NPP exceeds this point. The results imply that the ecosystem in the SECS is subject to complex trophic controls. We speculate that the change in abundance of key species at intermediate trophic levels and/or interspecific competition might contribute to this complex relationship.

  6. Exposure to PBDEs and PCDEs associated with the consumption of edible marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Jose L; Bocio, Ana; Falcó, Gemma; Llobett, Juan M

    2006-07-15

    In the present study, the concentrations of PBDEs and PCDEs were determined in 14 edible marine species widely consumed by the population of Catalonia (Spain). The daily intake of PBDEs and PCDEs associated with this consumption was also determined. A total of 42 composite samples were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The highest PBDE levels (ng/kg wet weight) were found in salmon (2015) followed by mackerel, swordfish, and red mullet (1124, 978, and 769, respectively), while those of PCDEs (ng/kg wet weight) were detected in red mullet (7088) followed by sardine (1829), anchovy (1606), tuna (1292), and mackerel (1031). For a standard male adult, total PBDE and PCDE intakes through edible marine species were 20.8 and 39.4 ng/ day, respectively. The highest contributions to these intakes (ng/day) corresponded to the consumption of tuna (5.7), salmon (3.6), and hake (3.5) for PBDEs, and tuna (13.1), hake (7.3), and sardine (6.9) for PCDEs. Although currently there is not evidence of the dioxin-like behavior of PBDEs, further research is necessary to assess if long-term exposure to PBDEs, mainly through the diet, may mean adverse effects to humans. With respectto PCDE congeners, to establish TEF values would be of great value to evaluate human health risks.

  7. Effect of smoke generation sources and smoke curing duration on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in different suites of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Adjei, J K

    2013-08-01

    The research studied the impact of smoke generation sources on PAH contamination in four different smoke-cured fish (mackerel, sardine, tuna and Cigar minnows). The smoke sources used included acacia, sugarcane bagasse and mangrove. PAHs in the smoke-cured fish were analysed using Varian GC/MS (3800-GC) system. The mean total PAH concentrations in the smoked fish (n=108) ranged from 250.59-1376.09 μg/kg in tuna, cigar minnows, sardine and mackerel smoke-cured with sugarcane bagasse, mangrove and acacia for between 2 and 8h. The mean BaP levels for most fish cured with smoke from acacia and mangrove for between 2 and 8h were all above the European Commission set limit of 5.0 μg/kg. Positive correlations (at P=0.01, 2-tailed) were observed between PAH levels in smoked fish and lignin contents of wood type used for the smoke generation, the fat content and the smoke-curing duration. Risk assessment conducted using benzo[a]pyrene carcinogenic and mutagenic toxicity equivalency factors (TEF and MEF respectively) showed high risk associated with consuming fish smoke-cured with hard woods (acacia and mangroves). Sugarcane bagasse was found to be relatively the best and safest smoke-generating source for smoke-curing of fish among the three wood types when using the traditional kiln. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Brian R; Payne, Mark R; Boje, Jesper; Høyer, Jacob L; Siegstad, Helle

    2014-08-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species in ecological isolation from others. Here, we show that a large highly migratory top predator fish species has entered a high latitude subpolar area beyond its usual range. Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus 1758, were captured in waters east of Greenland (65°N) in August 2012 during exploratory fishing for Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts is restructuring the food web in east Greenland waters.

  9. Estimation of available methionine and cysteine in proteins of food products by in vivo and in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniaźek, D; Rakowska, M; Szkilladziowa, W; Grabarek, Z

    1975-09-01

    1. The available methionine and cysteine of proteins were determined by chemical methods after preliminary enzymic hydrolysis. 2. The values for the available methionine and cysteine contents of pure proteins (casein and bovine serum albumin) estimated by chemical methods were similar to those for the total content determined by the method of Moore, Spackman & Stein (1958). 3. Reductions of 15 and 11% respectively, when compared with unprocessed samples, were found in the available methionine contents of sweetened and unsweetened, condensed milks; of roller-dried milk and whey powders, and of mackerel sterilized at 126 degrees, the reductions were 22, 14 and 19% respectively. 4. The available cysteine content of sweetened, condensed milk was reduced by about 32%, whereas for mackerel sterilized at 115 and 126 degrees it was reduced by 64 and 75% respectively. 5. The contents of total sulphur amino acids for these food products did not differ from those for the unprocessed samples. 6. Values obtained for available S amino acid contents by rat bioassay confirmed the results of the in vitro estimations.

  10. Practicality of solar drier for drying tropical fruits and marine products as income generating for rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and technical efficiency of a polythene solar drier for drying tropical fruits and marine products was investigated. Four popular tropical fruits were studied, namely: mango, langka (jackfruit), papaya and banana. These four fruits are generally popular on the market. In this study, the results of a polythene solar drier are compared to those of direct sun drying and it was found that the drier products had the more appealing color and texture. Also, a 25 to 40% reduction in drying time was obtained when the above fruits were dried using the solar drier as compared to direct sun drying. The solar drier was also found to be highly practical and efficient for the drying of marine products, namely: striped mackerel (Rastrelliger chrysozonus), short-bodied mackerel (R. brachysomus) and squid (Loligo opalescens). The drying time was reduced from 20 to 14 hours using the solar drier as compared to direct sun-drying. A reduction of 40% of the required salt resulted from the use of the solar drier, since microbial contamination from the environment was totally arrested. Solar technology is considered practical for rural communities because of the following advantages: low investment, labor cost savings, low delivery costs, products free from insect and mold contamination, longer product shelf life and better organoleptic characteristics. Solar drying provides a processing technology which results in higher profits and more savings for rural processors. 20 references.

  11. Development and validation of an ion-pair chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of trans- and cis-urocanic acid in fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair Bin; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2012-09-21

    Urocanic acid (UCA) has been reported to be a mast cell degranulator and has also been suggested as a complementary agent in implicated scombroid fish poisoning. In this research, a new method is described to extract, clean up and perform simultaneous ion-pair chromatographic analysis of trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) in fish samples. UCA was extracted using 0.05 M HCl and protein was removed from the extract by precipitation with 10% trisodium citrate and 10% citric acid. The HPLC method that is developed showed a rapid, precise and sensitive method with short retention time for simultaneous separation of UCA isomers in fish samples. Estimation of trans- and cis-UCA in the muscle of Indian mackerel, tuna and sardine showed that, as expected, no cis-UCA existed in fish muscles and the highest concentration of trans-UCA was found in Indian mackerel with 118.8 mg kg(-1) while the highest concentrations of trans-UCA in tuna and sardine were 12.1 and 17.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  13. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  14. Investigating photoreceptor densities, potential visual acuity, and cone mosaics of shallow water, temperate fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D E; Rawlinson, N J F; Thomas, G A; Cobcroft, J M

    2015-06-01

    The eye is an important sense organ for teleost species but can vary greatly depending on the adaption to the habitat, environment during ontogeny and developmental stage of the fish. The eye and retinal morphology of eight commonly caught trawl bycatch species were described: Lepidotrigla mulhalli; Lophonectes gallus; Platycephalus bassensis; Sillago flindersi; Neoplatycephalus richardsoni; Thamnaconus degeni; Parequula melbournensis; and Trachurus declivis. The cone densities ranged from 38 cones per 0.01 mm(2) for S. flindersi to 235 cones per 0.01 mm(2) for P. melbournensis. The rod densities ranged from 22800 cells per 0.01 mm(2) for L. mulhalli to 76634 cells per 0.01 mm(2) for T. declivis and potential visual acuity (based on anatomical measures) ranged from 0.08 in L. gallus to 0.31 in P. melbournensis. Higher rod densities were correlated with maximum habitat depths. Six species had the regular pattern of four double cones arranged around a single cone in the photoreceptor mosaic, while T. declivis had only rows of double cones. P. melbournensis had the greatest potential ability for detecting fine detail based on eye anatomy. The potential visual acuity estimates and rod densities can be applied to suggest the relative detection ability of different species in a commercial fishing context, since vision is a critical sense in an illuminated environment for perceiving an oncoming trawl.

  15. Descripción de la pesquería artesanal de peces, en tres puertos pesqueros de la IV región, Coquimbo, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Víquez Portuguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un seguimiento de la pesca artesanal de peces en las caletas de Coquimbo, Guanaqueros y Tongoy en la IV región, Chile, entre junio de 1995 y junio de 1996. El estudio comprendió un análisis de las especies capturadas , biomasa de ellas, artes de pesca empleadas y desembarque en cada caleta por medio de formularios acordados en un proyecto convenio tripartito entre la Federación de Trabajadores del Mar (FETRAMAR de la provincia de Elqui F.G., el Servicio Nacional de Pesca de la IV región (SERNAP y la Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN. Se capturó un total de 27 especies de interés comercial y las especies de mayor relevancia fueron la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y el jurel (Trachurus murphyi, capturadas con red de cerco; la merluza (Merluccius gayi y la reineta (Brama austalis capturadas con espinel.

  16. Occurrence of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in Mediterranean and Atlantic fish marketed in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Casti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal fishborne zoonosis caused by the ingestion of third stage larvae of the genus Anisakis. Between January and December 2013, 1112 specimens of four commercial fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Scomber colias and Trachurus mediterraneus marketed in Sardinia (Italy were examined for Anisakis sp. The overall prevalence of Anisakis spp larvae was 39.9%, all morphologically identified as Type I. Scomber colias showed the highest prevalence (100%, followed by M. merluccius (Atlantic 91.0%, Mediterranean 71.2%, T. mediterraneus (32.7% and E. encrasicolus (25.9%. All the larvae found in Mediterranean hosts were genetically identified as Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 90.0% of the larvae found in the Atlantic M. merluccius belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and 10.0% to A. pegreffii. The mean abundance of Anisakis sp. larvae was positively correlated with fish size in E. encrasicolus, Atlantic M. merluccius and local M. merluccius. The prevalence of infection was greater in the body cavity (37.9% than in the edible muscle (9.4%. However, 1.8% of the examined fish were infected exclusively in the muscle. Therefore, the risk associated to the consumption of raw or undercooked fishery products poses the need of measures such as visual inspection and preventive treatments to guarantee consumers’ health.

  17. Occurrence of Nematodes of the Genus Anisakis in Mediterranean and Atlantic Fish Marketed in Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casti, Daniele; Scarano, Christian; Piras, Maria Cristina; Merella, Paolo; Muglia, Sonia; Piras, Francesca; Garippa, Giovanni; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal fish-borne zoonosis caused by the ingestion of third stage larvae of the genus Anisakis. Between January and December 2013, 1112 specimens of four commercial fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Scomber colias and Trachurus mediterraneus) marketed in Sardinia (Italy) were examined for Anisakis sp. The overall prevalence of Anisakis spp larvae was 39.9%, all morphologically identified as Type I. Scomber colias showed the highest prevalence (100%), followed by M. merluccius (Atlantic 91.0%, Mediterranean 71.2%), T. mediterraneus (32.7%) and E. encrasicolus (25.9%). All the larvae found in Mediterranean hosts were genetically identified as Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 90.0% of the larvae found in the Atlantic M. merluccius belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and 10.0% to A. pegreffii. The mean abundance of Anisakis sp. larvae was positively correlated with fish size in E. encrasicolus, Atlantic M. merluccius and local M. merluccius. The prevalence of infection was greater in the body cavity (37.9%) than in the edible muscle (9.4%). However, 1.8% of the examined fish were infected exclusively in the muscle. Therefore, the risk associated to the consumption of raw or undercooked fishery products poses the need of measures such as visual inspection and preventive treatments to guarantee consumers’ health. PMID:28299289

  18. Growth variability and stable isotope composition of two larval carangid fishes in the East Australian Current: The role of upwelling in the separation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahailatua, Augy; Taylor, Matthew D.; Suthers, Iain M.

    2011-03-01

    The larvae of two carangid fishes, silver trevally ( Pseudocaranx dentex) and yellowtail scad ( Trachurus novaezelandiae), were compared among coastal water masses and the East Australian Current (EAC). Samples followed a north to south gradient including a southern region of upwelling, generated as the EAC separated from the coast. Mean larval carangid densities were greater in the mixed layer (10-30 m) than the surface, but there was no difference between inshore and offshore stations or along latitudinal gradients. Overall, P. dentex recent larval growth over two days pre-capture was faster than T. novaezelandiae, and faster at inshore, coastal stations than in the EAC. Integrated larval growth rate (mm d -1) was usually faster at inshore stations for both species. T. novaezelandiae were enriched in both nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes relative to P. dentex. Larvae of both species captured within the upwelling region were enriched in δ 15N and depleted in δ 13C relative to other sites. Recent larval growth had a significant positive relationship with fluorescence (as a proxy of chlorophyll a biomass), and integrated larval growth rate had a significant positive relationship with fluorescence and larval isotope (δ 15N) composition. Recent and integrated growth of larval T. novaezelandiae and P. dentex was enhanced by EAC separation and upwelling, and also in coastal water; stimulated by food availability, and potentially through exploitation of a different trophic niche.

  19. Skin lesions on different fish species caused by bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şevki Kayış

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Balıklarda sıklıkla rapor edilen hastalıkların semptomları benzerdir, fakat bu semptomlar değişik faktörler sonucu meydana gelmektedir. Bu çalışmada Gram negatif, sitokrom oksidaz pozitif olan bakterilerin farklı balıklarda sebep olduğu deri lezyonları sunulmuştur. Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis ve Vibrio spp. istavritten (Trachurus mediterraneus, Chryseobacterium indologenes melek (Pterophyllum scalare balığından, Pseudomonas putida japon (Carassius auratus balığından ve Aeromonas sobria kaynak alabalığından (Salvelinus fontinalis izole edilmiştir. Bakteriler hem moleküler hem da biyokimyasal metotlara gore karakterize edilmişlerdir. Doğal ve yaralı istavrit örnekleri, Türkiye’nin Doğu Karadeniz sahillerinden gırgır ve uzatma ağları ile örneklenmiştir ve özellikle bu olay ilk kez bu çalışmada rapor edilmiştir

  20. Late winter larval fish assemblage in the southern East China Sea, with emphasis on spatial relations between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Konishi, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    We examined larval fish assemblages in the southern East China Sea during late winter where large spawning grounds of several commercial pelagic fishes are formed. Our samples include a total of 187 species or taxa of larval fish belonging to 118 genera, 96 families, and 18 orders. Mesopelagic fish larvae, mainly Stomiiformes, Aulopiformes, and Myctophiformes, accounted for 66.5% of the total catch, while commercial species such as Trachurus japonicus, Scomber spp., and Trichiurus japonicus for 16.6%. Based on the species composition, three assemblages were recognized: Kuroshio (KUR), Shelf-Break (BRE), and Shelf (SHE) assemblages. KUR assemblage was mainly characterized by various mesopelagic fishes such as Sigmops gracilis, Diaphus spp., and Myctophum asperum, BRE assemblage by both commercial pelagic and mesopelagic species, SHE assemblage by demersal species such as Lepidotrigla spp. and Gobiidae spp. Both abundance and diversity were highest in KUR assemblage, although food availability for the larvae would be poorest. The combination of variables of sea surface temperature-chlorophyll a concentrations best explained the larval distribution. Except for Benthosema pterotum, the center of distribution of mesopelagic fish larvae was clearly separated from that of the commercial species by the Kuroshio front. However, a northward intrusion of the Kuroshio transported mesopelagic fish larvae onto the shelf, forming the BRE assemblage. Competition for prey between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae would potentially occur if the intrusion is strong.

  1. Trophic structure of pelagic species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Layman, Craig A.; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Ecological knowledge of food web interactions within pelagic marine communities is often limited, impairing our capabilities to manage these ecologically and economically important marine fish species. Here we used stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions in the pelagic ecosystem of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during 2012 and 2013. Our results suggest that European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, and anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, are consumers located at relatively low levels of the pelagic food web. Unexpectedly, the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, appeared to be located at a higher trophic level than the other small pelagic fish species, although previous studies found similarity in their diets. Isotope data suggested that trophic niches of species within the genera Trachurus spp. and Scomber spp., were distinct. Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda, European hake Merluccius merluccius and European squid Loligo vulgaris, appeared to feed at higher trophic levels than other species. Despite some intraspecific seasonal variability for some species, community trophic structure appeared relatively stable through the year. These data provide an important step for developing models of food web dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  2. STUDI PENANGKAPAN IKAN KEMBUNG (Rastrelliger kanagurta DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DATA SATELIT DI LAUT JAWA PADA MUSIM TENGGARA DAN BARAT LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardiyanto -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available caught and consumed by local community. Monsoon is the main factor governing the characteristics of the Java Sea. This research location is in Java Sea. Chlorophyll-a and SST data will be obtained from Aqua-Modis Satellite. Wind data is `from QuikScat Satellite. Sea surface height data is from Jason 1 Satellite. Fishery data will be taken from the Fishing Port of Dadap (West Java and Pekalongan (Central Java. Pattern of fish catching season will be analyzed using time series technique with ratio to moving average method. Effort optimum and MSY will be taken with Surplus production models by Schaefer (1957. The Total Allowed Catch is 80% x MSY. Wind direction during northwest monsoon flows southeastward and during southeast monsoon flows northwestward. Generally, wind speed and chlorophyll-a in Java Sea during southeast monsoon is relatively higher compare with it during northwest monsoon. Generally, SST and SSH in Java Sea during southeast monsoon is relatively lower compare with it during northwest monsoon. Correlation between chlorophyll-a and SST is inversely correlated with correlation coefficient - 0.578. Correlation value between wind speed and SST is -0.728. SST and SSH correlation is 0.78.During northwest monsoon, low potential area was bigger than potential area. This is cause by chlorophyll-a and low wind speed, SSH and high SST. Therefore, fish production becomes few. Potential area was located in western part of Java Sea. Meanwhile in southeast monsoon, mainly high potential area were in Bawean Island, Masalembo Island and Kangean Island. And potential area was over the Java Sea. This is cause by chlorophyll-a and high wind speed, SSH and low SST. This is indicating upwelling. So, fish production during southeast monsoon was bigger than during northwest monsoon. This match-up value between fishing ground GIS and fishing ground by fisherman is 80.2%. Catching season index shown that the increase of Indian Mackerel abundance is

  3. Changes in microbiota population during fermentation of narezushi as revealed by pyrosequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Masashi; Koyanagi, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Take, Harumi; Katsuyama, Yoko; Tsuji, Atsushi; Miyamae, Hiroto; Kondo, Tetsufumi; Nakamura, Shizuo; Katayama, Takane; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2012-01-01

    Modern Japanese sushi is derived from an archetype, narezushi, which is made by the fermentation of salted fish with rice. Several studies have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria are dominantly present in narezushi, but no studies have addressed how microbial composition changes during fermentation. In this study, we examined changes in the microbial population in aji (horse mackerel)-narezushi during fermentation by pyrosequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Ribosomal Database Project Classifier analysis revealed that among the 53 genera present, the Lactobacillus population drastically increased during fermentation, while the populations of other bacteria remained unchanged. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis revealed that L. plantarum and L. brevis were the major species. Comparison with other fermented food microbiota indicated high product-dependency of the bacterial composition, which might have been due to the starter-free fermentation process.

  4. A comparison of myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density and ligand binding affinity among selected teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, H I; Yee, N; Shiels, H A; Brauner, C; Farrell, A P

    2000-11-01

    This study quantified the cell surface beta-adrenoreceptor density and ligand binding affinity in the ventricular tissue of seven teleost species; skipjack tuna (Katsowonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), mahimahi (dolphin fish; Coryphaena hippurus), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and an Antarctic nototheniid (Trematomus bernacchii). Beta-Adrenoreceptor density varied by almost fourfold among these species, being highest for the athletic fish: sockeye salmon among the salmonids and skipjack tuna among the scombrids. Beta-Adrenoreceptor density was lowest for the Antarctic icefish. Beta-Adrenoreceptor binding affinity varied by almost threefold. We conclude that there is a significant species-specific variability in myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density and binding affinity and these interspecific differences cannot be attributed to temperature even though intraspecifically cold temperature can stimulate an increase in myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density. Instead, we suggest that interspecifically myocardial beta-adrenoreceptor density is highest in fish that inhabit tropical water.

  5. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Jabado, Rima W; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M; Al Malki, Ameena A; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A; Henderson, Aaron C; Pierce, Simon J; Ormond, Rupert F G

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2) were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs.

  6. Estimated long-term fish and shellfish intake--national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Schuda, Laurie C; Moya, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Usual intake estimates describe long-term average intake of food and nutrients and food contaminants. The frequencies of fish and shellfish intake over a 30-day period from National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006) were combined with 24-h dietary recall data from NHANES 2003-2004 using a Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the usual intake of fish and shellfish in this study. Usual intakes were estimated for the US population including children 1 to fish intake (consumers only) was highest among children 1 to fish, salmon, and mackerel. Among children and teenage consumers, tuna, salmon, and breaded fish were the most frequently consumed fish; shrimp, scallops, and crabs were the most frequently consumed shellfish. The intake estimates from this study better reflect long-term average intake rates and are preferred to assess long-term intake of nutrients and possible exposure to environmental contaminants from fish and shellfish sources than 2-day average estimates.

  7. Hypnosis to alleviate the symptoms of ciguatera toxicity: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Eleanor D; Shenefelt, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Ciguatera toxicity is a poisoning from consuming reef fish that had fed on dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus found along coral reefs. The toxin is oil soluble, odorless, colorless, tasteless, heat stable, and is concentrated in larger carnivorous fish such as amberjack, barracuda, eel, grouper, red snapper, sea bass, and Spanish mackerel. Onset of symptoms is usually within 6-12 hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms lasting 1-2 days include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms may persist for weeks or several months or--rarely--years and include circumoral and extremity paresthesias, temperature sensation reversal, itching, weakness, ataxia, and others. A patient with burning hands and feet who had not found relief using other methods had diagnosis of ciguatera toxicity assisted by hypnotically refreshed memory followed by rapid relief with hypnotic suggestions in 1 session and remained free of symptoms.

  8. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  9. [The content of biogenic amines in canned fish from the Turkish market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, N; Helle, N; Ozden, O

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of biogenic amines in a number of canned fish of the Turkish market by means of HPLC. Over all 39 cans of sardine, tuna, sardel, mackerel, pelamide and trout were tested. The determination of agmatine, cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine was performed by HPLC with post column derivatization with ortho-phthaldialdehyde. Four samples contained higher amounts of biogenic amines (three sardine samples contained more than 1000 mg/kg histamine) while all other samples were acceptable. These results demonstrate the need of instrumental analyses in the quality control system of Turkish producers of canned fish. The quality of the products at least of some producers has to be improved, e.g. by cooperation between the official food control and the quality assurance system of the producers.

  10. Mercury concentrations in canned and fresh fish and its accumulation in a population of Port Moresby residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J H; Ghani, N

    1983-01-01

    Five varieties of canned fish and hair specimens from 243 subjects in Port Moresby have been analysed for organic and total mercury. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the canned fish were 0.45 mg/kg for tuna, 0.21 mg/kg for salmon, 0.17 mg/kg for mackerel, 0.08 mg/kg for sardines and 0.04 mg/kg for pilchard, based on the weight of the fish. The mean hair concentration was 2.1 mg/kg, the standard deviation 1.8 mg/kg and the range 0.15 to 14.4 mg/kg. The total mercury levels in hair were significantly higher for coastal people than for non-coastals. Although this is probably due to the greater fish intake of the coastal people, no significant correlation was found between fish consumption and hair mercury levels.

  11. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  12. Isolation and identification of bacteria from marine market fish Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga Rani, M; Chelladurai, G; Jayanthi, G

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality and freshness of fish Indo-pacific King Mackerel "Scomberomorus guttatus" through the investigation of the occurrence of bacteria which is an indicator for fish quality. Fishes were collected every fortnight from Madurai fish market on monthly twice of January 2014 to March 2014. Skin surface of the fish was examined. Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by Biochemical tests (IMViC Tests). Among the six bacterial species E. coli and K. pneumonia were found in all the collected samples where as other bacterial species were not found. The result of this study revealed that raw fish sold in Madurai fish market has high contamination so the presence of the bacterial species has strongly suggested the urgent need to improve the quality control systems in Madurai fish market.

  13. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  14. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI, the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52% and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%.Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlin azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes, de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI, fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52% y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%.

  15. Trace elements in oceanic pelagic communities in the western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Nathalie; Lesperance, Dora; Albert, Rona; Hollanda, Stephanie; Michaud, Philippe; Degroote, Maxime; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2017-05-01

    The mineral composition of target and non-target pelagic fish caught by purse-seiners and longliners in the western-central Indian Ocean was determined. From the 10 essential elements analysed, selenium and zinc showed the highest concentrations in swordfish and blue marlin while Indian mackerel appeared as a good source of copper, iron and chrome. All catch had levels of lead and cadmium, two toxic elements, below the maximum sanitary limits. Although some concerns were raised regarding mercury concentrations in the largest species (wahoo, swordfish and blue marlin), molar ratios of mercury and selenium indicate that all oceanic pelagic fish from the western-central Indian Ocean are safe for human consumption. This study also gives insights on the relationships between the levels of essential and toxic elements in fish muscle and the size, trophic position and diet sources of the studied pelagic species.

  16. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  17. Mercury concentrations in canned and fresh fish and its accumulation in a population of Port Moresby residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, J.H.; Ghani, N.

    1983-01-01

    Five varieties of canned fish and hair specimens from 243 subjects in Port Moresby have been analysed for organic and total mercury. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the canned fish were 0.45 mg/kg for tuna, 0.21 mg/kg for salmon, 0.17 mg/kg for mackerel, 0.08 mg/kg for sardines and 0.04 mg/kg for pilchard, based on the weight of the fish. The mean hair concentration was 2.1 mg/kg, the standard deviation 1.8 mg/kg and the range 0.15 to 14.4 mg/kg. The total mercury levels in hair were significantly higher for coastal people than for non-coastals. Although this is probably due to the greater fish intake of the coastal people, no significant correlation was found between fish consumption and hair mercury levels.

  18. Behaviour of Southern sea lions in presence of killer whales during fishing operations in Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hückstädt

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The killer whale is an opportunistic top-predator of ecosystems worldwide and its diet varies locally and seasonally, which is reflected in diverse feeding behaviours associated with its prey. We report the occurrence of killer whales presumably predating on southern sea lions associated with the jack mackerel fishing fleet in central Chile. The presence of killer whales was recorded during 4 fishing sets. All sightings consisted of 3-5 individual pods of females and calves. The number of sea lions was not significantly affected by the presence of killer whales, but their behaviour was, by reducing the number of behavioural displays, as they stopped feeding and resting activities and stayed close to the hull of the vessel after net retrieval ended. We propose that killer whales could be using the fishery as an indirect source of prey to benefit from the aggregation of sea lions around the vessel, far away from land.

  19. Mercury in canned fish from local markets in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tomas; Blahova, Jana; Sedlackova, Lenka; Kalina, Jiri; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-02-06

    The aim of this survey was to compare total mercury (THg) in canned fish in terms of species and fishing area. A number of 110 samples of canned fish, which were divided by fish species and fishing area, were analysed. The highest THg content in muscle tissue was found in the escolar. In other fish species, the highest level was detected in tuna. Mercury content in tuna differed significantly from mackerel, sardine, and sprat. Mercury content in herring differed significantly from sprat. The order of the fish according to their THg content corresponds to their status in the aquatic food chain. A significant difference was also found between fish caught from the closed Mediterranean and Black Sea and fish caught in the open oceans. In terms of THg content, the results of this study indicate good quality of various species of canned fish caught in worldwide locations.

  20. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Preliminary Genetic Investigation of Rastrelliger Kanagurta Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Mitochondrial ND2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Azizah Mohd Nor; Abu Talib A; Mohd Ghows M A; Samsudin B

    2008-01-01

    In a preliminary investigation, Random Amplified Polymorphie DNA (RAPD) analysis and partial mitochon-drial ND2 gene sequencing were conducted to study the genetic variation of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta along a 450 km stretch of its distribution on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 53 individuals from 6 popu-lations were analyzed using 4 RAPD primers and a sub-sample of 15 individuals was chosen for sequencing of partial ND2 gene. Comparison between the 2 markers revealed genetic structuring in the RAPD results but genetic homogeneity for ND2 gene. Based on the former there may be at least 2 genetically differentiated groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta a-long this stretch.

  2. Isolation and quantification of volatiles in fish by dynamic headspace sampling and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, H H; Haahr, A M; Jensen, B

    1999-03-01

    A dynamic headspace sampling method for isolation of volatiles in fish has been developed. The sample preparation involved freezing of fish tissue in liquid nitrogen, pulverizing the tissue, and sampling of volatiles from an aqueous slurry of the fish powder. Similar volatile patterns were determined by use of this sample preparation method and for samples chewed for 10 s. Effects of sampling time, temperature, and purge flow on level of volatiles were tested. Purging at 340 mL/min for 30 min at 45 degrees C was found to be optimal. Detection limits for a number of aldehydes were 0.2-2.7 microg/kg. Levels of volatiles are given for fresh salmon, cod, saithe, mackerel, and redfish.

  3. Disponibilité en poissons et pouvoir d'achat de la population dans la région du moyen Comoé (Côte-d'lvoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanga, AF.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish Availability and Buying-power of the Local Population in the Central Comoe Region (Ivory Coast. The origin of commercial fish found on local markets in the "Moyen Comoe" area is diverse : imported frozen fish, fish coming from Abidjan and smoked in Akoupe (South Ivory Coast, locally caught fish and fish caught in neighbouring countries (Ghana and Mali. The atlantic horse mackerel and the round sardinella (frozen fish are the most important commercial fish species found on the markets. These fish, sold at 350 francs CFA, can be afforded by the majority of the households, 82 % of which spend less than 1000 francs CFA for buying fish and/or meat (beaf.

  4. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  5. Describing cross-cultural differences in the consumption of fish: Data from a consumer survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Toften, Kjell; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    of fish across countries was 1.5 times a week. Spain had by far the highest frequency of fish consumption with almost three times a week, followed by Denmark with 1.4 times a week. The consumption of fish was lowest in the Netherlands. On average, about 80 % of all fish meals were consumed at home. While...... consumers in Denmark only ate 6 % of their fish outside their homes, this frequency was 31 % in Poland. As expected, the consumption of different product types (e.g., fresh, frozen, ready to eat, canned) or species (e.g., cod, salmon, mackerel, hake) differed a lot across the different countries. This study...... also reports consumption frequency for wild versus farmed fish. However, it seems that many consumers are not aware if the fish they buy are wild or farmed. Secondly, this study also investigated similarities and differences in shopping habits. Supermarkets and fishmongers were the most often used...

  6. Ocean warming expands habitat of a rich natural resource and benefits a national economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Post, Søren Lorenzen; Kristiansen, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely...... northwest in the Atlantic. This change in migration pattern was followed by a rapid development of a large-scale fishery of substantial importance for the national economy of Greenland (23% of Greenland's export value of all goods in 2014). A pelagic trawl survey was conducted in mid-summer 2014...... climate were used to evaluate the epipelagic environment in Greenland. These projections for moderate and high CO2 emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways [RCP] 4.5 and 8.5) suggest how the available mackerel habitat may expand further in space and time. Overall, our results indicate...

  7. Assessment of formaldehyde levels in local and imported fresh fish in Ghana: a case study in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption.

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadi, Nasreldin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

  9. A new compilation of stomach content data for commercially important pelagic fish species in the northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnegar, J. K.; Goñi, N.; Trenkel, V. M.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Melle, W.; Keating, J.; Óskarsson, G.

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing demand for information on predator-prey interactions in the ocean as a result of legislative commitments aimed at achieving sustainable exploitation. However, comprehensive data sets are lacking for many fish species and this has hampered development of multispecies fisheries models and the formulation of effective food-web indicators. This work describes a new compilation of stomach content data for five pelagic fish species (herring, blue whiting, mackerel, albacore and bluefin tuna) sampled across the northeast Atlantic and submitted to the PANGAEA open-access data portal (www.pangaea.de). We provide detailed descriptions of sample origin and of the corresponding database structures. We describe the main results in terms of diet composition and predator-prey relationships. The feeding preferences of small pelagic fish (herring, blue whiting, mackerel) were sampled over a very broad geographic area within the North Atlantic basin, from Greenland in the west, to the Lofoten Islands in the east and from the Bay of Biscay northwards to the Arctic. This analysis revealed significant differences in the prey items selected in different parts of the region at different times of year. Tunas (albacore and bluefin) were sampled in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. Dominant prey items for these species varied by location, year and season. This data compilation exercise represents one of the largest and most wide-ranging ever attempted for pelagic fish in the North Atlantic. The earliest data included in the database were collected in 1864, whereas the most recent were collected in 2012. Data sets are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.820041 and doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.826992.

  10. The role of carrion supply in the abundance of deep-water fish off California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Drazen

    Full Text Available Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California, and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics.

  11. The role of carrion supply in the abundance of deep-water fish off California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Bailey, David M; Ruhl, Henry A; Smith, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics.

  12. Apports en DHA (acide gras oméga-3 par les poissons et les fruits de mer consommés en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work measures the contributions of seafood (finfish and shellfish, wild and farmed to the intakes of DHA in France, year 2005, and consequently to the French recommended daily intakes (RDA of DHA. For this purpose, we measured the concentrations of DHA in each individual seafood by analysis of many published data. We also determined the exact consumption of the main products of seafood (fishing and farming in France (year 2005 using the modified method of the dietary intake measurement defined by the FAO. For year 2005, the 34 species of finfish and shellfish whose DHA contents are known account for 150% of the RDA of this omega-3 fatty acid. Taking all the species individually and extrapolating to include those whose DHA contents are not known, gives 156% of the RDA. The 10 greatest contributors to the DHA intake in the present diet are: salmon (47.6 mg/day/person, sardine (28.4, tuna (20.5, mackerel (15.7, herring (12.4, Alaskan pollock (8.9, cod (6.9, trout (6.5, hake (4.7, saithe (4.6. The 5 species of oily fish (salmon, sardine, tuna, mackerel and herring provide 63% of the DHA intake, and thus approx 95% of the French RDA. Besides DHA, seafood contains low amounts of ALA, but it can very high in farmed fish fed on rapeseed or linseed products. Omega-3 fatty acids (including EPA and DHA have an important role in human diet, both for prevention and the therapy of different pathologies. Data from many epidemiological studies has shown an inverse association between fish consumption, generally oily fish, and reductions in certain diseases. Although number of people do not lack dietary DHA, others, mainly pregnant women and nursing mothers and those people whose life styles or socio-economic positions restrict their seafood intakes, would benefit greatly from an increased intake of this omega-3 fatty acid.

  13. Testing the recent charge-on-spring type polarizable water models. II. Vapor-liquid equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Péter T.; Baranyai, András

    2012-11-01

    We studied the vapor-liquid coexistence region of seven molecular models of water. All models use the charge-on-spring (COS) method to express polarization. The studied models were the COS/G2, COS/G3 [H. Yu and W. F. van Gunsteren, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9549 (2004), 10.1063/1.1805516], the SWM4-DP [G. Lamoureux, A. D. MacKerell, Jr., and B. Roux, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5185 (2003), 10.1063/1.1598191], the SWM4-NDP [G. Lamoureux, E. Harder, I. V. Vorobyov, B. Roux, and A. D. MacKerell, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 245 (2006), 10.1016/j.cplett.2005.10.135], and three versions of our model, the BKd1, BKd2, and BKd3. The BKd1 is the original Gaussian model [P. T. Kiss, M. Darvas, A. Baranyai, and P. Jedlovszky, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 114706 (2012), 10.1063/1.3692602] with constant polarization and with a simple exponential repulsion. The BKd2 applies field-dependent polarizability [A. Baranyai and P. T. Kiss, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 234110 (2011), 10.1063/1.3670962], while the BKd3 model has variable size to approximate the temperature-density (T-ρ) curve of water [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 194102 (2012), 10.1063/1.4767063]. We calculated the second virial coefficient, the heat of vaporization, equilibrium vapor pressure, the vapor-liquid coexistence curve, and the surface tension in terms of the temperature. We determined and compared the critical temperatures, densities, and pressures of the models. We concluded that the high temperature slope of the (T-ρ) curve accurately predicts the critical temperature. We found that Gaussian charge distributions have clear advantages over the point charges describing the critical region. It is impossible to describe the vapor-liquid coexistence properties consistently with nonpolarizable models, even if their critical temperature is correct.

  14. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo, E-mail: diego.iribarren@rai.usc.es [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  15. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  16. Exposure to hexachlorobenzene through fish and seafood consumption in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2008-01-25

    The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS in 42 composite samples of the 14 most consumed marine species (sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp) in Catalonia, Spain. The daily intake of HCB associated with this consumption was also estimated for four age groups of the population of Catalonia: children, adolescents, adults and seniors, which were in turn divided according to sex. The highest HCB levels were found in salmon and mackerel: 1.68 and 0.80 ng/g of wet weight, respectively, whereas the lowest HCB levels were found in cuttlefish, mussel, and shrimp (0.02, 0.03, and 0.04 ng/g of wet weight, respectively). In general terms, these results are within the range of data reported in recent years by a number of authors. The highest and lowest HCB intake (ng/day) corresponded to female adults (13.3) and girls (4.0), respectively. For most age/sex groups, salmon and sole were the species showing the highest contribution to HCB intake. When HCB intake was calculated according to the average body weight of the individuals in each group, the highest and lowest values corresponded to boys (0.32 ng/kg/day) and female adolescents (0.14 ng/kg/day). For all groups, HCB intake from fish and seafood consumption was considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), for non-cancer effects and for neoplastic effects in humans.

  17. Human exposure to polychlorinated naphthalenes through the consumption of edible marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, Juan M; Falcó, Gemma; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in samples of 14 edible marine species (sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel and shrimp), which are widely consumed by the population of Catalonia, Spain. The daily intake of PCNs associated with this consumption was also determined. A total of 42 composite samples were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The highest PCN levels (ng/kg of fresh weight) were found in salmon (227) followed by mackerel (95) and red mullet (68), while the lowest levels of total PCNs corresponded to shrimp (4.9) and cuttlefish (2.7). With the exception of cephalopods and shellfish species, in which tetra-CN was the predominant homologue, penta-CN (60%) was the predominant contributor to total PCNs. For a standard male adult, PCN intake through the consumption of edible marine species was 1.53 ng/day. The highest contributions to this intake (ng/day) corresponded to salmon (0.41), sole (0.28) and tuna (0.24). Concerning health risks, species-specific TEFs such as those reported by WHO and NATO for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs are not currently available for PCN congeners. Although in general terms the results of the present study do not seem to suggest specific risks derived from exposure to PCNs through fish and seafood consumption, to establish the contribution of individual PCN congeners to total TEQ is clearly necessary for the assessment of human health risks.

  18. In vitro approaches to assess bioavailability and human gastrointestinal mobilization of food-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus J

    2008-06-01

    This study reports on the potential for gastrointestinal (GI) mobilization and bioavailability of food-borne PCBs in humans. The development and validation of a GI simulator and operational protocols, developed in compliance with the requirements of German DIN 19738 risk assessment test procedure, are presented. Food, naturally contaminated with PCBs, was homogenized with simulated saliva fluid and shaken in the GI simulator with simulated gastric fluids (containing pepsin, mucine) for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Afterwards, the simulated intestinal fluids (containing pepsin, mucine, trypsin, pancreatin, bile) were added and the mixture shaken for a further 6 h prior to centrifugation and filtration using Buchner funnels to separate the undigested GI residues from GI fluids. PCBs were recovered from GI residues and fluids by Soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively, cleaned up using silica-SFE, and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD). Detailed studies with fish indicate variations in mobilization and bioavailability of Sigma PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138 and 180). For example, the bioavailable fractions (fractions mobilized) in mackerel, salmon, crab and prawn were 0.77, 0.60, 0.54, and 0.72 respectively of the Sigma PCBs initially present in these food samples. The bioavailable fraction was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the PCBs. In mackerel bioavailable fractions for individual PCB congeners ranged from 0.47-0.82, from 0.30-0.70 in salmon, 0.44-0.64 in crab and in prawn from 0.47-0.77. Future studies will focus on understanding better, the variability in bioavailable fractions to be expected for different foodstuffs, in addition to tissue culture techniques using human gut cell lines to investigate a simultaneous mobilization and absorption of food-borne PCBs.

  19. Microbiological and sensorial quality assessment of ready-to-cook seafood products packaged under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, B; Corbo, M R; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2009-01-01

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (30:40:30 O(2):CO(2):N(2) and 5:95 O(2):CO(2)) on the quality of 4 ready-to-cook seafood products were studied. In particular, the investigation was carried out on hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, chub mackerel fillets, and entire eviscerated cuttlefish. Quality assessment was based on microbiological and sensorial indices determination. Both packaging gas mixtures contributed to a considerable slowing down of the microbial and sensorial quality loss of the investigated seafood products. Results showed that sensorial quality was the subindex that limited their shelf life. In fact, based primarily on microbiological results, samples under MAP remained acceptable up to the end of storage (that is, 14 d), regardless of fish specie. On the other hand, results from sensory analyses showed that chub mackerel fillets in MAP were acceptable up to the 6th storage d, whilst hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, and entire cuttlefish became unacceptable after 10 to 11 d. However, compared to control samples, an increase in the sensorial shelf life of MAP samples (ranging from about 95% to 250%) was always recorded. Practical Application: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is an inexpensive and uncomplicated method of extending shelf life of packed seafood. It could gain great attention from the fish industrial sector due to the fact that MAP is a practical and economic technique, realizable by small technical expedients. Moreover, there is great attention from the food industry and retailers to react to the growing demand for convenience food, thus promoting an increase in the assortments of ready-to-cook seafood products.

  20. Testing the recent charge-on-spring type polarizable water models. II. Vapor-liquid equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Péter T; Baranyai, András

    2012-11-21

    We studied the vapor-liquid coexistence region of seven molecular models of water. All models use the charge-on-spring (COS) method to express polarization. The studied models were the COS∕G2, COS∕G3 [H. Yu and W. F. van Gunsteren, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9549 (2004)], the SWM4-DP [G. Lamoureux, A. D. MacKerell, Jr., and B. Roux, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5185 (2003)], the SWM4-NDP [G. Lamoureux, E. Harder, I. V. Vorobyov, B. Roux, and A. D. MacKerell, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 245 (2006)], and three versions of our model, the BKd1, BKd2, and BKd3. The BKd1 is the original Gaussian model [P. T. Kiss, M. Darvas, A. Baranyai, and P. Jedlovszky, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 114706 (2012)] with constant polarization and with a simple exponential repulsion. The BKd2 applies field-dependent polarizability [A. Baranyai and P. T. Kiss, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 234110 (2011)], while the BKd3 model has variable size to approximate the temperature-density (T-ρ) curve of water [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 194102 (2012)]. We calculated the second virial coefficient, the heat of vaporization, equilibrium vapor pressure, the vapor-liquid coexistence curve, and the surface tension in terms of the temperature. We determined and compared the critical temperatures, densities, and pressures of the models. We concluded that the high temperature slope of the (T-ρ) curve accurately predicts the critical temperature. We found that Gaussian charge distributions have clear advantages over the point charges describing the critical region. It is impossible to describe the vapor-liquid coexistence properties consistently with nonpolarizable models, even if their critical temperature is correct.

  1. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  2. Trophic interactions in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem, year 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica E Barros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A food web model is constructed to describe predator-prey interactions, community structure and trophic flows in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem (18°20'S, 24°S, for the year 1997. The model is built using the Ecopath with Ecosim software version 6.4, and encompasses 21 functional groups, ranging from primary producers (phytoplankton to top predators (birds and marine mammals, the principal fishing resources and the fishery. Input parameters required to build the model were gathered from specialized literature, grey literature and our own estimates. The results indicated that the total biomass (B T was estimated at 624.7 ton km-2. The combined biomass of small pelagic fish represented 26% of B T, while the combined biomass of demersal fish represented only 0.1% of B T. These results highlight the importance of pelagic fish in this system. Predation mortality resulted to be the main source of mortality. Nevertheless, fishing mortality was important in anchovy, mackerel, common dolphinfish and jack mackerel. The mean trophic level of the fishery was estimated as 3.7, with landings sustained mainly by anchovy. Primary production required to sustain the landings (PPR was estimated at 7.5% of calculated total net primary production, which is lower than PPR estimates in other upwelling ecosystems. The average trophic transfer efficiency was 18%, which is in the range (10-20% informed for marine ecosystems. Results indicate that in 1997 the northern Chile marine ecosystem was characterized for being a system far from maturity, dominated in terms of biomass and flows by the pelagic realm.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasreldin Elhadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration’s Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results:Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions: The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

  4. 利用△-分布模型法评估调查数据带有极端值的渔业生物的平均资源密度%Estimating the average stock density with dominating large catches based on △-distribution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兴伟; 姜亚洲; 程家骅

    2011-01-01

    海洋生物的空间分布具有不均匀性,从而造成底拖网调查数据频数分布显著偏斜.偶尔出现的极端值,会直接影响资源密度均值和方差的估计.作者根据东海区渔业资源监测调查数据库中资料,利用△-分布模型法和调查设计法分别估算了2005年夏季的太平洋褶柔鱼Todarodes paci ficus、2007年春季的鳃鱼Engraulis japonicus以及2008年秋季的竹荚鱼Trachurus japonicus 的平均资源密度.结果表明,利用△-分布模型法对3种鱼类资源密度均值的估算值均低于调查设计法,且△-分布模型法对资源密度均值进行估算时的标准误差也相对较小.因此,针时调查数据中出现极端值的情况,如果资源密度对数转换后服从正态分布,那么利用△-分布模型法对资源密度均值进行估算是一种稳健的评估方法,值得在渔业评估上进行推广.%Due to the patchy spatial distribution of marine biota, data collected from bottom trawlers exhibit a skewed distribution with many zero catches and some very large catches.A common problem in the analyses and interpretation of skewed survey data is that, a single immense catch may account for 50% or more of the total catch during the survey.These extreme values not only greatly affect the estimate of the means but also of the variance.Based on the data collected from the bottom trawl survey conducted in the East China Sea,we estimated the average stock density of Todarodes pacificus in summer 2005,Engraulis japonicus in spring 2007, and Trachurus japonicus in autumn 2008 by employing two methods,namely the △-distribution method and the design-based method.The results revealed that the estimators of the means and the standard errors of stock density for the three populations based on the △-distribution were obviously lower than those based on the design-based method.It was concluded that the mean and the standard error would be overestimated using the design

  5. Interannual variation of larval fish assemblages in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula in relation to summer oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mafalda Júnior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Two ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted during July 1994 and July 1995 in the Gulf of Cádiz with the aim of describing composition, abundance, distribution patterns and interannual variations of larval fish assemblages. Interannual differences were found in this study. In 1994, higher salinities were observed at external sites, though in 1995, higher values were observed at intermediate sites. The upper water column was warmer in 1994 and had less fish larvae density. During 1994, Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus were abundant but spatial location was opposite. In 1995, abundance of both species was very different, but with similar spatial pattern. Cluster analysis revealed well-defined groups of stations and assemblages of larvae, primarily related to bathymetry. The "inshore assemblage" occupied the shallow coast area; its characteristics species being closely related to the estuarine system, mainly comprising Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. The "shelf assemblage" occupied the continental shelf and its characteristics species consisted of larvae whose adults inhabited the shelf province and spawn in the same zone, like Sardinella aurita and Trachurus spp. Interannual variations in composition and extension of the subgroups could be attributed to the main circulation patterns, continental water discharge and spawning strategies of fishes.Duas amostragens de ictioplâncton foram realizadas durante Julho de 1994 e Julho de 1995, no Golfo de Cádiz, com o objetivo de descrever a composição, abundância, padrões de distribuição e variações interanuais das associações de larvas de peixes. Diferenças interanuais foram encontradas neste estudo. Em 1994 salinidades mais elevadas foram observadas nas estações da plataforma externa, enquanto que, em 1995 os valores mais elevados foram encontrados nas estações da plataforma interna. A coluna de água foi mais quente em 1994 e apresentou menor densidade de larvas de

  6. Drinking induced by angiotensin II in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Uemura, H; Takei, Y; Itatsu, N; Ozawa, M; Ichinohe, K

    1983-02-01

    Among 20 species of freshwater fishes examined, Pseudorasbora parva, Rhodeus ocellatus, Cobitis anguillicaudatus, Carassius auratus, Oryzias latipes, Gambusia affinis, and Gyrinocheilus anymonieri were found to drink water like seawater fishes, while 13 remaining species did not drink. For fish species found exclusively in fresh water, angiotensin II (AII) treatment did not induce drinking. In contrast, those freshwater fishes which survive in estuarine brackish water (Leuciscus hakonensis, C. carassius, Parasilurus asotus, G. affinis, Chaenogobius annularis, Tridentiger obscurus, and G. anymonieri responded to AII by drinking. Furthermore, some freshwater fishes which survive either in hypertonic water (C. auratus) or in sea water (Anguilla japonica and O. latipes) also responded to AII by drinking. Of 17 seawater fishes examined, Eptatretus burgeri, Triakis scyllia, and Heterodontus japonicus failed to drink water, and for Trachurus japonicus, Platichthys bicoloratus, and Glossogobius giuris fasciatopunctatus, water intake was minor (similar to freshwater fishes). The 11 remaining seawater fishes drank water. AII did not induce drinking in fishes living exclusively in sea water. However, seawater fishes which survive either in tide pools (Chasmichthys dolichognathus gulosus) or in brackish water (Sillago japonica, Mugil cephalus, G. giuris fasciatopunctatus) responded to AII by drinking. P. bicoloratus, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, and Fugu niphobles were exceptional, in that they survive in brackish water, but did not respond to AII. Although some exceptions exist, it is generally concluded that a drinking response to AII is characteristic of fishes which encounter water more hypertonic than that in which they typically reside. Accordingly, a drinking mechanism induced by AII may be a compensatory emergency reaction to dehydration stress.

  7. Quantifying the predation on sardine and hake by cetaceans in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoña Santos, M.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pierce, Graham J.

    2014-08-01

    Construction of ecosystem models requires detailed information on trophic interactions which may not be readily available, especially for top predators such as cetaceans. Such information can also be useful to estimate natural mortality (M) for fish stock assessments and to evaluate the potential for competition between cetaceans and fisheries. In the present paper we provide estimates and confidence limits, taking into account sampling error, for consumption of fish by the four most common cetaceans along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while highlighting the uncertainties and biases inherent in the information presently available on energy requirements, diet and population size. We estimated that common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) consume around 6800 (95% CI, 4871-9476) tons of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), 8800 (6195-12,647) tons of gadids, 1100 (721-1662) tons of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and 1900 (1222-2752) tons of scads (Trachurus sp.) annually. For striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), prey consumed were 900 (196-2661) tons of sardine, 6200 (3448-11,129) tons of gadids, 200 (11-504) tons of hake and 1600 (0-5318) tons of scads. Estimated amounts taken by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are much lower, reflecting their low abundance in the area. Cetacean predation on sardine represents 2-8% of the current M value, indicating that cetaceans probably have little influence on sardine population dynamics. For the southern hake stock, estimated average removal by cetaceans often exceeds M. While this may indicate that both M and the consumption estimates for hake require revision it also suggests that cetaceans could have a more significant impact on hake populations. Different approaches to estimation of energy requirements of cetaceans can result in figures that differ by at least a factor of 2. The lack of good estimates of field metabolic rate for most species probably represents the most

  8. [Effects of macro-jellyfish abundance dynamics on fishery resource structure in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiu-Juan; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Jin, Xian-Shi; Dai, Fang-Qun

    2011-12-01

    Based on the bottom trawl survey data in May 2007 and May and June 2008, this paper analyzed the effects of the abundance dynamics of macro-jellyfish on the species composition, distribution, and abundance of fishery resource in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters. From May 2007 to June 2008, the average catch per haul and the top catch per haul of macro-jellyfish increased, up to 222.2 kg x h(-1) and 1800 kg x h(-1) in June 2008, respectively. The macro-jellyfish were mainly distributed in the areas around 50 m isobath, and not beyond 100 m isobath where was the joint front of the coastal waters of East China Sea, Yangtze River runoff, and Taiwan Warm Current. The main distribution area of macro-jellyfish in June migrated northward, as compared with that in May, and the highest catches of macro-jellyfish in May 2007 and May 2008 were found in the same sampling station (122.5 degrees E, 28.5 degrees N). In the sampling stations with higher abundance of macro-jellyfish, the fishery abundance was low, and the fishery species also changed greatly, mainly composed by small-sized species (Trachurus japonicus, Harpadon nehereus, and Acropoma japonicum) and pelagic species (Psenopsis anomala, Octopus variabilis) and Trichiurus japonicus, and P. anomala accounted for 23.7% of the total catch in June 2008. Larimichthys polyactis also occupied higher proportion of the total catch in sampling stations with higher macro-jellyfish abundance, but the demersal species Lophius litulon was not found, and a few crustaceans were collected. This study showed that macro-jellyfish had definite negative effects on the fishery community structure and abundance in the Yangtze River estuary fishery ecosystem, and further, changed the energy flow patterns of the ecosystem through cascading trophic interactions. Therefore, macro-jellyfish was strongly suggested to be an independent ecological group when the corresponding fishery management measures were considered.

  9. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  10. RESPON PENAWARAN IKAN LAUT SEGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Supply Response of Fresh Sea Fish This study aimed to analyze the influence of the real price and production time ago and the differences in the response area offers fresh sea fish (indian mackerel, sardinella longiceps, and scads mackerel in South Sulawesi period 1996 - 2013. The objective is to use multiple regression analysis and classical assumption test ( multi-collinearity and autocorrelation approach to panel data method with fixed effect. Based on the time dimension using time series data for 1996 to 2013 are derived from secondary data. The study found that in general the price of sea fish such as mackerel itself, lemuru, and overpasses affect positively to the offer of fresh sea fish in the consumer market in South Sulawesi. This means that any increase in the price of sea fish will increase the quantity offers fresh seafood. Furthermore, the production of fresh fish last time either in the form of commodities bloating, lemuru, and no effect on the overpass offers fresh seafood. This is because the current supply decisions are not influenced by the production time ago (last year in the marine waters Sulwesi Selatan.Lain well as regional difference positive or negative influence on the demand for fresh seafood. The positive effects occurred in the district of Barru and Jeneponto, meaning that at Barru district offers fresh sea fish on the kind of bloated and Lemuru larger than other districts (Jeneponto, as well as Jeneponto also larger than other districts (Sinjai. While the negative effects happen to occur at Layang fish either in Barru and Sinjai defined Layang good deals in Barru and Jeneponto smaller than other districts as a comparison region.Abstrak. Respon Penawaran Ikan Laut Segar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh harga rill dan produksi waktu  lalu serta perbedaan wilayah terhadap respon penawaran ikan laut segar (kembung, lemuru, dan layang di Sulawesi Selatan periode tahun  1996 - 2013. Tujuan

  11. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  12. Testing recent charge-on-spring type polarizable water models. I. Melting temperature and ice properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Péter T.; Bertsyk, Péter; Baranyai, András

    2012-11-01

    We determined the freezing point of eight molecular models of water. All models use the charge-on-spring (COS) method to express polarization. The studied models were the COS/G2, COS/G3 [H. Yu and W. F. van Gunsteren, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 9549 (2004), 10.1063/1.1805516], the COS/B2 [H. Yu, T. Hansson, and W. F. van Gunsteren, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 221 (2003), 10.1063/1.1523915], the SWM4-DP [G. Lamoureux, A. D. MacKerell, Jr., and B. Roux, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5185 (2003), 10.1063/1.1598191], the SWM4-NDP [G. Lamoureux, E. Harder, I. V. Vorobyov, B. Roux, and A. D. MacKerell, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 245 (2006), 10.1016/j.cplett.2005.10.135], and three versions of our model, the BKd1, BKd2, and BKd3. The BKd1 is the original Gaussian model [P. T. Kiss, M. Darvas, A. Baranyai, and P. Jedlovszky, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 114706 (2012), 10.1063/1.3692602] with constant polarization and with a simple exponential repulsion. The BKd2 applies field-dependent polarizability [A. Baranyai and P. T. Kiss, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 234110 (2011), 10.1063/1.3670962], while the BKd3 model has variable size to approximate the temperature-density (T-ρ) curve of water [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 084506 (2012), 10.1063/1.4746419]. We used the thermodynamic integration (TI) and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation to determine the equality of the free energy for liquid water and hexagonal ice (Ih) at 1 bar. We used the TIP4P and the SPC/E models as reference systems of the TI. The studied models severely underestimate the experimental melting point of ice Ih. The calculated freezing points of the models are the following: COS/G2, 215 K; COS/G3, 149 K; SWM4-DP, 186 K; BKd1, 207 K; BKd2, 213 K; BKd3, 233 K. The freezing temperature of the SWM4-NDP system is certainly below 120 K. It might even be that the water phase is more stable than the ice Ih at 1 bar in the full temperature range. The COS/B2 model melts below 100 K. The best result was obtained for the BKd3 model which

  13. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  14. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  15. Predicting the spatiotemporal distributions of marine fish species utilizing earth system data in a maximum entropy modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Kerr, L. A.; Bridger, E.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in species distributions have been widely associated with climate change. Understanding how ocean conditions influence marine fish distributions is critical for elucidating the role of climate in ecosystem change and forecasting how fish may be distributed in the future. Species distribution models (SDMs) can enable estimation of the likelihood of encountering species in space or time as a function of environmental conditions. Traditional SDMs are applied to scientific-survey data that include both presences and absences. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) models are promising tools as they can be applied to presence-only data, such as those collected from fisheries or citizen science programs. We used MaxEnt to relate the occurrence records of marine fish species (e.g. Atlantic herring, Atlantic mackerel, and butterfish) from NOAA Northeast Fisheries Observer Program to environmental conditions. Environmental variables from earth system data, such as sea surface temperature (SST), sea bottom temperature (SBT), Chlorophyll-a, bathymetry, North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), were matched with species occurrence for MaxEnt modeling the fish distributions in Northeast Shelf area. We developed habitat suitability maps for these species, and assessed the relative influence of environmental factors on their distributions. Overall, SST and Chlorophyll-a had greatest influence on their monthly distributions, with bathymetry and SBT having moderate influence and climate indices (NAO and AMO) having little influence. Across months, Atlantic herring distribution was most related to SST 10th percentile, and Atlantic mackerel and butterfish distributions were most related to previous month SST. The fish distributions were most affected by previous month Chlorophyll-a in summer months, which may indirectly indicate the accumulative impact of primary productivity. Results highlighted the importance of spatial and temporal scales when using

  16. PENGARUH JENIS DAN KONSENTRASI ASAM, TEMPERATUR DAN WAKTU EKSTRAKSI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK FISH GLUE DARI LIMBAH IKAN TENGGIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Handoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available THE EFFECTS OF TYPES AND ACID CONCENTRATIONS, TEMPERATURES AND EXTRACTION TIME ON THE FISH GLUE CHARACTERISTIC OBTAINED FROM MACKEREL FISH BONE WASTE. As a maritime nation, Indonesia produced fresh fish products up to 4,408,419 tons in 2005. Mackerel fish is one of them. Its bone waste has an economic value as a source for fish glue production. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimum conditions in fish glue processing. Preliminary research was done to determine the acid type (CH3COOH and HCl and its concentration (4%, 5%, and 6% in soaking process. While the main research was then done to determine the best temperature (45oC, 60oC, and 75oC and time of extraction (4 hrs, 5 hrs, 6 hrs. The fish glue products were analyzed their adhesion and physical characteristics, such as density, viscosity, pH, and water content. The results showed that weak acid (CH3COOH of 5% concentration is the best solution in soaking process and extraction in 4 hrs at 45oC has given the optimum condition for producing fish glue. The glue has a nice odor but its adhesion strength remains poor.      Abstrak   Sebagai negara maritim, Indonesia menghasilkan produk perikanan yang sangat besar mencapai 4.408.419 ton pada tahun 2005 dan terus bertambah. Salah satu produk perikanan yang terbesar adalah ikan tenggiri dengan limbah tulang yang mempunyai nilai ekonomis yang tinggi sebagai bahan baku fish glue. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan kondisi proses yang dapat menghasilkan fish glue yang baik melalui dua tahap yaitu penelitian pendahuluan dan utama. Penelitian pendahuluan bertujuan mendapatkan jenis asam (CH3COOH dan HCl dan konsentrasi asam terbaik (4%, 5%, dan 6% pada  proses perendaman tulang ikan. Penelitian utama bertujuan  menentukan temperatur ekstraksi (45oC, 60oC, dan 75oC dan waktu ekstraksi (4 jam, 5 jam, 6 jam. Analisis fish glue yang dilakukan adalah uji kerekatan dan sifat fisik berupa densitas, viskositas, pH, dan kadar air

  17. ANALISIS KERENTANAN JENIS IKAN PELAGIS KECIL DI PERAIRAN SELAT BALI DAN SELAT MAKASSAR TERHADAP DINAMIKA SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Puspasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kondisi oseanografi Indonesia dipengaruhi oleh dinamika proses oseanografi global. Salah satu proses tersebut adalah Arlindo yang menghantarkan massa air bersuhu hangat dari Samudera Pasifik ke Samudera Hindia melalui Selat Makassar. Dinamika suhu perairan akan mempengaruhi kondisi sumberdaya ikan di perairan tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak dinamika suhu permukaan laut terhadap empat jenis ikan pelagis yaitu ikan layang biru (Decapterus macarellus, kembung (Ratrelliger kanagurta, lemuru (Sardinella lemuru dan tongkol (Auxis thazard.  Penelitian dilakukan pada tahun 2015 dengan membuat profil biologis setiap jenis ikan, kemudian dilakukan penilaian oleh para ahli mengenai kerentanan setiap jenis ikan terhadap paparan dinamika SPL.  Hasil penilaian para ahli kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode kerentanan jenis yang digunakan oleh NOAA.  Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa empat jenis ikan pelagis yang dianalisis mempunyai tingkat kerentanan yang rendah terhadap paparan dinamika suhu permukaan laut.  Tingkat kerentanan ikan pelagis kecil di perairan Selat Bali lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan Selat Makassar.   Oceanographic condition of Indonesian waters is highly influenced by global oceanographic processes. Indonesian through flow is one of the global oceanographic processes that affect the oceanographic condition in Indonesia waters, it delivers warm water from Pacific Ocean to Indian Ocean through the strait of Makassar. Therefore, the dynamic of sea water temperature will affect the fish resources condition. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the dynamic of sea surface temperature to pelagic fishes such as mackerel scad (Decapterus macarellus, Indian mackerel (Ratrelliger. kanagurta, Bali sardine (Sardinella. lemuru and frigate tuna (Auxis. thazard. The study was conducted in 2015 consists of three phases of process, describing biological profile of the species, then scoring based on

  18. Toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the Black Sea and associated human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavan, Gabriel; Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Nicoara, Mircea; Micu, Dragos; Strungaru, Stefan-Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated. These metals are used in high amounts in industries located near the coastline such as shipyard construction and industrial plants. Toxic metal accumulation depends on fish feeding behavior, abiotic conditions, metal chemistry, and animal physiology. For instance, cadmium was measured in the muscle of the investigated species and average values of 0.0008-0.0338 mg kg(-1) were obtained. The lowest average value of this metal was measured at benthic species N. melanostomus and the highest at the pelagic predator T. mediterraneus ponticus. Generally, the highest metal concentration was measured in the digestive tract that has the role of biofilter for these contaminants. The risk of contamination is significantly reduced by avoiding the consumption of certain fish tissues (digestive tract and skin for copper and skeleton for nickel). An estimation of the dietary metal intake to young consumers was realized for each of the studied species of fish from Romanian, Bulgarian, and Turkish waters, during the period 2001-2014 in order to evaluate the risks of chronic exposure in time due to metal toxicity. This estimation is important for the prevention of chronic exposure due to metal toxicity. Food exposure to studied metals showed a negative trend for Romania, Turkey, and Bulgaria

  19. Stomach contents of cetaceans in the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia-Polo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the diet, through the analysis of stomach contents, of different species of cetaceans in Andalusian waters. Stomachs of 53 specimens, 36 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba, 13 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and 4 Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus stranded in the provinces of Cadiz, Huelva, Malaga and Almeria (South Iberian Peninsula were examined. Strandings were attended by members of the official stranding network of Andalusia. Fourteen of the specimens had no food remains in the stomachs: 9 striped dolphins, 2 common dolphins and 1 Risso´s dolphin. Prey remains consisted mostly of hard structures e.g. fish otoliths, bones and eye lenses, cephalopod jaws and eye lenses and crustaceans exoskeletons. These remains were identified using published guides (e.g. Clarke, 1986; Härkonen, 1986; Xavier & Cherel, 2009 and reference material available at the Centro Oceanográfico in Vigo of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO. Diet was characterised for each cetacean species using three standard indices, calculated for each category of prey and for group totals: the frequency of occurrence in the stomachs, the number of individuals and the reconstructed prey weight. These indices were also expressed as percentages to allow comparison between cetacean species and groups (e.g. dolphin sex and area of stranding. The results indicate that striped dolphins feed predominantly on small mesopelagic fish, mainly species of the Myctophidae family, although pearlsides (Maurolicus muelleri were also present. Significant numbers of gobies (Gobiidae were also found in the stomachs. Other prey identified were hake (Merluccius merluccius, silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus, bogue (Boops boops and scads (Trachurus spp.. Because of the degree of erosion of some otoliths they could not be identified to species level. Cephalopods were also found in the stomachs of striped dolphins with specimens of the families Brachioteuthidae

  20. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 101 marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. In particular, to determine the degree of PCB contamination in the fish, we investigated the concentration of total PCB (∑PCB) and the proportions of 209 individual PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ∑PCB concentration was 1.7-33 ng/g in fat greenling (n = 29), 0.44-25 ng/g in flounder (n = 36), and 1.6-86 ng/g in mackerel (n = 36), all values being much lower than the provisional regulatory limit in Japan. In the congener analysis, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners dominated in all samples (comprising over 86% of the ∑PCB). The proportions of the chlorinated PCB congeners were similar to the contamination patterns derived from Kanechlor in the environment, implying that the marine fish were not contaminated with fresh PCBs.

  1. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2000 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussed) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngsoe area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA value, except {sup 40}K nuclide. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclide in tap water are less(or is slightly higher in one sample) than the MDA value.

  2. Mercury in the Gulf of Mexico: sources to receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Reed; Pollman, Curtis; Landing, William; Evans, David; Axelrad, Donald; Hutchinson, David; Morey, Steven L; Rumbold, Darren; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Adams, Douglas H; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Holmes, Christopher; Atkinson, R Dwight; Myers, Tom; Sunderland, Elsie

    2012-11-01

    Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) fisheries account for 41% of the U.S. marine recreational fish catch and 16% of the nation's marine commercial fish landings. Mercury (Hg) concentrations are elevated in some fish species in the Gulf, including king mackerel, sharks, and tilefish. All five Gulf states have fish consumption advisories based on Hg. Per-capita fish consumption in the Gulf region is elevated compared to the U.S. national average, and recreational fishers in the region have a potential for greater MeHg exposure due to higher levels of fish consumption. Atmospheric wet Hg deposition is estimated to be higher in the Gulf region compared to most other areas in the U.S., but the largest source of Hg to the Gulf as a whole is the Atlantic Ocean (>90%) via large flows associated with the Loop Current. Redistribution of atmospheric, Atlantic and terrestrial Hg inputs to the Gulf occurs via large scale water circulation patterns, and further work is needed to refine estimates of the relative importance of these Hg sources in terms of contributing to fish Hg levels in different regions of the Gulf. Measurements are needed to better quantify external loads, in-situ concentrations, and fluxes of total Hg and methylmercury in the water column, sediments, and food web.

  3. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  4. Allometric relations and consequences for feeding in small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-21

    The body size of fish is an important factor in determining their biology and ecology, as predators eat prey smaller than themselves. Predator mouth size restricts the availability of possible prey. In this paper we provide the allometric relationships of eight common, small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay. In addition, we describe the predator-prey size ratios for different species, and we determine changes in their ratio-based trophic-niche breadth with increasing body size. Results suggest that gape size does not totally determine the predator-prey size ratio distribution, but predators use the entire available prey size range, including the smallest. As they grow they simply incorporate larger prey as their increased gape size permits. Accordingly, a large degree of overlap was found in the diet composition in terms of size and predator-prey ratios, even between fish of different sizes. Of the species studied, only horse mackerels seem to be clearly specialized in relatively large prey. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  5. Bryde's whale (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae occurrence and movements in coastal areas of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Lodi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryde's whales, Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879, were observed on 17 occasions (N = 21 surveys in the coastal waters off Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil during austral summer through autumn 2014. Five whales were individually identified using photo-identification techniques. The mean interval between resightings for all individuals was 12.8 days, with a minimum of one day and a maximum of 48 days. The comparison between the catalogs of Bryde's whales off Rio de Janeiro and the Cabo Frio region revealed matches for three individuals. The resightings show movements of up to 149.6 km along the coastal waters off the state of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the observations consisted of solitary individuals (82.3% of sightings. Feeding was the predominant behavior observed (47%, followed by milling (35.3% and travelling (17.6% in waters up to 48 m deep. Direct observations resulted in the addition of new prey, such as snubnose anchovy, Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther, 1868 and white snake mackerel, Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832, to the known diet of the Bryde's whale. A long time series of photo-identification efforts in the Rio de Janeiro, the Cabo Frio region and other areas can elucidate fundamental aspects of spatial and temporal site fidelity knowledge of Bryde's whales in southeastern Brazil.

  6. High throughput and rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai-Lun; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hao; Sun, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Twelve kinds of marine protein materials, including fish, shrimp, seashell, algae and seafood wastes were selected for the hydrolysis using four different proteases. The IC(50) values for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of 48 hydrolysates were rapidly determined by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The values ranged from 0.17 to 501.7mg/ml, and were affected by both the marine protein resources and the selected proteases. Hydrolysates of the lowest IC(50) values were from shrimp (Acetes chinensis), shark meat, mackerel bone, Polysiphonia urceolata and Spirulina platensis, indicating these five kinds of marine food proteins contained beneficial materials for the production of ACE inhibitory peptides by proteolysis. The hydrolysates obtained using proteases Protamex and SM98011 had lower IC(50) values, showing these two proteases were superior to others. The CE method achieved the same sensitivity as the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. However, the CE method was faster and, as a result, more economical. Therefore, CE had potential for rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in ACE inhibitory peptides.

  7. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  8. Determination of cadmium, chromium, lead and vanadium in six fish species from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, A; Ciaralli, L; Ciprotti, M; Giordano, R; Funari, E; Costantini, S

    2003-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and vanadium were determined in samples of six fish species collected along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The concentrations of the elements studied were generally low, often below the detection limits of the analytical methods. The highest values (microg x kg(-1) fresh weight) were observed, mainly in the central area of the Adriatic Sea, for anchovy (Cd 20.2, Cr 82.9, Pb 45.9, V 89.9), red mullet (Cd 3.1, Cr 31.0, Pb 36.0, V 79.1) and mackerel (Cd 7.7, Cr 28.0, Pb 11.4, V 43.5). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in all the species examined were below the maximum levels indicated by the European Community for these two elements in seafood, and also would lead to exposure levels lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes suggested by the FAO/WHO for Cd (420 microg x week(-1) for a 60-kg person) and Pb (1500 microg x week(-1) for a 60-kg person). The concentration of chromium was lower than the recommended daily amount (50-200 microg x day(-1) for a 60-kg person) indicated by the US National Research Council. An 11-34% contribution to the daily vanadium ingestion with fish was calculated for the population of the Adriatic coast.

  9. Food Allergy in Korean Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bo Young; Cho, Yong Se; Kim, Hye One

    2016-01-01

    Background The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) remains unknown in most patients. Possible causes in some cases include food, but the role of allergy to food antigens in patients with CU remains controversial. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between food allergy and CU. Methods Korean patients with CU were assessed for a previous history of food allergy that caused symptoms of CU. Blood samples were taken from 350 patients to measure food allergen-specific IgE. Based on history and laboratory results, open oral food challenge (OFC) tests were performed. Results Of 350 participants, 46 (13.1%) claimed to have experienced previous food hypersensitivity. Pork (n=16) was the main food mentioned, followed by beef (n=7), shrimp (n=6), and mackerel (n=6). We found that 73 participants (20.9%) had elevated levels of food-specific IgE, with pork (n=30), wheat (n=25), and beef (n=23) being the most common. However, when the open OFC tests were conducted in 102 participants with self-reported food hypersensitivity or raised levels of food-specific IgE, only four participants showed a positive reaction to pork (n=3) or crab (n=1). Conclusion Although some participants claimed to have a history of CU related to food intake, when an open OFC test was conducted, few of them had positive results. We therefore conclude that food allergy is an uncommon cause of chronic CU. PMID:27746634

  10. Toxic Metals in Pelagic, Benthic and Demersal Fish Species from Mediterranean FAO Zone 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccari, Clara; Cicero, Nicola; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Macaluso, Andrea; Naccari, Francesco; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Fish represents a nutrient-rich food but, at the same time, is one of the most important contributor to the dietary intake of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to assess residual levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in different species, caught from FAO zones 37 1.3 and 37 2.2, particularly small pelagic, benthic and demersal fishes. The results obtained showed the absence of toxic metal in fishes from FAO zone 37 1.3. Relating to FAO zone 37 2.2, instead, in all samples we observed the absence of Pb, small concentrations of Cd (0.081±0.022 mg/kg) and higher Hg residual levels (0.252±0.033 mg/kg). Particularly, the trend of Cd contamination was similar in all species whereas Hg showed high levels in demersal, intermediate in pelagic and low in benthic species. However, only Cd concentrations exceed the MRL in mackerel, mullet, sea-bream fishes, according to Regulation CE n. 629/2008 and n. 488/2014.

  11. Increased sensitivity in PCR detection of tdh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood with purified template DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Kasuga, Y; Kiuchi, A; Horisaka, T; Kawasumi, T; Kumagai, S

    2003-09-01

    PCR is an important method for the detection of thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh)-positive (pathogenic hemolysin-producing) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood because tdh-negative (nonpathogenic) V. parahaemolyticus strains often contaminate seafood and interfere with the direct isolation of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, the use of PCR to detect the tdh gene of V. parahaemolyticus in various seafoods artificially contaminated with tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus was examined. PCR was inhibited by substances in oysters, squid, mackerel, and yellowtail but not by cod, sea bream, scallop, short-necked clam, and shrimp. To improve detection, DNA was purified by either the silica membrane method, the glass fiber method, or the magnetic separation method, and the purified DNA was used as the PCR primer template. For all samples, the use of the silica membrane method and the glass fiber method increased detection sensitivity. The results of this study demonstrate that the use of properly purified template DNA for PCR markedly increases the effectiveness of the method in detecting pathogenic tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in contaminated seafood.

  12. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Zhang, Yuanting

    2011-04-01

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, pfish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (pfish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge.

  13. Exposures of dental professionals to elemental mercury and methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Gruninger, Stephen E; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure, a worldwide public health concern, predominantly takes two forms--methylmercury from fish consumption and elemental Hg from dental amalgam restorations. We recruited 630 dental professionals from an American Dental Association meeting to assess Hg body burden and primary sources of exposure in a dually exposed population. Participants described occupational practices and fish consumption patterns via questionnaire. Hg levels in biomarkers of elemental Hg (urine) and methylmercury (hair and blood) were measured with a Direct Mercury Analyzer-80 and were higher than the general US population. Geometric means (95% CI) were 1.28 (1.19-1.37) μg/l in urine, 0.60 (0.54-0.67) μg/g in hair and 3.67 (3.38-3.98) μg/l in blood. In multivariable linear regression, personal amalgams predicted urine Hg levels along with total years in dentistry, amalgams handled, working hours and sex. Fish consumption patterns predicted hair and blood Hg levels, which were higher among Asians compared with Caucasians. Five species contributed the majority of the estimated Hg intake from fish--swordfish, fresh tuna, white canned tuna, whitefish and king mackerel. When studying populations with occupational exposure to Hg, it is important to assess environmental exposures to both elemental Hg and methylmercury as these constitute a large proportion of total exposure.

  14. Methylmercury Concentration in Fish and Risk-Benefit Assessment of Fish Intake among Pregnant versus Infertile Women in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Hsi

    Full Text Available This study examined methylmercury (MeHg concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk-benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg. In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg. The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk-benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack.

  15. Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Francesco; Myers, Ransom A; Serena, Fabrizio; Lotze, Heike K

    2008-08-01

    Evidence for severe declines in large predatory fishes is increasing around the world. Because of its long history of intense fishing, the Mediterranean Sea offers a unique perspective on fish population declines over historical timescales. We used a diverse set of records dating back to the early 19th and mid 20th century to reconstruct long-term population trends of large predatory sharks in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We compiled 9 time series of abundance indices from commercial and recreational fishery landings, scientific surveys, and sighting records. Generalized linear models were used to extract instantaneous rates of change from each data set, and a meta-analysis was conducted to compare population trends. Only 5 of the 20 species we considered had sufficient records for analysis. Hammerhead (Sphyrna spp.), blue (Prionace glauca), mackerel (Isurus oxyrinchus and Lamna nasus), and thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) declined between 96 and 99.99% relative to their former abundance. According to World Conservation Union (IUCN) criteria, these species would be considered critically endangered. So far, the lack of quantitative population assessments has impeded shark conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. Our study fills this critical information gap, suggesting that current levels of exploitation put large sharks at risk of extinction in the Mediterranean Sea. Possible ecosystem effects of these losses involve a disruption of top-down control and a release of midlevel consumers.

  16. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  17. Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoi; Yu, Ning; Bandi, Mahesh M; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Mandre, Shreyas

    2017-05-01

    How fish modulate their fin stiffness during locomotive manoeuvres remains unknown. We show that changing the fin's curvature modulates its stiffness. Modelling the fin as bendable bony rays held together by a membrane, we deduce that fin curvature is manifested as a misalignment of the principal bending axes between neighbouring rays. An external force causes neighbouring rays to bend and splay apart, and thus stretches the membrane. This coupling between bending the rays and stretching the membrane underlies the increase in stiffness. Using three-dimensional reconstruction of a mackerel (Scomber japonicus) pectoral fin for illustration, we calculate the range of stiffnesses this fin is expected to span by changing curvature. The three-dimensional reconstruction shows that, even in its geometrically flat state, a functional curvature is embedded within the fin microstructure owing to the morphology of individual rays. As the ability of a propulsive surface to transmit force to the surrounding fluid is limited by its stiffness, the fin curvature controls the coupling between the fish and its surrounding fluid. Thereby, our results provide mechanical underpinnings and morphological predictions for the hypothesis that the spanned range of fin stiffnesses correlates with the behaviour and the ecological niche of the fish. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Absolute hydration free energy scale for alkali and halide ions established from simulations with a polarizable force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Guillaume; Roux, Benoît

    2006-02-23

    A polarizable potential function for the hydration of alkali and halide ions is developed on the basis of the recent SWM4-DP water model [Lamoureux, G.; MacKerell, A. D., Jr.; Roux, B. J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, 5185]. Induced polarization is incorporated using classical Drude oscillators that are treated as auxiliary dynamical degrees of freedom. The ions are represented as polarizable Lennard-Jones centers, whose parameters are optimized to reproduce the binding energies of gas-phase monohydrates and the hydration free energies in the bulk liquid. Systematic exploration of the parameters shows that the monohydrate binding energies can be consistent with a unique hydration free energy scale if the computed hydration free energies incorporate the contribution from the air/water interfacial electrostatic potential (-540 mV for SWM4-DP). The final model, which can satisfyingly reproduce both gas and bulk-phase properties, corresponds to an absolute scale in which the intrinsic hydration free energy of the proton is -247 kcal/mol.

  19. Fishery-induced changes in the subtropical Pacific pelagic ecosystem size structure: observations and theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Polovina

    Full Text Available We analyzed a 16-year (1996-2011 time series of catch and effort data for 23 species with mean weights ranging from 0.8 kg to 224 kg, recorded by observers in the Hawaii-based deep-set longline fishery. Over this time period, domestic fishing effort, as numbers of hooks set in the core Hawaii-based fishing ground, has increased fourfold. The standardized aggregated annual catch rate for 9 small (15 kg it decreased about 50% over the 16-year period. A size-based ecosystem model for the subtropical Pacific captures this pattern well as a response to increased fishing effort. Further, the model projects a decline in the abundance of fishes larger than 15 kg results in an increase in abundance of animals from 0.1 to 15 kg but with minimal subsequent cascade to sizes smaller than 0.1 kg. These results suggest that size-based predation plays a key role in structuring the subtropical ecosystem. These changes in ecosystem size structure show up in the fishery in various ways. The non-commercial species lancetfish (mean weight 7 kg has now surpassed the target species, bigeye tuna, as the species with the highest annual catch rate. Based on the increase in snake mackerel (mean weight 0.8 kg and lancetfish catches, the discards in the fishery are estimated to have increased from 30 to 40% of the total catch.

  20. 机械胸鳍式仿生水下机器人的动力学特性研究%Study of dynamics property of mechanical pectoral fin typed under water bio-robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; 竺长安; 尹协振

    2006-01-01

    对新近研制的仿生水下机器人Robo-Mackerel,建立其在胸鳍摆动模式下游动的物理模型,并给出机械胸鳍摆动的运动方程.利用库达-儒柯夫斯基定律和二维叶素理论,分析Robo-Mackerel巡游时受到的流体作用力.通过动力学仿真,计算Robo-Mackerel的游速、推进力、瞬时功率和平均效率等水下推进性能指标.为有效地提高Robo-Mackerel的水下推进性能,分析讨论了机械胸鳍摆动各运动学参数和上述指标的关系,并提出各运动学参数的最优值.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of elasmobranchs inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Babu, P P Suresh; Jaiswar, A K; Hari Krishna, V; Prasasd, K Pani; Chaudhari, Aparna; Raje, S G; Chakraborty, S K; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2014-01-01

    The elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates) being the extant survivors of one of the earliest offshoots of the vertebrate evolutionary tree are good model organisms to study the primitive vertebrate conditions. They play a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance and have high economic value. Due to over-exploitation and illegal fishing worldwide, the elasmobranch stocks are being decimated at an alarming rate. Appropriate management measures are necessary for restoring depleted elasmobranch stocks. One approach for restoring stocks is implementation of conservation measures and these measures can be formulated effectively by knowing the evolutionary relationship among the elasmobranchs. In this study, a total of 30 species were chosen for molecular phylogeny studies using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 12S ribosomal RNA gene and nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2. Among different genes, the combined dataset of COI and 12S rRNA resulted in a well resolved tree topology with significant bootstrap/posterior probabilities values. The results supported the reciprocal monophyly of sharks and batoids. Within Galeomorphii, Heterodontiformes (bullhead sharks) formed as a sister group to Lamniformes (mackerel sharks): Orectolobiformes (carpet sharks) and to Carcharhiniformes (ground sharks). Within batoids, the Myliobatiformes formed a monophyly group while Pristiformes (sawfishes) and Rhinobatiformes (guitar fishes) formed a sister group to all other batoids.

  2. “Once upon a Time in the Mediterranean” Long Term Trends of Mediterranean Fisheries Resources Based on Fishers’ Traditional Ecological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Dimitrios; Maravelias, Christos D.; Osio, Giacomo C.; Maynou, Francesc; Sbrana, Mario; Sartor, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate long-term changes in the Mediterranean marine resources driving the trawl fisheries by analysing fishers’ perceptions (Traditional Ecological Knowledge, TEK) throughout the Mediterranean Sea during the last 80 years. To this end, we conducted an extended set of interviews with experienced fishers that enabled us to classify species (or taxa) as ‘decreasing’ or ‘increasing’ both in terms of abundance, as well as average size in the catch. The aspect that most clearly emerged in all the investigated areas over time was the notable increase of fishing capacity indicators, such as engine power and fishing depth range. Atlantic mackerel, poor cod, scorpionfishes, striped seabream, and John Dory demonstrated a decreasing trend in the fishers’ perceived abundance, while Mediterranean parrotfish, common pandora, cuttlefish, blue and red shrimp, and mullets gave indications of an increasing temporal trend. Although, as a rule, trawler captains did not report any cataclysmic changes (e.g. extinctions), when they were invited to estimate total catches, a clear decreasing pattern emerged; this being a notable finding taking into account the steep escalation of fishing efficiency during the past century. The overall deteriorating status of stocks in most Mediterranean regions calls for responsible management and design of rebuilding plans. This should include historical information accounting for past exploitation patterns that could help defining a baseline of fish abundance prior to heavy industrial fisheries exploitation. PMID:25781459

  3. A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of trimethylamine, dimethylamine and methylamine in fishery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliño-Zuazo, Lander; Barranco, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    A novel multianalyte method has been developed to determine the concentration of trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA) and methylamine (MA) in fish. The optimal points of the key parameters (pH 8, 60 °C and 60 min of reaction time) were determined for the reaction with tert-butyl bromoacetate. An HILIC column was used to elute all the compounds in only 12 min and selective quantitation of the compounds was achieved. The methodology was validated in trout, hake and Atlantic horse mackerel and was used to study the shelf life of fish under refrigeration. A good correlation with the picrate method was obtained and the proposed methodology has been proved to be robust, specific and sensible with a limit of detection of 0.08 mg N-TMA kg(-1) in freshwater fish and 1 mg N-TMA kg(-1) in marine fish. In addition, TMA has been proved to be a good spoilage indicator also in freshwater fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  5. Nutritional quality and safety related to trace element content in fish from Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Pierina; Perugini, Monia; Manera, Maurizio; Salese, Carmine; Martino, Giuseppe; Amorena, Michele

    2014-05-01

    This study analyzed for the detection of the following trace elements: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn, in muscle of four widely traded and consumed marine fish species (Mullus surmuletus L., Merluccius merluccius L., Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827), Scomber scombrus L.) selected for their wide trade and consumption. Mean concentrations found in fish muscle, irrespective of species, ranged from 3.61 to 105.49 (As); 0.01-0.08 (Cd); 0.74-4.71 (Cu); 0.09-1.10 (Hg); 0.02-0.58 (Pb); 0.30-2.88 (Se); 11.56-73.37 (Zn) mg/kg wet weight. As, Hg, Cu and Se concentrations showed a significant difference (p difference (p < 0.01) only in summer. The maximum levels set for Hg, Cd and Pb by European Regulation No 1881/2006 were exceeded by 5 (8.9%), 1 (1.8%) and 4 (7.1%) samples, respectively. In particular the species exceeding the legal limits were red mullet for Cd and Pb, Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting for Hg and Pb.

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  7. Preliminarily comparison of nutritional composition of some fresh and processed seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Processing made fish less susceptible to spoilage. Fish are rich in protein content but the protein content is reduced with processing gave a better result when long-time preservation was carried out. Aim of this study was comparison of proximate analysis of some fresh and processed seafoods. Raw materials and processed seafoods (canned mackerel tuna, frozen Sea-Bream and Pressed caviar) were obtained from different firms and analyzed. Analysis carried out according AOAC methods. Moisture, protein and fat values of tuna fish were estimated to be 51, 23.9 and 21.4%, respectively. In this study, moisture content of pressed caviar was 36%, protein content was 34.4% and fat content was 16.7%, carbohydrate and energy values were 4.9% and 316 kcal/100 g, respectively. Pressed and smoked seafoods contained lower amount of moisture but higher amounts of the other components than raw materials (p canning with water, all processing technologies decreased the moisture content but increased energy values (p foods that was produced in Iran. Since fishes are consumed as a major protein source in food, it is very important that the protein content should not be compromised during table preparation.

  8. Modification and Single-Laboratory Validation of AOAC Official Method 977.13 for Histamine in Seafood to Improve Sample Throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Bencsath, F Aladar; Benner, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is the main causative agent in scombrotoxin fish poisoning, the most frequently reported illness related to fish consumption. The AOAC official method for histamine determination in fish is the fluorometric method AOAC 977.13, which is sensitive and reproducible but somewhat labor intensive and time consuming. We investigated multiple modifications to this method in an attempt to reduce assay time and increase sample throughput while maintaining the performance of the original method. Some of the attempted modifications negatively affected the performance characteristics of the method. However, omitting the heating step during extraction and replacing the cuvette style fluorometer with a microplate reader retained method performance while increasing sample throughput. Therefore, we adopted these modifications and conducted a single-laboratory validation. The recovery, precision (RSD), and LOD of the modified method assessed by the single-laboratory validation ranged from 92 to 105%, 1 to 3%, and 0.2 to 0.5 ppm, respectively, in tuna, mahi-mahi, and Spanish mackerel samples. We conclude that the AOAC 977.13 fluorometric method, modified as described, will improve assay time and sample throughput efficiency cumulatively, as the number of sample units analyzed increases. We anticipate that this modified method could be used by regulatory agencies and other laboratories following successful multilaboratory validation.

  9. Stable isotope values in pup vibrissae reveal geographic variation in diets of gestating Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Rick D.; Doll, Andrew C.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Witteveen, Briana; Kline, Thomas C.; Kurle, Carolyn M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key prey. Our analysis indicated that females in the most westerly metapopulations relied heavily on Atka mackerel and squid, whereas females inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska region had a fairly mixed diet, and the metapopulation of Southeast Alaska showed a strong reliance on forage fish. These results are similar to previous data from scat collections; however, they indicate a possible under-representation of soft-bodied prey (squid) or prey with fragile skeletons (forage fish) from analyses of data from scats. This study supports the utility of stable isotope modeling in predicting diet composition in gestating adult female Steller sea lions during winter, using pup vibrissae.

  10. Observations of shifts in cetacean distribution in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eNøttestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess possible shifts in distributional patterns of cetaceans residing in the Norwegian Sea, and if possible relate the distribution to their feeding ecology during the summer seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2012. During this same period, historically large abundances in the order of 15 million tonnes pelagic planktivorous fish such as Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, have been reported feeding in the Norwegian Sea during the summer. There is also observed elevated average surface temperatures and a reduction in zooplankton biomasses. Such changes might influence species composition, distribution patterns and feeding preferences of cetaceans residing the region. Our results show higher densities of toothed whales, killer whales (Orcinus orca and pilot whales (Globicephala melas, than the previous norm for these waters. Baleen whales, such as minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus, which is often associated with zooplankton, displayed a distribution overlap with pelagic fish abundances. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae were observed in low numbers, indicating shift in habitat preference, compared to sighting data collected only few years earlier. Our study illustrate that both small and large cetaceans that reside in the Norwegian Sea have the capability to rapidly perform shifts in distribution and abundance patterns dependent of the access to different types and behaviour of prey species.

  11. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle.

  12. Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2003-02-01

    Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes).

  13. Determination of inorganic arsenic in white fish using microwave-assisted alkaline alcoholic sample dissolution and HPLC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Erik H.; Hansen, Marianne [Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research (DFVF), Department of Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Engman, Joakim; Jorhem, Lars [National Food Administration, Research and Development Department, Uppsala (Sweden); Sloth, Jens J. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen (Norway)

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in fish samples using HPLC-ICP-MS has been developed. The fresh homogenised sample was subjected to microwave-assisted dissolution by sodium hydroxide in ethanol, which dissolved the sample and quantitatively oxidised arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)). This allowed for the determination of inorganic arsenic as a single species, i.e. As(V), by anion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS. The completeness of the oxidation was verified by recovery of As(V) which was added to the samples as As(III) prior to the dissolution procedure. The full recovery of As(V) at 104{+-}7% (n=5) indicated good analytical accuracy. The uncertified inorganic arsenic content in the certified reference material TORT-2 was 0.186{+-}0.014 ng g{sup -1} (n=6). The method was employed for the determination of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic in 60 fish samples including salmon from fresh and saline waters and in plaice. The majority of the results for inorganic arsenic were lower than the LOD of 3 ng g{sup -1}, which corresponded to less than one per thousand of the total arsenic content in the fish samples. For mackerel, however, the recovery of As(III) was incomplete and the method was not suited for this fat-rich fish. (orig.)

  14. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  15. From Krill to Whale: an overview of marine fatty acids and lipid compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fatty acid compositions of phyto-zooplankton (calanoid copepod species, krill… to fish species (mackerel, sardine anchovy, salmon, shark are presented. Marine oils are essentially used for their high long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA for their good health impact. Due to health benefits of the omega-3, weekly fish consumption is today recommended by many authorities (FDA, AFSSA…. Capture fisheries and aquaculture supplied the world with about 110 million tonnes of food fish in 2006 (FAO 2009, providing an apparent per capita supply of 16.7 kg. It is well established that the lipid composition of fish muscle is influenced by the diet and also depends on the effects of environmental factors (temperature, oxygen concentration in sea water and endogenous medium (physiological state and individual variability. In general, cultured fish have been reported to have a softer texture than wild fish, which has been related to the differences in muscle structure, proximate composition and nutritional value. New applications of typical compounds (wax esters, squalene … or lipid classes (glycerophospholipids, ether glycerolipids, sphingophospholipids … as cosmetics, functional foods and dietary supplements will become very important in the near future with nano-structured drug carriers in pharmaceutical and biomedical areas.

  16. The contamination of fish with chlorinated hydrocarbons in Portugal: continental coast and Azores islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, M J; De Barros, M C

    1987-01-01

    In a baseline study, muscle and liver from important commercial fish belonging to different trophic levels were analysed for organochlorines. Samples of sole, sardine and hake were collected from seven locations off the Continental coast and greater forkbeard and horse mackerel off two Azores islands. Residues of pp'DDT, pp'DDE and PCBs were present in all muscle and liver samples. pp'DDD occurred in all liver samples and in most muscle samples, except in sole where it occurred in 29% of the samples. Dieldrin was detected less frequently and did not occur in samples from the Azores. The residue levels were generally similar to those detected in related species from the North Sea, except for samples of sole collected between the Tagus and Sado estuaries where much higher residues were obtained. In view of the low consumption of insecticides in the Azores, it is proposed that long-range transport of organochlorines by winds and/or marine currents is responsible for their presence in this area. The organochlorine residues found in these fish showed no relationship with their position in the food chain but the values did increase with the quantity of lipids present. An unknown compound analysed by GC-MS interfered with DDE quantification in one sample of greater forkbeard.

  17. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p < 0.05). Generally, lead seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200 ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including β-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods.

  18. An updated ciguatoxin extraction method and silica cleanup for use with HPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of P-CTX-1, PCTX-2 and P-CTX-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lauren; Carter, Steve; Capper, Angela

    2015-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a debilitating human neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of tropical marine organisms, contaminated with bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). The growing number of cases coupled with the high toxicity of CTXs makes their reliable detection and quantification of paramount importance. Three commonly occurring ciguatoxins, P-CTX-1, 2 and 3 from five different ciguatoxic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), were used to assess the effectiveness of different extraction techniques: homogenization (high powered blending vs. ultrasonication); C-18 column sizes (500 mg vs. 900 mg); and a novel HILIC SPE cleanup. Despite minor differences, blending and sonication proved equally effective. Larger 900 mg columns offered a greater extraction efficiency, increasing detected P-CTX-1 by 37% (P Silica cleanup extraction efficiencies were also compared between the highly effective and validated ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) and current best practice extraction method employed by Queensland Health (QH). Overall, the QH protocol proved more effective, especially when paired with the newly adapted cleanup, as this increased the amount of extracted P-CTX-1 by 46% (P extracting P-CTX-1, -2, -3. Specifically P-CTX-1, the primary ciguatoxin congener of concern due to its extremely high potency and an ability to cause CFP at 0.1 μg/kg following consumption of carnivorous fish flesh. Despite being more time intensive (an additional 85 min per batch of 12 samples), this will be especially effective for assessing lower toxin burdens, which may be near the limit of detection.

  19. Fish and healthy pregnancy: more than just a red herring!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R

    1996-01-01

    In modern Western diets we eat predominantly omega-6 essential fatty acids from vegetable oils, and too little omega-3. The Department of Health recommends doubling the amount of omega-3s we eat. Omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) are derived mainly from fish oils. Omega-3s are believed to help reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. Among the main materials required for fetal brain and CNS growth in late pregnancy are omega-3s (mainly docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-6 EFAs (mainly arachidonic acid [AA]). These come from the mother's diet. Several formulae for preterm infants now contain DHA and AA to aid optimum brain, nerve and retinal development. One manufacturer has begun to include DHA and AA in formulae for term babies. Breast milk contains DHA and AA, derived from the mother's diet. Eating oily fish in pregnancy has been found to have a slight beneficial effect on birthweight and length of gestation. Eating fresh or canned oil-rich fish (e.g. kippers, herring, mackerel, salmon, sardine, pilchards, tuna) twice or three times a week can be encouraged as part of a healthy balanced diet, in pregnancy and for all the family. As well as containing omega-3 polyunsaturates, oily fish is a good source of protein and vitamins A and D. Alternatively, a fish-oil supplement may be taken. Cod liver oil is best avoided during pregnancy, because of concerns over the possible teratogenicity of vitamin A.

  20. Nutritional aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, T.K.

    1981-08-01

    From the nutritional point of view the irradiation of fruits and vegetables presents few problems. It should be noted that irradiation-induced changes in the ..beta..-carotene content of papaya (not available to the Joint Expert Committee in 1976) have been demonstrated to be unimportant. The Joint Expert Committee also noted the need for more data on thiamine loss. These have been forthcoming and indicate that control of insects in rice is possible without serious loss of the vitamin. Experiments with other cereal crops were also positive in this regard. The most important evidence on the nutritional quality of irradiated beef and poultry was the demonstration that they contained no anti-thiamine properties. A point not to be overlooked is the rather serious loss of thiamine when mackerel is irradiated at doses exceeding 3 kGy. Recent evidence indicates that thiamine loss could be reduced by using a high dose rate application process. Though spices contribute little directly to the nutritional quality of the food supply they play an important indirect role. It is thus encouraging that they can be sterilized by irradiation without loss of aroma and taste and without significant loss of ..beta..-carotenes. Of future importance are the observations on single cell protein and protein-fat-carbohydrate mixtures. The reduction of net protein utilization in protein-fat mixtures may be the result of physical interaction of the components.

  1. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS CACING PARASITIK PADA IKAN KEMBUNG (RASTRELLIGER SPP. DI PERAIRAN TELUK BANTEN DAN PELABUHAN RATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcep Rio Indaryanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The short mackerel is the most commercially important small pelagic fish in Indonesia. Parasitism plays a central role in fish biology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that all marine fishes are infected with parasites. Helminth parasitic of Rastrelliger spp. are Lechitocladium angustonum (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae and Anisakis typica (Nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. They are not significant different of helminth parasitic abundance from R. kanagurta and R. brachysoma, but significant in helminth species richness. This different of helminth species richness was because of L. angustonum dominances. The different location wasn’t have significant different of helminth parasitic abundance because Indonesian in the tropical zone. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetic with Anisakis typical and not zoonotic parasite kategories. The fish digestion was a microhabitat for helminth parasitik because they have much food stuff. The fish growth have significant different in helminth parasitic abundance and intencity. This situation was because the fish immunity development and the food habit of fish.

  2. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ricardo N; Maulvault, Ana L; Barbosa, Vera L; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-02-13

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for α-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and venlafaxine bioaccessibility in steamed mussels and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.

  3. "Once upon a time in the Mediterranean" long term trends of Mediterranean fisheries resources based on fishers' Traditional Ecological Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Dimitrios; Maravelias, Christos D; Osio, Giacomo C; Maynou, Francesc; Sbrana, Mario; Sartor, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate long-term changes in the Mediterranean marine resources driving the trawl fisheries by analysing fishers' perceptions (Traditional Ecological Knowledge, TEK) throughout the Mediterranean Sea during the last 80 years. To this end, we conducted an extended set of interviews with experienced fishers that enabled us to classify species (or taxa) as 'decreasing' or 'increasing' both in terms of abundance, as well as average size in the catch. The aspect that most clearly emerged in all the investigated areas over time was the notable increase of fishing capacity indicators, such as engine power and fishing depth range. Atlantic mackerel, poor cod, scorpionfishes, striped seabream, and John Dory demonstrated a decreasing trend in the fishers' perceived abundance, while Mediterranean parrotfish, common pandora, cuttlefish, blue and red shrimp, and mullets gave indications of an increasing temporal trend. Although, as a rule, trawler captains did not report any cataclysmic changes (e.g. extinctions), when they were invited to estimate total catches, a clear decreasing pattern emerged; this being a notable finding taking into account the steep escalation of fishing efficiency during the past century. The overall deteriorating status of stocks in most Mediterranean regions calls for responsible management and design of rebuilding plans. This should include historical information accounting for past exploitation patterns that could help defining a baseline of fish abundance prior to heavy industrial fisheries exploitation.

  4. 青岛地区常见鱼类过敏原的鉴定及其交叉反应研究%Study on the identification of allergens from 7 fishes commonly consumed in Qingdao and their cross-reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玟静; 李振兴; 金科; 郑礼娜; 王邦平; 林洪

    2011-01-01

    Qingdao is a coastal city of China where the problem of fish allergy is increasingly prominent. There have been no data providing a comprehensive picture of the major fish allergens to local people so far. Based on the above situation, the aim of this research was to study on the cross-reactivity of different fish allergens,to provide primary basis of safe eating guide for local fish allergic individuals. To determine the allergens of 7 commonly edible fishes: Alaska pollock( Theragra chatcogramma) ,red snapper(Pagrosomus major) , salmon ( Salmo salar), Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomrus niphonius ), turbot ( Scophthatmus maximus),large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea) and carp(Cyprinus carpio) ,SDS-PAGE was applied to observe the protein components of fish extracts. Sera from 18 fish allergic patients were used in Western-blot. Cross-reactivity was investigated by IgG Westem-blot, IgG ELISA and ELISA inhibition used rabbit anti-spanish mackerel parvalbumin polyclonal antibody. Results showed that the major fish allergens were 48-57,33 -41 ku,28 ku and 17 ku proteins to Qingdao residents, which was distinct from the common consensus that parvalbumin was the major allergen in fish. Meanwhile, the study on the cross-reactivity of fish parvalbumin also indicated there was a quite strong cross-reactivity between different species of fish proteins. Therefore,despite the allergens might be different from each other,it was suggested that the subjects not eat other 6 fishes if allergic to one of them.%选择青岛地区喜食的阿拉斯加狭鳕、蓝点马鲛、大黄鱼、真鲷、鲑、大菱鲆、鲤等7种鱼为研究对象,利用鱼类过敏患者血清,通过SDS-PAGE及免疫印迹方法对每种鱼的过敏原蛋白进行鉴定.利用兔抗鲅鱼小清蛋白多克隆抗体,通过间接ELISA和抑制性ELISA等对7种鱼的小清蛋白之间的交叉反应进行探讨.结果表明,青岛地区居民鱼类过敏原主要为48~57、33~41、28及17 ku的蛋白,

  5. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    resonance seismology really works and its effectiveness for OSI purposes has yet to be determined. For this experiment, we took a broad approach to the definition of ''resonance seismometry''; stretching it to include any means that employs passive seismic methods to infer the character of underground materials. In recent years there have been a number of advances in the use of correlation and noise analysis methods in seismology to obtain information about the subsurface. Our objective in this experiment was to use noise analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate these techniques for detecting and characterizing the underground damage zone from a nuclear explosion. The site that was chosen for the experiment was the Mackerel test in Area 4 of the former Nevada Test Site (now named the Nevada National Security Site, or NNSS). Mackerel was an underground nuclear test of less than 20 kT conducted in February of 1964 (DOENV-209-REV 15). The reason we chose this site is because there was a known apical cavity occurring at about 50 m depth above a rubble zone, and that the site had been investigated by the US Geological Survey with active seismic methods in 1965 (Watkins et al., 1967). Note that the time delay between detonation of the explosion (1964) and the time of the present survey (2010) is nearly 46 years - this would not be typical of an expected OSI under the CTBT.

  6. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  7. Latitudinal variation in the recruitment dynamics of small pelagic fishes in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2007-07-01

    The subarctic Oyashio Current flows south-westward and the subtropical Kuroshio Current flows north-eastward in the western North Pacific, converging in the waters off northern Japan to form the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region. Some small pelagic fishes inhabit the subarctic or subtropical waters, and others seasonally migrate north and south across the major ocean fronts. Environmental conditions in the subarctic and transition waters are variable, whereas in the subtropical Kuroshio waters conditions are relatively stable. Latitudinally different environmental conditions may affect vital parameters and recruitment variability of small pelagic fishes inhabiting the various waters. Pacific saury Cololabis saira migrate seasonally from the Kuroshio to Oyashio waters and spawn in the transition waters in autumn and spring and in the Kuroshio waters in winter. During 1990-1999, the coefficients of variation (CVs) of daily growth rates (G) and instantaneous mortality coefficients (M) were large for larvae and juveniles spawned in the northern transition waters, but relatively small for those from the southern Kuroshio waters. The Pacific stock of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus spawns in the Kuroshio waters in spring and early summer and migrates to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, whereas the Tsushima Warm Current stock spawns in the East China Sea in spring and fish remain in the subtropical warm waters throughout their lifetime. The Pacific stock had CVs > 100% for the fish aged 0-5 during 1970-2002. In contrast, the Tsushima Warm Current stock had CVs of 34-40% during 1973-2002. Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, which inhabits subarctic waters, had CVs of 118-178% for the fish aged 3-8 y during 1910-1954. Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, which spawn in the subtropical Kuroshio waters and migrate to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, had CVs > 120% for the fish aged 0-4 during 1976-2003. Contrasting with these subarctic

  8. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  9. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  10. Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates contamination of crustaceans and fishes from the Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fulvio; Fabietti, Fabio; Delise, Mirella; Funari, Enzo

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the occurrence of alkylphenols (APs) and their ethoxylates (APEs) in 8 edible marine species from the Adriatic Sea and tries to estimate the corresponding intake for the Italian population. Two crustaceans, Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster) and Squilla mantis (spottail mantis shrimp), plus six fish species, Engraulis enchrascicolus (anchovy), Scomber scombrus (Atlantic mackerel), Merluccius merluccius (European hake), Mullus barbatus (red mullet), Solea vulgaris (common sole) and Lophius piscatorius (angler) were analyzed for their content of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEs). These compounds were found in all analysed samples. NP was detected at the highest concentrations: 118-399 and 9.5-1431 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) respectively in crustaceans and fish. OP was found at respective levels of 2.7-4.7 and 0.3-3.8 ng g(-1) fw in crustaceans and fish, whereas OPE was determined at respective concentrations of 1.2-16.8 and 0.2-21.1 ng g(-1) fw in the same species. These results, together with those from a previous study on 4 edible mollusc, allow to estimate respective daily intakes for NP, OP, and OPE of about 12, 0.1, and 0.1 microg day(-1) for an Italian adult living along the Adriatic Coast. In relation to NP and OP, these intakes are much lower than the doses associated with toxic effects in laboratory animals (9 mg kg(-1) bw for rats). Nevertheless, data of exposure from other sources to these chemicals and others with similar biological characteristics are needed.

  11. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  12. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish in general and in particular from Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Federal Research Centre For Nutrition and Food, Kiel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Commission Regulation No 466/2001 establishes maximum levels for dioxins in foodstuffs, foreseeing to review the maximum levels by 31 December 2006 and to include dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Fish is known to accumulate dioxins and dioxin related compounds in the lipid phase of their tissue. To collect information of the actual contamination levels in fish species on the German market, samples were taken from fishing grounds important for the supply and in particular from the Baltic Sea. Sampling concentrates on fish species with higher fat content like mackerel (Scomber scombrus), salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), red fish (Sebastes sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus), because lean fish species are known to be less contaminated. Herring is the most important fat fish species for the German fish processing industry with a market share of 19% in 2001. The annual demand is approximately 149.000 t. Herring and other fish species accumulate PCDD/Fs with increasing age and dioxin levels in the edible part of eastern Baltic herring exceeds the maximum limit of 4 ng WHOPCDD/ F-TEQ/kg wet weight (w.w.) at ages of 4 - 6 years, corresponding to sizes of approximately 17 - 18 cm and a weight of 40 g, respectively. Hence Isosaari recommended to use preferably young fish from this area for human consumption. However, the German herring industry is based on the processing of large herring with a minimum weight of > 85g up to 250g. Therefore our interest focused on herring sizes of potential interest for the German processing industry. Samples were collected in September 1999 within two weeks covering an area from the Skagerrak to the Coast of Latvia. Additionally the contamination levels in sprat (Sprattus sprattus), flounder, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and in spring spawning herring from commercial landings around the area of Ruegen have been analysed.

  14. Investigating the quartz (1010)/water interface using classical and ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, A A; Wesolowski, D J; Cummings, P T

    2011-07-19

    Two different terminations of the (1010) surface of quartz (α and β) interacting with water are simulated by classical (CMD) (using two different force fields) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and compared with previously published X-ray reflectivity (XR) experiments. Radial distribution functions between hydroxyl and water show good agreement between AIMD and CMD using the ClayFF force field for both terminations. The Lopes et al. (Lopes, P. E. M.; Murashov, V.; Tazi, M.; Demchuk, E.; MacKerell, A. D. J. Phys. Chem. B2006, 110, 2782-2792) force field (LFF), however, underestimates the extent of hydroxyl-water hydrogen bonding. The β termination is found to contain hydroxyl-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds; the quartz surface hydroxyl hydrogens and oxygens that hydrogen bond with each other exhibit greatly reduced hydrogen bonding to water. Conversely, the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygens that are not hydrogen bonded to other surface hydroxyls but are connected to those that are show a considerable amount of hydrogen bonding to water. The electron density distribution of an annealed surface of quartz (1010) obtained by XR is in qualitative agreement with electron densities calculated by CMD and AIMD. In all simulation methods, the interfacial water peak appears farther from the surface than observed by XR. Agreement among AIMD, LFF, and XR is observed for the relaxation of the near-surface atoms; however, ClayFF shows a larger discrepancy. Overall, results show that for both terminations of (1010), LFF treats the near-surface structure more accurately whereas ClayFF treats the interfacial water structure more accurately. It is shown that the number of hydroxyl and water hydrogen bonds to the bridging Si-O-Si oxygens connecting the surface silica groups to the rest of the crystal is much greater for the α than the β termination. It is suggested that this may play a role in the greater resistance to dissolution of the β termination than that of the α termination.

  15. Anisakiasis of the colon presenting as bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rob; Petrini, John L; Choi, Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Anisakiasis is a disease caused by human infection by the Anisakis larvae, a marine nematode found in raw or undercooked fish. With the increased popularity of eating sushi and raw fish (sashimi) in the United States infection with anisakis is expected to rise. We present the first reported case in the United States of intestinal anisakiasis presenting as a bowel obstruction. A 25-year-old healthy woman with no prior history of surgery presented to the emergency room with bowel obstruction by history and CT. CT also showed a mass in the right lower quadrant. She had eaten seviche, a raw fish appetizer, 2 days earlier and sashimi 3 weeks before admission. She was taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy and was found to have an obstruction, the 2-cm mass in the mesentery, and diffuse mesenteric adenopathy. She had an ileocolectomy. Pathology showed a degenerating fish worm, anisakiasis. She also had a serologic test for immunoglobulin E specific to anisakiasis and it was highly positive. Human infections, as mentioned before, are principally the result of ingestion of the Anisakis larvae. These larvae are usually found in herring, mackerel, salmon, cod, halibut, rockfish, sardine, and squid. Most human infections have been reported from Japan and The Netherlands and involve the stomach. Invasion of the gastric or intestinal wall one to 5 days after eating raw fish may be characterized by the abrupt onset of abdominal pain, nausea and/or vomiting, diarrhea, or an ileus. For transient anisakiasis, supportive measures and reassurance are all that is needed. If the larvae have invaded the intestine or the stomach wall diagnosis and cure occur with endoscopic or surgical removal if evidence of obstruction or perforation is found. The incidence of anisakiasis in the United States is unknown but will likely continue to increase with the popularity of eating sashimi. This case is meant to demonstrate another possible cause for bowel obstruction in the

  16. Organotin levels in seafood and its implications for health risk in high-seafood consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, T. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)], E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr; Sirot, V.; Volatier, J.-L.; Leblanc, J.-C. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    Fish and fishery products are considered as the main source of organotin compounds (OTC). Unfortunately, little national contamination data is available to assess food exposure of organotins from French consumers. To provide a more accurate estimate of risks to human health, the butyltin, phenyltin and octyltin compounds sampling in four French coastal areas were measured in 159 composite samples (96 fresh and frozen fish, 28 mollusks, 14 crustaceans, 1 echinoderm, 11 canned foods, 4 smoked fish, 5 prepared seafood-based dishes) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with a microwave induced plasma atomic-emission spectrometer (CGC-MIP-AES). In these samples, butyltins were usually predominant and the range of the contamination levels was generally below those of earlier studies (fish: mean 5.6; min-max 1.1-23 {mu}g/kg; fishery products: mean 6; min-max 0.8-14 {mu}g/kg). Fish, especially tuna, salmon, mackerel, saithe/coalfish and cod were largely the main contributors (38%) to the total organotin exposure. With the supplementary contribution of great scallop, surimi, squid and oysters, the exposure exceeded 50% in all. However, the utmost OTC exposure was lesser than 47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake [EFSA (European Food Safety Agency). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission to assess the health risks to consumers associated with exposure to organotins in foodstuffs. (Question N{sup o}EFSA-Q-2003-110). The EFSA Journal, 102, 1-119, 2004. (http://www.efsa.eu.int)]. Nobody would exceed this limit. Finally, as this study has some limitations and since some other sources and health effects have not been clearly evaluated, it appears rational from public health and environmental viewpoints to continue to reduce the OTC levels in the environment.

  17. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finlay N Thompson

    Full Text Available Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures.

  18. Research progress of evaluation of seafood freshness by solid phase microex- traction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry%固相微萃取-气质联用分析方法评价水产品鲜度研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱绪建

    2014-01-01

    Freshness makes a great contribution to the quality of fish. Freshness evaluation is essential for the processing, storage and transportation, and safety of fishery products. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method is a convenient and rapid method to detect volatile compounds in foods. This method has been used in determination of volatile compounds in seafood such as cod, mackerel, tuna and seabass and evaluation of freshness as well. It is a kind of objective, rapid and convenient method. In this paper, the principle, application, and prospect of this technique were reviewed.%鲜度是影响水产品品质的重要因素。鲜度评价对水产品加工、储运及安全都具有重要意义。固相微萃取-气质联用方法是一种快速方便检测食品挥发性物质的方法。此方法已经被应用于一些水产品如鳕鱼、鲅鱼、金枪鱼、鲈鱼等挥发性物质检测及鲜度评价中。该方法具有客观、快速、方便的特点。本文就目前该分析方法在水产品鲜度评价中的原理、应用及前景作一简要综述。

  19. Helmintofauna de cavalas, Scomber japonicus Houtt, do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores identificaram as seguintes espécies de helmintos, coletados de 50 cavalas, Scomber japonicus, no Rio de Janeiro: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercos de Trypanorhyncha Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 e Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanghocephala e Anisakidae larvares (Nematoda, identificados aos tipos larvares Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum e Anisakis tipo 1. Os digenéticos foram os de maior incidência, 84% dos peixes mostraram-se parasitados por uma ou mais espécies. Quanto às espécies, a de maior incidência foi Nematobothrium scombri (Digenea, Didymozoidae, em 46% dos peixes. São pela primeria vez assinalados Scomber japonicus larvas de Phillobothiidae, possivelmente Rhinebothrium, além de larvas de Anisakis do tipo 1. São pela primeira vez assinaladas no Brasil as espécies, Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri e Opechona orientalis.There were identified twelve species of helminths from fifty "Spanish Mackerel", Scomber japonicus Houtt, in Rio de Janeiro; Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829, and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1859 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschengerg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercus of Trypanorhyncha, Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala and larval Anisakidae (Nematoda, types Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum and Anisakis I. Larval Phillobothriid, following species are referred in Brazil for the first time: Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri and Opechona orientalis.

  20. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Finlay N; Abraham, Edward R; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures.