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Sample records for mackerel scomberomorus maculatus

  1. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance.

  2. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

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    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle.

  3. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

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    Vera Lucia M. Klein

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.

  4. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Effective Population Size with Immigrants from Divergent Populations: A Case Study on Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Gilbert Michael; Broderick, Damien; Buckworth, Rik C; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2013-03-11

    Estimates of genetic effective population size (Ne) using molecular markers are a potentially useful tool for the management of endangered through to commercial species. But, pitfalls are predicted when the effective size is large, as estimates require large numbers of samples from wild populations for statistical validity. Our simulations showed that linkage disequilibrium estimates of Ne up to 10,000 with finite confidence limits can be achieved with sample sizes around 5000. This was deduced from empirical allele frequencies of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in a commercially harvested fisheries species, the narrow barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). As expected, the smallest standard deviation of Ne estimates occurred when low frequency alleles were excluded. Additional simulations indicated that the linkage disequilibrium method was sensitive to small numbers of genotypes from cryptic species or conspecific immigrants. A correspondence analysis algorithm was developed to detect and remove outlier genotypes that could possibly be inadvertently sampled from cryptic species or non-breeding immigrants from genetically separate populations. Simulations demonstrated the value of this approach in Spanish mackerel data. When putative immigrants were removed from the empirical data, 95% of the Ne estimates from jacknife resampling were above 24,000.

  5. Population dynamics parameters of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson (Lacèpéde, 1800, from commercial catch in the northern Persian Gulf

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    Nassir Niamaimandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics parameters of Scomberomorus commerson in Bushehr area waters of Iran were analyzed between October 2011 and September 2012. Fork length frequencies were collected from the gill net commercial catch. Von Bertalanffy growth function was used to estimate growth parameters K and L∞. Instantaneous total mortality rate (Z, instantaneous natural mortality rate (M and the instantaneous fishing mortality rate (F were also calculated. Resource status was evaluated by comparing estimates of the fishing mortality rate with target (Fopt and limit (Flimit biological reference points. FiSAT program was used to assess growth and mortality parameters. Based on the growth curve analysis, growth parameters were: K=0.5year−1 and L∞=148cm. Instantaneous total mortality was Z=0.97year−1. The estimate of M=0.56year−1 and F=0.41year−1, resulting in an exploitation rate (F/Z of E=0.42year−1. Target and limit biological reference points were: Fopt=0.28year−1 and Flimit=0.37year−1. Size at capture at probabilities of 0.25 (L25, 0.5 (L0.5 and 0.75 (L0.75, were 46.3 cm, 55 cm and 60.2 cm respectively. Longevity (Tmax was calculated as 3/K equal to 6 years. The exploitation rate (E did not indicate overfishing; however, Fopt and Flimit rates were lower than fishing mortality (F, suggesting that overexploitation occurred. Growth parameters in the present study showed that the gillnet fishery catches of S. commerson that are of ages 1 or 2, which may not have reached maturity. Gillnet mesh size can be a factor why the catch is composed of mostly small, immature fish. Therefore, changes in mesh size and net size should be considered.

  6. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  7. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). King Mackerel and Spanish Mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    hippurus, sobre la biologia pesquera de la captured in the western tlantic 411w i sierra Scomberomorus maculatus Ocean off Hatteras, North Carolina... Mendoza 1968; Sutherland and Fable October (Beaumariage 1973). Multiple 1980). spawning is suggested by bimodal dis- tributions of mean oocyte diameter...females col- (Powell 1975). Mendoza (1968) and Doi lected were 14 years of age or older: and Mendizabal (1979) also used a 1.4 m FL fish from Louisiana

  8. DINAMIKA POPULASI IKAN TENGGIRI (Scomberomorus commerson DI PERAIRAN TELUK KWANDANG, LAUT SULAWESI

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    Tegoeh Noegroho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tenggiri merupakan komoditas penting yang pengusahaannya telah dilakukan secara intensif untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar, baik dalam negeri  maupun ekspor.Belum adanya kontrol baik penangkapan dan biologi terhadap pemanfaatannya dapat membahayakan keberlanjutan perikanan ikan tenggiri. Penelitian telah dilakukan pada Februari-Desember 2012 di Kwandang, Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara yang potensial sebagai daerah produsen ikan tenggiri. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis parameter dinamika populasi seperti laju pertumbuhan, tingkat kematian, tingkat eksploitasi, dan pola rekrutmen ikan tenggiri (Scomberomorus commerson. Sampel ukuran ikan tenggiri diambil secara acak dari hasil tangkapan kapalpurse seine(pajeko dan pancing ulur (handline. Data ukuran ikan yang diperoleh digunakan untuk perhitungan frekuensi panjang, hubungan panjang berat, dan dinamika populasi. Beberapa parameter dinamika populasi diestimasi dengan menggunakan program FISAT II. Dari parameter pertumbuhan Von Bertalanffy diperoleh L∞ (cm dan laju pertumbuhan (K masing-masing 142,3 cm dan 0,81/ tahun. Laju mortalitas total (Z sebesar 1,19 per tahun. Tingkat kematian karena penangkapan (F sebesar 0,53/tahun lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan tingkat kematian alami (M sebesar 0,66/tahun. Tingkat eksploitasi (E ikan tenggiri di Teluk Kwandang adalah 0,39/tahun, yang artinya dalam kondisi hampir fullexsploited (Eoptimalsebesar 0,40/tahun. Pola rekrutmen ikan tenggiri terjadi dua kali, puncak pertama terjadi pada Maret-Juli (76,37%, dan yang kedua pada September-Oktober (23,63%. Narrow barred spanish mackerel is an an important commodity that has commercialized intensively to fulfill needs of the market, both domestic and exports. A research has been conducted in February-December 2012 in Kwandang, North Gorontalo regency. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamics of population parameters such as growth rate, mortality rate, exploitation rates, and recruitment

  9. Isolation and identification of bacteria from marine market fish Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India.

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    Karthiga Rani, M; Chelladurai, G; Jayanthi, G

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality and freshness of fish Indo-pacific King Mackerel "Scomberomorus guttatus" through the investigation of the occurrence of bacteria which is an indicator for fish quality. Fishes were collected every fortnight from Madurai fish market on monthly twice of January 2014 to March 2014. Skin surface of the fish was examined. Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by Biochemical tests (IMViC Tests). Among the six bacterial species E. coli and K. pneumonia were found in all the collected samples where as other bacterial species were not found. The result of this study revealed that raw fish sold in Madurai fish market has high contamination so the presence of the bacterial species has strongly suggested the urgent need to improve the quality control systems in Madurai fish market.

  10. STATUS PEMANFAATAN DAN MUSIM PENANGKAPAN IKAN TENGGIRI (Scomberomorus spp. DI LAUT JAWA

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    Kamaluddin Kasim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tenggiri (Scomberomorus spp. di Laut Jawa merupakan jenis ikan pelagis ekonomis penting yang banyak dieksploitasi karena permintaan dan harga yang tinggi. Agar pengelolaan dapat dilakukan dengan benar maka   diperlukan informasi mengenai status pemanfaatan dan musim penangkapannya. Data primer untuk  penelitian ini diperoleh dengan metode wawancara sedangkan data sekunder dikumpulkan melalui pencatatan hasil tangkapan ikan tenggiri periode 1999-2012 oleh enumerator di PPN Pekalongan dan kajian hasil peneitian terdahulu. Metode analisis model surplus produksi dan indeks musim penangkapan digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY ikan tenggiri di Laut Jawa sebesar 438 ton sedangkan effort maksimum sebesar 1000 trip setara jaring insang (gill net < 30 GT. Nilai CPUE cenderung menurun selama periode tahun 1999 hingga tahun 2012 yakni sebesar 1,73 ton/trip pada tahun 2005 menjadi hanya sebesar 0,37 ton/trip pada tahun 2011. Indeks musim Penangkapan (IMP menunjukkan bahwa ikan tenggiri melimpah pada periode Maret sampai dengan Juni dan periode Oktober hingga Desember sepanjang tahun. Narrow-barred spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous commerson is an economically important pelagic species in Java Sea that continue to be exploited due to the high demand and prices. The research regarding status of utilization and fishing season was conducted in order to obtain the optimal efforts and sustainable management. The research was conducted through interviews method to fishermen while the secondary data collected during the period of 1999-2012 through field enumerators in PPN Pekalongan as well as reviewing previous research studies. The results showed that Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY was 243.5 tons, while the maximum effort as much as 1000 trips equivalent to gill nets. Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE was declined during the period 1999 through 2012 of 0.251 tons / trip in 2005 became 0.052 tons

  11. Identification and Characterization of a New IgE-binding Protein in Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bangping; LI Zhenxing; ZHENG Lina; LIU Yixuan; LIN Hong

    2011-01-01

    As fish is one source of the 'big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years.In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28kDa protein from local mackerel (Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e.triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius (Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis)and crangon (Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  12. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  13. Quality assesment of a lot of frozen mackerel, respective frozen handcut mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruenner, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    At the request of Van Ameyde Marine in Amsterdam, RIVO BV assessed the quality of a number of blocks of frozen mackerel and a number of blocks of frozen handcut mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) by means of sensorial and chemical analysis. The samples were taken from a lot, which was partial "dama

  14. The Distribution of Capture Fisheries Based Small Pelagic - Mackerel Fish Species In Balikpapan Waters, East Kalimantan

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    Said Abdusysyahid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE In the utilization of common property resource, long term balance in aquaculture is difficult to maintain as people trying to maximize their profit leading to considerable extensification. The objective of this research was to analyze the number of stock, production, and effort of Mackerel fish (Scomberomorus commersonii resource based on bio-economic approach. Primary data was collected based on purposive sampling method where the respondents in this research were Small Pelagic fishers which determined deliberately due to specific consideration. Secondary data used in this research was obtained from several sources. Data production and effort (input or effort was arranged in a time sequence according to the type of fishing gears and their targets of fishery resource being studied and then determined the value of CPUE (catch per unit effort. Mathematically, the input gear to be standardized is calculated from fishing power index multiplies with input (effort of standardized gear. The result shows that the renewable capacity begins to decrease leading to a condition of biologically over fishing. Aside from that, the Mackerel fish resource in this area also experiences economically over fishing condition which indicated by higher economic calculation value and lower capture yield. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  15. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due...... to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics...... model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  16. Pseudocollapse and rebuilding of North Sea mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis

    2014-01-01

    The largest observed change in mackerel (Scomber scombrus) abundance in the North Atlantic happened when the so-called “North Sea mackerel” collapsed due to overfishing. Despite protection, it has remained in a depleted state. Central to this interpretation was that the “North Sea mackerel...

  17. Changes of textural properties of Scomberomorus niphonius muscle from East China sea under different frozen storage conditions%不同贮藏条件下东海马鲛鱼鱼肉质构变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 陆云飞; 叶晓峰; 张宾

    2012-01-01

    The TVBN and textural properties of mackerel fish (Scomberomorus niphonius) from East China sea were studied in order to determine the quality and freshness changes during different temperature storage. The results indicated that the TVBN values of fish muscle increased continuously with the storage time prolonged, which reached the limitation standard for 5 ~ group at the 5th day and for 0 C group at the 7th day, respectively. With respect to the changes in texture variables (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness), the samples showed a reduction trend in the values ofall variables. The variation trend of TPA values for the -55 % and -20 ~ storage samples were slightly smooth and steady changes, and the fresh-keeping effect of -55 % storage condition was better than the -20 % storage condition.%以鲜活马鲛鱼为研究对象,在鱼体TVBN含量变化基础上,应用质构仪质地多面分析(TPA)试验法,采集不同贮藏温度下样品的质构特性。结果表明:马鲛鱼TVBN含量在贮藏期间不断升高,5℃和0℃贮藏组分别贮藏5d和7d后,肌肉TVBN含量超过国家标准限量;马鲛鱼各质构参数(硬度、弹性、黏聚性及咀嚼度)随贮藏时间延长总体呈下降趋势;-55℃和-20℃冻藏样品质构特性变化相对缓慢,且-55℃保鲜效果优于-20℃贮藏。

  18. EFFECT OF INFESTATION OF Dermestes maculatus on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olusola Fasunwon

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... assessment was based on weight and proximate analysis differences ... populations of matured larvae have damaged wooden structural .... The Dermestes maculatus (hide beetles) were picked with a soft (moist) camel hair.

  19. AFSC/REFM: Atka mackerel Tagging Studies, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1999-2015, approximately 130,000 Atka mackerel have been tagged and released in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, specifically at Seguam Pass, Tanaga Pass, Amchitka...

  20. QUALITY CONTROL OF Scomber Scombrus (MACKEREL MARKET IN ROMANIA

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    Simona Dobrinas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Different types of Scomber Scombrus (mackerel available on the Romanian market (frozen, smoked, oil canned have been analyzed, in order to highlight the differences in chemical composition between foods obtained using different preservation methods. For this, water content, total acidity, NaCl content, ammonium, total nitrogen and eight essential and/or potentially toxic elements (Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Mg were determined in five types of mackerel commercial products. The analyses were completed with sensorial analysis, and qualitative identification of antiseptic preservatives (hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde and benzoic acid has been performed. Hydrogen sulfide was not detected in any of the products studied, but benzoic acid and formaldehyde were detected in frozen and canned mackerel samples. The highest concentrations of essential elements were observed in frozen mackerel muscles, except iron (the highest value was found in canned mackerel. It can be concluded that concentrations of many essential elements decreased in the fish muscle due to smoking and sterilization. This study showed that the analyzed mackerel samples contain potentially toxic elements at levels without health risks.

  1. Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Yu, Su-Ya; Khieu, Thi-Nhan; Son, Chu Ky; Jiang, Zhao; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-04-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated 11A07(T), was isolated from young Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea. Basic local alignment search tool analyses showed that this isolate had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.41% with Streptomyces rimosus subsp. paromomycinus DSM 41429(T). Phylogenetic tree revealed that strain 11A07(T) formed a distinct lineage clustered with Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T), Streptomyces sodiiphilus YIM 80305(T) and Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-2365(T) having similarities of 97.30%, 97.10% and 96.83%, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis further demonstrated that the new isolate was different from the selected representatives of Streptomyces as a separate phylogenetic line. Strain 11A07(T) produced straight or rectiflexibile spore chains with smooth surface, white aerial mycelia and brown diffusible pigments on international streptomyces project 2 medium. Maximum tolerated NaCl concentration for growth was 11.0%. Whole-cell sugars were mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4) and MK-9 (H6). The fatty-acid profile contained iso-C16:0, C18:0 10-methyl (tuberculostearic acid) and anteiso-C17:0 as the major compositions. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.4 mol%. These morphological, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties showed that strain 11A07(T) could be readily distinguished from the most closely related members of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, strain 11A07(T) (=JCM 19630(T)=CCTCC AA 2013020(T)=KCTC 29263(T)) represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  2. KOMPETENSI VEKTORIAL Anopheles maculatus, Theobald di KECAMATAN KOKAP, KABUPATEN KULONPROGO

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    Umi Widyastuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di Kabupaten Kulonprogo, khususnya di Kecamatan Kokap. Dalam dua tahun terakhir menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun 2009, 1 dari 5 desa di Kecamatan Kokap sebagai daerah malaria dengan statifikasi Insidensi Kasus Rendah (Low Case Incidence/LCI. Pada tahun 2010 meningkat menjadi 3 desa, peningkatan kasus malaria di Kecamatan Kokap berkaitan dengan keberadaan nyamuk Anopheles yang berpotensi sebagai vektor. Beberapa spesies seperti An. maculatus, An. aconitus, dan An. balabacensis diduga sebagai vektor malaria potensial di daerah ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kompetensi vektorial An. maculatus yang terdiri dari: kerentanan nyamuk An. maculatus terhadap Plasmodium, sifat antropofilik, angka paritas, dan kepadatan nyamuk. Kerentanan nyamuk terhadap Plasmodium diukur dengan deteksi antigen protein sporozoit (Circum Sporozoite Protein/CSP dari P. falciparum atau P. vivax pada dada-kepala dari semua nyamuk parous. Karakteristik antropofilik diukur dengan mendeteksi darah manusia pada perut nyamuk dengan kondisi penuh darah dan setengah gravid. Kedua deteksi tersebut dilakukan dengan teknik ELISA. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei sampai Oktober 2011 di dua desa yaitu: Tegiri dan Gunungrego, Kecamatan Kokap. Nyamuk ditangkap dengan menggunakan metode sesuai dengan pedoman WHO. Penangkapan dilakukan pada malam hari (18.00-06.00 terhadap nyamuk yang hinggap pada manusia di dalam rumah, di luar rumah, nyamuk yang istirahat baik di dalam rumah (dinding maupun luar rumah (sekitar kandang ternak dan penangkapan pada pagi hari (06.00-08.00. Kepadatan An. maculatus dihitung dan paritas nyamuk ditentukan dengan pembedahan ovarium secara mikroskopis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa An. maculatus di Gunungrego rentan terhadap P. vivax dengan angka sporozoit 3,57%. Namun, CSP antigen P. vivax tidak terdeteksi pada dada-kepala nyamuk An. maculatus dari Tegiri. Antigen CSP P. falciparum negatif pada

  3. Livoneca redmanni Leach (Isopoda, Cymothoidae e Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert (Isopoda, Aegidae, ectoparasitos de Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin (Ostheichthyes, Scombridae no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Livoneca redmanni Leach (Isopoda, Cymothoidae and Rocinelasignata Schioedte & Meinert (Isopoda, Aegidae, ectoparasites of Scomberomorusbrasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin (Ostheichthyes, Scombridae in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José T. A. X. de Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre Isopodas Crustaceas existem ectoparasitos que são de fácil observação devido ao seu tamanho. Eles causam lesões mecânicas no hospedeiro que podem resultar em morte. Este trabalho verificou a existência de parasitismo por isópodos no peixe serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os índices de infestação parasitária dos isópodos foram calculados e relacionados com o tamanho, peso e o estado gonadal do hospedeiro. Livoneca redmanni (Leach, 1818 (Cymothoidae e Rocinela signata (Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Aegidae foram registradas pela primeira vez nas águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte. Os locais de fixação de L. redmanni no hospedeiro foram a cavidade bucal e a câmara branquial, enquanto R. signata sempre foi encontrada na câmara branquial. Dos exemplares de S. brasiliensis capturados 31 % estavam parasitados, onde 86 % eram de L. redmanni e 14 % de R. signata. Foi registrado uma intensidade mínima de um e máxima de quatro isópodos por hospedeiro. Os isópodos apresentaram uma preferência pelos hospedeiros imaturos e em maturação de S. brasiliensis.Among the crustacean isopoda there exists ectoparasites which are easy to observe due to their size. They cause lesions on the host that could lead to death. The present study verified the occurrence of parasitic isopods on the fish Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Indices of parasitic infection by isopods were calculated and correlated to the body size, weight and the stage of gonadal maturity of the host. Livoneca redmanni (Leach, 1818 (Cymothoidae and Rocinela signata (Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Aegidae were registered for the first time in the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte. L. redmanni was encountered both in the oral cavity and in the gill chambers of the host

  4. Nuclear DNA content in Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae Contenido de ADN nuclear en Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jara-Seguel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA content (2C value was determined in the commercial fish Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae was determined by microdensitometry of erythrocyte nuclei after Feulgen staining; rainbow trout erythrocytes with a known 2C value were used as a standard. The 2C value of G. maculatus was 2.21 ± 0.12 pg and its C value was equivalent to 1.105 pg (1,082.9 Mbp. This C value is within the range recorded for other osmeriform species (0.62-3.2 pg. The average sperm head diameter of G. maculatus is lower than the average sperm head diameter of rainbow trout (used as a standard, which coincides with the differences observed in the nuclear DNA content of both species. This information increases the genome data available for G. maculatus and might be useful in future programs dealing with its genetic manipulation.El contenido de ADN nuclear (valor 2C fue determinado en el pez comercial Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae usando microdensitometría de núcleos de eritrocitos sometidos a tinción de Feulgen, utilizando como estándar eritrocitos de trucha arco iris con un valor 2C conocido. El valor 2C de G. maculatus fue 2,21 ± 0,12 pg y su valor C es equivalente a 1,105 pg (1.082,9 pMb. Este valor C está dentro del rango registrado para otras especies de osmeriformes (0,62-3,2 pg. El diámetro promedio de la cabeza del espermatozoide de G. maculatus es menor al promedio descrito para la trucha arco iris utilizado como estándar, lo que coincide con las diferencias observadas en el contenido de ADN nuclear entre ambas especies. Estos datos contribuyen a ampliar los antecedentes genómicos disponibles para G. maculatus y podrían ser útiles en futuros programas tendientes a su manipulación genética.

  5. Population analysis of Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829 (Perciformes, Scombridae from the Northern and Northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. Santa Brígida

    Full Text Available Scomberomorus cavalla is a pelagic fish species widely distributed on the Atlantic west coast, and a noticeable decrease in its capture level in the USA and Gulf of Mexico is occurring, compared to the levels reached by the species in the past. Likewise, in some areas of Brazil, there has been indication of over-harvesting. However, there are no molecular studies focusing on the management of such an important item. Thus, in the present study, 380 nucleotide base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region of samples from Macapá, Bragança, and Fortaleza were sequenced. Phylogenetic and population analyses revealed that there is only one panmitic population, and low levels of genetic variability were verified. These results, as well as the noticed over-harvesting of S. cavalla, represent very important data to determine the management of such stock in order to prevent a collapse or the risk of future extinction.

  6. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A

  7. Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock in the South Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Corten, A.A.H.M.; Gerlotto, F.; Brunel, T.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study on Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock (Trachurus murphyi) in the South Pacific is currently one year underway. The main achievement consisted of collecting detailed datasets on Chilean, Peruvian and European fisheries activities and information on the hydrographical / biochemical and envi

  8. Opportunistically recorded acoustic data support Northeast Atlantic mackerel expansion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, vander Jeroen; Fassler, S.M.M.; Stephens, D.; Readdy, Lisa; Scott, B.; Roel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries independent monitoring of widely distributed pelagic fish species which conduct large seasonal migrations is logistically complex and expensive.One of the commercially most important examples of such a species in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is mackerel for which up to recently only an int

  9. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis fishery off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    demersal trawl industry began targeting horse mackerel in the 1960s, as did ..... Cape Columbine in the first quarter of the year (Fig. 2). These were mainly ..... characteristics of the migrations are useful for delimiting the core sampling area of ...

  10. Migration and fisheries of North East Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in autumn and winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, A.; Kelly, C.;

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate...... correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March....... The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations...

  11. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  12. [Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Aeschynanthus maculatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pu-yu; Kang, Wen-yi

    2012-10-01

    To study the inhibitory activity of Aeschynanthus maculatus on alpha-glucosidase. The inhibilitory model of in vitro alpha-glucosidase was established. Active extracts of A. maculatus were isolated and identified bymultiple chromatographic methods, and their molecular structures were identifiied by spectral techniques. Seven coumpounts were isolated from A. maculatus and isolated as lupeol(1), stigmasterol(2), ursolic acid(3), stigmast-5,22(E)-diene-3beta-ol(4), beta-daucosterol(5), 3-hydroxy-12-taraxasten-28-oic-acid(6) and oleanic acid(7). Compounds 1 (IC50 25.41 mg x L(-1)),3(IC0 4.42 mg L(-1)),4(IC50 11.50 mg x L(-1)),6(IC50 14.17 mg x L(-1)) and 7(IC50 2.88 mg x L(-1)) had higher inhibitory activities than that of acarbose (IC50 1103.01 mg x L(-1)) as the positive control drug. Compound 1-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Compound 6 was isolated from Gesneriaceae family for the first time. Compound 7 was isolated from Aeschynanthus genus for the first time.

  13. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Defatted Mackerel Protein with Low Bitter Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hu; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the 'Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50℃, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH,16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0(1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

  14. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the... future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagics fishery..., the Council recommended a new control date of September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel....

  15. Life in 3-D: life history strategies in tunas, mackerels and bonitos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Jorda, Maria Jose; MOSQUEIRA SANCHEZ IAGO; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) sustain some of the most important fisheries in the world and their sustainable management depends on better understanding of their life history strategies. Here, we first assemble life history information on maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity and spawning duration and interval for all scombrid species.

  16. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (psausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (psausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat.

  17. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR...... are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat...... and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management...

  18. The international regulation of herring, blue whiting and mackerel fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysov A. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the fisheries management is to provide the conditions for long-term, high and sustainable fishing. Most of the fish stocks in the North-East Atlantic's are transboundary and straddling, and some international agreements in the field of regulation of their fishing are required for effective management. Achieving multilateral international agreements in the field of fisheries is very difficult and long-term process, because it affects the economic and political interests of the contracting parties. The paper considers results of the analysis of stock dynamics of the most important fishery resources in the North-East Atlantic – herring, blue whiting and mackerel – in different historical periods. As in the past few decades, we have seen periods of both managed and unmanaged fisheries and in relation to the value of stocks of pelagic fish there have been significant fluctuations, in this paper the authors have attempted to estimate the value of concerted international fisheries management to maintain a stable state of stocks of pelagic fish. Implementation of scientific recommendations agreed by the participating countries of ICES and the joint management of the herring stock management contribute to the preservation of stock stable and optimal levels of withdrawal of the object. The historical experience of the international fishing of blue whiting has shown that compliance by states involved in the fishery advice of ICES and its reserve management activities and promotes the good stock condition. To save the mackerel stock within safe biological boundaries it is necessary to achieve the agreed long-term plan for managing its fisheries between all participants in the fishery. In the long term for the conservation of stocks of herring, blue whiting and North East mackerel in the safe biological boundaries, the international regulation of their fisheries based on the scientific recommendations of ICES in the framework of NEAFC and

  19. [New metacercariae of the genus Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) in lacustrine populations of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F

    1992-01-01

    Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

  20. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  1. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Habasque, Jérémie; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, Niels T.; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Demarcq, Hervé; Gerlotto, François

    2016-08-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The uncertainty associated to jack mackerel population structure currently hampers management. Several hypotheses have been proposed from a single population up to several discrete populations. Still no definitive answer was given. Determining how environmental conditions drive jack mackerel distribution can provide insights on its population structure. To do so, here we performed in three steps. First, we used satellite data to develop a statistical model of jack mackerel horizontal habitat suitability. Model predictions based on interaction between temperature and chlorophyll-a match the observed jack mackerel distribution, even during extreme El Niño event. Second, we studied the impact of oxygen and show that jack mackerel distribution and abundance is correlated to oxygen over a wide variety of scales and avoid low oxygen areas and periods. Third, on the basis of the above we built a conceptual 3D model of jack mackerel habitat in the Southeastern Pacific. We reveal the presence of a low suitable habitat along the Chilean and Peruvian coast, figuratively presenting a closed door caused by a gap in the horizontal habitat at ∼19-22°S and a shallow oxycline off south-centre Peru. This kind of situation likely occurs on a seasonal basis, in austral summer but also at longer temporal scales. A lack of exchanges at some periods/seasons partially isolate jack mackerel distributed off Peru. On the other hand the continuity in the habitat during most of the year explains why exchanges occur. We conclude that the more likely population structure for jack mackerel is a pelagic metapopulation.

  2. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen;

    2015-01-01

    (LGC) process geostatistical model incorporating spatio-temporal correlations. A statistically significant correlation between the modelled catch rates in adjacent quarters 4 and 1 (Q4 and Q1) demonstrates that bottom-trawl surveys in winter are an appropriate platform for sampling juvenile mackerel...... the correlation between the derived annual recruitment index and recruitment estimated by backcalculation of adult mackerel data. Square root transformation led to the strongest correlation, so this is recommended for further analysis of mackerel abundance. Finally,we provide maps of spatial distributions...

  3. Erstnachweise von Paratrachelas maculatus in Österreich und Deutschland (Araneae, Corinnidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Tobias; Grabolle, Arno

    2012-01-01

    Three adult females of Paratrachelas maculatus (Thorell, 1875) were found inside a house in the south of Vienna, in a cellar in Cologne and in a house in Rüsselsheim. Additional notes on diet in captivity are presented.

  4. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA523 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  5. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from Atka mackerel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atka mackerel Pleurogrammus monopterygius were captured and tagged with depth and temperature recording devices (archival tags) on 23 July 2000 in Seguam Pass,...

  6. An electrophoretic study of the soluble lens proteins from the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens nuclei proteins of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta were studied by cellogel electrophoresis, to see whether there are any intra species variations. A distinct pattern characterised by the number of bands, mobility...

  7. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) at various storage temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yu; Hou, Xiyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U...

  8. Influence of substrate and relative humidity on the efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi for the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermestes maculatus is carrion feeder that is also a pest of poultry houses, museums, silkworm culture, and many stored foods. The Hypocreales, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea, were tested for efficacy against D. maculatus larvae on concrete, plastic, leather, and ...

  9. Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile van Lieshout

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings.

  10. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  11. Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, K B; Elphinstone, M S; Sherwin, W B; Houlden, B A

    1999-10-01

    Tiger quolls, Dasyurus maculatus, are the largest carnivorous marsupials still extant on the mainland of Australia, and occupy an important ecological niche as top predators and scavengers. Two allopatric subspecies are recognized, D.m. gracilis in north Queensland, and D.m. maculatus in the southeast of the mainland and Tasmania. D.m. gracilis is considered endangered while D.m. maculatus is listed as vulnerable to extinction; both subspecies are still in decline. Phylogeographical subdivision was examined to determine evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs) among populations of tiger quolls to assist in the conservation of these taxa. Ninety-three tiger quolls from nine representative populations were sampled from throughout the species range. Six nuclear microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (471 bp) were used to examine ESUs and MUs in this species. We demonstrated that Tasmanian tiger quolls are reciprocally monophyletic to those from the mainland using mtDNA analysis, but D.m. gracilis was not monophyletic with respect to mainland D.m. maculatus. Analysis of microsatellite loci also revealed significant differences between the Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls, and between D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus. These results indicate that Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls form two distinct evolutionary units but that D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus are different MUs within the same ESU. The two marker types used in this study revealed different male and female dispersal patterns and indicate that the most appropriate units for short-term management are local populations. A revised classification and management plan are needed for tiger quolls, particularly in relation to conservation of the Tasmanian and Queensland populations.

  12. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U/g at 37 °C. Meanwhile, fish samples stored at 25 and 37 °C for 18 h, formed histamine at above 50 mg/100 g of the potential hazard level. In contrast, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled for 36 h by cold storage at low temperature (4 °C. Therefore, strict temperature control was necessary for preservation and processing of chub mackerel in order to assure this marine fish safety.

  13. Oxidative stability of frozen mackerel batches ― A multivariate data analysis approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Ekgreen, M.; Frosch, Stina; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    2011-01-01

    such as mackerel can lead to a significant loss in fish quality primarily due to oxidation of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids. These quality changes results in significant loss for the fish processing industries and in fish with poor eating quality. In order to investigate batch-to-batch variation due...... to different catching methods and different freezing procedures 6 batches of frozen mackerel were obtained from the local producer of caned mackerel. Fish were processed as soon as possible after landing i.e. headed, gutted and individually frozen at the industry. However, one of the catch was abused...... and stored on ice for 8 days before entering the production line. Subsequently, samples from the catches were sent to our laboratory where they were stored frozen at -30 °C for a period of 12 months. At intervals of 6 weeks samples were taken and analysed for proximate analysis as well as for oxidative...

  14. Optimal Control of a Mackerel-Mimicking Robot for Energy Efficient Trajectory Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seunghee Lee; Jounghyun Park; Cheolheui Han

    2007-01-01

    A robotic fish, BASEMACK1, is designed and fabricated by mimicking the shape of a live mackerel. Three DC servo-motors are serially linked together and actuated to mimic the mackerel's Carangiform motion. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a fish-mimetic test model are experimentally identified and utilized in order to numerically simulate fish swimming.The discrete set of kinematic and dynamic parameters are obtained by considering required horizontal and lateral forces and minimum energy consumption. Using the optimized parameter set, optimal control of the robot is studied.

  15. Production of purple potato mackerel balls%紫薯鲐鱼鱼丸的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2015-01-01

    Fish ball is popular among consumers for its deliciousness, nutritiousness and conven-ience. The mackerel and purple potato were taken as main raw materials to make fish balls. Through the quality evaluation,the effect of purple potato mackerel ball was satisfying.%鱼丸以其美味、营养与便捷倍受消费者青睐. 本文以紫薯和鲐鱼为主要原料试制紫薯鲐鱼丸,紫薯鲐鱼丸产品经质量评价,效果令人满意.

  16. The Insecticidal Activity of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia Against the Common Pest in Mummies (Dermestes Maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomaa ABDEL-MAKSOUD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian mummies show different signs of deterioration caused by insects, such as missing parts, gaps and accumulated dust. Dermestes maculatus is one of the serious pests that cause damage to Egyptian mummies. To assess the insecticidal activity of tea tree oil against the larvae of the museum insect pest Dermestes maculatus (isolated from Egyptian mummies we tested it under different concentration and treatment times by the bioassay methods. Our results showed that tea tree oil diluted in ethanol was highly toxic to Dermestes maculatus larvae. Insecticidal activity depended on both concentration and exposure time. By increasing the concentration level and the exposure time we obtained a higher mortality rate.

  17. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  18. Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M.; Kania, Per Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were...

  19. Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C W; Scheibly, K L; Smith, B P; Wallin, W G

    2007-02-01

    Inbreeding depression is well documented in insects but the degree to which inbreeding depression varies among populations within species, and among traits within populations, is poorly studied in insects other than Drosophila. Inbreeding depression was examined in two long-term laboratory colonies of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), which are used frequently as models for experiments in ecology, evolution and behaviour. Inbreeding depression in these laboratory colonies are compared with one recently field-collected population of a different seed beetle, Stator limbatus Horn. Inbreeding reduced embryogenesis, egg hatch and larval survival in both species, such that eggs produced by sib matings were >17% less likely to produce an adult offspring. Inbred larvae also took 4-6% longer to develop to emergence in both species. Inbreeding depression varied among the measured traits but did not differ between the two populations of C. maculatus for any trait, despite the large geographic distance between source populations (western Africa vs. southern India). Inbreeding depression was similar in magnitude between C. maculatus and S. limbatus. This study demonstrates that these laboratory populations of C. maculatus harbour substantial genetic loads, similar to the genetic load of populations of S. limbatus recently collected from the field.

  20. Erstnachweise von Paratrachelas maculatus in Österreich und Deutschland (Araneae, Corinnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three adult females of Paratrachelas maculatus (Thorell, 1875 were found inside a house in the south of Vienna, in a cellar in Cologne and in a house in Rüsselsheim. Additional notes on diet in captivity are presented.

  1. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  2. 77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648- XB145 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  3. Investigation of a growth model incorporating density dependence for the mackerel management plan simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, T.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a framework to model density dependent growth for the North East Atlantic mackerel. The model used is the classical von Bertalanffy equation, but modified so that growth is reduced when stock size increases. The model developed was able to reproduce quite closely the trends in t

  4. Investigation of a growth model incorporating density dependence for the mackerel management plan simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, T.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a framework to model density dependent growth for the North East Atlantic mackerel. The model used is the classical von Bertalanffy equation, but modified so that growth is reduced when stock size increases. The model developed was able to reproduce quite closely the trends in

  5. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, A.; Habasque, J.; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, N.T.; Ricardo, Oliveros Ramos; Gutierrez, M.; Demarcq, Herve; Gerlotto, F.

    2016-01-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The unce

  6. A note on the record of Rastrelliger (Mackerel) larvae from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.

    from Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea They resemble the larvae of a scombrid relative, the Pacific mackerel Pneumatophorous diego, but differ in having less pigmentation and deeper body The larvae have a fairly stubby body, with 30 myomeres big eyes...

  7. Lexical Representation of Schwa Words: Two Mackerels, but Only One Salami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Audrey; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the lexical representations underlying the production of English schwa words. Two types of schwa words were compared: words with a schwa in poststress position (e.g., mack"e"rel), whose schwa and reduced variants differ in a categorical way, and words with a schwa in prestress position (e.g., s"a"lami), whose…

  8. Preservation of blue-jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus Bowdich) silage by chemical and fermentative acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enes Dapkevicius, M.L.N.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Houben, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared acidified and lactic acid fermented silage approaches for the preservation of blue-jack mackerel. Silages acidified with formic and propionic acids had stable pH (3.8) and low (19 mg/g N) levels of volatile nitrogen compounds (total volatile basic nitrogen, TVBN), but relatively high (82

  9. 76 FR 8306 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... proposed rule ended on December 17, 2010. Details concerning the Council's development of these measures... a 3-year lifespan, should not control the $50-million Loligo fishery. TrawlWorks stated that Loligo... identification and development of joint U.S./Canada research priorities for mackerel is the subject of...

  10. 77 FR 74159 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Adjustment 7, are available from: Dr. Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery... Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) (75 FR 11441, March 11, 2010) as a...: December 10, 2012. Alan Risenhoover, Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, performing the...

  11. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariaceae) sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nacoulma OG.; Ouedraogo AP.; Kiendrebeogo M.

    2006-01-01

    Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariacecae) on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleptera Bruchidae). This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) (Scrophulariaceae) in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L.) Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain) exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emer...

  12. Comparative evaluation of gum arabic coating and vacuum packaging on chilled storage characteristics of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Sahu, Upali; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of edible coating using gum arabic on biochemical, microbiological, textural and sensory characteristics of fresh gutted mackerel stored at 4 °C was investigated. The results were further compared against the samples packed under vacuum (VP) and conventional polyethylene pouches (CP). Coating with gum arabic (GC) markedly retarded lipid oxidation process in gutted mackerel compared to VP and CP samples. Moreover, VP and CP samples showed higher degree of textural deterioration compared to GC samples. Microbiologically, the shelf life of chilled gutted Indian mackerel was estimated to be 7-8, 17 and 19-20 days for CP, GC and VP samples, respectively. The sensory analysis scores confirmed the efficacy of gum coating in retarding the spoilage process during chilled storage. The current study identifies the potential of edible coating with gum arabic to improve the overall quality of Indian mackerel and extend its storage life during chilled storage.

  13. The fate of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and sardine (Sardina pilchardus in relation to prevailing currents in the Bay of Biscay: Could they affect larval survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvarez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine, in the Bay of Biscay was studied in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The spatial distribution was clearly different between the years studied and corresponds quite precisely to different water circulation regimes. Mackerel and horse mackerel larvae are more affected by the prevailing currents than sardine, as their spawning grounds are located offshore, far from the shelf break where the current velocities are higher. Survival rates for mackerel and horse mackerel were higher in 2001, when the offshore larval transport was stronger. However, for sardine, the mortality rate hardly varied between years. The abundance of 25-day-old larvae, considered as an index of the survival rate, appears to be a good recruitment indicator, at least for 1998, 2001 and 2004. Our results did not support the hypothesis of Bakun (1996, which states that dispersion of early life stages towards open ocean waters should cause high larval mortality. At least under the conditions observed for the years studied, the retention of larvae offshore appears to have a positive effect on larval growth and/or survival.

  14. Bioactivity of Lantana camara L. essential oil against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius Bioactividad de aceite esencial de Lantana camara L. contra Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Zandi-Sohani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L. is a widespread plant species mostly native to subtropical and tropical regions of the world. In this study, insecticidal and repellent activities of L. camara essential oil were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Col: Bruchidae. Analysis of chemical composition by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS showed high amounts of sesquiterpenes, mainly α-humelene (23.3% and cis-caryophyllene (16.2%. The results showed that the essential oil of L. camara has strong repellent activity against adults of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations. After 2 and 4 h, 97.4 and 100% repellency was seen at highest concentrations of 0.4 μL cm-2, respectively. Moreover, the oil was found to be toxic to adults when applied by fumigation. Responses varied with the gender of insect and exposure time. The LC50 values were 282.7 and 187.9 μL L-1 for females and males, respectively. An increase in the exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused increasing in mortality from 23.6 to 100% in males and from 14.1 to 97.1% in females, at highest concentration (1160 μL L-1. According to these results, L. camara essential oil may be useful as an alternative for bean protection against C. maculatus.Lantana camara L. es una especie vegetal nativa de las regiones subtropicales y tropicales del mundo. En este estudio se evaluaron las actividades insecticida y repelente del aceite esencial de L. camara contra Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius. El análisis de la composición volátil de este aceite esencial mediante cromatografía de gas/ espectrometría de masa (GC/MS demostró la presencia de elevadas cantidades de sesquiterpenos, principalmente α-humuleno (23.3% y ci's-cariofileno (16.2%. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el aceite esencial de L. camara tiene una elevada actividad repelente contra los adultos de C. maculatus a todas las concentraciones ensayadas. Después de 2 y 4 h la concentración de 0.4 μL cm-2 causó 97

  15. Genetic variation of Scomberomorus niphonius in the coastal waters of China based on mtDNA COI sequences%基于线粒体CO I序列的中国沿海蓝点马鲛遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艳; 章群; 宫亚运; 吕金磊; 杨喜书

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity is essential to the long-term survival of any species to changing environmental conditions,and can provide insights into tempo-spatial pattern of germplasm diversity of wild organisms,thus studies on genetic diversity of fishes play an important role in the conservation and sustainable exploitation of fishery resources.Japanese Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius,a member of Scombridae family and Scomberomorus genus,is a pelagic carnivorous fish widely distributed in the coastal waters of China,Korean peninsula and Japan of the northwestern Pacific,it is reported to undertake long-distance migrations during spawn and overwintering.It is a commercially important species in the Northwestern Pacific countries with the main catch in China,despite some recent decline in catches,the yield is still considerably high and relatively stable,especially compared with the sharply decreased catch of other economic fishes.To effectively manage and exploit the valuable fish resources sustainably,more information of its genetic background is needed.In the present study,712 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I in S.niphonius collected from six sites in the coastal waters of China Sea (including the Bohai Sea,the Yellow Sea,the East China Sea and the South China Sea ),combined with nine sequences downloaded from GenBank,were used to analyze the genetic diversity,population structure and demographic history.A total of 21 polymorphic sites,seven parsimony informative sites and 17 haplotypes were detected in 85 individuals.In addition,the content of T, C,A and G was 29.5%,29.2%,23.9% and 17.4%,respectively.Relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (Hd =0.702 ±0.044)and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π=0.002 8 ±0.000 2)for all sites as a whole were found,of which genetic diversity of the Bohai Sea,the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea populations were obviously higher (Hd:0.695 -0.816,π:0.002 7-0.003 3)than those in the South China Sea

  16. Thermal Niche Tracking and Future Distribution of Atlantic Mackerel Spawning in response to Ocean Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eBruge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North-east Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution has shifted northward in the last three decades probably in response to global sea warming. Yet, uncertainties subsist regarding on the shift rate, causalities, and how this species will respond to future conditions. Using egg surveys, we explored the influence of temperature change on mackerel’s spawning distribution (western and southern spawning components of the stock between 1992 and 2013, and projected how it may change under future climate change scenarios. We developed three generalized additive models: (i a spatiotemporal model to reconstruct the spawning distribution for the north-east Atlantic stock over the period 1992-2013, to estimate the rate of shift; (ii a thermal habitat model to assess if spawning mackerel have tracked their thermal spawning-niche; and (iii a niche-based model to project future spawning distribution under two predicted climate change scenarios. Our findings showed that mackerel spawning activity has shifted northward at a rate of 15.9 ± 0.9 km/decade between 1992 and 2013. Similarly, using the thermal habitat model, we detected a northward shift of the thermal spawning-niche. This indicates that mackerel has spawned at higher latitudes to partially tracking their thermal spawning-niche, at a rate of 28.0 ± 9.0 km/°C of sea warming. Under future scenarios (mid and end of the century, the extrapolation of the niche-based model to coupled hydroclimatic and biogeochemical models indicates that centre of gravity of mackerel spawning distribution is expected to shift westward (32 to 117 km and northward (0.5 to 328 km, but with high variability according to scenarios and time frames. The future of the overall egg production in the area is uncertain (change from -9.3% to 12%. With the aim to allow the fishing industry to anticipate the future distribution of mackerel shoals during the spawning period, future research should focus on reducing uncertainty in

  17. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  18. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, José M; Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel.

  19. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  20. Correlation between the length and weight of Arius maculatus off the southwestern coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Shan Chu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Arius maculatus were collected using the samples caught by bottom trawling off the southwestern coast of Taiwan. Length-weight and length-length, fork (FL, standard (SL and total (TL lengths, relationships were determined. The relationships between the lengths were all significantly linear (p<0.01, the b value in the length-weight relationship for this value was significantly lower than 3 in the fall (p<0.01, when the temporal changes were taken into account, indicating that only the sampling time affected the growth pattern of A. maculatus. The growth was isometric in the spring, summer and winter, but it was negative and allometric in the fall.

  1. Modification of postmortem wounds by Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) activity: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of insect activity on hacking trauma which was inflicted with a small cleaver and a razor blade under controlled conditions. Three pig hooves were each subjected to a blow with a small cleaver and a cut with a razor blade prior to insect exposure. We used Dermestes maculatus DeGeer 1774 species. These beetles made principally depressions and destruction on both wounds, and bites were observed on the edges of the wounds. As time passed and insects fed and refuge, chop marks were deformed and disappeared, taking this less than a month. Thus, D. maculatus could mask postmortem wounds and probably premortem wounds, and so the cause of death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele; Kesegofetse Thomas; Seipati Seketeme

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  3. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    , and that the LCG model is successful in extracting a population abundance signal fromthe data. In this regard, the model performed appreciably better than a more commonly used raising algorithm based on survey swept-area estimates. Therefore, the LCG model was expanded to include data from the entire survey time...... the correlation between the derived annual recruitment index and recruitment estimated by backcalculation of adult mackerel data. Square root transformation led to the strongest correlation, so this is recommended for further analysis of mackerel abundance. Finally,we provide maps of spatial distributions......, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  4. BIOATIVIDADE DE Solanum melongena L. E Capsicum annuum L. SOBRE Callosobruchus maculatus (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciene Ferreira Freire

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO uso contínuo e indiscriminado de produtos químicos na agricultura pode trazer sérios prejuízos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Uma opção é o emprego de plantas com ação inseticida. Diante do exposto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do pó de folhas de Solanum melongena L. e Capsicum annuum L. contra Callosobruchus maculatus. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraíba, Brasil. Os grãos de feijão-caupi foram tratados com os pós nas concentrações 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0 % [100*(massa do pó/massa de grãos] e realizados testes de sobrevivência e repelência contra C. maculatus. Os dados da sobrevivência foram analisados utilizando o teste de Log-rank (p ≤ 0,05, pelo método de D-collet e para a repelência utilizou-se o teste do Qui-Quadrado (p ≤ 0,05. Todos os pós e concentrações avaliadas foram repelentes contra C. maculatus, com exceção do pó de C. annuum na concentração de 2,5 %. No que se refere à sobrevivência, ambas as espécies vegetais causaram elevada mortalidade em C. maculatus, com morte total dos insetos em até 120 h.ABSTRACTThe continuous and indiscriminate use of chemicals in agriculture can bring serious problems to human health and the environment. One option is the use of plants with insecticidal action. Given the above, the aim of this work was to evaluate the insecticide activity powder of leaves of Solanum melongena L. and Capsicum annuum L. against Callosobruchus maculatus in three concentrations. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology, Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Pombal, Paraiba, Brazil. The grains of cowpea were treated with the powders in concentrations 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 % [100*(mass of powder/ mass of grains] and performed tests of survival and repellency against C. maculatus. Survival data were analyzed using

  5. UVB-induced gene expression in the skin of Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J; Downs, Kevin P; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adjbasal expression level of each transcript for each skin sample, (2) the changes in expression levels for each gene in the transcriptome upon exposure to increasing doses of UVB, and (3) clusters of genes that exhibit similar patterns of change in expression upon UVB exposure. These data provide a foundation for understanding the molecular genetic response of fish skin to UVB exposure.

  6. Determination of fluoxetine in Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) by a spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to detect and quantify fluoxetine, an antidepressant, from entomological samples. Larvae, pupae and adults of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) were reared on pig muscle previously treated with fluoxetine. The concentration selected, 2000mg/kg, emulates a fluoxetine overdose lethal to humans and laboratory animals. Thirty larvae on the fourth and fifth stages, 50 adults and several exuviae were analyzed for fluoxetine content. Detection of fluoxetine was performed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 and 277nm. All developmental stages of D. maculatus and exuviae were positive for fluoxetine. We also quantified the drug and no significant differences were found either between the days or the stages in the general model, but at 277nm a tendency of the concentration to decrease with time was observed. Concentrations of fluoxetine at 277nm were almost equal or greater than those at 270nm. This is the first study to detect and quantify fluoxetine from entomological samples and, in particular, from D. maculatus beetles. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  8. Fatty acid composition of horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla and croaker (Otolithes ruber

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    Rasool Abdul Nazeer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the proximate and fatty acid composition of muscle, viscera, skin and bone of marine fish’s horse mackerel and croaker. Methods: Freshly collected fishes were dissected and their moisture, ash and protein content were estimated gravimetrically by AOAC procedure and the lipid was extracted using chloroform, methanol and water in a ratio proposed by Bligh and Dyer. Extracted lipid was injected into gas chromatography connected to BPX-70 glass column to evaluate the fatty acid composition. Results: All the body parts analyzed had varying moisture content in between 73%-83%. Horse mackerel contained less than 3% and croaker had above 4% of lipid in all the body parts except muscle (1.4%. Fatty acid and lipid class composition was determined for all the body parts and the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Conclusion: Both the fish species showed variation, in protein content, lipid content and fatty acid composition. However, croaker had more remarkable quantity of lipid than horse mackerel.

  9. Sex pheromones of Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): congeneric responses and role of air movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B

    2000-04-01

    Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus.

  10. Preliminary results on evaluation of chickpea, Cicer arietinum, genotypes for resistance to the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erle, F; Ceylan, F; Erdemir, T; Toker, C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five 'kabuli' (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six 'desi' chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the 'flap' of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the 'desi' chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the 'kabuli' chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides.

  11. Description of Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae infecting the spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea from the Red Sea and its histopathological impact

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    Kareem Morsy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae was described from the gills of The spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea, Forsskal, 1775. Fish were collected from boot landing sites and fishermen at different water locations along the Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. The morphology and morphometric characterization of the recovered worms were described by means of light microscopy. Eight (53.3% out 15 specimens of P. maculatus were infected. Most of the infected fish had very pale gills. Morphologically, the adult worm of A. maculatus sp. nov., possessed a body which was elongated, fusiform with a total length 0.86–0.90 (0.88 ± 0.02 mm, and a maximum width 0.09–0.13 (0.11 ± 0.02 mm at the level of ovary. Haptor, broad, differentiated from the rest of the body, measured 0.04–0.08 (0.06 ± 0.02 mm and provided with continuous rows of squamodiscs. Two pairs of lateral hamuli, three bars and 14 marginal hooklets were also observed. Lateral (dorsal bars two, stout, dumbbell-shaped, measured 0.052–0.056 (0.054 ± 0.002 mm in length. Ventral bar slender, with transverse groove, measured 0.09–0.11 (0.10 ± 0.01 mm in length. Ventral hamuli measured 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm in total length with an outer root that was very long measured 0.016–0.02 (0.018 ± 0.002, stout, slightly notched at broad proximal end; inner root was conical and measured 0.013–0.017 (0.015 ± 0.002 mm, with shaft measured 0.025–0.029 (0.027 ± 0.002 mm and point length 0.007–0.009 (0.008 ± 0.002 mm. Dorsal hamuli measured 0.034–0.038 (0.036 ± 0.002 in total length; base large, stout, with only lateral rudiment of roots; blade and point were long and curved with shaft length measured 0.024–0.028 (0.026 ± 0.002 mm and 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm point length. The worm is hermaphrodite, male copulatory organ measured 0.058–0.062 (0.060 ± 0.002 mm in length with a sclerotized part composed of

  12. The De Novo Transcriptome and Its Functional Annotation in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sayadi

    Full Text Available Despite their unparalleled biodiversity, the genomic resources available for beetles (Coleoptera remain relatively scarce. We present an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, an important and cosmopolitan agricultural pest as well as an emerging model species in ecology and evolutionary biology. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 492 million read pairs generated from 51 samples of different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults of C. maculatus. Reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity software, into a single combined assembly as well as into three separate assemblies based on data from the different developmental stages. The combined assembly generated 218,192 transcripts and 145,883 putative genes. Putative genes were annotated with the Blast2GO software and the Trinotate pipeline. In total, 33,216 putative genes were successfully annotated using Blastx against the Nr (non-redundant database and 13,382 were assigned to 34,100 Gene Ontology (GO terms. We classified 5,475 putative genes into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG and 116 metabolic pathways maps were predicted based on the annotation. Our analyses suggested that the transcriptional specificity increases with ontogeny. For example, out of 33,216 annotated putative genes, 51 were only expressed in larvae, 63 only in pupae and 171 only in adults. Our study illustrates the importance of including samples from several developmental stages when the aim is to provide an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome. Our results will represent an invaluable resource for those working with the ecology, evolution and pest control of C. maculatus, as well for comparative studies of the transcriptomics and genomics of beetles more generally.

  13. Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of the Morinda lucida essential oil against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Moses S; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Ogundajo, Akintayo L; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Flamini, Guido; Yusuff, Olaniyi K; Allen, Kirk; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides.

  14. UJI KERENTANAN Anopheles aconitus DAN Anopheles maculatus TERHADAP INSEKTISIDA SINTETIK PYRETHROID DI JAWA TENGAH DAN DIY

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    Widiarti Widiarti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of vector control depends on the susceptibility of the malaria vectors to the insecticide used. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticide are recommended and used for vector control in Java-Bali by CDC. However baseline information on the susceptibility of Anopheles aconitus and Anopheles maculatus to that insecticide were not reported yet. This research therefore was conducted to determine the susceptibility status of malaria vector to the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Adults bioassays were carried out using standard WHO test methods. Field blood fed female malaria vector were exposed for one hour to 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin insecticide papers. Susceptibility test of An. aconitus from Wonosobo, Banjarnegara, Purworejo, Pekalongan, Jepara and Kulonprogo regency to 0.75% permethrin insecticide resulted in mortality of 86.0%, 94.0%, 92.5%, 96.0%, 96.0% and 96.25% respectively. Twenty four hours of exposure to 0.05% deltamethrin is required to kill 100%, 97.0%, 97.5%, 94.66%, 66.0% and 100% respectively. The susceptibility test of An. maculatus from, Purworejo (2 locations and Kulonprogo regency to 0. 75% permethrin insecticide resulted in mortality of 85.0% & 100% and 85.0% respectively. Twenty four hours exposure to 0.05% deltamethrin is required to kill 97.5 & 100% and 97.5% respectively. It can be concluded that An. aconitus and An. maculatus mosquito collected from the field in Central Java and Yogyakarta Province shows a reduced susceptibility to both synthetic pyrethroids insecticides. Keywords: Malaria Susceptibility Test, Permethrin dan Deltamethrin

  15. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses S. Owolabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL, at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%, and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%, and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2% and β-pinene (4.0%. Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides.

  16. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Bachiller

    Full Text Available The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS herring (Clupea harengus, blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou and Northeast Atlantic (NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of

  17. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  18. Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus

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    Carrea Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations. Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055. By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463. Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%. Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior. Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern

  19. Possible role of the leptin system in controlling puberty in the male chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Hirata, Daisuke; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    Leptin directly regulates kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus and gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary, making it a central player in the onset of mammalian puberty. Recently, we identified two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a single leptin receptor (lepr) in the marine perciform fish chub mackerel; however, the expression of these genes did not correlate with the expression of important reproductive genes or ovarian stage during female puberty. Here, we expand upon these initial observations by evaluating the expression of lepa, lepb, and lepr during pubertal transition and under differential feeding conditions in the male chub mackerel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that lepa was primarily expressed in the liver of pubertal and gonadal recrudescence adults, as well as in the brain of adult fish; lepb was primarily expressed in the brain of all fish tested; and lepr was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant increases in the hepatic expression of lepa in accordance with testicular stage, whereas pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (fshβ) expression increased in unison with hepatic lepa. In contrast, expression of both brain lepa and lepb dramatically decreased during pubertal transition, with brain kisspeptin 1 (kiss1) expression strongly correlating with leptin expression patterns. In pre-pubertal males, lepa, lepb, and lper gene expression in the brain, pituitary gland, and liver decreased in fish given a high feed diet, relative to the controlled feeding group. Taken together, these results indicate high sexual specificity of leptin expression, suggesting a possible role for leptin signaling in endocrine and neuroendocrine functions during spermatogenesis in the pubertal male chub mackerel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of radurization on the extention of storage life of horse mackerel ''trachurus trachurus''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztasiran, I.; Aksut, G.; Ersen, S.; Kargici, B. (Lalahan Nuclear Research Institute in Animal Health, Ankara (Turkey))

    1983-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of radurization on the extension of storage time of horse mackerel. The fresh fish samples obtained from the fish market in Ankara, were irradiated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses. Microbiological, chemical and organoleptic analyses were done on unirradiated and irradiated fish samples kept in the cold-room at +3 +-1 degC. It was observed that irradiation doses of 2 and 3 kGy significantly extended the storage life of horse mackerel and a dose of 2 kGy was found to be preferable.

  1. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling...... suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting...

  2. ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS SOBRE O Callosobruchus maculatus (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight medicinal plants on Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Plant powder from Rosmarinus officinalis (L. leaves, Peumus boldus (Mol leaves, Matricaria chamomilla (L. flowers, Baccharis trimera (Less. leaves, Camellia sinensis (L. leaves, Thea sinensis (L. leaves, Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hil. leaves, and fruits of Pimpinella anisum (L. were used in the experiment. Bioassays were carried out under constant conditions of temperature (28±2 °C, relative humidity (70±5% and scotophase of 24 hours. Experimental units consisted of 20 grams of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains with 13% wet basis moisture content, 2 g plant powder and ten adult insects, both placed in plastic containers (60 mm in diameter x 60 mm high. The analyzed variables included: insect mortality, oviposition (egg number and instantaneous rate of population growth (ri. The number of dead insects was recorded 5 days after bioassays were started, the egg number was recorded after 12 days, and ri was estimated on the 60th day. All the tested plants had toxicity to C. maculatus. The highest mortality was found in insects treated with P. boldus and I. paraguariensis. Number of eggs and ri also varied significantly among the powders. The lowest mean values for these parameters were recorded in the plots treated with P. boldus, P. anisum and R. officinalis.

  3. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  4. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  5. Deep, Staged Transcriptomic Resources for the Novel Coleopteran Models Atrachya menetriesi and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Matthew A; Kenny, Nathan J; Conrads, Kai H; Roth, Siegfried; Lynch, Jeremy A

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to sample broadly across metazoan and insect diversity, current sequence resources in the Coleoptera do not adequately describe the diversity of the clade. Here we present deep, staged transcriptomic data for two coleopteran species, Atrachya menetriesi (Faldermann 1835) and Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius 1775). Our sampling covered key stages in ovary and early embryonic development in each species. We utilized this data to build combined assemblies for each species which were then analysed in detail. The combined A. menetriesi assembly consists of 228,096 contigs with an N50 of 1,598 bp, while the combined C. maculatus assembly consists of 128,837 contigs with an N50 of 2,263 bp. For these assemblies, 34.6% and 32.4% of contigs were identified using Blast2GO, and 97% and 98.3% of the BUSCO set of metazoan orthologs were present, respectively. We also carried out manual annotation of developmental signalling pathways and found that nearly all expected genes were present in each transcriptome. Our analyses show that both transcriptomes are of high quality. Lastly, we performed read mapping utilising our timed, stage specific RNA samples to identify differentially expressed contigs. The resources presented here will provide a firm basis for a variety of experimentation, both in developmental biology and in comparative genomic studies.

  6. Acanthostomoides apophalliformis (Trematoda: Cryptogonimidae does not cause detectable mortality in Galaxias maculatus (Teleostomi: Galaxiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Revenga

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine if parasite induced mortality existed in a "puyen" population in Moreno Lake, southern Argentina. Data on both parasite abundance and degree of aggregation of parasite frequency distribution showed the absence of fish mortality induced by A. apophalliformis.Acanthostomoides apophalliformis (Trematoda: Cryptogonimidae não causa mortalidade detectável no peixe Galaxias maculatus (Teleostomi: Galaxiidae de Argentina do Sul. O "puyen", Galaxias maculatus, é um peixe nativo pequeno que habita a América do Sul e a Oceania. Acanthostomoides apophalliformis é um trematódeo digenético que parasita, freqüentemente, os "puyenes". O estudo atual foi conduzido para determinar se existe mortalidade induzida por parasito no população do "puyen" no lago Moreno, no sul de Argentina. Os dados de abundância do parasito e no grau de aggregação da distribuição de freqüência do parasito, sugerem a ausência de mortalidade induzida por A. apophalliformis em "puyenes".

  7. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  8. New morphological data on Cucullanus pinnai pinnai (Nematoda parasitizing Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Suane de Freitas Vieira

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of Cucullanus pinnai pinnai parasitizing Pimelodus maculatus in the Guandu River, Brazil, based on differential interference contrast (DIC microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, providing new morphological data about this species of parasite. Nematodes were collected between May and October 2012 from specimens of Pimelodus maculatus in the Guandu River (22°48’2”S, 43°37’35”W, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Some characteristics of specimens of Cucullanus in this study fall within the range of morphological variations of previously studied C. pinnai pinnai. Most of the specimens studied here had excretory pore and deirids located at the posterior end of the oesophagus, a feature not recorded in previous studies of this species. In addition, the size of the gubernaculum was larger than the other specimens previously studied. The SEM and DIC analyses of C. pinnai revealed several morphological details of the cephalic region and the tail papillae. With regard to the polymorphism of C. pinnai, morphological and genetic studies of this cucullanid nematode are needed, involving large numbers of host species and a wide geographical distribution.

  9. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Biological Strategies of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) at Larval Stages in Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, N I; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D

    2016-12-01

    The intraspecific variation in larval instars is a widely distributed phenomenon amongst holometabolous insects. Several factors can affect the number of instars, such as temperature, humidity, and density. Only a few references could be found in the literature because the invariability in the number of larval instars is considered normal, and the issue has raised little to no interest. Despite this, no study to date has intended to assess or focus on the larval development. Here, we analyzed the effect of different rearing temperature on the larval stage of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The results indicated that at all temperatures, L5 represented a decisive point for individuals as well as the other later larval instars, because the next step to follow was to pupate or molt to the next larval instar. Furthermore, there were mainly two populations, L5 and L6, although in different proportions according to temperature. We also found that at a greater number of instars, the larval development at all temperatures lasted longer. Moreover, the exponential model was the best adjustment in the developmental time of all populations as well as for the accumulated developmental time of L1-L4. Thus, we conclude that random factors such as genetics could probably cause interspecific variability in D. maculatus larval development.

  11. Biocontrol in store: spatial and behavioural aspects of foraging by Uscana lariophaga, egg parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, C.

    2002-01-01

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers), an important crop for West African subsistence farmers, is often infested in storage by the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana

  12. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a n

  13. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

    2001-04-01

    Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (PM. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus.

  14. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Chagas Mota

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

  15. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a

  16. Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for the Production of Iron-Binding Peptides from Mackerel Processing Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Feng Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was focused on optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for the production of iron-binding peptides from marine mackerel processing byproducts. The marine mackerel processing byproducts protein were hydrolyzed using trypsin, Protamex, Flavourzyme, Alcalase and Neutrase. Alcalase and Protamex proteolytic hydrolysates exhibited the highest iron-binding capacity; however, Alcalase proteolytic hydrolysate had higher degree of hydrolysis than that of Protamex. A four-factor-three-level composition central design experiment in response surface methodology was used to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of Alcalase. The optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 46.0°C, time of 2.01 h, pH 8.35 and enzyme to substrate 6460 U/mL. The quadratic model predicted well about the actual measured value. The average iron-binding capacity of three verification experiment was 6.62 mg-EDTA/g-protein, which was much closed to model predicted value of 6.69 mg-EDTA/g-protein.

  17. Nutrient-driven poleward expansion of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus stock: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma V. Pacariz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus stock has increased and expanded its summer feeding migration west- and northwards since 2006, entailing large geopolitical challenges for the countries harvesting this species. A common perspective is that climatic warming opens up new regions for biota in the north. It has also been suggested that the presently large pelagic fish stocks deplete prey resources in the eastern North Atlantic during their summer feeding phase, forcing the stocks west towards the Irminger Sea in their search for food. Here, we suggest that the declining nutrient (silicate concentrations observed along the northern European continental slope reduce primary and thus secondary production, exacerbating food scarceness in the east and adding to the incentive to migrate westward. The new westward feeding route requires that the fish cross the Iceland Basin, which during the summer season quickly becomes nutrient-depleted and thus might act as a barrier to migration after the spring bloom. Using mackerel and zooplankton abundance data from the International Ecosystem Summer Surveys in the Nordic Seas, we suggest that the oligotrophic waters in the central Iceland Basin force the fish to migrate through a narrow ‘corridor’ along the south Iceland shelf, where nutrients are replenished and both primary and secondary production are higher.

  18. "Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

    2013-01-01

    Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

  19. Economic gains from introducing international ITQs - the case of the mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Fitzpatrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities is one of the major challenges in European fisheries. One way to achieve this is to introduce individual tradable quotas or similar management measures. In several mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic, such...

  20. FORMULASI LEDOK INSTAN YANG DITAMBAHKAN IKAN TONGKOL DAN RUMPUT LAUT [Instant Ledok Formulation by Addition of Frigate Mackerel and Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suter*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ledok is a traditional food from Nusa Penida, Bali, in form of non-rice porridge. The main ingredients of ledok are corn and cassava, and other ingredients are peanut, red bean and spinach. These ingredients are locally available. In this study, nutrient content of instant ledok was increased through improving the formulation by adding frigate mackerel and seaweed. The study was conducted in order to find out the best formulation of instant ledok. The experiment was carried out through a Random Block Design, with five formulations of frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio in two replicates. The treatment was ratio of frigate mackerel and seaweed: (1 RI = 0 : 0, (2 R2 = 0 : 30, (3 R3 = 10 : 20, (4 R4 = 20 : 10 and (5 R5 = 30 : 0. The characteristics of instant ledok observed were: sensory characteristics and nutrient contents. The results of the study showed that there was no significant effect of formulation to acceptability of colour and odour, but there were significant effects to taste, texture and general acceptability of instant ledok. The best formulation of instant ledok was formulation R5 with addition of frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio of 30 : 0.The nutrition contents of this instant ledok were 79.60% of water, 0.74% of ash, 3.17% of protein, 3.85% of fat, 12.64% of carbohydrate, 21.15 mg/100 g of vitamin C and 3.43% of vitamin C.

  1. Impact of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga and the larval-pupal parasitoid Dinarmus basalis on Callosobruchus maculatus populations and cowpea losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Es, van M.; Sagnia, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    In West Africa, Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitize the eggs and larvae, respectively, of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), an important pest of stored cowpea. The impact of the

  2. Preparatory selection of sterilization regime for canned Natural Atlantic Mackerel with oil based on developed mathematical models of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of preparatory parameters for sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" is the aim of current study. PRSC software developed at the department of automation and computer engineering is used for preparatory selection. To determine the parameters of process model, in laboratory autoclave AVK-30M the pre-trial process of sterilization and cooling in water with backpressure of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" in can N 3 has been performed. Gathering information about the temperature in the autoclave sterilization chamber and the can with product has been carried out using Ellab TrackSense PRO loggers. Due to the obtained information three transfer functions for the product model have been identified: in the least heated area of autoclave, the average heated and the most heated. In PRSC programme temporary temperature dependences in the sterilization chamber have been built using this information. The model of sterilization process of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been received after the pre-trial process. Then in the automatic mode the sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected using the value of actual effect close to normative sterilizing effect (5.9 conditional minutes. Furthermore, in this study step-mode sterilization of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected. Utilization of step-mode sterilization with the maximum temperature equal to 125 °C in the sterilization chamber allows reduce process duration by 10 %. However, the application of this regime in practice requires additional research. Using the described approach based on the developed mathematical models of the process allows receive optimal step and variable canned food sterilization regimes with high energy efficiency and product quality.

  3. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  4. The genome of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, provides insights into evolutionary adaptation and several complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Shen, Yingjia; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Catchen, Julian; Amores, Angel; Braasch, Ingo; Chalopin, Domitille; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Bisazza, Angelo; Minx, Pat; Hillier, LaDeana; Wilson, Richard K; Fuerstenberg, Susan; Boore, Jeffrey; Searle, Steve; Postlethwait, John H; Warren, Wesley C

    2013-05-01

    Several attributes intuitively considered to be typical mammalian features, such as complex behavior, live birth and malignant disease such as cancer, also appeared several times independently in lower vertebrates. The genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution of these elaborate traits are poorly understood. The platyfish, X. maculatus, offers a unique model to better understand the molecular biology of such traits. We report here the sequencing of the platyfish genome. Integrating genome assembly with extensive genetic maps identified an unexpected evolutionary stability of chromosomes in fish, in contrast to in mammals. Genes associated with viviparity show signatures of positive selection, identifying new putative functional domains and rare cases of parallel evolution. We also find that genes implicated in cognition show an unexpectedly high rate of duplicate gene retention after the teleost genome duplication event, suggesting a hypothesis for the evolution of the behavioral complexity in fish, which exceeds that found in amphibians and reptiles.

  5. Food Characterization of the Spotted Pimelodid Fish Pimelodus maculatus from a Polluted Urban River in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kuczynski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the present study, the nourishment and the digestive system of a population of the spotted pimelodid Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803 from a polluted urban river in Argentina were analyzed (Reconquista River, Buenos Aires province. The specimens are characterized by having benthic habits and an omnivore diet. In their intestinal content, a diversity of components was identified. Such components were grouped into ten alimentary items, with dietary variations according to body size while the longitude of the intestine remained proportional to standard length. Microbiological analysis in the gills, stomach and intestine showed the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Fungi and yeast were also detected. Bacterial accounts were very high both in the analyzed organs as well in water samples. The ecological and sanitary significance of the identified bacteria is discussed.

  6. Larval competition reduces body condition in the female seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.

  7. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  8. Tibet Orbivirus, a novel Orbivirus species isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes in Tibet, China.

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    Minghua Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Orbivirus includes a number of important pathogenic viruses, including Bluetongue virus (BTV, African horse sickness virus (AHSV, and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV. In this study we describe the isolation and characterization of an Orbivirus strain isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. METHODS AND RESULTS: Initial viral screening identified a viral strain (XZ0906 that caused significant cytopathic effect (CPE in BHK-21 cells, including rounding, cell rupture, and floating. Although CPE was not observed in insect cells (C6/36, these cells supported viral replication. Polyacrylamide gel analysis revealed a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. 454 high throughput sequencing of culture supernatant was used for viral identification. Complete genome sequencing was performed by Sanger sequencing in combination with 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE. Sequence analysis demonstrated that all 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (UTRs for each of the 10 genome segments contained a series of six highly conserved nucleotides. In addition, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence was completed, and all results show that virus XZ0906 was not a member of any known species or serotype of Orbivirus, indicating it to be a new species within the genus Orbivirus. CONCLUSIONS: The isolated Orbivirus strain was designated Tibet Orbivirus, TIBOV to denote the location from which it was isolated. TIBOV is a novel orbivirus species which is isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China.

  9. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848 (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes.

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    Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo

    Full Text Available Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations.Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π and the haplotype diversity index (H indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, and H+-ATPase (HA was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes.These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G. maculatus

  10. Development of a real-time PCR method for the identification of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Amaya; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Icíar; Santaclara, Francisco J; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2013-12-01

    A Real Time-PCR method based on TaqMan technology for the identification of Scomber scombrus has been developed. A system of specific primers and a Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b region was designed. The method was successfully tested in 81 specimens of S. scombrus and related species and validated in 26 different commercial samples. An average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 15.3 was obtained with S. scombrus DNA. With the other species tested fluorescence signal was not detected or Ct was significantly higher (P<0.001). The efficiency of the assay was estimated to be 92.41%, with 100% specificity, and no cross reactivity was detected with any other species. These results reveal that the developed method is a rapid and efficient tool to unequivocally identify S. scombrus and may aid in the prevention of fraud or mislabelling in mackerel products.

  11. Life-history traits and population decline of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrusin the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghesso, C; Riginella, E; La Mesa, M; Donato, F; Mazzoldi, C

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated demographic structure and reproductive characteristics of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, in relation to landing trends in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. Results highlighted the occurrence of only small-sized and young-age individuals, and a marked decline from the 1990s to the present in maximum age (from 8 to 3 years) and total length (L(T); from 420 to 360 mm). Fecundity ranged between 40,000 and 190,000 eggs, and was related to female L(T). High levels of atresia implied lower values of actual fecundity. Sexual maturity was attained by 72·8% of individuals in their first year of life at 200 mm. The reduction in maximum L(T) resulted in a marked decline in the population egg production, while the reduction in maximum age implied that females participated in fewer spawning events.

  12. Tambora and the mackerel year: Phenology and fisheries during an extreme climate event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Karen E.; Leavenworth, William B.; Willis, Theodore V.; Hall, Carolyn; Mattocks, Steven; Bittner, Steven M.; Klein, Emily; Staudinger, Michelle; Bryan, Alexander; Rosset, Julianne; Carr, Benjamin H.; Jordaan, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Global warming has increased the frequency of extreme climate events, yet responses of biological and human communities are poorly understood, particularly for aquatic ecosystems and fisheries. Retrospective analysis of known outcomes may provide insights into the nature of adaptations and trajectory of subsequent conditions. We consider the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora and its impact on Gulf of Maine (GoM) coastal and riparian fisheries in 1816. Applying complex adaptive systems theory with historical methods, we analyzed fish export data and contemporary climate records to disclose human and piscine responses to Tambora’s extreme weather at different spatial and temporal scales while also considering sociopolitical influences. Results identified a tipping point in GoM fisheries induced by concatenating social and biological responses to extreme weather. Abnormal daily temperatures selectively affected targeted fish species—alewives, shad, herring, and mackerel—according to their migration and spawning phenologies and temperature tolerances. First to arrive, alewives suffered the worst. Crop failure and incipient famine intensified fishing pressure, especially in heavily settled regions where dams already compromised watersheds. Insufficient alewife runs led fishers to target mackerel, the next species appearing in abundance along the coast; thus, 1816 became the “mackerel year.” Critically, the shift from riparian to marine fisheries persisted and expanded after temperatures moderated and alewives recovered. We conclude that contingent human adaptations to extraordinary weather permanently altered this complex system. Understanding how adaptive responses to extreme events can trigger unintended consequences may advance long-term planning for resilience in an uncertain future. PMID:28116356

  13. Digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in the Turkish Black Sea coast

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    Türkay Öztürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (L., 1758, in the Turkish Black Sea coast for the first time. Fish were collected throughout a year period from local fishermen in Sinop. A total of 256 fish specimens were weighed and measured, subsequently examined for parasites using conventional methods under an Olympus microscope (BX53 equipped with a digital camera (DP50. The examination included gills, pharynx, body cavity and visceral organs (stomach, intestine, liver, swim bladder and gonads. Parasites recovered were fixed and preserved using methods commonly applied. A total of five species including adults of Prodistomum polonii (Molin 1879 Bray and Gibson 1990, Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819 Looss, 1907, Lasiotocus typicus (Nicoll, 1912 and metacercaria of Stephanostomum cesticillum (Molin, 1858 Looss, 1899 were identified. Each parasite species were counted, their prevalence (% and mean intensity values were determined according to Bush et al. (1997. Kruskal-Wallis test (Non-parametric ANOVA was performed to find out the significant differences in the mean intensity values of the parasite for two length classes of fish as well as for the seasons. All the statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 5%. The calculated overall infection prevalence (% and mean intensity values were 48.8% and 3.78±0.34, respectively. This data is the first on the digenean parasite fauna of the Atlantic horse mackerel collected from the Turkish Black Sea coast. Lasiotocus typicus and Stephanostomum cesticillum are new parasite records for Turkey.

  14. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  15. Rocinela signata (Isopoda: Aegidae parasitizing the gills of the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Mullidae in Northeastern Brazil

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    LUCAS CARDOSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parasitic isopods of fishes usually show wide distribution and low host specificity. This study investigated the occurrence of gill parasites in 120 specimens of spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus, marine fish of great economic importance for fishery community. The fish were captured monthly in the Coast of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, between October 2012 and September 2013. Eleven isopods were found and identified as Rocinela signata. We observed lower infections in the gills of P. maculatus (prevalence 8.3%, mean intensity 1.6±0.3 and mean abundance 0.1±0.3 when compared to other studies of different host fishes from geographically close locations. This parasite has been reported from a wide variety of fish species, not only in Brazil, but also in the eastern Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. This is the first report of R. signata in spotted goatfish.

  16. Enzymatic Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Pimelodus maculatus (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in Two Neotropical Reservoirs with Different Trophic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Duarte; Marcelo Bemquerer; Francisco Gerson de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic activities for digestion of proteins and carbohydrates were compared among three organs of the digestive system of Pimelodus maculatus in two reservoirs with different trophic conditions during the winter of 2006. The aim was to test the hypothesis that enzymatic activity for the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates differed among organs and that such activities differ between the trophic state of the environment. Enzymatic activities were determined through the assays of specifi...

  17. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses.

  18. Dynamics of ovarian maturation during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus, a reservoir invasive fish species (Teleostei: Characiformes

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    Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the dynamics of ovarian maturation and the spawning processes during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus. Adult females (n = 36 were collected bimonthly between April 2010 and March 2011. The mean gonadosomatic index (GSI was determined, ovarian and blood samples were submitted for morphometric evaluation and the steroid plasma concentration was determined by ELISA. This species demonstrated asynchronous ovarian development with multiple spawns. This study revealed that, although defined as a multiple spawning species, the ovaries of M. maculatus have a pattern of development with a predominance of vitellogenesis between April and August and have an intensification in spawning in September; in October, a drop in the mean GSI values occurred, and the highest frequencies of post-ovulatory follicles (POFs were observed. We observed a positive correlation between the POF and the levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Metynnis maculatus has the potential to be used as a source of pituitary tissue for the preparation of crude extracts for hormonal induction; the theoretical period for use is from September to December, but specific studies to determine the feasibility of this approach must be conducted.

  19. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

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    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  20. Stomach contents of the catfishes Osteogeneiosus militaris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Arius maculatus (Thunberg, 1792 in the Songkhla Lake

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    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The catfishes, Osteogeneiosus militaris and Arius maculatus, were collected from Songkhla Lake, southern Thailand at two sites that varied in the extent to which they were exposed to higher salinity (the Outer Songkhla Lake and which were exposed to lower salinity (the Inner Songkhla Lake. Both fish species were carnivores feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates with regard to its major components of Tanaidacea, Amphipoda, Bivalvia, Polychaeta and Isopoda. Tanaidacean (Apseudes sapensis clearly dominated the diets of O. militaris in both sites ranging from 33.3 to 96.7% by frequency of occurrence and 23.5 to 90.2% by number. Amphipods were the most dominant prey of A. maculatus ranging from 40.0 to 93.3% by frequency of occurrence and 7.0-60.2% by number. Although Polychaeta were less numerically abundantly eaten by catfishes (0.4-6.4%, the frequency of occurrence was high (10.0-86.7% in almost all seasons. Some other large (Alpheidae and fish larvae and fast mobile animals (Mysidacea were much more commonly found in A. maculatus than in O. militaris. This study implies that these catfish species feed opportunistically on a variety of prey in their environment coupled with preferential feeding.

  1. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Intraspecific and interspecific competition in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) on stored bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lale, N E.S.; Vidal, S

    2001-10-01

    Intraspecific competition was studied in Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Interspecific competition between the two bruchids was also studied to determine which of these species is likely to cause more damage to stored bambara groundnuts, Vigna subterranea in cases of joint infestation. Results showed that increasing the adult density up to 8 females per 10g of bambara groundnut seeds did not significantly reduce the mean number of eggs laid per female, the number of eggs developing to the adult stage, or the weight of emerged adults of either species. The developmental period of the two species was also not significantly affected. The adult emergence curve of C. maculatus was similar to that of C. subinnotatus and was of the scramble type. C. maculatus performed better than C. subinnotatus in interspecific competition and it achieved this through a higher egg-laying ability and a higher rate of progeny production coupled with a shorter life-cycle. The implications of these findings with respect to damage and possible loss of stored bambara groundnut are discussed.

  3. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population.

  4. Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    on oxidation. Subsequently the different products were stored for up to 96 h at 5 degrees C and samples were taken out regularly for analysis. Lipid oxidation was investigated by measuring primary oxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products (volatiles). Protein oxidation...... was followed by determination of protein solubility, protein thiol groups and protein carbonyl groups using colorimetric methods as well as western blotting for protein carbonyl groups. Lipid and protein oxidation markers indicated that both lipid and protein oxidation took place during processing......Protein and lipid oxidation was followed during processing and storage of mince and washed minces prepared from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachunts). Briefly horse mackerel mince (MO) was washed with three volumes of water, mimicking the surimi production and different washed products were obtained...

  5. Purification and characterization of four antibacterial peptides from protamex hydrolysate of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaas, Nadia; Hammami, Riadh; Beaulieu, Lucie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-07-03

    Proteins from fish by-product sources are valuable source of bioactive peptides and show promise as functional foods ingredients. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize antibacterial peptides from protamex hydrolysates of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) by-products. Four sequences SIFIQRFTT (P4), RKSGDPLGR (P8.1), AKPGDGAGSGPR (P8.2) and GLPGPLGPAGPK (P11) were identified in peptide fractions separated using RP-HPLC. At 200 μg mL(-1), while peptides P8.1, P8.2 and P11 exhibited partial inhibition, P4 totally inhibited tested Gram-positive (Listeria innocua) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. These results suggest that the protein hydrolysate derived from mackerel by-products could be used as an antimicrobial ingredient in both functional food and nutraceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of Morganella morganii Histidine Decarboxylase Activity and Histamine Accumulation in Mackerel Muscle Derived from Filipendula ulumaria Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoko; Yasukata, Fumiko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Ito, Mikiko; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Ueno, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, also known as meadowsweet, is an herb; its extract was examined for the prevention of histamine production, primarily that caused by contaminated fish. The efficacy of meadowsweet was assessed using two parameters: inhibition of Morganella morganii histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and inhibition of histamine accumulation in mackerel. Ellagitannins from F. ulmaria (rugosin D, rugosin A methyl ester, tellimagrandin II, and rugosin A) were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of human HDC; and in the present work, these compounds inhibited M. morganii HDC, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.5, 4.4, 6.1, and 6.8 μM, respectively. Application of the extracts (at 2 wt%) to mackerel meat yielded significantly decreased histamine accumulation compared with treatment with phosphate-buffered saline as a control. Hence, F. ulmaria exhibits inhibitory activity against bacterial HDC and might be effective for preventing food poisoning caused by histamine.

  7. Maximum sustainable speeds and cost of swimming in juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, C; Dickson, K A

    2000-10-01

    Tunas (Scombridae) have been assumed to be among the fastest and most efficient swimmers because they elevate the temperature of the slow-twitch, aerobic locomotor muscle above the ambient water temperature (endothermy) and because of their streamlined body shape and use of the thunniform locomotor mode. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that juvenile tunas swim both faster and more efficiently than their ectothermic relatives. The maximum sustainable swimming speed (U(max), the maximum speed attained while using a steady, continuous gait powered by the aerobic myotomal muscle) and the net cost of transport (COT(net)) were compared at 24 degrees C in similar-sized (116-255 mm fork length) juvenile scombrids, an endothermic tuna, the kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) and the ectothermic chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). U(max) and COT(net) were measured by forcing individual fish to swim in a temperature-controlled, variable-speed swimming tunnel respirometer. There were no significant interspecific differences in the relationship between U(max) and body mass or fork length or in the relationship between COT(net) and body mass or fork length. Muscle temperatures were elevated by 1.0-2.3 degrees C and 0.1-0.6 degrees C above water temperature in the kawakawa and chub mackerel, respectively. The juvenile kawakawa had significantly higher standard metabolic rates than the chub mackerel, because the total rate of oxygen consumption at a given swimming speed was higher in the kawakawa when the effects of fish size were accounted for. Thus, juvenile kawakawa are not capable of higher sustainable swimming speeds and are not more efficient swimmers than juvenile chub mackerel.

  8. Impact of environmental factors on recruitment and hatching patterns of Horse Mackerel (L. collected in a nearshore rocky reef system

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    Maria Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Linnaeus, 1758 is a highly exploited fish species, common throughout the North-East Atlantic. As a pelagic-neritic fish it typically occurs over the shelf at 100-200 m depth on sandy bottom and most research has focused on adults or early life stages (eggs and larvae, caught or examined in deeper waters. Nevertheless, larvae and early stages of Trachurus species have been observed in the nearshore environment of a rocky reef system in Portugal. More research is needed in order to understand the importance of nearshore environments for horse mackerel. In addition little is known on how environmental processes might affect early life parameters of this species. In this study we monitored the arrival of early juvenile horse mackerel to the reef environment at a fine time scale, and analyzed the relationship of environmental factors with patterns of recruitment and hatching, revealed by otolith microstructure analysis. In total around 2500 fish were collected with Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fish (SMURF and a distinct depth preference was recorded as 99% of fish were sampled with surface SMURFs. A GAM and GAMM analysis of the recruitment and hatching pattern, respectively, revealed a strong relationship with the lunar cycle and local up-welling. Both recruitment and hatching had a periodic pattern with peaks near the new moon; upwelling had a negative impact. Further, the study indicated that the nearshore environment might be an important nursery area for the post-larval growth of horse mackerel.

  9. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C sierra (Scomberomorus sierra muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

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    Herlinda Soto-Valdez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively. Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant. An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments. However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle.

  10. Blood cytology of the common jollytail (Galaxias maculatus) (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) at postlarval and adult stages Estudio de la citología sanguínea del puye (Galaxias maculatus) (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) en estado postlarval y adulto

    OpenAIRE

    I Valdebenito; Busse, K; N. Jaramillo; Hernández, A.

    2011-01-01

    “Puye” (Galaxias maculatus) is a small freshwater fish species of great interest to Chilean aquaculture diversification, because of the high commercial value reached by its transparent larvae or “cristalino”. This study presents the first data with regard to blood cytology in larvae and adults of this specie. Blood smears stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa were analysed through optical microscopy. The results show that in G. maculatus larvae the flowing blood has a trans...

  11. Transcriptome analysis of female and male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 A.

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    Ziping Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xiphophorus models are important for melanoma, sex determination and differentiation, ovoviviparity and evolution. To gain a global view of the molecular mechanism(s whereby gene expression may influence sexual dimorphism in Xiphophorus and to develop a database for future studies, we performed a large-scale transcriptome study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 454-FLX massively parallel DNA sequencing platform was employed to obtain 742,771 and 721,543 reads from 2 normalized cDNA libraries generated from whole adult female and male X. maculatus Jp 163 A, respectively. The reads assembled into 45,538 contigs (here, a "contig" is a set of contiguous sequences, of which, 11,918 shared homology to existing protein sequences. These numbers estimate that the contigs may cover 53% of the total number of Xiphophorus transcriptome. Putative translations were obtained for 11,918 cDNA contigs, of which, 3,049 amino acid sequences contain Pfam domains and 11,064 contigs encode secretory proteins. A total of 3,898 contigs were associated with 2,781 InterPro (IPR entries and 5,411 contigs with 132 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. There were 10,446 contigs annotated with 69,778 gene ontology (GO terms and the three corresponding organizing principles. Fifty-four potential sex differentially expressed genes have been identified from these contigs. Eight and nine of these contigs were confirmed by real-time PCR as female and male predominantly expressed genes respectively. Based on annotation results, 34 contigs were predicted to be differentially expressed in male and female and 17 of them were also confirmed by real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of an annotated overview of the transcriptome of X. maculatus and identification of sex differentially expressed genes. These data will be of interest to researchers using the Xiphophorus model. This work also provides an archive for future studies

  12. Dim-light photoreceptor of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and the photoresponse upon illumination with LEDs of different wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Chul; Choi, Mi-Jin; Yang, Yong-Soo; Lee, Hyung-Been; Yu, Young-Moon; Kim, Jong-Myoung

    2016-06-01

    To study the absorption characteristics of rhodopsin, a dim-light photoreceptor, in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the relationship between light wavelengths on the photoresponse, the rod opsin gene was cloned into an expression vector, pMT4. Recombinant opsin was transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. Cells containing the regenerated rhodopsin were solubilized and subjected to UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis in the dark and upon illumination. Difference spectra from the lysates indicated an absorption maximum of mackerel rhodopsin around 500 nm. Four types of light-emitting diode (LED) modules with different wavelengths (red, peak 627 nm; cyan, 505 nm; blue, 442 nm; white, 447 + 560 nm) were constructed to examine their effects on the photoresponse in chub mackerel. Behavioral responses of the mackerels, including speed and frequencies acclimated in the dark and upon LED illumination, were analyzed using an underwater acoustic camera. Compared to an average speed of 22.25 ± 1.57 cm/s of mackerel movement in the dark, speed increased to 22.97 ± 0.29, 24.66 ± 1.06, 26.28 ± 2.28, and 25.19 ± 1.91 cm/s upon exposure to red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs, respectively. There were increases of 103.48 ± 1.58, 109.37 ± 5.29, 118.48 ± 10.82, and 109.43 ± 3.92 %, respectively, in the relative speed of the fishes upon illumination with red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs compared with that in the dark (set at 100 %). Similar rate of wavelength-dependent responses was observed in a frequency analysis. These results indicate that an LED emitting a peak wavelength close to an absorption maximum of rhodopsin is more effective at eliciting a response to light.

  13. Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus.

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    Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-09-01

    Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness.

  14. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  15. Molecular genetic response to varied wavelengths of light in Xiphophorus maculatus skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure have been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to "cool white" fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300-600nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350-400nm (88 genes) and 500-550nm (276 genes), that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50nm regions in the 300-600nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation.

  16. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  17. Can preference for oviposition sites initiate reproductive isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?

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    Emma Rova

    Full Text Available Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact.

  18. Pyramiding of insecticidal compounds for control of the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Matthew R; Shade, Richard E; Shukle, Richard H; Moar, William J; Muir, William M; Murdock, Larry M; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2007-05-01

    The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchini) is a major pest of stored cowpea grain. With limited available technologies for controlling the bruchid, transgenic cowpeas with bruchid resistance genes engineered into them could become the next management tools. An investigation was made of two different sets of potential transgenic insecticidal compounds using an artificial seed system: (i) CIP-PH-BT-J and recombinant egg white avidin, and (ii) avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor. CIP-PH-BT-J (0.1%; 1000 mg kg(-1)) and recombinant egg white avidin (0.006%; 60 mg kg(-1)) incorporated separately into artificial seeds caused 98.2 and 99% larval mortality rates respectively. Combining CIP-PH-BT-J and avidin in the same artificial seed provided additional mortality compared with each factor incorporated singly; no insects survived in seeds with the combined toxins. Similarly, when avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) (1%; 10 g kg(-1)) were incorporated separately into artificial seeds, this caused 99.8 and 98% mortality respectively. However, in combination, avidin and alphaAI did not increase mortality, but they did cause a significant increase in developmental time of the cowpea bruchids. These results emphasize that the joint action of potential insecticidal compounds cannot be predicted from results obtained separately for each compound, and they suggest potential transgenes for further consideration.

  19. Effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic agents on locomotion in the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, M; Stein, R B

    2002-08-01

    Some neurotransmitters act consistently on the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in a wide range of vertebrates. In contrast, acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenaline (NA) have various effects on locomotion in different preparations. The roles of ACh and NA have not been studied in amphibian walking, so we examined their effects in an isolated spinal cord preparation of the mudpuppy ( Necturus maculatus). This preparation contains a CPG that produces locomotor activity when N-methyl- D-aspartic acid (NMDA), an excitatory amino acid agonist, is added to the bath. The addition of carbachol, a long acting ACh agonist, to the bath disrupted the walking rhythm induced by NMDA, while not changing the level of activity in flexor and extensor motoneurons. Adding clonidine, an alpha(2)-noradrenergic agonist, had no effect on the NMDA-induced walking rhythm. Physostigmine, an ACh-esterase inhibitor, disrupted the walking rhythm, presumably by potentiating the effects of endogenously released ACh. Atropine, an ACh antagonist that binds to muscarinic ACh receptors, blocked the effects of carbachol, indicating that the action is mediated, at least in part, by muscarinic receptors. In the absence of carbachol, atropine had no effect. Locomotion was not induced by carbachol, atropine or clonidine in a resting spinal cord preparation. Cholinergic actions do not seem to be essential to the CPG for walking in the mudpuppy, but ACh may convert a rhythmic walking state to a more tonic state with occasional bursts of EMG activity for postural adjustments.

  20. Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii

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    Nina N. Nemova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus from Svalbard waters (Isfjord and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation.

  1. Seasonal dynamics of the flower head infestation of Smallanthus maculatus by two nonfrugivorous tephritids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul-Cauich, José F; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Combined effects of vacuum packaging and mint extract treatment on the biochemical, sensory and microbial changes of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, P; Panda, S K; Mohan, C O; Bindu, J; Ravishankar, C N; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of vacuum packaging and mint extract treatment on the quality changes of gutted Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at 0-2 °C for 22 days. Biochemical, total viable count and sensory quality of chill stored mackerel were analysed at periodic intervals. Mint extract treated [dipping in 0.5% (w/v) solution of mint extract for 30 min] and vacuum packed fishes (MEVP) had significantly lower total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen compared to those packed under vacuum (CVP) and air (CAP) without mint extract treatment. Nucleotide degradation rate was lower in MEVP followed by CVP and CAP. Vacuum packaging in combination with ME treatment significantly inhibited lipid hydrolysis and lipid oxidation in mackerel as observed from its lower free fatty acid, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values. Synergistic use of mint extract and vacuum packaging has markedly controlled microbial proliferation in the samples. Based on sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel stored at 0-2 °C was determined as 13 days for CAP group, 16 days for CVP group and 21 days for MEVP group, respectively. The present study revealed that combination of vacuum packaging and mint extract treatment can be a promising technology to improve the storage quality of chill stored gutted mackerel.

  3. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CHUB MACKEREL EXTRACT ON LIPID METABOLISM OF DIABETIC RATS

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    U. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented chub mackerel extract(FCME on lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. Four week-old male Wistar rats were divided into threegroups based on weight. All rats were induced with diabetes mellitus by single intraperitoneal injectionof streptozotocin at 45 mg/kg body weight. Thereafter, they were randomly distributed to threetreatments with 7 rats assigned to each treatment. One group was the control with no additive, and twotreatmentgroups were given the purified diets supplemented with 1% or 2% FCME. Experimentalresults showed that in comparison to the control, diabetic rats fed FCME increased feed intake (P<0.01and body weight gain (P<0.05. FCME inclusion significantly reduced the activities of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase (P<0.01 and fatty acid synthetase (P<0.05 in diabetic rats. FCME significantly increasedcholesterol 7 -hydroxylase with no effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. FCME had no effect onhepatic triglyceride, free cholesterol and phospholipid. FCME inclusion at 1% level significantlyreduced serum triglyceride. FCME significantly increased HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05 with no effect onLDL + VLDL-cholesterol, and significantly reduced atherogenic index. FCME did not significantlyaffect serum insulin and glucose concentration. In conclusion, FCME supplementation altered lipidmetabolism in diabetic rats. FCME supplementation reduced the risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic rats.

  4. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  5. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat.

  6. Effect of freezing time on the quality of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmisha, I P; Ravishankar, C N; Ninan, G; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K S

    2008-09-01

    The present study aims to find the effect of freezing methods on the quality of mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in commercial plate and air blast freezers during freezing and subsequent frozen storage (-18 degrees C). Total time for freezing was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to plate freezer where protein content decreased in both the samples. Upon freezing and during frozen storage, lipid oxidation products (peroxide value, thiobarbutiric acid value, and free fatty acid value) and volatile bases (total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen) showed an increasing trend in both the samples with values slightly higher in air blast frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The total plate counts showed a significantly (P frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The taste and overall acceptability was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to air blast frozen samples on 3rd month. Both samples were in acceptable condition up to 3 mo but the plate frozen samples quality was slightly better than the air blast frozen samples.

  7. Kinetics of color change of osmotically dehydrated chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo CHECMAREV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature on the kinetics of color change of chub mackerel dehydrated in a ternary solution (water, glycerol and salt and vacuum packaged in films. The color of processed fish can change because of lipids and protein oxidation during storage. Samples were stored at 7, 25 and 35 °C for seven months and kinetic models of 0, 1 and 2 order were applied to describe the color changes. It was observed that an increase in the storage temperature improved the changes in the CIE color values (L*, a* and b*. First-order reaction had the best statistical parameters for a* at the three temperatures tested. The temperature dependence of parameter a* indicated an Arrhenius relationship and the activation energy (Ea was 44.33 kJ/mol. The parameter b* fitted to the proposed models only in samples stored at 35 °C. The L* value decreased during storage at 25 and 35 °C (pale to dark. Storage at refrigeration temperature (7 °C minimized the color changes.

  8. Mackerel (Scomber Scrombrus Oil Extraction and Evaluation as Raw Materials for Industrial Utilization

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    A. A. BAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, evaluation and refining of fish oil from mackerel (scomber scrombrus has been conducted in this work. The total percentage oil yield using solvent extraction and total moisture content was 28.24% and 56.50 %respectively, which were found to increase linearly with time. The analytical properties of the crude and the refined oil were evaluated. It was observed that the crude oil consist from: acid value 2.5 mg/KOH, peroxide value 2.19 mEq/kg, saponification value 201.6 mgKOH/g, iodine value 108.09 I2/100g, specific gravity 0.911, refractive index 1.485 and reddish brown colour. The refined oil was also evaluated as follows: acid value 2.27 mg/KOH, peroxide 1.00 meq/kg, saponification value 147.84 mgKOH/g, iodine value 106.93 I2 /100g and golden brown colour. These values fall within the acceptable standard values. The refining of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of the taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  9. Proteomics analysis in frozen horse mackerel previously high-pressure processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Méndez, Lucía; Vázquez, Manuel; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2015-10-15

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) (150, 300 and 450 MPa for 0, 2.5 and 5 min) on total sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-soluble and sarcoplasmic proteins in frozen (-10 °C for 3 months) horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) was evaluated. Proteomics tools based on image analysis of SDS-PAGE protein gels and protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were applied. Although total SDS-soluble fraction indicated no important changes induced by HPP, this processing modified the 1-D SDS-PAGE sarcoplasmic patterns in a direct-dependent manner and exerted a selective effect on particular proteins depending on processing conditions. Thus, application of the highest pressure (450 MPa) provoked a significant degradation of phosphoglycerate mutase 2, glycogen phosphorylase muscle form, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, beta-enolase and triosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase-1. Conversely, protein bands assigned to tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, fast myotomal muscle troponin T and parvalbumin beta 2 increased their intensity after applying a 450-MPa processing.

  10. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  11. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts ofGarcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C.maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5%~100% and 70% ~100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively,from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais.

  12. Construction of cDNA Libraries and Identification of Head Kidney from Scomberomorus niphonius%蓝点马鲛头肾cDNA文库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹妮; 刘军

    2015-01-01

    研究运用SMART技术对蓝点马鲛头肾构建了cDNA文库,该文库原始文库滴度为2.26×106pfu/mL,文库容量为1.36×106pfu,符合文库构建的要求。从文库中随机挑选24个单克隆菌,以载体的通用引物进行菌落检测PCR,结果表明:重组率为95.8%,插入片段大小平均为1000bp。该文库的构建满足了基因的分离与筛选,为进一步研究其相关基因克隆及分子生物学研究奠定基础。%cDNA library of Scomberomorus niphonius head kidney was constracted by SMART technology. The original library titer is 2.26×106pfu/mL,and library capacity is 1.36×106pfu,meeting the requirements of library construction. RandomLy selected 24 monoclonal bacteria from the library,subjected to colony PCR detected by using universal primers. The results showed that recombination rate was 95.8%,an average in⁃sert size was 1 000bp. Construction of the library meet the isolation and screening of gene,and lay the foundation for further study of melecμlar biology and gene cloning.

  13. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana B. Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.Neste trabalho confirmamos a resistência do feijão comum ( Phaseolus vulgaris ao bruquídeo Callosobruchus maculatus (F., inseto que preda sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.. A resistência desta semente não está relacionada com a espessura do tegumento nem com os níveis de diversos compostos como ácido taníco, fenóis e ácido cianídrico conforme demonstram nossos resultados. No entanto, faseolina, detectada no tegumento por ‘‘Western blotting’’ e seqüenciamento N-terminal, é tóxica a C. maculatus. Esses dados estão de acordo com estudos anteriores feitos com duas outras sementes de leguminosas (Canavalia ensiformis e Phaseolus lunatus e nos levam a sugerir que a presença de proteínas do tipo vicilina no tegumento de sementes de leguminosas tiveram papel importante nos mecanismo de adaptação de bruquídeos a sementes de leguminosas.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g(-)(1) wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  15. Evolution of the indigenous microbiota in modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) identified by conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Begoña; Hernandez, Igor

    2013-10-15

    A combination of conventional methods and genetic identification (PCR sequencing) was used to study the dynamics of the bacterial population during the spoilage of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) fillets. The cultivable microflora in Atlantic horse mackerel samples packaged in a modified atmosphere (48% CO2, 50% N2 and 2% O2) at refrigeration temperature (6 °C) was measured on days 1, 5 and 7 using non-selective (Long and Hammer agar) and selective media (Kligler's iron agar, STAA and MRS). The microflora was genetically characterised using partial amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 309 bacterial isolates obtained from Long and Hammer agar. At the end of the shelf life (5 days), the total viable counts (TVC) on Long and Hammer agar were not significantly different to the LAB counts on MRS agar (p>0.05). The molecular approach showed that Photobacterium, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudoclavibacter (44.5% of total) dominated the microbial composition of the fish at the beginning of storage. However, Serratia, Shewanella and Yersinia dominated at the late spoilage stages (over 57.2% of the total). Carnobacterium was the most important species of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and was identified at the beginning and end of the storage period. Vibrio spp. was only found at the end of the shelf life. This research demonstrates that the microbial biodiversity in MAP Atlantic horse mackerel is enormous and the dominant species change over the storage time. The results presented here on the dominant communities in fish products will make it possible to accurately select the best preservation practices. © 2013.

  16. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  17. Efecto de la salinidad en la supervivencia embrionaria de puye Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Barile

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó e l efecto de la salinidad en la supervivencia embrionaria, período embrionario y período de eclosión de puye, Galaxias maculatus. Se utilizaron ocho tratamientos, con salinidades de 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 y 20 obteniéndose supervivencias embrionarias promedios respectivas de 84,9; 84,0; 85,5; 86,1; 82,6 y 75,8%, sin diferencias significativas entre ellas, mientras que con salinidad de 24 se obtuvo sobrevivencia de 10,4%, significativamente diferente al resto de los tratamientos y con salinidad de 28 causó 100% de mortalidad. A diferencia del estado juvenil y adulto, el embrión es incapaz de resistir la salinidad marina y su umbral de tolerancia se encuentra entre salinidades de 24 y 28. Las mayores supervivencias promedios larvales a 10 días de vida fueron con salinidades intermedias de 8, 12 y 16 de 79,3; 80,3 y 74,6% respectivamente, sin diferencias significativas entre ellas, demostrando alta viabilidad del embrión post-eclosión. Los períodos embrionarios promedios (50% más breves fueron a bajas salinidades 0, 4, 8, 12 con 28,7; 28,0; 29,7 y 29,7 días y los más extensos en los tratamientos con salinidades de 16 y 20, con 34,0 y 34,3 días, sin diferencias significativas entre ellos. Los períodos de eclosión promedio (50% con salinidades de 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 y 24 fueron de 5,0; 5,5; 7,5; 8,8; 13,0; 14,3 y 15,8 días respectivamente, sin diferencias significativas entre ellos.

  18. Characterization of appetite-regulating factors in platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus (Cyprinodontiformes Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Paul M; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    The regulation of energy in fish, like most vertebrates, is a complex process that involves a number of brain and peripheral hormones. These signals include anorexigenic (e.g. cholecystokinin (CCK) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)) as well as orexigenic (e.g. orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) peptides. Platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, are freshwater viviparous fish for which little is known about the endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding. In order to elucidate the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of platyfish, we examined the effects of peripheral injections of CCK and orexin on feeding behavior and food intake. Injections of CCK decreased both food intake and searching behavior, while injections of orexin increased searching behavior but did not affect food consumption. In order to better characterize these peptides, we examined their mRNA tissue distribution and assessed the effects of a 10-day fast on their brain and intestine expressions in both males and females. CCK, CART, NPY and orexin all show widespread distributions in brain and several peripheral tissues, including intestine and gonads. Fasting induced decreases in both CCK and CART and an increase in orexin mRNA expressions in the brain and a decrease in CCK expression in the intestine, but did not affect either expressions of NPY. There were no significant sex-specific differences in either the behavioral responses to injections or the expression responses to fasting. The widespread distribution and the fasting-induced changes in expression of these peptides suggest that they might have several physiological roles in platyfish, including the regulation of feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides.

  20. Efficacy of Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) and Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extract Fractions to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus.

  1. Evidence of iteroparity in the widely distributed diadromous fish inanga Galaxias maculatus and potential implications for reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J C B; Hickford, M J H; Schiel, D R

    2016-10-01

    Gaps in understanding variability among populations of inanga Galaxias maculatus in the timing of reproduction were addressed in southern New Zealand (NZ), where G. maculatus constitutes a declining fishery. Reproductive activity was delayed by 1 month on the west coast compared with the east coast and the west coast spawning season was prolonged into winter. The evidence for post-spawning survival of some fish was unequivocal from histological studies. These older and larger fish contributed disproportionately to egg production. Estimates of fecundity were considerably lower than those previously calculated for NZ populations. The importance of quality habitats being available during critical life history periods are highlighted. It was apparent that some streams supported fish that were larger and in better condition and that this translated into greatly increased fecundity. Future research should focus on whether this is a legacy of these fish experiencing better pre-settlement marine habitat as larvae, or higher quality instream habitat enhancing the growth and development of adults.

  2. Potential of the Lectin/Inhibitor Isolated from Crataeva tapia Bark (CrataBL) for Controlling Callosobruchus maculatus Larva Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Natalia N S; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A; de Sá, Leonardo F R; de Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Correia, Maria Tereza dos S; Paiva, Patrícia Maria G; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2015-12-09

    Callosobruchus maculatus is an important predator of cowpeas. Due to infestation during storage, this insect affects the quality of seed and crop yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CrataBL, a multifunction protein isolated from Crataeva tapia bark, on C. maculatus larva development. The protein, which is stable even in extreme pH conditions, showed toxic activity, reducing the larval mass 45 and 70% at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0% (w/w), respectively. Acting as an inhibitor, CrataBL decreased by 39% the activity of cysteine proteinases from larval gut. Conversely, the activity of serine proteinases was increased about 8-fold. The toxic properties of CrataBL may also be attributed to its capacity of binding to glycoproteins or glycosaminoglycans. Such binding interferes with larval metabolism, because CrataBL-FITC was found in the fat body, Malpighian tubules, and feces of larvae. These results demonstrate the potential of this protein for controlling larva development.

  3. Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptib

  4. Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

    2008-11-01

    Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

  5. Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Collagen Hydrolysates from Spanish Mackerel Skin as Influenced by Average Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ≤ AMW ≤ 47.82 kDa from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates.

  6. Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hyeon Ahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R, stage 2 = well-done (W, and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O. Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O, e.g., 465 (trimethylamine and 106 ppb (acetic acid. In contrast, at stage 2 (W, the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O. As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality.

  7. Age and Growth of Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas Using Sectioned Otolith Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; CHEN Xinjun; FENG Bo

    2008-01-01

    Although chub mackerel (Scomberjaponicus) is a primary pelagic fish species,we have only limited knowledge on itskey life history processes.The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas.Agewas determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercialpurse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawn-ing ground in May 2006.The difference between the assumed birth date of 1 st April and date of capture was used to adjust the agedetermined from counting the number of complete translucent rings.The parameters of three commonly used growth models,the vonBertalanffy,Logistic and Gompertz models,were estimated using the maximum likelihood method.Based on the Akaike InformationCriterion (AIC),the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model.The size-at-age and size-at-maturityvalues were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s,which was caused by heavy exploitationover the last few decades.

  8. Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarki, Raouf [Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, La Goulette 2060 (Tunisia); Sadok, Saloua [Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, La Goulette 2060 (Tunisia)], E-mail: salwa.sadok@instm.rnrt.tn; Barkallah, Insaf [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires, Sidi-Thabet 2020 (Tunisia)

    2009-04-15

    Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using {gamma} irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

  9. Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Raouf; Sadok, Saloua; Barkallah, Insaf

    2009-04-01

    Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using γ irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

  10. Possible role for cryostabilizers in preventing protein and lipid alterations in frozen-stored minced muscle of Atlantic mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J; Bernárdez, Marta; Sampedro, Gabriel; Cabo, Marta L; Pastoriza, Laura

    2006-05-03

    Adding DE 18 maltodextrin (80 g kg(-1)) to high-fat minced mackerel was highly effective against lipid oxidation and protein and color changes during frozen storage. It increased the temperature of ice-melting onset (Tm') and decreased freeze concentration of solutes in the unfrozen water (UFW) phase, which would have allowed it to effectively slow such perturbations. This maltodextrin showed a higher effectiveness against lipid oxidation, but was slightly less effective in preventing the loss of protein solubility than common cryoprotectants, that is, an equiproportional mixture of sucrose and sorbitol. Such differences in effectiveness were much higher in low-fat minces, in which lipid oxidation proceeded to a much lower extent. Consequently, prior to replacing traditional cryoprotectants with maltodextrins, it should be known which processes limit the shelf life of the food. Decreasing (from 80 to 50 g kg(-1)) the proportion of maltodextrin added to high-fat minced mackerel showed that although it affected only slightly the effectiveness against lipid oxidation, it did notably affect the effectiveness in preventing the loss of protein solubility and color changes. Therefore, such a decrease could be accepted only if lipid oxidation is the most limiting process of shelf life, but does not seem appropriate when protein changes are important.

  11. Effects of Initial Infestation Levels ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea and Use ofNicotiana tabacum L. Aqueous Extract as Grain Protectant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa A K; Odunayo A; Adeyeye O E

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of initial infestation of cowpea seeds (Ife brown variety) with different insect densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 pairs per 50 g seeds) ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) and evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. onC. maculatus in the laboratory. It was observed that adult beetle population increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in insect density. The increase in population of beetles and corresponding weight loss of the seeds in different levels of infestation showed that the cowpea variety was susceptible to beetle infestation, emergence and survival of progeny. Significantly more adults emerged on higher infestation compared to lower and no infestation. In Nigeria,Nicotiana tabacum L. is a locally available plant, with known insecticidal properties. The plant leaf extract was easily extracted with water and confirmed its effectiveness as a protective agent for stored cowpea seeds. Experiment was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous extracts of N. tabacumat 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL•50 g-1 cowpea seeds onC. maculatus. Data was recorded and showed varying levels of effectiveness againstC. maculatus. Result showed that seed appearance was dependent on levels of insect population, while N. tabacum aqueous extract exerted effects on survival ofC. maculatus. Aqueous leaf extract ofN. tabacum probably contained some insecticidal properties which might have significantly conferred beetle mortality and reduced beetle emergence leading to a decrease in seed weight loss.

  12. First-year survival of North East Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) from 1998 to 2012 appears to be driven by availability of Calanus, a preferred copepod prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis

    2016-01-01

    Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is one of the ecologically and economically most important fish species in the Atlantic. Its recruitment has, for unknown reasons, been exceptional from 1998 to 2012. The majority (75%) of the survivors in the first winter were found north of an oceanographic division ...

  13. Investigating agreement between different data sources using Bayesian state-space model: an application to estimating NE Atlantic mackerel catch and stock abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmonds, E.J.; Portilla, E.; Skagen, D.; Beare, D.J.; Reid, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are ideally suited to analyses of situations where there are a variety of data sources, particularly where the uncertainties differ markedly among the data and the estimated parameters can be correlated. The example of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel is us

  14. Effect of different icing conditions on lipid damage development in chilled horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the effect of including a mixture of natural organic acids (citric, ascorbic and lactic in the icing medium employed during the chilled storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. To this end, two aqueous solutions including 0.005% and 0.020% (w/v of each acid (P-1 and P-2 conditions, respectively were employed as icing systems. The effects on lipid damage development in fish muscle were monitored for up to a 13- day storage period; complementary chemical quality and sensory acceptance analyses were carried out. According to peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assessment, a slight inhibitory effect was concluded as a result of the acid mixture present in the chilling medium. At the same time, P-2-treated fish showed a longer shelf life than their counterparts belonging to P-1 and control conditions. No effect of the acid presence in the icing system could be outlined on the nucleotide degradation or the free fatty acid formation.Se estudió el empleo de hielo conteniendo una mezcla de ácidos orgánicos naturales (cítrico, ascórbico, láctico como método de refrigeración en jurel (Trachurus trachurus. Para ello, se aplicó hielo incluyendo dos concentraciones (0.005 y 0.020 %; p/v de cada ácido (condiciones P-1 y P-2, respectivamente. Se estudiaron los efectos producidos sobre el desarrollo de la alteración lipídica en el músculo de pescado conservado durante 13 días; asimismo, se realizaron análisis químicos complementarios de calidad y de aceptación sensorial. Como resultado de la presencia de los ácidos, se observó un pequeño efecto inhibidor de la formación de peróxidos y de sustancias reactivas con ácido tiobarbitúrico. Asimismo, las muestras correspondientes al tratamiento P-2 reflejaron un tiempo de vida útil mayor que las pertenecientes a las condiciones P-1 y control. La presencia de ácidos en el hielo no produjo diferencias en la degradación de nucle

  15. Structural analysis of the Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède, 1803 embryogenesis (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

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    Hellen Buzollo

    Full Text Available The fish embryonic development comprises the events between the egg fertilization up to larvae hatching, being useful for the identification of viable eggs in productivity and survival studies as well as in raising experiments of several species. The goal of the present study was to characterize the embryonic development of Pimelodus maculatus (Siluriformes; Pimelodidae. The embryogenesis was typical of teleosteans, but with differences in relation to other species such as duration of development, type of blastocoel, moment of somite segmentation among others. Six stages of embryonic development were defined: zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, organogenesis (divided in phases: early segmentation and late segmentation and hatching with a period of incubation equal to 13 hours at 29 ºC and 17 hours at 25 ºC. The extruded oocytes presented a mean diameter of 812 µm before and 1066 µm after hydration. When fertilized, they presented a yellowish coloration and a gelatinous layer surrounding the chorion. The cleavage pattern is described as: 2; 4; 8 (4x2; 16 (4x4; 32 (4x8 and 64 (2x4x8 blastomeres up to morula phase (+64 cells. It was also possible to observe at this phase, the beginning of the formation of the yolk syncyctial layer (YSL. Afterwards, the blastula and gastrula stages followed. The end of gastrula was characterized by the formation of the yolk plug. Subsequently, the differentiation between cephalic and caudal regions began, along with the embryo elongation, structuring of optic, Kupffer's and otic vesicles besides a previously unidentified structure in the yolk syncyctial layer. The end of this stage is typified by the tail detachment. The late segmentation phase was distinguished by a free tail, presence of more than 30 somites, optic and otic vesicles, development of posterior intestine, pigmentation of cephalic and caudal regions of yolk sac and embryo growth. The recently-hatched larvae presented a primordial digestive tract

  16. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  17. Ostrea puelchana (D'Orbigny 1842: a new host of Tumidotheres maculatus (Say, 1818 in northern Patagonia, Argentina Ostrea puelchana D’Orbigny 1842 nuevo hospedador de Tumidotheres maculatus (Say, 1818 en el norte de Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Doldan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumidotheres maculatus has been reported as a commensal of Mytilus platensis and Atrina seminuda and suggested as a parasite of Aequipecten tehuelchus in San Matías Gulf (SMG. The native flat oyster, Ostrea puelchana, has been studied in SMG for decades, and no crab-oyster association has been reported. In autumn-spring 2009 and 2010, oysters were collected from four banks in SMG, and the occurrence of T. maculatus inside the pallial cavity of O. puelchana was recorded. The prevalence varied between sites, with 0-12.5% at El Sótano, 0-16.7% at Caleta de los Loros, and no crabs found in the samples from Las Grutas and Puerto Lobos. Infected oysters hosted a single crab. Oysters were infested by either one male (47.7% or one female (15.1%. A positive but low correlation was found for male crab size and oyster size. The presence of these crabs inside the oysters could be due to the overlap of the distribution areas of O. puelchana and other bivalve hosts. Our findings may also be a consequence of local fishing. Commercial extraction of traditional hosts may have caused crabs to look for new hosts.En el Golfo San Matías (GSM, Tumidotheres maculatus ha sido registrado como comensal de Mytilus platensis y Atrina seminuda, y se lo ha indicado como parásito de Aequipecten tehuelchus. La ostra plana nativa Ostrea puelchana ha sido objeto de estudio por décadas en el GSM y no existen precedentes sobre una asociación entre las ostras y el cangrejo pinotérido. Durante otoño-primavera de 2009 y de 2010 se recolectaron ostras de cuatro bancos del GSM, registrándose la ocurrencia de T. maculatus en la cavidad paleal de O. puelchana. La prevalencia varió entre los sitios: 0-12,5% en El Sótano, 0-16,7% en Caleta de los Loros; no se encontraron cangrejos en los muestreos en Las Grutas y en Puerto Lobos. Se encontró un único cangrejo por hospedador; las ostras estuvieron infestadas por cangrejos macho (47,7%, o hembras (15,1%. Se encontró una

  18. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  19. Bathydorus laniger and Docosaccus maculatus (Lyssacinosida; Hexactinellida): Two new species of glass sponge from the abyssal eastern North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Amanda S; Geller, Jonathan B; Reiswig, Henry M; Smith, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of glass sponge were discovered from the abyssal plain 200 km west of the coast of California (Station M). The sponges have similar gross morphology--an unusual plate-like form with basalia stilling the body above soft abyssal sediments. Bathydorus laniger sp. n. differs from its congeners by the presence of dermal and atrial stauractins; it is also supported by smooth hypodermal pentactins and hypoatrial hexactins. Microscleres include oxyhexasters and oxyhemihexasters. Docosaccus maculatus sp. n. contains large hexactins (>1 cm), characteristic of the genus. Megascleres include dermal hexactins, atrial pentactins, and choanosomal hexactins and diactins. Microscleres include oxytipped hemihexasters and floricomes. Several features serve to differentiate this species from its only known congener.

  20. Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P; Alexandre, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating....... Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-β-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were...... overexpressed. Conversely, α-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the toxic properties of forest anchomanes, Anchomanes difformis against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROTIMI O. AKINKUROLERE; CHRIS O. ADEDIRE; OLUSOLA O.ODEYEMI

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the efficacy of crude stem extracts of forest anchomanes, Anchomanes difformis (P. Beauv.) a plant occurring in West African forests, against the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius). Crude stem extracts at 3% concentration showed high contact toxicity to adult beetles within 24 h after application, while it was moderately toxic to the beetles at the lowest (1%) concentration. At the highest application rate, the plant extract provided good protection to grains stored for 90 days. Grain viability and water absorption capacity were not affected by treatments with ethanol extracts ofA. difformis. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to biopesticide-means of controlling cowpea bruchids.

  2. EFEKTIVITAS VECTOBAC 12 AS (Bt H-14 DAN Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 TERHADAP VEKTOR MALARIA An. maculatus DI KOBAKAN DESA HARGOTIRTO, KECAMATAN KOKAP, KABUPATEN KULON PROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study using Vectobac 12 AS ( Bt H-14 and Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain was conducted at laboratory Vector and Reservoir Control Research Unit and breeding ponds of Anopheles maculatus in Kokap regency and Kulon Progo district. The objectives of this study are : (1. to detect the efficacy of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain toward An. maculatus larvae at the laboratory. (2. to measure the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain dosages 1 x LC95. 5 x LC95 and 10 x LC95 toward An. maculatus at the field. The efficacy test of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain toward An. maculatus based on to the method proposed by WHO in order to determine the LC50 and LC90 which is computed using the probit analysis at the laboratory. The methods used R thuringiensis H-14 local strain dosages of 2.145 ppm (1 x LC95, 10.724 ppm (5 x LC95 and 21.448 ppm (10 x LC95 respectively were applied 8 ponds with the width of ponds ranging from 0.08 to 0.45 m2, 0.29 to 0.64 m2 and from 0.08-0.79 m2.The results showed, the dosages after 24 hours were 10.22 ppm (LC50, 27.11 ppm (LC90 and 35.75 ppm (LC95. After 48 hours the dosages were needed 7.74 ppm (LC50, 17.06 ppm (LC90 and 21.34 ppm (LC95, The effectiveness o/R thuringiensis H-14 local strain dosages of 2.145ppm (1 x LC95 toward An. maculatus larvae until 50 % survive the same time (7.35 days as B. thuringiensis H-14 (8.14 days dosages of 10.724 ppm (5 x LC95. B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain dosages of 21.448 ppm (10 x LC95 toward An. maculatus larvae until 50 % survive longer time (16.21 days than B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain 1 x LC95 and 5 x LC95 The B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain is effective for controlling mosquitoes larvae

  3. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo.

  4. Comparative toxicity and micronuclei formation in Tribolium castaneum, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae exposed to high doses of gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200 Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200 Gy were 12.6 and 38.8 Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8 Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2 Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species.

  5. Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2013-08-15

    Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C.

  6. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds.

  7. Influence of Thawing Methods and Storage Temperatures on Bacterial Diversity, Growth Kinetics, and Biogenic Amine Development in Atlantic Mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onyang, S.; Palmadottir, H.; Tomason, T.

    2016-01-01

    of mackerel. Thawing was either done fast in 18 degrees C water for 2 h or slowly at 30 degrees C overnight. Subsequent storage was at 30 degrees C (ambient) for 36 h and 2 to 5 degrees C (refrigerated) for 12 days. The cultivation methods used were total viable counts, hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria......, and Pseudomonas. Maximum growth rate, population density, and lag time were fitted on the counts using the Baranyi model. The bacterial diversity and succession were based on sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, and biogenic amines were quantified on high-pressure liquid chromatography UV. The results show that lag...... time of hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria was significantly affected by both thawing methods, and further, the interaction between thawing and storage significantly affected the maximum growth rate of these bacteria. However, the maximum growth rate of Pseudomonas was higher during refrigerated...

  8. Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

  9. Classification stages of novel atretic structure in short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1865 from the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinlapachai Senarat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of atretic follicles in wild population is required before investigating the reproductive cycle and spawning season but these follicles have never been reported on adult short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1865. Histology and histochemistry were used to classify the stage of atretic follicles in R. brachysoma, obtained from the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Microscopically, it was clear that under atretic processing this species could be successively divided into two phases: atretic follicle during previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages, in which the latter was also classified into five steps (I, II, III, IV, and V. Histochemically the cortical alveoli, yolk granules and basement membrane were observed and discussed in this study.

  10. Functional analysis of kisspeptin peptides in adult immature chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) using an intracerebroventricular administration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Selvaraj, Sethu; Adachi, Hayato; Imanaga, Yui; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2014-02-21

    In vertebrates (including teleosts), the pivotal hierarchical factor in the control of gonadotropin secretion is the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide, which regulates the release of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Recently, kisspeptins encoded by the Kiss1 gene have been shown to act as upstream endogenous regulators of GnRH neurons in mammals. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses two kiss genes (kiss1 and kiss2) that show sexually dimorphic expression profiles during the seasonal gonadal cycle. In the present study, we evaluated the biological potency of kisspeptin peptides to induce transcriptional changes in gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic GnRH form in this species), fshβ and lhβ during the immature stage of adult chub mackerel (2+ years old). Synthetic Kiss1 pentadecapeptide (Kiss1-15) or Kiss2 dodecapeptide (Kiss2-12) at a dose of 100 ng were administered into the intracerebroventricular (ICV) region, and brains were sampled at 6 and 12 h post-injection. In female fish, gnrh1 levels decreased in the presence of both kisspeptin peptides at 12 h post-injection. No significant variation was observed in male fish. In contrast, ICV administration of Kiss2-12 (but not Kiss1-15) significantly increased fshβ and lhβ mRNAs at 12 h post-injection compared to a saline injected control in both sexes. These results suggested that synthetic Kiss2-12 could induce transcriptional changes in gnrh1 and gths.

  11. New species of Cerambycinae from the Neotropical Region, and nomen novum for Anelaphus maculatus Galileo, Martins, and Santos-Silva, 2014 (Elaphidiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-17

    Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established.

  12. Assessment of resistance to the attack of bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius in chickpea genotypes on the basis of various parameters during storage

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    Muhammad Sarwar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., is an important pulse food. During storage this commodity is severely attacked bybean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius resulting losses in quantity and nutritional quality. Research studies onrelative resistance of 12 chickpea genotypes to the attack of C. maculatus during storage were carried out. The genotypesmost tolerant to bruchids comprised CH-52/02 and B-8/03, whereas, the most susceptible reactions were apparent inCH-86/02 and CC-117/00. The moderate pest incidence was observed in CH-28/02, CH-4/02, CH-32/02, CH-31/02, CH-9/02,CM-772/03, B-8/02 and CM-628/03 genotypes. The tolerant genotypes exhibited hard and wrinkled seed coat, dark browncolour and small size grain. These characteristics demonstrated a significant harmful effect to pest appearance and graindamage. The vulnerable genotypes had soft and smooth seed coat, white seed colour and bigger grain size that causedvulnerability to C. maculatus. Based on the present investigation, chickpea genotypes CH-52/02 and B-8/03 deserve specialconsideration and may be recommended for relatively longer storage to achieve the goal of long term and sustainable pestmanagement strategies.

  13. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on the Nutrient-antinutrient Composition, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Varieties of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata

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    Sule Ola Salawu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. is an important legume crops in most part of the world and is of health benefit in addition to the nutritional potential. However, this important nutrient and disease preventing crop, is prone to post harvest infestation damage, mostly by Callosobruchus maculatus . Therefore, the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activities, nutrient composition, anti-nutrient content and phenolic composition of Callosobruchus maculatus infested and non-infested cowpeas commonly consumed in Nigeria. The result revealed that infestation brings about an increase in the evaluated anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and alkaloids and a marked reduction in protein, carbohydrate content, whereas a marked increase was recorded for the fibre content. The result of the antioxidant activities revealed a significant reduction for total phenol, total flavonoids and reducing power and a slight reduction was recorded for the inhibitory action against lipid oxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and 1, 1-diphenyly-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities after infestation. The present investigations revealed that Callosobruchus maculatus infestation do not only affect the nutrient composition of the studied cowpeas by reducing the nutritional value, but would also have an adverse effect on their potential to prevent free radical mediated diseases.

  14. Fish Stock Endogeneity in a Harvest Function: ‘El Niño’ Effects on the Chilean Jack Mackerel Fishery

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    Sebastián Vergara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several examples of pelagic fisheries that have experienced fishing collapse when facing downward abundance cycles. Improving understanding about pelagic catch’s stock dependence can help avoid new cases of fishing collapse. This paper analyses the possible endogeneity of the fish stock variable in a pelagic fishery harvest function. The harvest function is estimated using panel data and ‘El Niño’ episodes as instrumental variable for the Chilean jack mackerel biomass. This strategy produces consistent estimates of the fish biomass coefficient. The paper makes two contributions. First, it corrects for endogeneity of the fish stock variable, an issue often underestimated in empirical fishery economics. Secondly, it shows that ‘El Niño’ episodes have negative effects on the Chilean jack mackerel biomass.

  15. Applying biomass dynamic models to the southern horse mackerel stock (Atlantic waters of Iberian Peninsula. A comparison with VPA-based methods

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    Pablo Abaunza

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus fishery of the Northeast Atlantic, is currently subject to assessment and management in the ICES area. Assessment of the Southern horse mackerel (ICES Divisions VIIIc and IXa is made with Virtual Population Analysis (VPA, using time series of catch-at-age data and catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE from 1985 to present. The application of biomass-dynamic models to the assessment and catch prediction of this stock has never been attempted before. In this paper, a production model is applied to the Southern horse mackerel stock. To quantify uncertainty in parameter estimates, bootstrap confidence intervals were computed, which showed that estimates could be considered as reliable. The bootstrap standard deviations of Ft, r, MSY and FMSY were relatively small, despite the lack of trends in the available effort series. On the contrary, the catchability, q, showed a coefficient of variation of 74%. The current level of fishing mortality for 1998 was considered as unsustainable for the resource, being well above FMSY according to the biomass-dynamic models, and above Fpa according to the age-structured model. Both models were in close agreement on the time series of fishing mortality and in the perception of the state of the stock. Differences existed in the changes in stock biomass especially over the last years. Over this time period the age-structured model showed an increasing trend in biomass. The estimates of MSY and FMSY were in accordance with the precautionary approach philosophy. The biomass-dynamic model used here was usefully applied to the Southern horse mackerel stock, giving complementary information to the age-structured model, both in the perception of the state of the stock and in the definition of management targets.

  16. Standardization of CPUE for Chilean Jack Mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) from Chinese Trawl Fleets in the High Seas of the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; ZOU Xiaorong; CHEN Xinjun; ZHOU Yinqi; ZHANG Min

    2013-01-01

    The generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel from Chinese factory trawl fishing fleets in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2010 by removing the operational,environmental,spatial and temporal impacts.A total of 9 factors were selected to build the GLM and GAM,i.e.,Year,Month,Vessel,La Ni(n)a and El Niio events (ELE),Latitude,Longitude,Sea surface temperature (SST),SST anomaly (SSTA),Nino3.4 index and an interaction term between Longitude and Latitude.The first 5 factors were significant components in the GLM,which in combination explained 27.34% of the total variance in nominal CPUE.In the stepwise GAM,all factors explained 30.78% of the total variance,with Month,Year and Vessel as the main factors influencing CPUE.The higher CPUE occurred during the period April to July at a SST range of 12-15℃ and a SSTA range of 0.2-1.0℃.The CPUE was significantly higher in normal years compared with that in La Ni(n)a and E1 Ni(n)o years.The abundance of Chilean jack mackerel declined during 2001 and 2010,with an increase in 2007.This work provided the relative abundance index of Chilean jack mackerel for stock assessment by standardizing catch and effort data of Chinese trawl fisheries and examined the influence of temporal,spatial,environmental and fisheries operational factors on Chilean jack mackerel CPUE.

  17. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel inferred from RAD-seq derived SNP markers: effects of sequence clustering parameters and hierarchical SNP selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-03-03

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and related methods are revolutionizing the field of population genomics in non-model organisms as they allow generating an unprecedented number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) even when no genomic information is available. Yet, RAD-seq data analyses rely on assumptions on nature and number of nucleotide variants present in a single locus, the choice of which may lead to an under- or overestimated number of SNPs and/or to incorrectly called genotypes. Using the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) and a close relative, the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias), as case study, here we explore the sensitivity of population structure inferences to two crucial aspects in RAD-seq data analysis: the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides insights into the effects of alternative RAD-seq data analysis strategies on population structure inferences that are directly applicable to other species.

  18. Bases biológicas para el cultivo del puye Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842: una revisión

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    Rolando Vega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842 es un pez gourmet de importancia comercial cuyas pesquerías están sobre-explotadas, siendo esencial el estudio de su biología para desarrollar su tecnología de cultivo (galaxicultura, que se encuentra en etapa piloto. Los objetivos de éste trabajo son: 1 entregar una síntesis de la información de la literatura sobre la biología de la especie, y 2 identificar la carencia de conocimiento científico y puntos críticos para el desarrollo de su tecnología de cultivo comercial. G. maculatus es un pequeño pez carnívoro, con poblaciones eurihalinas diferenciadas en diadrómicas y dulceacuícolas. Las poblaciones diadrómicas desovan en los estuarios y la larva migra al mar, retornando a la edad de seis meses para metamorfosearse en adulto. Son escasos los estudios de su sistemática, poblaciones y estado larvario en aguas chilenas, pero los correspondientes a alimentación, reproducción y enfermedades son más numerosos. Las hembras de un año desovan, aproximadamente, 1.200 huevos adhesivos pero un número importante muere después del primer desove (40%. La especie tiene un crecimiento rápido (1,1% dia-1 y alto metabolismo, con un promedio de vida de dos años. Se puede cultivar en cautividad, desovar, incubar sus huevos y obtener larvas; los adultos comen starter pelletizado de salmón y crecen en estanques. El protozoo ciliado Ichtyophthirius multifilis (ich produce altas mortalidades, en ejemplares en cautiverio, que pueden ser controladas con baños de sal. Los problemas de investigación a resolver para una futura piscicultura comercial son: identificar y seleccionar las poblaciones adecuadas para cultivo, aumentar el número de huevos desovados por hembra, desarrollar alimentos para larvas y reproductores, y controlar las enfermedades ectoparasitarias. El punto crítico es la masificación de la producción mediante el mejoramiento de las técnicas de reproducción y larvicultura.

  19. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  20. Effect of a previous high hydrostatic pressure treatment on lipid damage in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi

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    Maluenda, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid damage evolution was analyzed in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi previously treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP technology. Different pressure levels and pressure holding times were tested. In addition, fish corresponding to pre- and post-rigor mortis (RM stages were comparatively studied. Previous HHP treatment led to a marked lipid hydrolysis inhibition in chilled fish. Increasing the pressure level and pressure holding time led to a lower free fatty acid content, with the effect of pressure being more relevant. According to the analysis of different types of lipid oxidation indexes, no effect of the previous HHP treatment on the lipid oxidation development could be determined in chilled jack mackerel. Concerning the effect of the RM stage of raw fish, a higher primary and secondary lipid oxidation development was observed in fish corresponding to the post-RM condition throughout the chilled storage; although a definite effect on lipid hydrolysis could not be found.Se estudió la evolución de la alteración lipídica en jurel chileno (Trachurus murphyi refrigerado previamente tratado a altas presiones hidrostáticas (HHP. Se aplicaron distintos valores de presión y tiempo de presurización; asimismo, se analizó de forma comparativa la respuesta al proceso del pescado inicial en estados pre- y post-rigor mortis (RM. El tratamiento previo por HHP produjo inhibición de la hidrólisis lipídica en pescado refrigerado, siendo más intenso el efecto de la presión que el del tiempo de presurización. De acuerdo con el análisis de distintos índices de oxidación, no se concluyó un efecto determinante sobre la oxidación lipídica por parte del tratamiento previo de HHP. En relación al efecto del estado de RM del pescado inicial, se observó una oxidación primaria y secundaria mayor en jurel correspondiente a la condición post-RM durante la conservación en refrigeración; sin embargo, no se detectó un efecto

  1. Peel and leaf powders of three fruits and a vegetable as promising botanicals against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdulrasak K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the insecticidal activities of powders of bitter leaf, cashew leaf, orange peel and pawpaw leaf against Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. These were tested at 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% (w/w for their insecticidal activities against the insect. Results showed that the ovicidal and adulticidal activities of the plant powders depended on dosages and exposure time. Mortalities of 16.28% and 18.75% were observed in bitter leaf powder applied at 7.5% (w/w dosage within 24 and 48 hours post infestation (HPI, respectively. In grains treated with 7.5% orange peel powder, 12.50% and 16.28% mortalities were observed within 24 and 48 HPI, respectively. Each of bitter leaf and orange peel powders was significantly different (p orange peel > cashew leaf > pawpaw leaf. It is recommended that incorporating these plant parts in pest management of stored products will guarantee user safety, reduce environmental pollution and suppress insect infestation.

  2. A RAD-tag genetic map for the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) reveals mechanisms of karyotype evolution among teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3-40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24-25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years.

  3. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-04-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Extended incubation affects larval morphology, hatching success and starvation resistance in a terrestrially spawning fish, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns 1842).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, D; Swearer, S E

    2011-10-01

    The effect of extended incubation (delayed hatching) on larval morphology in the terrestrially spawning common galaxias Galaxias maculatus was investigated by inducing larvae to hatch 1 and 2 weeks after the normal 2 week incubation period. After 1 week of extended incubation, larvae were larger (longer in standard length, L(S), and greater in body depth) compared to controls (larvae that experienced normal incubation durations). After 2 weeks of extended incubation, larvae were smaller (shorter in L(S) and smaller in body depth) than larvae that experienced 1 week of extended incubation. Furthermore, eye area increased while yolk-sac size decreased monotonically with increasing incubation duration. These results suggest that larvae experiencing long periods of extended incubation are using somatic tissue to meet their metabolic demands. Larvae that experienced 2 weeks of extended incubation succumbed to starvation sooner than control larvae, but hatching success was not significantly different. Temperature mediated the effect of extended incubation on the morphology of larvae at hatching, most likely, through its effects on developmental rate and efficiency of yolk utilization. This study demonstrates some of the consequences of terrestrial spawning with extended incubation, which will assist in determining why this intriguing behaviour has evolved several times in a diverse range of taxa.

  5. Male-biased sex ratio does not promote increased sperm competitiveness in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; Robinson, Stephen P; Rosa, Márta E; Sloan, Nadia S; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W

    2016-06-16

    Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity.

  6. Novel seminal fluid proteins in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus identified by a proteomic and transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, H; Sayadi, A; Goenaga, J; Immonen, E; Arnqvist, G

    2017-02-01

    The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is a significant agricultural pest and increasingly studied model of sexual conflict. Males possess genital spines that increase the transfer of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) into the female body. As SFPs alter female behaviour and physiology, they are likely to modulate reproduction and sexual conflict in this species. Here, we identified SFPs using proteomics combined with a de novo transcriptome. A prior 2D-sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified male accessory gland protein spots that were probably transferred to the female at mating. Proteomic analysis of these spots identified 98 proteins, a majority of which were also present within ejaculates collected from females. Standard annotation workflows revealed common functional groups for SFPs, including proteases and metabolic proteins. Transcriptomic analysis found 84 transcripts differentially expressed between the sexes. Notably, genes encoding 15 proteins were highly expressed in male abdomens and only negligibly expressed within females. Most of these sequences corresponded to 'unknown' proteins (nine of 15) and may represent rapidly evolving SFPs novel to seed beetles. Our combined analyses highlight 44 proteins for which there is strong evidence that they are SFPs. These results can inform further investigation, to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sexual conflict in seed beetles.

  7. Selection in a fluctuating environment and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallsson, L R; Björklund, M

    2012-08-01

    Temperature changes in the environment, which realistically include environmental fluctuations, can create both plastic and evolutionary responses of traits. Sexes might differ in either or both of these responses for homologous traits, which in turn has consequences for sexual dimorphism and its evolution. Here, we investigate both immediate changes in and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in response to a changing environment (with and without fluctuations) using the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We investigate sex differences in plasticity and also the genetic architecture of body mass and developmental time dimorphism to test two existing hypotheses on sex differences in plasticity (adaptive canalization hypothesis and condition dependence hypothesis). We found a decreased sexual size dimorphism in higher temperature and that females responded more plastically than males, supporting the condition dependence hypothesis. However, selection in a fluctuating environment altered sex-specific patterns of genetic and environmental variation, indicating support for the adaptive canalization hypothesis. Genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF) ) were affected by fluctuating selection, suggesting facilitated independent evolution of the sexes. Thus, the selective past of a population is highly important for the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of sexual dimorphism.

  8. Cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus uses a three-component strategy to overcome a plant defensive cysteine protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Salzman, K; Koiwa, H; Salzman, R A; Shade, R E; Ahn, J-E

    2003-04-01

    The soybean cysteine protease inhibitor, soyacystatin N (scN), negatively impacts growth and development of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus[Koiwa et al. (1998) Plant J 14: 371-379]. However, the developmental delay and feeding inhibition caused by dietary scN occurred only during the early developmental stages (the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars) of the cowpea bruchid. The 4th instar larvae reared on scN diet (adapted) exhibited rates of feeding and development which were comparable to those feeding on an scN-free diet (unadapted) prior to pupation. Total gut proteolytic capacity at this larval stage significantly increased in the scN-adapted insects. The elevated enzymatic activity was attributed to a differential expression of insect gut cysteine proteases (representing the major digestive enzymes), and of aspartic proteases. scN degradation by the gut extract was observed only in adapted bruchids, and this activity appeared to be a combined effect of scN-induced cysteine and aspartic proteases. Thirty cDNAs encoding cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases were isolated from insect guts, and they were differentially regulated by dietary scN. Our results suggest that the cowpea bruchid adapts to the challenge of scN by qualitative and quantitative remodelling of its digestive protease complement, and by activating scN-degrading protease activity.

  9. Salinity-dependent nickel accumulation and effects on respiration, ion regulation and oxidative stress in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M; Glover, Chris N

    2016-07-01

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) are a euryhaline and amphidromous Southern hemisphere fish species inhabiting waters highly contaminated in trace elements such as nickel (Ni). Ni is known to exert its toxic effects on aquatic biota via three key mechanisms: inhibition of respiration, impaired ion regulation, and stimulation of oxidative stress. Inanga acclimated to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW) or 100% SW were exposed to 0, 150 or 2000 μg Ni L(-1), and tissue Ni accumulation, metabolic rate, ion regulation (tissue ions, calcium (Ca) ion influx), and oxidative stress (catalase activity, protein carbonylation) were measured after 96 h. Ni accumulation increased with Ni exposure concentration in gill, gut and remaining body, but not in liver. Only in the gill was Ni accumulation affected by exposure salinity, with lower branchial Ni burdens in 100% and 50% SW inanga, relative to FW fish. There were no Ni-dependent effects on respiration, or Ca influx, and the only Ni-dependent effect on tissue ion content was on gill potassium. Catalase activity and protein carbonylation were affected by Ni, primarily in FW, but only at 150 μg Ni L(-1). Salinity therefore offsets the effects of Ni, despite minimal changes in Ni bioavailability. These data suggest only minor effects of Ni in inanga, even at highly elevated environmental Ni concentrations.

  10. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  11. Male-biased sex ratio does not promote increased sperm competitiveness in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B.; Robinson, Stephen P.; Rosa, Márta E.; Sloan, Nadia S.; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity. PMID:27306351

  12. Evolutionary origin of the Scombridae (tunas and mackerels: members of a paleogene adaptive radiation with 14 other pelagic fish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Miya

    Full Text Available Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences and (ii subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae "Pelagia" in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

  13. Linking spatial distribution and feeding behavior of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

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    Rumolo, Paola; Basilone, Gualtiero; Fanelli, Emanuela; Barra, Marco; Calabrò, Monica; Genovese, Simona; Gherardi, Serena; Ferreri, Rosalia; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a semi-pelagic fish species with a wide geographical distribution and commonly found on the continental shelf. In recent years, the species has received some attention due to its ecological role in pelagic food webs. Stable isotope of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C) and Stomach Content Analysis (SCA) of T. trachurus were adopted as tools to provide necessary knowledge on its feeding habits in the Strait of Sicily. The strong correlation found between δ15N and δ13C values with body length, together with significant ontogenetic shift evidenced by SCA, could be associated to changes in food availability, which in turn is triggered by environmental conditions. Spatial distribution of T. trachurus in the study area, mainly for small and medium size specimens, is linked to lower temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PARsat) values with higher aggregations on the Adventure Bank (i.e., an area characterized by periodic upwelling events). Larger size specimens mostly inhabited shallower waters characterized by higher temperature, salinity and PAR values, typical of the central-eastern part of the study area. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behavior of T. trachurus is strictly linked to environmental factors (i.e. chiefly oceanographic conditions of the water column and day duration) that in turn influences the distribution of its prey. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis.

  14. The life-cycle of the digenetic trematode, Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Odhner, 1911 (Syn. P. rubtenuis [Linton, 1907] Hanson, 1950), and description of Cerceria adranocerca n. sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Proctoeces was erected by Odhner ( 191 1) to contain Distonium maculatuni Looss, 1901, from Labrus merula and Crenilabrus spp. at Triest. Odhner had found the parasite in Blennius ocellaris at Naples. One adult specimen from Chrysophrys bifasciata and two immature specimens from lulis lunaris taken in the Red Sea, were described as a new species, Proctoeces erythraeus. Dawes (1946) listed P. erythraeus as a synonym of  P. maculatus (Looss) , but the species was recognized by Manter ( 1947) on the basis of six specimens he had collected from Calamus calamus and Calamus bajonado at the biological laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Dry Tortugas, Florida. Several additional species have been de scribed. Fujita ( 1925) reported a metacercaria from the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, as a new species, Proctoeces ostreae. The paper was translated by R. Ph. Dollfus who noted (p. 57) ,“Il est à souhaiter que des recherches chez les poissons mangers de Lamellibranches, sur les côtes de la préfecture d'Hiroshima, permettent de découvrir des exemplaires complètement adultes de Proctoeces ostreae Fuj., chez lesquels l'extension des vitellogènes et les dimensions des oeufs puissent être observées avec précision; il sera alors possible de savoir définitivement si P. ostreae Fuj. doit ou non tomber en synonymie avec P. maculatus (Looss)." Yamaguti (1934) described P. maculatus from Sparus aries, Sparws macrocephalus, Pagrosomus auratus, and Epinephelus akaara in Japan. Several specimens from Pagrosomus auratus, which differed from P. maculatus in larger size, larger eggs, and trilobed ovary, he described as a new species, Proctoeces major. Yamaguti ( 1938) reported P. nzaculatus from Sensicossyphus reticulatus and described a larva from the liver of the pelecypod mollusk, Brachidontes senhausi, as an unidentified member of the genus Proctoeces. Manter ( 1940) described Proctoeces tnagnorus from a single specimen found in the intestine of Caulolatilus

  15. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

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    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%. These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain. The weevils rearing and some biological tests were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results showed that these extracts have anti-oviposition activity and ovicidal dose-dependent. Doses 25 and 50% of Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum have completely inhibited the spawning activity of C. maculatus 24 h after treatment. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between oviposition due to the positive control (Stargrain and that due to dose 50% of the three extracts. Compared to the negative control (ethanol 95%, all these plant extracts have significantly reduced (p<0.05 oviposition of C. maculatus female (38 eggs per 100 seeds after 4 days. The dose 10% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum showed no weevil emergency. It have been also noticed a reduction in seeds depreciation and rate attack in all the treated settings compared to the control. So the rate attack and the mass loss were proportional to the doses of B. aegyptiaca leaves extract but conversely proportional to doses of Melia azedarach and O. gratissimum leaves extracts. No depreciation of seeds was recorded at doses 10 and 15% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum. The different treatments did not affect the germination of seeds; the highest germination rate (93.67% was recorded with seeds treated with the dose 50% of O. gratissimum against only 65% with those treated with the positive control. These ethanolic extracts have shown insecticidal

  16. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  17. EFEKTIVITAS BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI FORMULASI CAIR Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 GALUR LOKAL DALAM MEDIA INFUS KEDELAI TERHADAP JENTIKAnopheles maculatus DI KECAMATAN KOKAP KABUPATEN KULON PROGO DIY

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    Blondine Ch.P Blondine Ch.P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 (local strain is a pathogenic bacteria which specijiclly target to mosquito larvae. It is safe for human, mammals and does not cause any environmental pollution. The aims of this study were to measure 1. the efficacy of liquid formula of B.thuringiensis H-14 local strain at several concentration in soybean infusion medium against An. maculatus, 2. the determine optimum concentration of the liquid formula of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain in soybean infusion medium against An. maculatus larvae in Kokap District Kulon Progo Regency DIY. This research was based on the quasi experiment with the Pre test-Post test Control Group Design. We tested 3 liquid formula of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain with concentration of 1 x LC90 5 x LC90 and 10 x LC90 in 9 ponds each formula and one control sample. Other 9 ponds were selected as a control group of An. maculatus with 0.20 to 1.20 m2 width. The effectiveness ofthe liquid formula of B.thuringiensis H-14 local strain in soybean infusion medium concentration of 0.059 ml/l (1 x LC90, 0.295 ml/l (5 x LC90 and 0.59 ml/l (10 x LC90 against An. maculatus larvae which reached 70% were survived for 6.75 days, 8.35 days and 12.58 days. There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of the liquid formula of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain in soybean infusion medium concentration of 0.059 ml/l (1 x LC90 and 0.295 ml/l (5 x LC90 and 0.59 ml/l (10 x LC90 at p<0.05. The liquid formula of B.thuringiensis H-14 local strain in soybean infusion medium could be used as the vector control agent. Keywords: Effectiveness , B. thuringiensis H-14, Soybean infusion

  18. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus.

  19. Effect of vacuum packaging and low-dose irradiation on the microbial, chemical and sensory characteristics of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Raouf; Ben Miloud, Najla; Selmi, Salah; Dhib, Soukeina; Sadok, Saloua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by gamma irradiation treatment (1.5 kGy) on the shelf-life of fillets of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were examined, during chill storage. The control and the treated packs were analyzed periodically for chemical (TMA, TBARS, biogenic amines) and microbial characteristics. Based on chemical and microbial data, vacuum packaging - by itself - was improper in extending the shelf-life of chub mackerel, estimated to 7 days. On the 7th day, TMA and Histamine contents reached the defect action levels, associated with the presence of mesophiles (3.7 log UFC/g); total coliforms (3.5 log UFC/g); staphylococci (1.9 log UFC/g) and the emergence of Pseudomonas (1.7 log UFC/g), in both the control and the vacuum packaged lots. Combination of vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiation was found to delay the spoilage during 14 days of refrigerated storage, based on chemical and microbial analyses. Similarly, consumer hedonic tests were performed to determine the effect of different treatments on the taste of fish fillets. For all treatments, consumers failed to discriminate treated samples from the control, on the 2nd day of storage (p > 0.05). The acceptability test showed that low-dose irradiation (1.5 kGy) optimised the sensory quality, on the 3rd day of storage (p vacuum packaging combined to a low-dose gamma-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on chub mackerel is recommended to enhance microbiological quality (4 log reduction), alleviate chemical changes and extend the shelf-life by 7 days, leading to consumer appreciation of these products.

  20. Blood cytology of the common jollytail (Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842 (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae at postlarval and adult stages Estudio de la citología sanguínea del puye (Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842 (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae en estado postlarval y adulto

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    I Valdebenito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Puye” (Galaxias maculatus is a small freshwater fish species of great interest to Chilean aquaculture diversification, because of the high commercial value reached by its transparent larvae or “cristalino”. This study presents the first data with regard to blood cytology in larvae and adults of this specie. Blood smears stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa were analysed through optical microscopy. The results show that in G. maculatus larvae the flowing blood has a transparent look and mature erythrocytes were not observed, as opposed to the adults of this species where the complete erythrocyte developmental line could be observed. In leucocytes, there was no presence of coarse grain cells such as basophils and eosinophyls. In general, the morphology of the blood cells found in larvae and adults of G. maculatus have the same characteristic traits as described elsewhere in reports of other teleosts.El puye (Galaxias maculatus es un pequeño pez nativo de gran interés para la diversificación de la acuicultura chilena, debido al alto valor comercial de su estado postlarval cristalino. La presente investigación entrega los primeros antecedentes respecto de la citología sanguínea de postlarvas y adultos de esta especie, determinada mediante microscopía óptica utilizando frotis sanguíneos preparados con May Grünwald-Giemsa. Los resultados muestran que en la sangre circulante de G. maculatus en estado de postlarva no se observan eritrocitos maduros y la sangre es de aspecto transparente. Sin embargo, en adultos se pudo observar la línea eritrocitaria completa y en leucocitos no se observó la presencia de células de grano grueso como son los basófilos y eosinófilos. La morfología de las células encontradas en ambos estados del desarrollo del puye mantienen las características propias entregadas en la literatura para peces teleósteos.

  1. Rapid adaptation to a novel host in a seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus): the role of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Claudia; Arnqvist, Göran

    2007-02-01

    Rapid diversification is common among herbivorous insects and is often the result of host shifts, leading to the exploitation of novel food sources. This, in turn, is associated with adaptive evolution of female oviposition behavior and larval feeding biology. Although natural selection is the typical driver of such adaptation, the role of sexual selection is less clear. In theory, sexual selection can either accelerate or impede adaptation. To assess the independent effects of natural and sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, we performed a laboratory natural selection experiment in a herbivorous bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). We established replicated selection lines where we varied natural (food type) and sexual (mating system) selection in a 2 x 2 orthogonal design, and propagated our lines for 35 generations. In half of the lines, we induced a host shift whereas the other half was kept on the ancestral host. We experimentally enforced monogamy in half of the lines, whereas the other half remained polygamous. The beetles rapidly adapted to the novel host, which primarily involved increased host acceptance by females and an accelerated rate of larval development. We also found that our mating system treatment affected the rate of adaptation, but that this effect was contingent upon food type. As beetles adapted to the novel host, sexual selection reinforced natural selection whereas populations residing close to their adaptive peak (i.e., those using their ancestral host) exhibited higher fitness in the absence of sexual selection. We discuss our findings in light of current sexual selection theory and suggest that the net evolutionary effect of reproductive competition may critically depend on natural selection. Sexual selection may commonly accelerate adaptation under directional natural selection whereas sexual selection, and the associated load brought by sexual conflict, may tend to depress population fitness under stabilizing natural

  2. Developmental temperature affects the expression of ejaculatory traits and the outcome of sperm competition in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, R; Deeming, D C; Eady, P E

    2014-09-01

    The outcome of post-copulatory sexual selection is determined by a complex set of interactions between the primary reproductive traits of two or more males and their interactions with the reproductive traits of the female. Recently, a number of studies have shown the primary reproductive traits of both males and females express phenotypic plasticity in response to the thermal environment experienced during ontogeny. However, how plasticity in these traits affects the dynamics of sperm competition remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate plasticity in testes size, sperm size and sperm number in response to developmental temperature in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Males reared at the highest temperature eclosed at the smallest body size and had the smallest absolute and relative testes size. Males reared at both the high- and low-temperature extremes produced both fewer and smaller sperm than males reared at intermediate temperatures. In the absence of sperm competition, developmental temperature had no effect on male fertility. However, under conditions of sperm competition, males reared at either temperature extreme were less competitive in terms of sperm offence (P(2)), whereas those reared at the lowest temperature were less competitive in terms of sperm defence (P(1)). This suggests the developmental pathways that regulate the phenotypic expression of these ejaculatory traits are subject to both natural and sexual selection: natural selection in the pre-ejaculatory environment and sexual selection in the post-ejaculatory environment. In nature, thermal heterogeneity during development is commonplace. Therefore, we suggest the interplay between ecology and development represents an important, yet hitherto underestimated component of male fitness via post-copulatory sexual selection.

  3. RNA-Seq analysis of salinity stress–responsive transcriptome in the liver of spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass. PMID:28253338

  4. Feeding ω-3 PUFA enriched rotifers to Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842 larvae reared at different salinity conditions: effects on growth parameters, survival and fatty acids profile

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    Patricio Dantagnan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well known importance of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in marine and freshwater fish larvae, there are few studies on how essential fatty acid requirements and composition on whole body can be altered by changes in water salinity. The present study aimed to determine the effect of salinity on ω-3 PUFA requirements, larval growth survival and fatty acid composition of Galaxias maculatus larvae cultured at two different salinities (0 and 15 g L-1 for 20 days while fed rotifers containing two different levels of ω-3 PUFA (1.87 and 3.16%. The results denoted a marked difference in ω-3 PUFA requirements and in the pattern of fatty acid deposition in the whole body of larvae reared at different salinities, depending of ω-3 PUFA in diets. Thus, to improve growth and survival larvae of G. maculatus reared at 0 g L-1 require higher levels of ω-3 PUFA, principally 18:3 ω-3. Larvae reared at salinities of 15 g L-1 require low levels of ω-3 PUFA for optimal survival, especially 18:3 ω-3. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in the whole body of larvae was also affected by water salinity.

  5. Vicilin-derived peptides are transferred from males to females as seminal nuptial gift in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Daniel; Linhares, Ricardo T; Queiroz, Bruna; Fontoura, Luisa; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Bezerra, Cezar S; Oliveira, Eliana M; Demartini, Diogo R; Carlini, Célia R; Silva, Carlos P

    2011-06-01

    The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults have been recently investigated. Vicilins have been demonstrated to be absorbed through the midgut epithelium, circulate in their trimeric form in the haemolymph and are deposited in the fat body. In fat body cells of both sexes, vicilins are partially hydrolyzed and the fragments are eventually deposited in the eggs. Tracking the fate of FITC-labelled vicilins in adult males revealed that the labelled vicilin fragments were also detected in oöcytes and eggs, when the males copulated with non-labelled females. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the males and are eventually sequestered by the gonads and passed to the female gonads during copulation. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack, as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. The contribution of vicilin-derived peptides from seminal fluids may be an investment that helps to increase the offspring survival. This study provides additional insights into the possible contributions of males to female fecundity following copulation in C. maculatus.

  6. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

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    A.J. Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  7. Bioefficacy of a long-lasting insecticide impregnated net on blood feeding inhibition of Anopheles maculatus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng, Tan Swee; Vythilingam, Indra; Lim, Lee Han

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the bioefficacy and blood feeding inhibition of mosquitoes under laboratory conditions using the WHO tunnel test method on unwashed and washed long-lasting insecticide impregnated net with extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by 80 degrees C on the same net during washing. PermaNet exhibited fairy high durability to washing (5 washes) and had fairy long-lasting bioefficacy against Anopheles maculatus for blood feeding inhibition on both unwashed (39 months) and washed (26 months) nets. However, Perma-Net exhibited lower bioefficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus. This study also suggested that the application of extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by an increased heat at 80 degrees C on the same net exerted significant differences (p 0.05). An. maculatus exhibited significant differences in resting preference after a successful blood meal, as more blood-fed and live females preferred to rest and stay near the bait in the mouse cage, and more dead and unfed females were found in the outer cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05). Conversely, fully blood-fed and live Cx. quinquefasciatus females did not show any resting preference between the mouse cage and outer cage, but there were more dead and unfed females in the mouse cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05).

  8. Activity of the thyroid and the pituitary gland in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri Heckel and Xiphophorus maculatus Günther during the development of the gonopodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1959-01-01

    A description is given of the activity of the thyroid and of the pituitary gland during the development of the gonopodium in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri (Heckel) and Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther). During this process the thyroid gland and the glan

  9. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

  10. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data.

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    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

  11. Rhadinorhynchus oligospinosus n. sp. (Acanthocephala, Rhadinorhynchidae) from mackerels in the Pacific Ocean off Peru and related rhadinorhynchids in the Pacific, with notes on metal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Specimens of a new species of Rhadinorhynchus Lühe, 1911 are described from the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (Scombridae) and the Chilean Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (Carangidae) (possibly a subspecies of Trachurus symmetricus) from the Pacific Ocean off the Peruvian coast at the Port of Chicama, La Libertad. Specimens of Rhadinorhynchus oligospinosus n. sp. are somewhat small having 11-14 rows of alternating proboscis hooks with 20-22 hooks each with posteriormost hooks in a continuous ring. Ventral hooks are robust with prominent roots but dorsal hooks are slender and shorter with discoid roots. Trunk spines are in two zones separated by a non-spiny region. Anterior trunk spines are in 2-3 complete circles but posterior spines are only ventral and lateral, and do not extend posterior to the level of the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle in both sexes. The new species is closest to Rhadinorhynchus seriolae (Yamaguti, 1963) Golvan, 1969 found in Japanese and Australian waters, but not as close to 19 other species found in the same Pacific waters off Australia, Japan, and Vietnam. In R. seriolae, posterior trunk spines extend well past the receptacle in females, among other diagnostic differences. Proboscis hooks of the new species were analyzed for chemical elements using X-ray in conjunction with EDAX (energy-dispersive analysis for X-ray) software; sulfur had a higher concentration at the edge than the middle of cut hooks. © O.M. Amin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  12. Effet comparé des huiles essentielles de quatre espèces végétales contre la bruche du niébé (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. et le charançon du riz (Sitophilus oryzae L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Four Plant Essential Oils against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae L. The aim of this paper is to compare the essential oil effects of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Citrus sinensis (L. Obs. and Ocimum basilicum L. against the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. The experiments were conducted in laboratory, in Petri dishes. As nutritive support, we used cowpea and maize grains for respectively C. maculatus and S. oryzae. The Petri dish bottom had a filter paper impregnated with a desired essential oil quantity. The obtained results showed that the tested essential oils were not efficient against S. oryzae. On the other hand, the essential oils of E. citriodora and O. basilicum were very efficient against C. maculatus. The respective LD 50 was 1.26 ml and 1.49 ml in acetone dilution of 2 %.

  13. 77 FR 35358 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Four Assessment...: The SEDAR 28 Assessment Workshops via webinar will be held July 10, 2012, July 24, 2012, August 9...

  14. Estabilidade da resistência de genótipos de caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. em gerações sucessivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae é a principal praga do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. armazenado em condições tropicais e subtropicais. Avaliaram-se a estabilidade da resistência e a capacidade de adaptação de C. maculatus a genótipos de caupi, durante seis gerações. Utilizou-se o teste sem chance de escolha, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com dez tratamentos, seis gerações do inseto e cinco repetições. Cada repetição constou de 30 grãos infestados com dois casais da praga. O número de ovos/fêmea diferiu entre os genótipos de caupi apenas na sexta geração, e entre as gerações em BR14-Mulato, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E e TE87-98-8G. A viabilidade de ovos diferiu entre as gerações em BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato, IT89KD-260 e IT89KD-245, e entre os genótipos nas terceira, quinta e sexta gerações. Os genótipos diferiram entre e dentro das gerações, em relação à duração e a viabilidade da fase imatura. Observou-se redução na emergência, especialmente em IT89KD-245, IT89KD-260, CNC 0434, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-10F e BR14-Mulato, provavelmente devido a substâncias químicas presentes nos grãos que afetaram a sobrevivência dos insetos, ao longo das gerações. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e IT89KD-260 comportaram-se como moderadamente resistentes. Não se observou adaptação de C. maculatus aos genótipos, mantendo-se a resistência estável através das gerações.

  15. Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) a branchial parasite of the freshwater catfish, Pimelodus maculatus from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) parasito das brânquias do "mandi", Pimelodus maculatus do alto rio São Francisco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon E. Thatcher; Brasil-Sato,Marilia C.

    2008-01-01

    Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. is described from the freshwater fish, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) of the upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is based on female specimens and the male is unknown. This species has a serrate seta on exopod one and a two-segmented first endopod, as do most Amazonian species of this genus. The body is elongate and produced anteriorly. The antennae are elongate and have prominent sensilla on se...

  16. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation.

  17. Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n = 15) measuring 9.5-11.4 μm in width, 7.3-8.6 μm in suture width, 8.9-10.9 μm in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 μm in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 μm by 1.8-2.3 μm. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n

  18. Quantifying changes in abundance, biomass and spatial distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic Seas from 2007 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøttestad, Leif; Utne, Kjell Rong; Óskarsson, Gudmundur .J.;

    2016-01-01

    on coordinated and standardized swept-area surface trawling in July–August from IESSNS increased from 1.96 million t [relative standard error (RSE) ¼ 30.35%] in 2007 to 8.77 million t (RSE ¼ 7.95%) in 2014. Simultaneously, the mackerel stock expanded its geographic range during the feeding season from 1.......3 million km2 in 2007 to at least 2.9 million km2 in 2014, mainly towards western and northern regions of the Nordic seas. Estimates of abundance indices by age group were fairly precise (RSE 20%) for ages 3–12, while the precisionwas poorer for ages 1 and 2 and for age groups 13 and older (RSE . 50...

  19. Characterization of digestive enzymes from de-oiled mackerel (Scomber japonicus) muscle obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide and n-hexane extraction as a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2015-06-01

    The oil in mackerel muscle was extracted using an environmental friendly solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and an n-hexane. The SC-CO2 was carried out at temperature 45 °C and pressures ranging from 15 to 25 MPa. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant at the entire extraction period of 2 h. The highest oil extracted residues after SC-CO2 extraction was used for activity measurement of digestive enzymes. Four digestive enzymes were found in water soluble extracts after n-hexane and SC-CO2 treated samples. Amylase, lipase and trypsin activities were higher in water soluble extracts after SC-CO2 treated samples except protease. Among the four digestive enzymes, the activity of amylase was highest and the value was 44.57 uM/min/mg of protein. The water soluble extracts of SC-CO2 and n-hexane treated mackerel samples showed same alkaline optimum pH and pH stability for each of the digestive enzymes. Optimum temperature of amylase, lipase, protease and trypsin was 40, 50, 60 and 30 °C, respectively of both extracts. More than 80 % temperature stability of amylase, lipase, protease and trypsin were retained at mentioned optimum temperature in water soluble extracts of both treated samples. Based on protein patterns, prominent protein band showed in water soluble extracts after SC-CO2 treated samples indicates no denaturation of protein than untreated and n-hexane.

  20. Two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene of female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression in different obesity indices and pubertal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that regulates the amount of fat stored in the body and conveys nutritional status to the reproductive axis in mammals. In the present study we identified two subtypes of leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor gene (lepr) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and there gene expression under different feeding conditions (control and high-feed) and pubertal development stages was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein lengths of LepA, LepB and LepR were 161 amino acids (aa), 163 aa and 1149 aa, respectively and both leptin subtypes shared only 15% similarity in aa sequences. In pubertal females, lepa was expressed in the brain, pituitary gland, liver, adipose tissue and ovary; however, in adult (gonadal maturation after the second in the life) females, lepa was expressed only in the liver. lepb was expressed primarily in the brain of all fish tested and was expressed strongly in the adipose tissue of adults. lepr was characterized by expression in the pituitary. The high-feed group showed a high conditioning factor level; unexpectedly, hepatic lepa and brain lepr were significantly more weakly expressed compared with the control-feed group. Furthermore, the expression levels of lepa, lepb and lepr genes showed no significant differences between pre-pubertal and post-pubertal fish. On the other hand, pituitary fshβ and lhβ showed no significant differences between different feeding groups of pre-pubertal fish. In contrast, fshβ and lhβ expressed abundantly in the post-pubertal fish of control feed group. Based on these results, whether leptin plays an important role in the nutritional status and pubertal onset of chub mackerel remains unknown.

  1. Diet diversity of jack and chub mackerels and ecosystem changes in the northern Humboldt Current system: A long-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Espino, Marco; Espinoza, Pepe; Dioses, Teobaldo; Ñiquen, Miguel; Navarro, Iván; Simier, Monique; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (JM) and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (CM) are medium size pelagic fish predators and highly exploited resources. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of JM and CM diet composition using a large dataset of stomach samples collected from 1973 to 2013 along the Peruvian coast. In total 47,535 stomachs (18,377 CM and 29,158 JM) were analysed, of which 23,570 (12,476 CM and 11,094 JM) were non-empty. Results show that both species are opportunistic and present a trophic overlap. However, despite their smaller maximal size, CM consumed more fish than JM. Both diets presented high spatiotemporal variability. Spatially, the shelf break appears as a strong biogeographical barrier affecting prey species distribution and thus CM and JM diet. Opportunistic foragers are often considered as actual indicators of ecosystem changes; we show here that diet composition of CM and JM reveal ecosystem changes but is not always a good indicator of changes in prey biomass as prey accessibility and energy content can also play an important role. In addition we found that El Niño events have a surprisingly weak effect on stomach fullness and diet. Finally our results show that the classic paradigm of positive correlation between diversity and temperature is unlikely to occur in the Humboldt Current system where productivity seems to be the main driver. We show how energy content of forage species and the strength of the oxygen minimum zone most likely play an important role prey diversity and accessibility, and thus in fish foraging behaviour.

  2. Use of the gills of Pimelodus maculatus (Lacèpéde, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae as a biomarker of pollution in the reservoir of UHE Marechal Mascarenhas de Moraes, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego José Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The gills of fish are biomarkers of environmental toxicity which are often used to assess the impacts of xenobiotics. This study aims to evaluate the contamination of the reservoir Marechal Mascarenhas de Moraes, through the estimation ofthe rate of morphological changes in the gills of Pimelodus maculatus caused by toxic agents. The specimens of P. maculatus were collected from three points of the reservoir of UHE Marechal Mascarenhas de Moraes. In the local of collection, immediately, the gills of the collected individuals were removed and fixed in Bouin. They were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for light microscopic analysis. The quantification of changes was carried out through stereology and the indices of change were estimated, classifying the lesions from moderate to severe in the three points under study.

  3. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids.

  4. 具斑芒毛苣苔抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活性成分研究%α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Aeschynanthus maculatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田璞玉; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the inhibitory activity of Aeschynanthus maculatus on α-glucosidase. Method; The inhibilitory model of in vitro α-glucosidase was established. Active extracts of A. maculatus were isolated and identified bymultiple chromatographic methods, and their molecular structures were identifiied by spectral techniques. Result; Seven coumpounts were isolated from A. maculatus and isolated as lupeol(l) , stigmasterol(2) , ursolic acid(3) , stigmast-5 ,22( E)-diene-3β-ol(4) , β-daucosterol(5) , 3-hydro xy-12-taraxasten-28-oic-acid(6) and oleanic acid(7). Compounds 1 (IC50 25.41 mg · L-1 ) ,3( IC50 4. 42 mg · L-1),4(IC50 11.50 mg · L-1 ) ,6( IC50 14. 17 mg · L-1 ) and 7(IC5() 2. 88 mg · L-1 ) had higher inhibitory activities than that of acarbose( IC501 103.01 mg · L-1 ) as the positive control drug. Conclusion; Compound 1-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Compound 6 was isolated from Gesneriaceae family for the first time. Compound 7 was isolated from Aeschynanthus genus for the first time.%目的:研究具斑芒毛苣苔抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶的活性成分.方法:用体外α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制模型筛选;采用各种色谱法对高活性部位分离,运用多种波谱技术鉴定结构.结果:从具斑芒毛苣苔分离得到7个化合物,分别为羽扇豆醇(1),豆甾醇(2),熊果酸(3),豆甾-5,22(E)-二烯-3β-醇(4)和β-胡萝卜苷(5),3-hydroxy-12-taraxasten-28-oic-acid(6),齐墩果酸(7).化合物1(IC50 25.41 mg·L-1),3(IC50 4.42 mg·L-1),4(IC50 11.50 mg·L-1),6(IC50 14.17 mg·L-1)和7(IC50 2.88mg·L-1)的体外抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活性高于阳性对照药物acarbose(IC50 1 103.01 mg· L-1).结论:化合物1~7为首次从该植物中分离得到,6为首次从该科中分离得到,7为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  5. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples

  6. Distribuição e alimentação de duas espécies simpátricas de piranhas Serrasalmus maculatus e Pygocentrus nattereri (Characidae, Serrasalminae do rio Ibicuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Distribution and feeding of two sympatric species of piranhas Serrasalmus maculatus and Pygocentrus nattereri (Characidae, Serrasalminae of the Ibicuí river, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton R. Behr

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies de piranhas ocorrem no rio Ibicuí, um dos principais afluentes do rio Uruguai. Com o objetivo de analisar a distribuição e a alimentação destas espécies, foram realizadas coletas de dezembro de 1999 a janeiro de 2002, utilizando-se diferentes artes de pesca em três pontos do rio, sendo que cada ponto foi amostrado em dois ambientes (lêntico e lótico. Foram capturados 203 indivíduos de Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858 e 86 de Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858, sendo que a maior captura de ambas as espécies ocorreu no ambiente lêntico e próximo ao rio Uruguai, onde P. nattereri parece estar mais concentrada. O número de exemplares capturados por horário não apresentou variações significativas em P. nattereri enquanto que S. maculatus apresentou a maior captura na revisão da meia-noite. Juvenis de S. maculatus (2-4 cm de comprimento padrão consumiram preferencialmente nadadeiras e insetos. Nas demais classes de tamanho de ambas as espécies, restos de peixes foi o alimento predominante, havendo sobreposição alimentar intra e interespecífica nas maiores classes (8-16 cm e >16 cm de comprimento padrão. Não foram constatadas diferenças no índice de repleção entre os horários e os ambientes para as duas espécies.Two species of piranhas occur in the Ibicuí River, one of the main tributaries of the Uruguay River in southern Brazil, Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858 and Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858. In order to analyze the distribution and feeding habits of these species we conducted collecting expeditions from December 1999 to January 2002, using a variety of fishing gears in three sites along the river, both in lentic and lotic habitats. A total of 203 individuals of S. maculatus and 86 of P. nattereri were caught, mostly in lentic habitats and closer to the Uruguay River, were P. nattereri seems to be more concentrated. The number of individuals captured at different times did not show variation in P

  7. Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae a branchial parasite of the freshwater catfish, Pimelodus maculatus from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. (Copepoda: Ergasilidae parasito das brânquias do "mandi", Pimelodus maculatus do alto rio São Francisco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. is described from the freshwater fish, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae of the upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is based on female specimens and the male is unknown. This species has a serrate seta on exopod one and a two-segmented first endopod, as do most Amazonian species of this genus. The body is elongate and produced anteriorly. The antennae are elongate and have prominent sensilla on segments two and three. Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. can be distinguished from all known species of Ergasilus by the fourth antennal segment (claw which is bent at nearly a right angle.Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. é descrita do peixe de água doce, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae do alto rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A nova espécie está baseada em espécimes fêmeas e o macho é desconhecido. Esta espécie tem uma seta serrilhada no primeiro exopodito e tem o primeiro endopodito bi-segmentado, como a maioria das espécies amazônicas deste gênero. O corpo é alongado e projetado anteriormente. As antenas são alongadas com sensila proeminente no segundo e no terceiro segmentos. Ergasilus chelangulatus sp. nov. é distinta de todas as outras espécies conhecidas de Ergasilus por ter o quarto segmento antenal (garra dobrado em ângulo quase reto.

  8. Two new species of Myliocotyle (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the gills of Aetomylaeus maculatus and A. nichofii (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae) from Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Leslie A; Whittington, Ian D

    2004-12-01

    Myliocotyle borneoensis sp. n. and M. multicrista sp. n. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) are described from the gills of the mottled eagle ray, Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray), and the banded eagle ray A. nichofii (Bloch et Schneider) (Myliobatidae), respectively, collected from the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo. These are the first monogeneans to be described on elasmobranchs from Borneo. The formerly monotypic Myliocotyle (for M. pteromylaei) was distinguished from other monocotylids by the distribution and morphology of the eight sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and the morphology of the male copulatory organ. However, we have determined that M. pteromylaei has ten structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor. Myliocotyle borneoensis is distinguished from M. pteromylaei by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and its accessory piece. Myliocotyle multicrista has 12 sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and a male copulatory organ with two accessory pieces. Additional sclerotised ridges across the ventral surfaces of each loculus (except the posterior-most pair) are also present in M. multicrista. The diagnosis for Myliocotyle is revised given our discovery of additional dorsal haptoral accessory structures in the type species and to accommodate other new characters of the two new species. Anterior secretions of Myliocotyle are discussed.

  9. Biomarkers and bioindicators of the environmental condition using a fish species (Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède, 1803) in a tropical reservoir in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F G; Morado, C N; Parente, T T E; Paumgartten, F J R; Gomes, I D

    2017-08-17

    The Funil Reservoir receives a large amount of xenobiotics from the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) from large number of industries and municipalities in the watershed. This study aimed to assess environmental quality along the longitudinal profile of the Paraíba do Sul River-Funil Reservoir system, by using biomarkers and bioindicators in a selected fish species. The raised hypothesis is that Funil Reservoir acts as a filter for the xenobiotics of the PSR waters, improving river water quality downstream the dam. Two biomarkers, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD), measured as fluorimetricly in S9 hepatic fraction, and the micronuclei frequency (MN), observed in erythrocytes of the cytoplasm, and three bioindicators, the hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and condition factor (CF) were used in Pimelodus maculatus, a fish species widely distributed in the system. Four zones were searched through a longitudinal gradient: 1, river upstream from the reservoir; 2, upper reservoir; 3, lower reservoir; 4, river downstream of the reservoir. EROD activity and HSI and GSI had significant differences among the zones (Penvironmental condition occur at the river downstream of the reservoir, where it seems to occur more influence of xenobiotics, which could be associated with hydroelectric plant operation. The hypothesis that Funil reservoir acts as a filter decanting pollution from the Paraíba do Sul River waters was rejected. These results are novel information on this subject for a native fish species and could be useful for future comparisons with other environments.

  10. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  11. Larval trypanorhynchs (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from black-scabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus in Madeira (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Veltkamp, C J; Chubb, J C

    2003-12-01

    Four different types of trypanorhynch postlarvae were found attached to the stomach mucosa, external stomach wall or free in the body cavity of two marine fishes from Madeira, namely blackscabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus. Morphological features shown by SEM indicated that the postlarvae belonged to the species Tentacularia coryphaenae, Sphyriocephalus tergestinus, Nybelinia lingualis and possibly N. yamaguitii. Prevalence [mean intensity (range)] of T. coryphaenae, S. tergestinus and Nybelinia spp. in A. carbo (n = 135) was 12.6% [1.65 +/- 1.27(1-6)], 5.9% [1.57 +/- 0.79 (1-3)] and 2.2% [1.33 +/- 0.58 (1-2)] respectively. The prevalence of T. coryphaenae and S. tergestinus showed some seasonality, with a rise in prevalence of T. coryphaenae corresponding to a decrease in prevalence of S. tergestinus. However these differences were not significant. In T. picturatus (n = 304) only N. lingualis was found at a prevalence of 9.6%. Both S. tergestinus and N. lingualis were recovered only from the stomach mucosa or external stomach wall, while T. coryphaenae was observed either attached to the stomach mucosa or free in the visceral cavity of the fish. The paper presents the first scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of Sphyriocephalus tergestinus and a new geographical record of N. lingualis in T. picturatus.

  12. Analysis of bacterial community structure in Saba-Narezushi (Narezushi of Mackerel) by 16S rRNA gene clone library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroki; Tsuchiya, Rie; Isobe, Yuka; Narita, Miyo

    2013-08-01

    Narezushi, a derivation of sushi, is a traditional Japanese food made by fermenting salted fish meat and cooked rice together. In this study, the microbial diversity of saba-narezushi (narezushi of mackerel, Scomber japonicus) was analyzed by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library method. Chemical composition was also analyzed to compare with different kinds of narezushi. The chemical composition of the narezushi was similar to those obtained from samma-narezushi. Ninety-four clones were randomly selected and DNA sequences of cloned fragments (approx. 890 bp) were analyzed. The DNA sequences obtained were phylogenetically analyzed. The expected operational taxonomy units (OTUs) by Chao1 estimates and Shannon-Wiener index (H') at 97% identity threshold were 48 and 1.822, respectively. The sequence similarity of the cloned fragment was equal to or higher than 98% of the sequence of cultivated bacterial species in the public database. Most of the clones (85%) belonged to lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus curvatus was the most abundant species followed by Lactococcus piscium and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, suggesting that these bacteria play important roles in the fermentation of saba-narezushi.

  13. New insights about the population structure of the blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus in the NE Atlantic using otolith stable isotope ratios

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    Cláudia Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus is a pelagic fish widely distributed in the NE Atlantic and also found in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It is an economically important resource in the Macaronesian islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, but despite its fishery value and ecological importance, fluctuations in the landings are difficult to explain since studies regarding the population dynamics, stocks structure, fish movements and habitat connectivity are inexistent. The populations of marine pelagic fishes, in particular the migratory ones, such as T. picturatus,, may be erroneously considered an homogenous population unit because they show broad geographic distributions, large population sizes and high migratory movements. Stable isotope ratios, namely δ18O and δ13C, measured by standard mass spectrometric techniques in whole otolith samples of T. picturatus adults sampled in the fishery grounds of the Islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, and at the Portuguese mainland (Matosinhos, Peniche and Portimão during the spring-summer of 2013 were analysed. The 18O signatures followed the general tendency taking into account the seawater temperatures of the sampling regions. 13C signatures showed however differences between the oceanic or continental origin of the fish. Both variables provided location-specific signatures. Further studies including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA studies are also been conducted to acquire new knowledge for fisheries conservation purposes.

  14. Influence of exercise on the activity and the distribution between free and bound forms of glycolytic and associated enzymes in tissues of horse mackerel

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    Lushchak V.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of short-term burst (5 min at 1.8 m/s swimming and long-term cruiser (60 min at 1.2 m/s swimming on maximal enzyme activities and enzyme distribution between free and bound states were assessed for nine glycolytic and associated enzymes in tissues of horse mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus. The effects of exercise were greatest in white muscle. The activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK, pyruvate kinase (PK, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM all decreased to 47, 37, 37 and 67%, respectively, during 60-min exercise and all enzymes except phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI and PGM showed a change in the extent of binding to subcellular particulate fractions during exercise. In red muscle, exercise affected the activities of PGI, FBPase, PFK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and altered percent binding of only PK and LDH. In liver, exercise increased the PK activity 2.3-fold and reduced PGI 1.7-fold only after 5 min of exercise but altered the percent binding of seven enzymes. Fewer effects were seen in brain, with changes in the activities of aldolase and PGM and in percent binding of hexokinase, PFK and PK. Changes in enzyme activities and in binding interactions with subcellular particulate matter appear to support the altered demands of tissue energy metabolism during exercise.

  15. Growth and reproduction aspects of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) of the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir, state of Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabinson, L M; Rodrigues Filho, J L; Peret, A C; Verani, J R

    2014-05-01

    Growth and reproduction parameters of the yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae), were determined for the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (GO/MG). The field work occurred throughout February 2007 to January 2008 (with the exception of December 2007). Gill nets with mesh sizes from 1.5 to 10 centimeters were placed in three different areas in the reservoir and were collected 24 hours later. A total of 538 specimens were captured, amongst which 242 were females, 219 were males and 77 could not have their sex determined. Sex ratio differed from 1:1 only during July 2007 and January 2008, with males and females predominating in each of those months. Males occupied the medium length classes (18.9 to 24.3 cm) while females were most abundant in the superior classes (from 27 to 37.8 cm).The growth constant K was statistically equal for males (K=0.1851) and females (K=0.1708), however, females P. maculatus may have a greater investment in reproductive tissue, a fact indicated by the elevated values of Kn and GSI during the summer. Bearing in mind that P. maculatus reproduces in the rainy season, a greater gain in weight is expected during the months before the reproduction season, and that after it occurs the fish loses fat and weight as a consequence of metabolic effort. Still, the absence of juveniles may be an indication that the species did not find in the reservoir the proper conditions for reproduction and growth of its fry.

  16. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

  17. Growth and reproduction aspects of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae of the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir, state of Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Sabinson

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction parameters of the yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae, were determined for the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (GO/MG. The field work occurred throughout February 2007 to January 2008 (with the exception of December 2007. Gill nets with mesh sizes from 1.5 to 10 centimeters were placed in three different areas in the reservoir and were collected 24 hours later. A total of 538 specimens were captured, amongst which 242 were females, 219 were males and 77 could not have their sex determined. Sex ratio differed from 1:1 only during July 2007 and January 2008, with males and females predominating in each of those months. Males occupied the medium length classes (18.9 to 24.3 cm while females were most abundant in the superior classes (from 27 to 37.8 cm.The growth constant K was statistically equal for males (K=0.1851 and females (K=0.1708, however, females P. maculatus may have a greater investment in reproductive tissue, a fact indicated by the elevated values of Kn and GSI during the summer. Bearing in mind that P. maculatus reproduces in the rainy season, a greater gain in weight is expected during the months before the reproduction season, and that after it occurs the fish loses fat and weight as a consequence of metabolic effort. Still, the absence of juveniles may be an indication that the species did not find in the reservoir the proper conditions for reproduction and growth of its fry.

  18. Naricolax hoi n. sp. (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) from Arius maculatus (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off Taiwan and a redescription of N. chrysophryenus (Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983) from a new host, Seriola lalandi (Perciformes: Carangidae), in Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Kate S; Tang, Danny

    2007-10-01

    We propose that Naricolax stocki (Roubal, 1981) (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) of Ho & Lin (2005), reported from the spotted catfish Arius maculatus (Thunburg) off Taiwan, represents a new species, N. hoi n. sp. N. hoi can be distinguished from six known congeners by the shape of the rostral area, the maxillary armature and the structural details of legs 3 and 4. N. chrysophryenus (Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983) is redescribed on the basis of recently collected material from wild and farmed yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi Valenciennes in southern and eastern Australian waters, providing the first record of Naricolax Ho, Do & Kasahara, 1983 from a carangid host. A key to the species of Naricolax is provided.

  19. A diet enriched with mackerel (Scomber scombrus)-derived products improves the endothelial function in a senior population (Prevención de las Enfermedades Cardiovasculares: Estudio Santoña--PECES project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berrazueta, J R; Gómez de Berrazueta, J M; Amado Señarís, J A; Peña Sarabia, N; Fernández Viadero, C; García-Unzueta, M T; Sáez de Adana, M; Sanchez Ovejero, C J; Llorca, J

    2009-03-01

    Regular consumption of fish reduces cardiovascular risks. Here, we investigate if the consumption of products with mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with 8.82 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content per 100 g of product improves parameters of endothelial function in a controlled population. Subjects maintained a 12-week diet with products with mackerel. The population consisted of 58 senior subjects (12 withdrawals, 25 women), aged 82.08 +/- 8.13 years (Group A). Twenty-three senior subjects (13 women) on a regular diet were used as the control group (Group B). Subjects of Group A received 57 portions throughout 12 weeks (four to five portions a week of products with a mean EPA + DHA content of 2.5 g a day). A continuous follow-up and a final evaluation were performed to determine the level of consumption. Plasma samples were stored at -70 degrees C for a biochemical study. Endothelial function was analysed by reactive hyperemia with a mercury strain gauge plethysmography with measurement of blood flow in the forearm, both baseline and at the end of the 12-week diet. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation significantly increased in Group A subjects (P < 0.001). No changes were found in Group B. The subgroup analyses showed that improvements were produced in Group A subjects without cardiovascular disease (P < 0.001). Nitrites/nitrates and von Willebrand factor plasma concentrations were higher in participants after the 12-week diet. The consumption of mackerel meat products improves endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilatation in a senior population. This finding might explain some of the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

  20. 花(鱼骨)外周血细胞显微结构%Microscopic Structure of Peripheral Blood Cell of Hemibarbus maculatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海鹏; 王志坚; 杨求华; 周多夫; 张耀光

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] All kinds of blood cells of Hemibarbus maculatus were described in order to collect the material of its hematology and compared cytology and provide the reference for its artificial raising and disease diagnosis. [Method] The blood of 28 Hemibarbus maculatus fishes were made and stained with Wright and Giemsa's. The morphological characteristics of the blood cells were evaluated with the Nikon-DXM1200 digital microphotography and tested with Image Pro plus. [Results] The result indicated that the phenomenon of red blood cell was direct cell division. There were two types of red blood cells, Type Ⅰ was close related to the reticulocyte. The neutrophilic granulocyte was generally spherical form, with single nucleus with multiply variation and few in two-lobopodia nucleus and the dissolution of aging cell. The eosinophilic granulocyte was generally spherical form with same character as neutrophilic granulocyte. The monocyte was with the pseudopodia-like protrusions, large nuclear occupied about 1/2 of whole cell, some 3/4 of whole cell. The lymphocytes was irregular spherical form and two classes of lymphocytes(large and small) were seen, but no quantitative distinction was made between these. Thrombocyte shape was variable being either elongate, oval, spiked, spindle or some unable-describe forms. The basophils were absent. [Conclusion] There were 6 types of peripheral blood cells of Hemibarbus maculates and not basophils.%[目的]描述花(鱼骨)各类血细胞,为鱼类血液学、比较细胞学积累基础资料,并为花(鱼骨)人工养殖、疾病诊断等工作提供参考.[方法] 对28尾花鲜 骨尾静脉取血,常规方法每尾制作血涂片2~5张,Gimesa和Wright染液联合染色, Nikon-DXM1200数码显微摄影系统观察和拍照,Image Pro plus软件随机测量各类血细胞.[结果] 试验得出,红细胞有直接分裂现象,成红细胞有两种类型,Ⅰ型和网织红细胞关系密切;嗜中性粒细胞一般呈球形,核

  1. Efeito de fatores abióticos na larvicultura de pintado amarelo Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède, 1803: salinidade e cor de tanque - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1859 The effect of abiotic factors on the larviculture of pintado amarelo Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède 1803: salinity an tank color - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Weingartner

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatores abióticos podem determinar o sucesso na larvicultura de algumas espécies de peixes. A cor do tanque e salinidade da água de criação podem promover alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia das pós-larvas de peixes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a influência das salinidades 0,0‰; 0,7‰; 1,4‰; 2,0‰; 2,5‰ e 5,0‰ da água e das cores branca e preta dos tanques na larvicultura de Pimelodus maculatus. A sobrevivência foi afetada pela salinidade (p0,05 entre os tanques branco e preto com valor médio de 31,7±17,7%. Portanto, o valor de 2mg/L de NaCl re velou-se a melhor salinidade para larvicultura de Pimelodus maculatus, e as cores testadas não afetaram a sobrevivência das pós-larvas.Abiotic factors determine the success of the larviculture in some fish species. Tank color and the water salinity can cause alterations in the behavior and physiology of the fish post-larvae. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of the difference water salinity concentration (0.0‰; 0.7‰; 1.4‰; 2.0‰; 2.5‰ and 5.0‰ and the use of white or black tanks in the larviculture of Pimelodus maculatus. The survival rate was affected by water salinity (p0.05 between post-larvae stocked in black or white tanks with an average value of 31.7±17.7%. Therefore, 2.0‰ proved to be the best salinity for larviculture of the Pimelodus maculatus, and the colors tested did not affect the survival of the post-larvae.

  2. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

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    von Hoermann Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C, being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1 Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2 During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex

  3. Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (Pgrowth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Study on Chub Mackerel Resources in Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea in Different Historical Periods%不同历史时期渤海莱州湾鲐鱼资源初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖清霞

    2014-01-01

    The Laizhou Bay is one of the three bays in the Bohai Sea .From ancient times to today , the changes of chub mackerel resources of the Laizhou Bay have been obvious ,w hose notable feature is that chub mackerel can come and go from time to time .The reason is that chub mackerel is not suit-able to live in the muddy waters .Soil erosion in the Loess Plateau leads to the increase of silt content of the Yellow River ,and the Yellow River inflowing into the Bohai Sea affects the transparency of the Laizhou Bay .In recent decades ,the Laizhou Bay has suffered from the industrial pollution along the coast and land-based pollution in the rivers on the ground ,which worsens the marine environment of the Laizhou Bay .Nowadays ,chub mackerel has almost disappeared in the Laizhou Bay due to a varie-ty of intertwined factors .%莱州湾是渤海的三大海湾之一。从古至今,莱州湾的鲐鱼资源变动就十分明显,显著特征是时有时无。其主要原因为鲐鱼不适宜在浑浊的海水里生存。黄土高原的水土流失导致了黄河泥沙含量的提高,而黄河注入到渤海中则影响了莱州湾海水的透明度。近几十年来,莱州湾还受到了沿岸的工业污染和地上河流的陆源污染,这使得莱州湾的海洋环境更加恶化。现如今,多种因素交织导致鲐鱼基本上在莱州湾消失了。

  5. Alimentação de Serrasalmus maculatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes; Serrasalmidae no trecho inferior bacia do rio Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil = Feeding of Serrasalmus maculatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes; Serrasalmidae in the Sorocaba river, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aparecido Villares Junior

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar a alimentação de Serrasalmus maculatus foram coletados 107 indivíduos com a utilização de redes de emalhar de malhas entre 3 a 8 cm entre nós opostos, totalizando 100 m. Os indivíduos apresentaram comprimento-padrão variando entre 62 e 210 mm, e foram representados principalmente por fêmeas e imaturos.Nenhum indivíduo foi capturado em temperaturas inferiores a 21ºC. Ocorreram quatro categorias de itens alimentares nos estômagos analisados, a saber: pedaços de musculatura de peixe, partes de nadadeiras, fragmentos de vegetais e insetos. Foram feitas comparaçõesentre as classes de comprimento mostrando que ocorrem diferenças significativas nos itens alimentares consumidos na maioria dessas classes. A partir da classe de 165 mm, observaram-se apenas os itens musculatura e vegetais. A disponibilidade dos itens no ambiente e a amplitude de comprimento dos exemplares coletados podem estar mascarando a maior diferenciação ontogenética na dieta desta espécie.The aim of this study was to discuss aspects of the diet of Serrasalmus maculatus. Fish were collected using gill nets, whose lengths measured 100 m and mesh diameters varied from 3 to 8 cm. A total of 107 individuals were collected. Their length varied from 62 to 210 mm. They were mainly represented by female and immature individuals. No individual was caught in temperatures below 21ºC. Four feeding item categories were observed: fish muscle pieces, parts of fish fins, plant fragments, and insects. Comparisons made among individual length classes revealed some significant differences within stomach consumed contents. Individuals whose length exceeded 165 mm consumed only parts of fish muscles and plants. The foodavailability in the environment and the class lengths amplitude may, however, have influenced the results, in which ontogenetic differences should not be precisely observed.

  6. Controle do caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 (Coleóptera: Bruchidae utilizando extratos de Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae pelo método de vapor Control of cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775(Coleóptera: Bruchidae using extracts of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae by the steam method

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    Silvana Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os prejuízos causados pelo inseto-praga Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 ao feijão Vigna unguiculata Walp. armazenado, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia de extratos de Piper nigrum L. na mortalidade de adultos daquela espécie. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições e arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, constituído por três concentrações do extrato e cinco períodos de exposições dos extratos (5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 minutos. Utilizaram-se frutos secos triturados de P. nigrum para extração em percolador com solvente álcool etílico (70, 50 e 30%. Os extratos foram aplicados na forma de vapor, por meio de um compressor adaptado, para dentro de recipiente contendo 100 insetos. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a mortalidade dos insetos aumenta com o aumento do período de exposição aos extratos, e que todas as concentrações se mostraram eficientes, embora, em termos de valores absolutos, o extrato com 70% de álcool etílico foi o mais eficaz.Considering the damage caused by the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 to stored Vigna unguiculata Walp beans, this work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of extracts of Piper nigrum L. in the control of adults of the referred species. The statistical outline used was made at random with four repetitions and factorial arrangement 3 x 5, formed by three concentrations of the extract and five periods of exposure to the extracts (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes. P. nigrum grounded dry fruits were used for extraction , which was done with ethyl alcohol (70, 50 and 30%, using a percolator. The extracts were applied as steam, using an adapted compressor into a container having 100 insects. By the results it was possible to conclude that the mortality of the insects becomes higher as the period of exposure to the extracts is increased, and that all the concentrations were shown to be effective, although, in

  7. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  8. Influence of cage farming on feeding and reproductive aspects of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Chavantes reservoir, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.

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    Heleno Brandão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the diet and reproductive aspects of the population of Pimelodus maculatus around net cage fish farming in order to assess the possible impacts of this activity. Monthly collections were performed from March 2008 to February 2009 on two populations: one close to the net cages (NC and one from an area not influenced by these cages denominated the “reference site” (RS. Results of the Alimentary Index (AI, Gonadosomatic Index (GSI, reproductive potential and histological analysis were obtained for both NC and RS populations. The population from NC used leftover food (ration that escapes from net cages as the main food item (99.3%. For the RS population, the detritus item was the more important food source (51.7%. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA showed that the use of food resources was different between the two sites. The reproductive period of the species (indicated by the GSI revealed that the population of the NC showed an extended reproductive period compared to RS. The histology of the ovaries indicated that the specimens in the NC were spawning capable. This study indicates that fish farming activities influence the species P. maculatus in the Chavantes reservoir by adding a new resource to the food web.

  9. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

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    Nuto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of some Biological Characteristics between Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Reared either on his Habitual Host Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae or on Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. and Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. Identified as Substitution Hosts. In this study, we have measured some biological parameters of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae when this parasitoid grows on three hosts: Callosobruchus maculatus F. (usual host, Acanthoscelides macrophthalma Schaef. and Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. (substitution hosts. The results of this comparative study in no choice situation show that, life duration and development duration of this parasitoid are identical in laboratory conditions. By contrast, the female fecundity, the sexual rate and the parasitism rate of D. basalis are different according to the hosts presented. Although such differences appear to be small between C. maculatus and A. macrophthalmus. In presence of these two species, the number of eggs laid by the female of D. basalis is respectively 61 ± 5.24 and 54 ± 5.60, the sexual rate 37.63 ± 2.13% and 41.73 ± 3.69% and the parasitism rate 85.46 ± 2.61% and 76.48 ± 5.90%. This indicates that these two Bruchids can be used as hosts to D. basalis for a mass production. In presence of B. lineatopygus, the fecundity and the parasitism rate of D. basalis female are very low and the sexual rate more favourable of the males. This situation is unfavourable for a parasitoid production. When D. basalis females are placed in choice situation with equal number of the hosts nowely C. maculatus and A. macrophthalmus, the parasitism rate obtained, is higher for C. maculatus that of A. macrophthalmus. This parasitism rate remains high for C. maculatus even when the other host A. macrophthalmus is twice the number of C. maculatus. Thus the parasitoid seems to have a preference for his natural host. However, A. macrophthalmus can

  10. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.

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    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical

  11. Biologia reprodutiva de três espécies simpátricas de peixes neotropicais: Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae, Leporinus amblyrhynchus Garavello & Britski e Schizodon nasutus Kner (Characiformes, Anostomidae do recém-formado Reservatório de Miranda, Alto Paraná Reproductive biology of three simpatric species of Neotropical fishes: Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae, Leporinus amblyrhynchus and Schizodon nasutus Kner (Characiformes, Anostomidae from the newly formed Miranda Reservoir, High Paraná Basin

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    Volney Vono

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive activity parameters of the teleosts Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803, Leporinus amblyrhynchus Garavello & Britski, 1987 and Schizodon nasutus Kner, 1859 was evaluated at a newly formed reservoir in the Araguari River, Paraná River basin, Southeast Brazil. The fishes were captured by gill nets bimonthly from November 1997 to November 1998 at three sampling stations. The stages of gonad development were identified macroscopically in the field and then confirmed by histological analysis in the laboratory. The females of all species reached larger standard length than the males. Pimelodus maculatus in reproductive activity were captured only in November, 1997 and January, 1998 whereas L. amblyrhynchus and S. nasutus were in activity throughout the year. The gonadosomatic index reached the peak during the advanced maturation stage in all species, but the hepatosomatic index and coelomic fat index exhibited distinct tendencies. Length at first maturity was 9.5 cm SL for amblyrhynchus females and 17.1 and 13.0 cm SL, respectively, for S. nasutus females and males. L. amblyrhynchus and S. nasutus are partial spawners. The size at first maturity and type of spawning of P. maculatus were not possible to determine in this work.

  12. Influencia de la Temperatura de Conservación sobre la Formación de Histamina en Caballa (Scomber japonicus Influence of Storage Temperature on Histamine Formation in Mackerel ( Scomber japonicus

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    Marta S Gozzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del presente trabajo fue estudiar la influencia de la temperatura sobre la frescura de la caballa (Scomber japonicus asociada con los cambios químicos y los atributos organolépticos de los ejemplares conservados en diferentes condiciones. La calidad del pescado se determinó por evaluación sensorial mientras que la inocuidad se estableció midiendo el contenido de histamina a 6 ºC durante una semana realizando el muestreo después de transcurridos uno, tres, cinco y siete días en condiciones de refrigeración. A la temperatura ambiente de 20 ºC el muestreo se efectuó diariamente durante tres días. Las caballas refrigeradas superaron los niveles aceptables de histamina al tercer día antes de ser rechazadas por los panelistas sensoriales. Cuando las muestras se mantuvieron a temperatura ambiente alcanzaron niveles peligrosos de histamina al segundo día en coincidencia con el rechazo determinado por el panel de evaluación sensorial.The aim of the present work was to study the influence of storage temperature on the freshness of mackerel ( Scomber japonicus associated with chemical changes and organoleptic attributes of the samples maintained under different environmental conditions. Fish quality was assessed by sensory evaluation while safety was determined through histamine development during refrigerated storage at 6 ºC during a week, sampling for analysis after periods of one, three, five and seven days. At room temperature of 20 ºC samples were analyzed daily during three days. Refrigerated mackerel became unsafe for human consumption, reaching unacceptable histamine levels after three days, before being rejected by the sensory panel. At room temperature samples were discarded due to their high histamine content on the second day, in agreement with the rejection decision of the sensory evaluation panel.

  13. KOMBINASI BUMBU DAN ASAP CAIR DALAM MEMINIMALKAN PEMBENTUKAN HISTAMIN PADA IKAN KEMBUNG PEREMPUAN (Rastrelliger neglectus ASAP [Combination of Spice and Liquid Smoke in Minimizing Histamine Formation in the Smoked Mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus

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    Abu Bakar Tawali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Four spices (clove, cinnamon, tamarind and ginger were combined and applied to produce smoked female mackerel. The use of liquid smoke was compared with redistilled liquid smoke. The result showed that there was lower histamine content in smoked fish treated with spices after the use of liquid smoke and redistilled liquid smoke at (1.00 – 1.20mg/100g compared with the raw material (1.55mg/100g. Histamine content in all treatments increased during storage from 0.96 – 1.13 mg/100g to 6.40 -20.29mg/100g. The phenol content decreased during storage from 2.19% - 2.44% to 0.72% - 0.84%. Using of liquid smoke in combination with spice as well as without spice,resulted in decreasing of the free fatty acid (FFA content until 20 days of storage then increased, whereas using redistilled liquid smoke, resulted decreased of FFA during 10 days storage before increased. Total psychrophilic microbe was not detectable at 0 and 10 days storage but then increased at 20 and 30 days storage to 6.5x103 – 10.1x103cfu/ml and 7.5x103 – 15.5x103cfu/ml, respectively. Overall, combination between clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke which was applied to female mackerel showed the best result i.e.: lower histamine content, lower FFA, lower total psychrophilic microbe and lower phenol content than other treatments. The acceptability of smoked fish treated with clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke after 30 days storage showed higher value than other treatments.

  14. Histologia e caracterização histoquímica do tubo gastrintestinal de Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes no reservatório de Funil, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Histology and histochemical characterization of the digestive tract of Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes in Funil reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Clarice M. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As estruturas teciduais do trato gastrintestinal de Pimelodus maculatus La Cepède, 1803, do reservatório de Funil (22º30'-22º35'S; 44º35'- 44º40'W foram descritas através das técnicas de hematoxilina-eosina (HE, tricômico Gomori, ácido Periódico de Schiff (PAS e alcian blue (AB pH 2,5. Objetivou-se a detecção de glicoproteínas (GPs na mucosa através de uma análise histoquímica e caracterização de possíveis alterações ao longo do trato digestório destes peixes neste sistema de elevado grau de alteração. Cinqüenta e quatro indivíduos adultos, coletados entre abril de 2003 e julho de 2004 (CT=19-38 cm foram utilizados. Na cavidade bucofaríngea, a mucosa apresenta-se com pregas longitudinais e o epitélio é do tipo estratificado pavimentoso. O esôfago apresenta o mesmo tipo de epitélio da cavidade bucofaríngea, destacando-se a predominância de células mucosas que tiveram forte reação aos métodos utilizados. O estômago foi diferenciado em região cárdica, fúndica e pilórica. A mucosa é continuamente revestida por um epitélio simples cilíndrico que apresentou reação positiva ao AB e PAS somente na superfície apical das células; a lâmina própria possui glândulas tubulares que se ramificam gradativamente e consistem de um tipo celular denominado oxinticopépticas, relacionadas com a síntese de ácido clorídrico e pepsinogênio. O intestino apresenta vilosidades revestidas por um epitélio simples cilíndrico com planura estriada e células caliciformes. Na camada submucosa do duodeno foi observada a abertura do colédoco, sendo o epitélio do tipo simples cilíndrico sem células caliciformes, positivo tanto ao PAS quanto ao AB. O ambiente eutrófico do reservatório de Funil não parece influenciar os padrões morfológicos das estruturas (esôfago, estômago e intestino e não foram observadas modificações nas atividades das células mucosas.Histological structures of the digestive traits of

  15. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in combination with diatomaceous earth against Callosobruchus maculatus(Coleoptera: Bruchidae)%昆虫病原真菌与硅藻土混用对四纹豆象的毒力效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neda NABAEI; Ali MEHRVAR; Moosa SABER; Mohammad BAGHERI

    2012-01-01

    在室内条件下检测了白僵菌Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin菌株IRAN-187C和金龟子绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikow) Sorokin菌株A-396分别与硅藻土(DE)制剂InsectoSec(R)混用对四纹豆象Callosobruchus maculatus成虫的毒力效果.结果表明:硅藻土与致死剂量和亚致死剂量的真菌分离物混用导致了四纹豆象成虫的高死亡率,且这些处理均缩短了真菌的致死中时(LT50).LC50的白僵菌B.bassiana菌株IRAN-187C和LC50的DE混用对四纹豆象的LT50 (122.2 h)最低,在95%置信限上与LC50的金龟子绿僵菌M.anisopliae菌株A-396与LC50的DE混用得到的LT50(128.2 h)相当,说明两种真菌分离物与DE混用对四纹豆象成虫都具有较好的毒力效果.用四纹豆象成虫检测3个温度(22,27和30℃)和2个相对湿度(40%和55%)组合对DE活性的影响,结果显示30℃和40%相对湿度条件下得到的LT50(110.11 h)最低,说明高温低湿条件下DE活性较高.%Experiments were conducted to enhance the virulence of two isolates of entomopathogenic fungi,IRAN-187C of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and A-396 isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikow) Sorokin,by combination with InsectoSec(R) formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE) against the adults of Callosobruchus maculatus F.under laboratory conditions.The results demonstrated that the combinations between diatomaceous earth and the fungal isolates at lethal and sub-lethal doses achieved high mortality rates in the adult populations ; moreover,the treatments improved LT50 values of the fungi.The lowest value of LT50 (122.2 h) was achieved by LC50 (B.bassiana,IRAN-187C) + LC50 (DE) treatment which was on par with that of LC50 (M.anisopliae,A-396) + LC50 (DE) combination (128.2 h) based on their 95% fiducial limit values,resulting in better efficacy of each fungal isolate in combination with diatomaceous earth against C.maculatus adults.Also,effects of the three temperatures (22,27,and 30

  16. 不同温度储藏条件下鲅鱼生物胺变化的研究%Changes of biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel under different temperatures during the storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中辉; 林洪; 李振兴

    2011-01-01

    为研究鲭鱼中毒的组胺来源以及温度对鲅鱼生物胺的影响,通过HPLC-柱后衍生-FLD检测技术分析了鲅鱼体内7种生物胺(酪胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、胍丁胺、亚精胺、精胺)的含量以及在不同储藏温度的变化情况.结果表明,新鲜鲅鱼肌肉中没有检出组胺.鲅鱼体内生物胺的变化随温度的升高而加快,0℃(冰藏)、4℃、20℃储藏8d的生物胺总量变化范围分别为3.09~6.77、16.28~274.65、154.96~1846.29mg/kg.因此,细菌是引起组胺中毒的主要来源,低温储藏是控制鲅鱼产生生物胺的有效措施.%In order to research on the source of scombroid poisoning and changes of biogenic amines under different temperatures in Spanish mackerel, seven amines ( tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine)were analyzed by RP-HPLC and post-column derivatization with fluorescence detector ( FLD).Then, no histamine was detected in the fresh muscle,which means no histamine from the metabolism of fish become the source of scombroid poisoning.In addition,the higher the temperature was,the faster the formation of total amines was.And the concentrations of total amines during 8 days at 0℃( in ice) ,4℃ and 20℃ were 3.09~ 6.77, 16.28~ 274.65 and 154.96 ~ 1846.29mg/kg, respectively.In conclusion, bacteria were the main source of scombroid poisoning and low- temperature preservation was better to control biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel.

  17. Screening and Identification of Histamine-Producing Bacteria from Chub mackerel Meat%鲭鱼鱼肉中组胺产生菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫枫; 汤海青; 贺林娟; 杨华; 欧昌荣

    2012-01-01

    A two-step procedure was performed to isolate and screen histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) from Chub mackerel meat according to their histamine-producing capability. The screened strains were identified by physiological and biochemical analysis combined with 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The results showed that among five HPB strains isolated from Chub mackerel meat, two strains were gram-negative bacteria and the other three strains were gram-positive bacteria. These five HPB isolates were separately inoculated into a medium containing 2.0 g/100 mL histidine and cultured for 24 h at 36 ℃ to obtain histamine concentrations of 210.5, 823.0, 130.5, 229.0 mg/L and 217.0 mg/L, respectively. They were identified as Pseudomonas monteilii, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus sphaericus, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Staphylococcus sciuri according to their physiological and biochemical charactefistcs and molecular biological analysis.%根据产组胺能力,采用二步筛选法从鲭鱼肉中分离、筛选组胺产生菌(HPB),并通过生理生化实验结合16S rRNA序列同源性分析,对分离得到的HPB进行鉴定。结果表明:筛选出的5株组胺产生菌中,2株为革兰氏阴性菌、3株为革兰氏阳性菌,将5株菌接种到含2.0g/100mL组氨酸的培养基中,36℃条件下培养24h,培养液中组胺产量分别为210.5、823.0、130.5、229.0、217.0mg/L。根据生理生化特性与16S rRNA序列同源性分析,分离得到的HPB分别为蒙氏假单胞菌(Pseudomonas monteilii)、弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)、球形芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sphaericus)、溶酪大球菌(Macrococcus caseolyticus)以及松鼠葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus sciuri)。

  18. Alimentação de Serrasalmus maculatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes; Serrasalmidae no trecho inferior bacia do rio Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5011 Feeding of Serrasalmus maculatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes; Serrasalmidae in the Sorocaba river, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5011

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    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi abordar a alimentação de Serrasalmus maculatus. A captura dos exemplares foi realizada com a utilização de redes de emalhar de malhas entre 3 a 8 cm entre nós opostos, totalizando 100 m. Foram coletados 107 indivíduos com comprimento-padrão variando entre 62 e 210 mm, representados principalmente por fêmeas e imaturos. Nenhum indivíduo foi capturado em temperaturas inferiores a 21ºC. Ocorreram quatro categorias de itens alimentares nos estômagos analisados, a saber: pedaços de musculatura de peixe, partes de nadadeiras, fragmentos de vegetais e insetos. Foram feitas comparações entre as classes de comprimento mostrando que ocorrem diferenças significativas nos itens alimentares consumidos na maioria dessas classes. A partir da classe de 165 mm, observaram-se apenas os itens musculatura e vegetais. A disponibilidade dos itens no ambiente e a amplitude de comprimento dos exemplares coletados podem estar mascarando a maior diferenciação ontogenética na dieta desta espécie.The aim of this study was to discuss aspects of the diet of Serrasalmus maculatus. Fish were collected using gill nets, whose lengths measured 100 m and mesh diameters varied from 3 to 8 cm. A total of 107 individuals were collected. Their length varied from 62 to 210 mm. They were mainly represented by female and immature individuals. No individual was caught in temperatures below 21ºC. Four feeding item categories were observed: fish muscle pieces, parts of fish fins, plant fragments, and insects. Comparisons made among individual length classes revealed some significant differences within stomach consumed contents. Individuals whose length exceeded 165 mm consumed only parts of fish muscles and plants. The food availability in the environment and the class lengths amplitude may, however, have influenced the results, in which ontogenetic differences should not be precisely observed.

  19. Morphological and molecular analyses of a new species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 (Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914) in the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Gómez, L; Pinacho-Pinacho, C D; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; García-Varela, M

    2016-07-26

    Saccocoelioides olmecae n. sp. is described from specimens recovered from the intestine of the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) collected in six localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other three described species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 from North and Middle America (i.e. S. sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963, S. chauhani Lamothe-Argumedo, 1974 and S. lamothei Aguirre-Macedo & Violante-González, 2008) by having an elongated body, a sac-like caecum, a uterus that extends to the first third of body and by having vitelline follicles longitudinally elongated reaching the posterior end of the body. Sequences of the large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal DNA, including the domain D1-D3, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) were used independently and concatenated to corroborate the morphological distinction among S. olmecae n. sp., S. chauhani and S. lamothei from freshwater and brackish-water fish from Middle America. The genetic divergence estimated among the three species of Saccocoelioides was very low: 1% for LSU and from 1 to 4% for ITS2. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses for each dataset and both datasets combined revealed that S. olmecae n. sp. represents an independent clade with moderate bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. This is the third species of Saccocoelioides described in Mexico, and the 17th species from the Americas.

  20. Jatropha curcas (L. and Jatropha gossypifolia (L., Botanical Entomocides For Poor Resource Farmers As Protectants Of Cowpea Seeds Against Infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/jatropha-curcas-l-and-jatropha-gossypifolia-l-botanical-entomocides-poor-re#sthash.JHvpn57c.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileke Kayode David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The powder, wood ash and latex of Jatropha carcus and Jatropha gossypifolia were bioassayed for their insecticidal potential against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus in the laboratory at ambient temperature and humidity. The plant wood ash, powder and latex were tested at rate 2g/20g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insect were investigated. Result showed that wood ash of J. carcus evoked 100% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid after 4 days of application. This is followed by powder of J. carcus which caused 92.5% mortality while powder of J. gossypifolia was the least effective that caused 90% mortality of adult bruchids. There was no adult emergence in seeds treated with wood ash and latex of both J. carcus and J. gossypifolia compared with untreated that had 81.1% adult emergence. The result obtained from this study revealed that J. carcus and J. gossypifolia wood ash and latex were effective in controlling C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored cowpea against cowpea bruchid for the poor resource farmers in developing countries. -

  1. 三种植物粉剂对四纹豆象(鞘翅目:豆象科)行为、死亡率和繁殖的影响%Effects of Three Plant Powders on Behaviour, Mortality and Reproductive Fitness of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.I.OFUYA; J.M.OSADAHUN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of powders from dry flower buds of Eugenia aromatica Baill., seeds of Piper guineense Schum and Thonn and fruits of Capsicum frutescens L. on adult behaviour, mortality and reproductive fitness of the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) were investigated under ambient laboratory conditions. All experiments were carried out in glass Petri plates. All powders elicited aversion in adult beetles. The contact toxicity symptoms included restlessness, loss of coordination, knock down and eventual death of adult beetles. These behaviours were more pronounced with E. aromatica in which adult beetles died within 16 hours. P. guineense and C. frutescens powders did not cause 100% mortality of adult beetles, even after 24 hours. Each of the three powders significantly (P<0.05) reduced the mating competition of adult males after sub-lethal exposure for one, two, and three hours, respectively. E. aromatica powder caused more reduction in male mating competition for females than any of the other two powders after each period of exposure. Receptiveness of treated females to courting males was also decreased by exposure to any of the three powders. Similarly, E. aromatica powder caused greater decreases in female receptiveness to males than any of the other two powders after each period of exposure. Exposure of either adult male or female C. maculatus to the powders for sub-lethal times of three, six and nine hours significantly reduced the fecundity of the beetles. E. aromatica powder caused the most reduction of eggs laid and also significantly reduced fertility of the eggs.

  2. A Dynamic Bio-Economic Model Combined with Discount Rate for Chub Mackerel in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea%基于贴现率的东黄海鲐鱼动态生物经济模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅丽; 陈新军; 李纲

    2011-01-01

    渔业资源是一种可再生资源,其资源的可持续利用不仅与其种群大小有关,而且还与作业规模、单位作业的经济成本和贴现率等有关。传统生物经济模型通常忽视了贴现率对渔业资源配置的影响。本文根据1999年-2009年中、日、韩三国在东黄海捕捞的鲐鱼渔获量以及生产成本数据,结合贴现率和渔获价格等数据,构建基于贴现率的东黄海鲐鱼动态生物经济模型。结果表明,贴现率为10%,30%时,短期利益占长期利益的10%~20%.渔获价格在(2327—4654)元/t时,可保证鲐鱼渔获量低于最大可持续产量,从而有效地控制捕捞强度,确保鲐鱼资源的可持续利用。%Fishery resources are renewable. Previous studies were primarily focused on theoretical investigation into bio-economical models of fishery resources. Sustainable use of its resources is not only related to its population size, but also related to fishing scale, fishing cost per unit of effort, and discount rate. In the traditional bio-economical models, only two extreme cases, i.e., the discount rates are zero or infinity, are considered. However, the impact on fisheries resources by the discount rate is often ignored. In this paper, a dynamic bio-economical model was established using fishery data and fishing economic data from China, Japan, and South Korea during the period 1999-2009, and considering the effect of the discount rate on resources exploitation of Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the East China sea and Yellow sea. The dynamic bio-economical model was designed to estimate the stock and yield under different management goals. An appropriate discount rate is used to determinate the number of D accepted by current society, which is the proportion of immediate interests. The discount rate-supply curve was plotted for investigation into the development and management of fishery resources carried out in the catch

  3. 北部湾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)的摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化%Feeding Habits and Ontogenetic Diet Shifts of Mackerel Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿鑫; 李永东; 何雄波; 卢伙胜; 颜云榕

    2015-01-01

    To study the mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) feeding habits and its ontogenetic diet shifts, 435 mackerel tuna were collected for an annual research from September 2008 to September 2009 in the main fishing ports such as Beihai, Basuo, Sanya and Jianghong of the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. Results showed that the mackerel tuna of the Beibu Gulf was omnivorous and it predated not only the small pelagic fish but also the benthic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods. Pisces were dominant in the diets with the percentage of Index of Relative Importance (IRI%) of 98.57%. Among these, 21 species were identified. As indicated with IRI%, Bregmaceros rarisquamosus (45.50%), Stolephorus zollingeri (11.81%), Theyssa setirostris (5.89%), and Sardinella aurita (5.87%) were principal in the food cons-ituent. The main species changed monthly and it was Sardinella aurita in January; Bregmaceros rarisquamosus in February, March, November, December; Unidentified Pisces from April to July;Sardinella aurita in August; Leignathus riviulatus in September; Stolephorus zollingeri in October. The prey weight and numbers increased when body size of mackerel tuna was less than 340 mm (SL<340 mm), but there were decreased when body size of mackerel tuna was from 341 to 520 (341-520 mm). The spawning periods of the mackerel tuna were spring and summer, mainly from April to August. There were two spawn peaks, June and August, which were recognized by the female gonad somatic index (GSI) that maintained strong feeding intensity during the reproduction periods. Moreover, the peak periods were consistent with the water temperature of pelagic layers provided by France CATSAT fisheries remote sensing system.%基于2008年9月-2009年9月在北部湾逐月采集的435尾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)生物学数据,对鲔生长、摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化进行了分析。结果显示,北部湾鲔属于广食性鱼类,主要摄食中上层小型鱼类,另外还包括底栖鱼类、

  4. Utilização de diferentes dietas na primeira alimentação do mandi-amarelo (Pimelodus maculatus, Lacépéde Different diets in the first feeding of the yellow mandi (Pimelodus maculates, Lacépéde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas enfrentados na larvicultura de espécies nativas está relacionado à primeira alimentação e à ocorrência de canibalismo para algumas espécies desde o início da vida. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes dietas na primeira alimentação do Pimelodus maculatus. As pós-larvas foram estocadas a uma densidade de 15 pós-larvas/L, em cubas de três litros com sistema de aeração contínua. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: alimentação composta de zooplâncton silvestre nas proporções de 300 organismos/pós-larva/dia (T1; 600 organismos/pós-larva/dia (T2; 900 organismos/pós-larva/dia (T3; 9 náuplios de Artemia/pós-larva/dia (T4; e ração granulada entre 150 e 250 µm (> 50% PB (T5. Ao final de cinco dias de experimento, o tratamento com Artemia apresentou os maiores valores de sobrevivência (39,3%, menores taxas de canibalismo (28,2% e maiores valores de peso e comprimento final (P Pimelodus maculatus nos primeiros dias de vidaOne of the greatest problems in larviculture of native species is first feeding and cannibalism in the some species since the first day of life. This experiment aims at evaluating different diets in the first feeding of Pimelodus maculates, popularly known as the yellow mandi. Post-larvae were stocked in a density of 15 post-larvae/L, in 3 L-glass aquariums with artificial aeration. Treatments were composed of wild zooplankton in the proportion of 300 organisms/post-larvae/day (T1; 600 organisms/post-larvae/day (T2; 900 organisms/post-larvae/day (T3; 9 nauplii of Artemia/post-larvae/day (T4 and artificial microdiet between 150 and 250 µm (>50% PB (T5. At the end of five days the Artemia treatment had the best survival values (39,3% and the least rate of cannibalism (28,2%. Since it registered the best final weight and length (P Pimelodus maculates was consequently demonstrated

  5. Efeito da maturação gonadal sobre a energia dos músculos de duas espécies de piranhas do reservatório do rio Manso, Estado de Mato Grosso = Gonadal maturation effect on muscular energy in two species of piranhas (Serrasalmus marginatus and S. maculatus from rio Manso reservoir, Mato Grosso State

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    Marília Hauser dos Santos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de investigar a alocação de energia e a correlação entre esta e o fator de condição (K de duas espécies de piranhas, Serrasalmus marginatus e S. maculatus, do reservatório do rio Manso, Estado de Mato Grosso (localizado entre os paralelos 14º 52’ delatitude sul e 55º 48’ de longitude oeste. As coletas foram realizadas entre setembro de 2002 e março de 2004. As amostras de músculos de indivíduos de ambos os sexos, pertencentes a diferentes estádios de maturação gonadal e ambientes, tiveram a determinação do conteúdo energético em bomba calorimétrica e os resultados comparados com o K. Houve diferenças significativas entre os estádios de maturação apenas para os machos. As duas espécies utilizam distintamente a energia obtida do alimento. A maturação gonadal exerceu efeito sobre a alocação energética e o K, enquanto este não se correlacionou com a energia armazenada nos músculos.Aiming to investigate the allocation of energy and the correlation between this energy and the condition factor (K of two piranhas species, Serrasalmus marginatus and S. maculatus, from the reservoir of the Manso river, (located among the parallels 14°52' south latitude and 55°48' west longitude. The collections were carried between September, 2002 and March, 2004. The muscle samples of individuals from both genders belonging to different stages of gonadal maturation and environment had their energy content determined by a calorimetric pump and the results compared with K. There were significant differences among the maturation stages only for the males. The two species make distinct use of the energy obtained from the food. The gonadal maturation had an effect on the allocation of energy and K. It did not correlated with the energy stored in the muscles.

  6. Construcción de una librería genómica parcial del pez Xiphophorus maculatus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae para la búsqueda de microsatélites (AC/GTn por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR

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    Acosta DF.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la presente investigación fue probar una metodología económica quepermitiera encontrar, y eventualmente identificar y aislar microsatélites (AC/GTn en el genomadel pez Xiphophorus maculatus . Los objetivos específicos de la misma fueron revisar el estadoactual del modelo genómico de Xiphophorus maculatuspara el estudio de melanoma, elaboraruna librería genómica parcial de este organismo para buscar microsatélites (AC/GTn, utilizardirectamente los fragmentos de restricción clonados como material de partida para la reacciónen cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, explorar la utilidad de la PCR para la búsqueda de insertosportadores de loci microsatélites utilizando iniciadores específicos, y por ultimo, evaluar lautilidad de la metodología propuesta en los protocolos de Cooper et al. (1997 y Grist et al.(1993 para el aislamiento de microsatélites.

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of conventional insecticides against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), on four different substrata surfaces%四种基质表面上常规杀虫剂对四纹豆象的药效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid MAHDAVI; Moosa SABER; Samad VOJOUDI

    2012-01-01

    In pest management programs,the control of pests in structural facilities or sites,where processed food products are consumed or stored,requires the application of insecticides upon a variety of substrate surfaces. In order to determine the insecticidal effectiveness on different substrate surfaces,adults of the cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus ( F.),were exposed to field recommended concentrations of chlorpyrifos, abamectin and deltamethrin insecticides. The results showed that abamectin caused mortality rates of 63.33%,22.41%,12.9% and 11.9% while deltamethrin caused mortality rates of 55%,44.2%,41.3% and 37.4% on glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces,respectively.Exposures to chlorpyrifos led to 100% mortality in all surfaces.Probit analysis of data showed that LC50 values were 8.66,13.6,29.16 and 56.5 μg/mL for chlorpyrifos,119.4,446.2,774.2 and 836.4 μg/mL for abamectin,and 1008,1131,1210 and 1336 μg/mL for deltamethrin on the glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces,respectively,based on formulated materials.It is concluded that chlorpyrifos is the most toxic insecticide to the cowpea weevil,but that its toxicity was reduced in the glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces in sequence.%在害虫治理中,在消费或贮藏粮食加工产品的建筑设施或场所进行害虫防治需要将杀虫剂施用在各种基质表面上.为了测定不同基质表面上杀虫剂的药效,将四纹豆象Callosobruchus maculatus(F.)成虫接触田间推荐剂量的阿维菌素、溴氰菊酯和毒死蜱.结果表明:施用在玻璃、瓷砖、塑料和纸盘表面上,阿维菌素对四纹豆象成虫的致死率分别为63.33%,22.41%,12.9%和11.9%,而溴氰菊酯在这4种基质表面上对四纹豆象成虫的致死率分别为55%,44.2%,41.3%和37.4%.在所有基质表面上接触毒死蜱,四纹豆象成虫的死亡率均为100%.对数据进行的Probit分析表明,毒死

  8. Quantification of total and specific gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria species in fish using an MPN real-time PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Jones, Jessica L; Benner, Ronald A; Burkhardt, William

    2011-10-01

    Quantification of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) is necessary in order to elucidate the role that HPB play in scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning. We report here the evaluation of a real-time PCR method for the quantification of total and specific Gram-negative HPB species in fish using a most probable number (MPN) format. The species-specific real-time PCR assay was 100% inclusive for independently detecting Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella planticola/ornithinolytica and Photobacterium damselae and did not cross react with other histamine- or non- histamine-producing bacteria. The efficiency of the reactions in the absence and presence of Spanish mackerel enrichment containing 1 × 10(6) CFU/ml of background microflora were 93-104 and 92-99%, respectively. The MPN-real-time PCR assay accurately quantified total and specific HPB in spiked mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculates) samples. These methods were used to quantify total and specific HPB in naturally contaminated, decomposing mahi-mahi, Spanish mackerel and tuna (Thunnus albacares) samples. The results of this study indicate that MPN-real-time PCR assays can be used to accurately enumerate total and specific HPB in fish samples. These assays can be applied to assess the effectiveness of mitigation strategies and understand the relationship between HPB and histamine production in decomposing fish.

  9. Relação estoque-recrutamento para as piranhas Serrasalmus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1847 e S. maculatus (Kner, 1860 no rio Baía, alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1544 Stock and recruitment relationship for Serrasalmus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1847 and S. maculates (Kner, 1860 piranhas in Baía River, Upper Paraná River - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1544

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um dos problemas de maior relevância e complexidade na avaliação da biologia pesqueira é a relação entre estoque e recrutamento. O termo recrutamento é referido, neste estudo, como a abundância da primeira classe etária, na qual uma coorte pode efetivamente ser estimada, constituindo-se em um processo complexo, determinado por fatores dependentes e independentes da densidade. Normalmente a análise estoque-recrutamento é resultante da observação da relação entre os tamanhos do estoque reprodutor e o número de recrutas produzidos. Existem representações sugeridas para expressar essa relação, dentre as quais estão os modelos de Beverton e Holt, Ricker e Shepherd. Neste trabalho, esses modelos foram ajustados para as populações de Serrasalmus marginatus e S. maculatus, do rio Baía, por meio de procedimento não-linear. O objetivo foi determinar o melhor modelo para a relação estoque-recrutamento e os principais fatores envolvidos. A competição pareceu ser o fator limitante ao recrutamento, sendo os modelos de Shepherd (S. marginatus e de Ricker (S. maculatus os mais adequadosThe most important and, usually, the most difficult problem in fisheries sciences assessment is the relationship between stock and recruitment. The term ‘recruitment’ is referred in this study as the abundance of the earliest age at which a cohort can effectively be estimated. The process of recruitment is complex, and determined by density-dependent and density-independent factors. Usually, stock-recruitment is the empirical relationship between reproductive stock and the number of recruits produced. There are several suggestions to express the stock-recruitment relationship, and an example of such attempts is the models of Beverton and Holt, Ricker and Shepherd. These models were fitted by non-linear procedure to Serrasalmus marginatus and S. maculates populations from the Baía River. The aim of the study was to determine the best model for

  10. Revision of the monogenean subfamily Neothoracocotylinae Lebedev, 1969 (Polyopisthocotylea: Thoracocotylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C J; Rohde, K

    1999-11-01

    Members of the subfamily Neothoracocotylinae are gastrocotylinean monogeneans on the gills of scombrid fishes of the genera Scomberomorus and Acanthocybium, and reportedly of a coryphaenid fish belonging to the genus Coryphaena. We revise the diagnosis of the subfamily and its two genera and accept only two species as valid. Neothoracocotyle acanthocybii (Meserve, 1938) Hargis, 1956 is known from Acanthocybium solandri throughout the Pacific Ocean and in the western Atlantic. N. coryphaenae (Yamaguti, 1938) Hargis, 1956, known only from a single specimen and described from Coryphaena hippurus in Japan, is synonymised with N. acanthocybii. The sole member of Scomberocotyle, S. scomberomori (Koratha, 1955) Hargis, 1956, infects five species of Scomberomorus in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the western and castern Atlantic. We record this worm from several new hosts and/or localities, including S. sierra and S. concolor in the eastern Pacific (Mexico to Colombia), S. maculatus and S. cavalla in the western Atlantic (USA to Brazil), and S. tritor in the eastern Atlantic (Sierra Leone to Nigeria).

  11. [Risk factors of ciguatera in the French West Indies in Saint-Barthélémy, Saint-Martin and Anguilla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, P; Bagnis, R

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological study on ciguatera fish poisoning in the French West Indies (St-Barthelemy, St-Martin and Anguilla) was conducted during the years 1985-1986. The investigation on intoxications shows a non seasonal significant prevalence. Though it was difficult to list the cases, the morbidity seems to vary between 7 and 30 per thousand. A study of fish toxicity was realised; 46 different species were tested (individually or by pools) by the mosquito bio-test. Observations of intoxications give the following results: High risk species: Caranx bartholomaei, C. lugubris, Seriola dumerili, Lutjanus apodus, L. jocu, Pristipomoides macrophtalmus, Gymnothorax funebris, G. moringa, Scomberomorus cavalla, S. regalis, Mycteroperca venenosa, M. tigris, Epinephelus morio, Sphyraena barracuda. Intermediate species: Caranx latus, C. ruber, Lachnolaimus maximus, Lutjanus analis, L. buccanella, L. griseus, Malacanthus plumieri, Scomberomorus maculatus. Low risk species: Balistes vetula, Alectis ciliaris, Haemulon album, Bodianus rufus, Halichoeres radiatus, Priacanthus arenatus, Alphestes afer. Many species are involved in the toxic food chain. New ones have been identified, but it is difficult to determine the toxic level range. A cartography is presented but no place is free of risk. A research of Gambierdiscus toxicus, the causal agent, on algal surface from dead corals was conducted around St-Barthelemy and St-Martin. The dinoflagellate is found in low or medium populations all around the islands with no difference between North and South. There is a maximal activity during the spring. A model of the epidemiology of the ciguatera in the area is proposed.

  12. 鲐鱼软骨糖胺聚糖的硫酸软骨素的结构及其与生长因子的相互作用%Chondroitin Sulfate in the Preparation of Glycosaminoglycan from Mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus Houttuyn) Nasal Cartilage and Its Interaction with Growth Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃钢

    2012-01-01

    为了开发具有药用价值的硫酸软骨素(chondroitin sulfate,CS)的新资源,从鲐鱼(Pneumatop horus japonicus Houttuyn)软骨蛋白聚糖(proteoglycan,PG)制备了糖胺聚糖(glycosaminoglycan,GAG),用酶降解和阴离子交换HPLC法测定了GAG的CS的组成及其含量,用凝胶层析法测定了GAG的分子量,用表面等离子体谐振(surface plasmon resonance,SPR)法测定了其与多效生长因子(PTN)、中期因子(MK)和肝细胞生长因子(HGF)相互作用的动力学参数结合速率常数(ka)、解离速率常数(kd)和平衡解离常数(KD).结果显示,鲐鱼软骨GAG含量约为651 μg/mg PG或1.09 μmol/mg PG(按照二糖单位计算),主要含CS (1.03μmol/mg PG,按照二糖单位计算),CS酶解产生的主要二糖单位是ΔDi-6S(38.8%)和ΔDi-4S(46.3%),有少量的ΔDi-0S(8.4%)和ΔDi-diSD(6.5%).GAG (CS)的分子量为78 kD.GAG(CS)与生长因子的相互作用的动力学参数ka((mol/L)-1·S-1)、kd(s-1)和KD (nmol/L)分别为(2.77±0.17) x105、(7.74±1.56) ×105和(0.28 ±0.06) (MK),(1.05 ±0.22)×104、(4.16±0.80)x 10-3和(417±131.3)(PTN),(7.04±0.94)×105、(7.84±2.82)× 10-3和(1 1.1±3.80)(HGF).该GAG同MK、HGF和PTN有高的或较高的亲和性,暗示鲐鱼软骨GAG的CS有可能通过调节生长因子的信号转导途径而对某些疾病发挥治疗作用,具有潜在进一步药用开发价值.%To search for new resource of chondroitin sulfate (CS) for therapeutics, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was isolated from nasal proteoglycan (PG) of mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus Houttuyn). The disaccharide composition of CS in the GAG preparation was determined by anion-exchange HPLC after digestion with chondroitinase. The molecular size of GAG was determined by gel filtration, and the interaction of GAG with growth factors was analyzed to determine the kinetic parameter ^(association rate constant) ^ kd (dissociation rate constant) and KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) through surface plasmon resonance

  13. Isolation of Histamine-degrading Enzyme Producing Bacteria from Mackerel and Characteration of Enzyme Concerned%鲭鱼中组胺降解酶产生菌的分离筛选和基本酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧昌荣; 汤海青; 张宇琼; 郑洁; 李海波

    2012-01-01

    Marine fishes, scombroid species in paticular, are susceptible to producing histamine during processing and storage, as has been reported in incidents of scombroid fish poisoning. To understand the relationship between the producing and degrading of histamine and the microorganism concerned in fish, the bacterials with the capacity of producing histamine-degrading enzyme are screened from skin, flesh, entrails and gills of mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) by plate and shaking flask culture, followed with testing the enzyme activity by pectrofluorimetry method. A gram-negative rod bacterium producing histamine-degrading enzyme is isolated from entrails of mackerel. The enzyme is presumed to be primary metabolite according to the growth and enzyme production curves. The optimum pH and temperature of the crude enzyme activity to histamine is found to be 7.2 and 35 ℃ respectively, and a high stability of the enzyme is observed at 20-35 ℃ and pH 6.0-8.0. It is activated by 5 mmol·L^-1 of ions such as Mn^2+, Ca^2+, Na^-, Mg^2+, K^+, but inhibited by Zn^2+, Al^3+, Fe^3+, Fe^2+, Cu^2+, and completely inhibited by EDTA. The results of kinetic studies show that the kinetic parameter Km of the enzyme was 0.22 mg.mL^-1, and the Vmax of the enzyme is 156.25 U.mL^-1. This paoer presents the first domestic report oh histamine-degrading enzyme producing bacteria, and the study is believed to be important to seek biological control of histamine in food processing in the future.%鲭鱼亚目的海洋鱼类在捕获后易产生组胺,导致鲭鱼中毒.为研究组胺消长与微生物的关系,通过平板分离和摇瓶发酵,以荧光光度法测定酶活力,从鲭鱼(Pneumatophorus japonicus)皮肉、内脏和腮中分离筛选组胺降解菌,并对所产组胺降解酶的酶学性质进行研究和分析.结果表明:自内脏中分离筛选到一株组胺降解酶活力较高的革兰氏阴性杆菌,从生长产酶曲线推

  14. Optimal utilization of bio-economic social model for chub mackerel in the East and Yellow seas%东、黄海鲐鱼生物经济社会综合模型的优化配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王从军; 陈新军; 李纲

    2013-01-01

    鲐鱼是我国近海重要经济鱼类,其资源的可持续利用和科学管理一直受到人们的关注和重视.以Gordon-Schaefer生物经济模型为理论依据,采用中、日、韩3国1998-2008年灯光围网渔业的生产作业数据以及相关的经济数据,估算东、黄海鲐鱼的最大可持续产量(MSY)、最大经济产量(MEY)和生物经济平衡点(BE)及其对应的捕捞努力量.在此基础上,设计出多种基于不同权重的生物、经济和社会目标的捕捞方案,建立东、黄海鲐鱼生物经济社会综合模型,比较其在不同捕捞方案下的短期(1~5年)、中期(10年)、长期(20年)的经济效益和社会效益以及渔业资源状况.结果表明,东、黄海鲐鱼资源量正处于或已经处于过度捕捞状态;以MEY为管理目标的长期经济效益为最大,且资源状况保持最好,但社会就业率较低;以BE为管理目标的当前以及短期效益较大,且可以解决大量就业问题,但长期经济效益为最低,且资源状况最差;而捕捞方案9的经济和社会综合效益为最好,且资源状况也较佳.研究认为,综合各方面因素,最佳的捕捞方案为方案9,即适宜捕捞努力量应控制在19 889网次.研究亮点:渔业资源开发和利用不仅是资源利用的问题,更是一个社会和经济问题.本研究以东黄海鲐鱼为例,首次构建了基于生态、经济和社会综合效益的Gordon-Schaefer生物经济模型,估算了在不同捕捞策略下短期、中期、长期的综合效益和资源状况,研究结果为科学制定鲐鱼资源管理策略提供了依据.%Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is an important economic species in the coastal waters of China,and its sustainable utilization and scientific management has been attractive and attentions by peoples.In this paper,based on Gordon-Schaefer bio-economic model,we use the catch data of purse seine fishery and economic data from China,Japan and Korea from 1998 to 2008 to

  15. 基于线粒体COI和Cytb基因序列对新疆两水系斑重唇鱼遗传结构的分析%Genetic structure analysis of Diptychus maculatus between two water systems in Xinjiang based on mitochondrial COI and Cyt b gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天燕; 孟玮; 马燕武; 蔡林钢; 郭焱

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mitochondrial COI and Cyt b gene sequences were analyzed to reveal the genetic diversity and divergence level in six Diptychus maculatus populations .AMOVA analysis showed that genetic variation among populations was significantly greater than that within populations , and the average genetic differentiation index ΦST were 0.980 2 ( COI) and 0.886 3 ( Cyt b) respectively.Genetic differences between two populations were significant except two popula-tions from Ili River ( P>0.05 ).Average genetic distance based on Kimura two-parameter suggested that not only popula-tions between two river systems showed significant genetic differentiations but certain populations among Tarim River also showed differentiations.Haplotype network charts and phylogenetic trees both revealed Kumalake River population existed two different haplogroups.According to the molecular clock hypothesis , phylogenetic divergence time was about 2.41 Ma when it was late Pliocene to early Pleistocene.The Quaternary tectonic movement in the first act of Tianshan Mountain might be the most important reason for genetic divergence in D.maculates populations from two water systems.However , the ge-netic divergence in D.maculates populations from Tarim River might be caused by the separation of Taklimakan Desert.%采用线粒体COI和Cyt b基因序列分析相结合的方法,对伊犁河和塔里木河水系6个斑重唇鱼( Diptychus maculates)群体遗传差异和分化水平进行了比较研究。 AMOVA分析结果显示,斑重唇鱼群体间遗传差异显著大于群体内,群体平均遗传分化指数ΦST分别为0.9802( COI)和0.8863( Cyt b),除伊犁河水系两群体差异不显著外( P>0.05),其他两两群体间遗传差异均显著。基于Kimura双参数法计算群体间平均遗传距离发现,不仅两水系间群体存在差异,塔里木河水系内部群体也产生了较大的遗传分化。单倍型网络图和系统关系树显

  16. Determination of nitrofuran metabolic residues in Spanish mackerel by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spetrometry%液相色谱串联质谱法测定巴鱼中硝基呋喃代谢物的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雪琪; 何凤芹

    2013-01-01

    建立巴鱼中呋喃唑酮、呋喃它酮、呋喃西林和呋喃妥因的代谢物残留量液相色谱-串联质谱的方法。分析物采用电喷雾电离正离子( ESI +)、多反应监测(M RM )模式检测,内标法定量。本实验对固相萃取法提取和乙酸乙酯提取净化前处理方法进行比对,4种硝基呋喃代谢物的混合标准溶液的浓度在0.5~50ng/mL范围线性良好,相关系数均大于0.9981,4种化合物的检测限为0.5μg/kg。添加浓度1μg/kg、2.5μg/kg、5μg/kg范围内得出4种代谢物固相萃取净化法的回收率在81.1%~104.1%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于5.7%.乙酸乙酯提取净化法的回收率在88.5%~108.2%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD )小于6.1%。结论证明乙酸乙酯提取法方法前处理简单、快速、稳定性好,适用于大量样品的同时检测。%A method was established to detect nitrofuran metabolic residues in Spanish mackerel by liq-uid chromatography tandem mass spetrometry (LC-MS/MS) .Theanalvtes were detected by LC-MS/MS (ESI) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM ).The result indicated that the calibration curves were in good linearity between the peak area and the concentration of 0.5-50ng/ml for nitrofuran metabolic with correlation cofficients not less than 0.9981.The limits of detection for four nitrofuran metabolics were 0.5μg/kg. .Then analytes were extracted by spe or ethyl acetat the average recoveries were 81.1%-104.1% or 88.5%-108.2% and the related standard deviations less than 5.1 or 6.1% at the three levels 1μg/kg、2.5μg/kg、5μg/kg.The proposed method was simple ,rapid ,the stability was good and suitable for the simultaneous quantitative detection.

  17. Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

  18. Helminth communities of four commercially important fish species from Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Vidal-Martínez, V M; González-Solís, D; Caballero, P I

    2007-03-01

    The relative importance of ecology and evolution as factors determining species richness and composition of the helminth communities of fish is a matter of current debate. Theoretical studies use host-parasite lists, but these do not include studies on a temporal or spatial scale. Local environmental conditions and host biological characteristics are shown to influence helminth species richness and composition in four fish species (Eugerres plumieri, Hexanematichthys assimilis, Oligoplites saurus, and Scomberomorus maculatus) in Chetumal Bay, Mexico. With the exception of H. assimilis, the helminth communities had not been previously studied and possible associations between environmental and host biological characteristics as factors determining helminth species richness and composition using redundancy analysis (RDA) are described. Thirty-four helminth species are identified, with the highest number of species (19 total (mean = 6.3 +/- 2.1)) and the lowest (9 (4.0 +/- 1.0)) occurring in H. assimilis and S. maculatus, respectively. The larval nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. were not only the helminth species shared by all four host species but also were the most prevalent and abundant. Statistical associations between helminth community parameters and local ecological variables such as host habitat use, feeding habits, mobility, and time of residence in coastal lagoons are identified. Phylogeny is important because it clearly separates all four host species by their specialist parasites, although specific habitat and feeding habits also significantly influence the differentiation between the four fish species.

  19. The response of the diets of four carnivorous fishes to variations in the Yellow Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo; Xue, Ying

    2010-06-01

    The stomach contents of Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius), snailfish ( Liparis tanakae), anglerfish ( Lophius litulon), and Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) from the Yellow Sea during 1985-1987 and 2000-2002 were analyzed. The diets of these four carnivorous species changed over time, showing that the importance of the previous major prey, Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), had greatly decreased, owing to its declining abundance, and that intake of Crangon affinis had increased. Spanish mackerel foraged for more food, particularly for other small pelagic species in addition to Japanese anchovy, causing an increase in its niche width in recent years, whereas the other three demersal carnivorous species had mainly targeted the small benthic shrimp C. affinis, and their niche widths had reduced in the later years. This phenomenon may be an adaptive response to changes in the food availability of the ecosystem, indicating a change in the food web and community structure of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. Changes in the composition of the diet of major predators may be an indicator of changes in a marine ecosystem.

  20. Species-and tissue-specific mercury bioaccumulation in five fish species from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinhu; CAO Liang; HUANG Wei; DOU Shuozeng

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in the tissues (muscle,stomach,liver,gills,skin,and gonads)of five fish species (mullet Liza haematocheilus,flathead fish Platycephalus indicus,sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus,mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius and silver pomfret Pampus argenteus) collected from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China were investigated.The results indicate that Hg bioaccumulation in the five fish was tissue-specific,with the highest levels in the muscle and liver,followed by the stomach and gonads.The lowest levels were found in the gills and skin.Fish at higher trophic levels (flathead fish and sea bass) exhibited higher Hg concentrations than consumers at lower trophic levels.Mercury bioaccumulation tended to be positively correlated with fish length in mullet,silver pomfret,mackerel,and flathead fish,but was negatively correlated with fish length in sea bass.The Hg concentrations in the muscles of all fish species in Laizhou Bay were within the permissible limits of food safety set by national and international criteria.However,the suggesting maximum consumption of sea bass is 263 g per week for human health.

  1. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  2. Historical spatial reconstruction of a spawning-aggregation fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sarah M; Thurstan, Ruth H; Tobin, Andrew; Pandolfi, John M

    2017-03-29

    Aggregations of individual animals that form for breeding purposes are a critical ecological process for many species, yet these aggregations are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. Studies of the decline of exploited populations that form breeding aggregations tend to focus on catch rate and thus often overlook reductions in geographic range. We tested the hypothesis that catch rate and site occupancy of exploited fish-spawning aggregations (FSAs) decline in synchrony over time. We used the Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) spawning-aggregation fishery in the Great Barrier Reef as a case study. Data were compiled from historical newspaper archives, fisher knowledge, and contemporary fishery logbooks to reconstruct catch rates and exploitation trends from the inception of the fishery. Our fine-scale analysis of catch and effort data spanned 103 years (1911-2013) and revealed a spatial expansion of fishing effort. Effort shifted offshore at a rate of 9.4 nm/decade, and 2.9 newly targeted FSAs were reported/decade. Spatial expansion of effort masked the sequential exploitation, commercial extinction, and loss of 70% of exploited FSAs. After standardizing for improvements in technological innovations, average catch rates declined by 90.5% from 1934 to 2011 (from 119.4 to 11.41 fish/vessel/trip). Mean catch rate of Spanish mackerel and occupancy of exploited mackerel FSAs were not significantly related. Our study revealed a special kind of shifting spatial baseline in which a contraction in exploited FSAs occurred undetected. Knowledge of temporally and spatially explicit information on FSAs can be relevant for the conservation and management of FSA species. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Uma nova espécie de Dadayius Fukui, 1929 (Digenea: Cladorchiidae parasita do trato intestinal de Metynnis maculatus (Kner, 1858 (Characidae da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2044 A new species of Dadayius Fukui, 1929 (Digenea: Cladorchiidae, parasite of the intestinal tract of Metynnis maculates (Kner, 1858 (Characidae from the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2044

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Massoto Takemoto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Cladorchiidae (Trematoda, Digenea foi encontrada no trato intestinal do peixe de água-doce “pacu peva”, Metynnis maculatus (Kner, 1858 na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. A nova espécie foi classificada no gênero Dadayius Fukui, 1929 por apresentar testículos não lobados e acetábulo ventro-terminal com um “entalhe” postero-mediano na margem interior, características do gênero que possui apenas duas espécies conhecidas. Algumas características que diferem a espécie nova de D. marenzelleri (Daday, 1907 e D. pacuensis Thatcher, 1996 são cecos não alcançando o acetábulo, vitelária de extensão limitada e não atingindo o nível do testículo posterior e a presença de dois tamanhos diferentes de ovos em dois estágios de maturação diferentes.A new species of Cladorchiidae (Trematoda, Digenea was found in the intestinal tract of freshwater fish “pacu peva”, Metynnis maculates (Kner, 1858 from the Upper Paraná River floodplain, southern Brazil. The new species was classified in the genus Dadayius Fukui, 1929 by having non-lobate testis and a ventro-terminal acetabulum with postero median notch on rim, characters of the genus wich has only two previously known species. Some characters that differ the new species from D. marenzelleri (Daday, 1907 and D. pacuensis Thatcher, 1996 are: ceca not reaching acetabulum, vitellaria of limited extension, not reaching the level of posterior testis and the presence of two different egg sizes in two different maturity stages.

  4. Anopheles Maculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Type Locality of Hong Kong and Two New Species of the Maculatus Complex from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    distinguish two morphotypes from single localities. For this reason we believe that the two forms represent repro- ductively isolated species which are...tergum; 9- II-IV short, blunt, peglike; 9-V-W long, pointed, spine - like; 9-11 transparent, 9-III-VII lightly to darkly pigmented; ratio of length...Pecten plate with 3-12 long and 4-9 short spines . Seta 1-X simple, long, 1.05-1.54 length of saddle; 2-X more pectinate than plumose, with 16-20

  5. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  6. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  7. An updated ciguatoxin extraction method and silica cleanup for use with HPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of P-CTX-1, PCTX-2 and P-CTX-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lauren; Carter, Steve; Capper, Angela

    2015-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a debilitating human neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of tropical marine organisms, contaminated with bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). The growing number of cases coupled with the high toxicity of CTXs makes their reliable detection and quantification of paramount importance. Three commonly occurring ciguatoxins, P-CTX-1, 2 and 3 from five different ciguatoxic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), were used to assess the effectiveness of different extraction techniques: homogenization (high powered blending vs. ultrasonication); C-18 column sizes (500 mg vs. 900 mg); and a novel HILIC SPE cleanup. Despite minor differences, blending and sonication proved equally effective. Larger 900 mg columns offered a greater extraction efficiency, increasing detected P-CTX-1 by 37% (P Silica cleanup extraction efficiencies were also compared between the highly effective and validated ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) and current best practice extraction method employed by Queensland Health (QH). Overall, the QH protocol proved more effective, especially when paired with the newly adapted cleanup, as this increased the amount of extracted P-CTX-1 by 46% (P extracting P-CTX-1, -2, -3. Specifically P-CTX-1, the primary ciguatoxin congener of concern due to its extremely high potency and an ability to cause CFP at 0.1 μg/kg following consumption of carnivorous fish flesh. Despite being more time intensive (an additional 85 min per batch of 12 samples), this will be especially effective for assessing lower toxin burdens, which may be near the limit of detection.

  8. Data evaluation of data limited stocks: Dab, flounder, Witch, Lemon Sole, Brill, Turbot and Horse mackerel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der T.; Poos, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several commercially important demersal fish stocks for the North Sea fisheries are classified by ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) as “data limited” stocks, which are stocks for which the data are insufficient to perform a full analytical assessment and forecast (ICES 2012

  9. 76 FR 66260 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... (ABC), preventing overfishing, maximum sustainable yield, and achieving rebuilding targets. The ABC is... exploitation (1976-2009). The SSC interpreted this level of exploitation to be sustainable over the long term...) diamond mesh, inside stretch measure, applied throughout the codend for at least 100 continuous...

  10. 77 FR 69426 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... for acceptable biological catch (ABC), preventing overfishing, maximum sustainable yield, and.... Risenhoover, Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, performing the functions and duties of the Deputy... the EEZ may only fish with nets having a minimum codend mesh of 3 inches (7.62 cm) diamond...

  11. 75 FR 11441 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... revenue impacts associated with GRAs and larger minimum mesh sizes. These include revenue loss due to... revenue related to Loligo escapement from the larger mesh sizes imposed in the proposed GRAs. While the... techniques while maximizing coverage of the full fleet, and is further exploring methods to test for observer...

  12. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts.

  13. A partial skeleton of a new lamniform mackerel shark from the Miocene of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kriwet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenozoic lamniform sharks are mostly represented by isolated teeth and vertebrae, whereas articulated skeletal remains are usually very scarce. Here, we describe a partial skeleton of an extinct lamniform shark consisting of 42 slightly disarticulated teeth, 49 vertebrae, and additional unidentifiable cranial and postcranial remains. The specimen originates from the Miocene mica-clay of Groß Pampau (North Germany, which is of late Langenfeldian age (= Serravallian-Tortonian boundary; middle–late Miocene. A total of 13 measurements of each tooth, as well as morphological features, were used to reconstruct the dentition of this specimen and to provide detailed taxonomic information. Additionally, the total body size and age at death were established using methodologies based on vertebral and tooth measurements and vertebral centra growth ring counts, respectively. The specimen undoubtedly represents the most complete individual of “Carcharodon (= Isurus escheri”, previously known only from a few isolated teeth. The dental pattern (e.g., marked dignathic and monognathic heterodonty patterns; only slightly labio-lingually compressed upper teeth; upper teeth slender with distally inclined or curved main cusps; massive, hook-like upper intermediate tooth; main cusps with crenulated cutting edges; lateral cusplets in teeth of all ontogenetic stages clearly separates this shark from all hitherto known Cenozoic and Recent lamnids and a new genus, Carcharomodus, consequently is introduced. Carcharomodus escheri comb. nov. is a characteristic element of late early Miocene to the Pliocene Western and Central European fish faunas. All previously identified Pacific occurrences represent a different taxon. We estimate that the specimen had a total body length of about 4 m and that it was older than 10 years and thus might have reached maturity before death, as indicated by all available evidence.

  14. 76 FR 13887 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... emergency can be addressed through emergency regulations for which the immediate benefits outweigh the value....regulations.gov without change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name, address, etc... lower range of ABC values for 2011 that were previously considered in its May 2010 deliberations. It...

  15. 77 FR 71720 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... society, having a degree in naval architecture, etc., it is not possible for us to verify the...: November 27, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, Performing the...

  16. Anisakis simplex (Nematoda: Anisakidae from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in Atlantic coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Shawket

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the description of the Anisakis simplex (A. simplex parasites of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Atlantic coast of Mehdia (Kenitra, Morocco from December 2014 to November 2015. Methods: A total of 1 012 Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 obtained from commercial fishing were performed autopsy for their parasitic Nematoda. Then 6 695 specimens of A. simplex were collected from their abdominal cavity. These parasites were attached on different organs particularly on ovaries and testes. All parasites were counted, measured and photographed under microscopy. Results: The infection levels of fishes by larval A. simplex are expressed by prevalence (35.28%, mean intensity (18.75 and abundance (6.6. The effect of parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations were found between host length and A. simplex occurrence, and abundance. The variation observed in the infection levels was discussed within the seasons and climatic change.

  17. 77 FR 16472 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and other applicable laws. The Council prepared an... material, including, but not limited to, nets, net strengtheners, ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the...

  18. 75 FR 5537 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and other applicable law. This action is authorized by 50 CFR part..., ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the top of the regulated portion of a trawl net that results in an... possessing Loligo may use net strengtheners (covers), splitting straps, and/or bull ropes or wire around...

  19. 77 FR 51853 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 648.20) and a risk policy (Sec. 648.21) to guide the Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee... the best available scientific information. Thus, provided that the SSC can demonstrate that the method... trends in abundance, and for which there is robust scientific information to suggest that an...

  20. Genetic and morphological variations in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) from the Goa region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Naik, S.; Martins, M.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Indian_Acad_Sci_(Anim_Sci)_99_457.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  1. 77 FR 67305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    .... These specifications promote the utilization and conservation of the butterfish resource. DATES... that fishery to 3,165 mt (a 720-mt increase from status quo). Recently available data indicate that the... and rapid utilization of the lower (2,445-mt) butterfish mortality cap made the possibility of...

  2. Oil sardine and Indian mackerel: Their fishery, problems and coastal oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Nair, K.N.V.; Nair, S.R.S.

    -leading to the productivity are examined to find their relationship to the fishery. However, this study attempts to point out the drawbacks in our understanding and proposes research problems that could be pursued...

  3. 77 FR 58507 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Framework Document, are available from: Dr. Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid- Atlantic Fishery...-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Amendment 11 to the MSB FMP (76 FR 68642, November 7, 2011... reporting requirements. Dated: September 17, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director, Office of...

  4. 76 FR 47492 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... for Fisheries, NOAA, finds good cause under section 553(b)(B) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA... under section 553(d) of the APA to waive the 30-day delay in effectiveness. This emergency rule has been...

  5. 76 FR 45742 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... measurement done by a certified marine surveyor is estimated to cost $4,000. An estimated 74 vessels would.... The proposed regulations for both actions will present adjustments to the existing regulatory text. In..., Tier 1 and Tier 2 vessels would be required to obtain a fish hold capacity measurement from a...

  6. 77 FR 51858 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... determined from the stock assessment, or if a proxy is not provided by the Scientific and Statistical... precision occurs because the average becomes less variable as the number of tows used for inference... variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions, are used...

  7. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), a marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Hirayama, Kentaro; Fukuda, Kenji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Saito, Tadao; Newgrain, Keith; Merchant, Jim; Green, Brian; Messer, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Milk oligosaccharides were separated from the carbohydrate fraction of milk of the tiger quoll a species of marsupial that is closely related to the eastern quoll, Dasyurus viverrinus. They were characterized by (1)H - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and matrix - assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The following oligosaccharides were identified; Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3) Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc with an α(2-3)Neu5Ac linked to β(1-4)Gal residue of either branch of Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6) units, and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc with a β(1-3) linked Gal and an α(2-3) linked Neu5Ac. In addition, larger oligosaccharides were characterized as follows; Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc and Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc and their α(2-3) linked Neu5Ac derivatives.

  8. The Paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salyvonchyk, Svetlana; Nora, Vinicius; Lopes, Priscila F; Silvano, Renato A M

    2012-06-27

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen's local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the "defeso system" (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  9. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  10. The impact of environmental variability on Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus larval abundance to the west of the British Isles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitois, Sophie G.; Jansen, Teunis; Pinnegar, John

    2015-01-01

    abundances of zooplankton and the larger phytoplankton groups, to a system characterized by higher temperature, lower salinities, lower abundances of zooplankton and larger phytoplankton and higher abundances of the small phytoplankton species. Analysis revealed a very weak positive correlation between...... where other data (such as egg surveys) are drawn in to compensate for the spatial issues could prove to be the way forward. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  11. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would..., Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  12. Genetic divergence in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv) from the coastal waters of Peninsular India and the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Naik, S.; Martins, M.

    in the distribution of genetic distances. Between the west coast/east coast and the Andaman samples the average D was0.059. This value lies on the higher range of values suggested for local races of a species....

  13. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    and protein oxidation, as it resulted in low levels of peroxide value, volatiles and carbonyl compounds and protected against the loss of α-tocopherol and tryptophan residues. In spite of the higher phenolic content, the absolute ethanol extracts of both species showed a pro-oxidative tendency in minced...

  14. Structural classifications in the digestive tract of short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1865 from Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinlapachai Senarat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was the first attempt on the classification of the gross anatomy with histological structures of the digestive tract in the Rastrelliger brachysoma. Based on gross anatomical analysis, the digestive tract (65.68±7.06 cm, n = 25 is distinctly composed of four parts; oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine, respectively. Base on the histological analysis of the digestive tract, it is composed of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The epithelial lining of anterior oesophagus was shown to be a simple squamous epithelium whereas posterior oesophagus, stomach and intestine were simple columnar epithelium. The surface of this epithelium positively stained with both Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB. The posterior oesophagus exclusively showed high longitudinal fold with numerous gastric glands in the mucosal layer, which is similar to the stomach structure (cariac and pylorus. Numerous pyloric caeca about 220-225 pieces, were detected between the stomach and intestine regions. Finally, the intestinal coefficient (IC was 3.69±0.47 cm. The anterior intestine presented either various longitudinal folds or various goblet cells. The short longitudinal folds of posterior intestine were in the higher number of goblet cell than the previous part.

  15. Comparative phylogeography of two monogenean species (Mazocraeidae) on the host of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, along the coast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Pin; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, the phylogeographies of two monogenean species, Pseudokuhnia minor and Kuhnia scombri, on the same species of host, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were sequenced for 264 individuals of P. minor and 224 individuals of K. scombri collected from 10 localities along the coast of China. Genetic diversity of K. scombri was higher than that of P. minor, which may imply that P. minor has a lower evolution rate and/or is a younger species. The neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of both parasites were comprised of two clades without association to sample sites, which is the signature of remixing populations following past division. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index revealed different genetic structures for the populations of these two closely related species along the coast of China: P. minor without significant genetic structure, while K. scombri has some genetic differentiation. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution suggested that the populations of these two species of parasites experienced population expansion in the late Pleistocene era due to the glacial-interglacial cycles induced by climatic oscillations.

  16. AcEST: BP917517 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 98SV6|Q98SV6_SCOCA Myostatin (Fragment) OS=Scomberomorus cav... 33 5.4 tr|Q4UAA3|Q4UAA3_THEAN Putative uncha...TQQFPNQPASIQGNHHTM 1898 >tr|Q98SV6|Q98SV6_SCOCA Myostatin (Fragment) OS=Scomberomorus

  17. Insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi-Sohani, N; Hojjati, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á A

    2013-02-01

    The essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) leaves was extracted by hydro distillation and tested on female and male adults of Callosobruchus macullatus (F.) for insecticidal and repellent effects. GC-MS analysis was used to identify and quantify the volatile composition of the essential oil. Results showed that 1,8-cineole (34.2%) and α-pinene (29.0%) were the major components of the oil. Callistemon citrinus oil was found to be toxic to adult insects when applied by fumigation. Responses varied according to the gender of the insect and exposure time. LC50 values were 12.88 and 84.4 μL. L(-1) for males and females, respectively. An increase in exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused an increase in mortality from 50% to 100% in males and from 15.5% to 85.2% in females, at the highest concentration (500 μL. L(-1)). The essential oil also had a repellent effect against C. macullatus in a filter paper arena test. After 2 and 4 h, 86% and 94%, respectively, repellent effects were demonstrated at the highest concentration of 0.4 μL .cm(-2). These observations suggest that C. citrinus essential oil may be usefully applied to control storage pests.

  18. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy.

  19. Methodological optimization of applying neuroactive agents for the study of locomotor-like activity in the mudpuppies (Necturus Maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Igor; Cheng, Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effects of mode of delivery of neuroactive agents and the effects of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a vehicle for dissolving neuroactive agents, on locomotor-like activity in vitro. By superfusion, D-glutamate (0.3 – 0.9 mM) produced robust walking-like activity at superfusion rates 10–25 ml/min. In contrast, bolus application of the same or higher doses of glutamate (0.1–1.5 mM) failed to induce any rhythmic activity. Superfusion with AP-5, a NMDA receptor antagonist, produced dose-dependent inhibition of the ongoing walking-like activity induced by D-glutamate and completely blocked the activity at 20 µM. In contrast, bolus application of AP-5 did not block the walking-like activity at concentrations up to 120 µM. Similarly, superfusion of AP-5 inhibited the initiation of walking-like activity and completely blocked the initiation at 20 µM, while bolus application of AP-5 failed to do so at concentrations up to 120 µM. Superfusion of strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist, blocked the walking-like activity at concentrations of 3–5 µM, while its bolus application altered NMDA-induced, but not glutamate-induced, walking-like activity to a synchronized pattern. DMSO significantly affected the walking-like activity in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging 1–10% (v/v). These results demonstrate that the way by which the neuroactive agents are applied is a significant factor that determines the outcome of experiments on the neural control of locomotion. Also, the dose-dependent effects of DMSO on the activity of neural networks for locomotion should be taken into account in data interpretation. PMID:18692523

  20. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lavrov

    Full Text Available Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32, connexin 36 (Cx36, connexin 37 (Cx37, and connexin 43 (Cx43. Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy.

  1. Effect of refrigeration time on the lipid oxidation and fatty acid profiles of catfish (Arius maculatus commercialized in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tenyang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of refrigeration at 4 °C during 9 days on the quality and stability of catfish oil were evaluated using a change in fatty acid composition by gas chromatography (GC, commonly used analytical indexes (acid and peroxide values, and analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that lipid deterioration, hydrolysis and oxidation occurred throughout the cold storage (4 °C. Refrigeration induced the lipolysis of triglycerides by lipases and phospholipases. It also affected the fatty acids composition of the catfish. The progressive loss of unsaturation was monitored by the decrease in the absorbance band at 3012 cm-1 on FTIR spectra and the lowest value was observed in the catfish muscle at 9 days of refrigeration. Eicosapentaenoic C20:5ω3 (EPA and docosahexaenoic C22:6ω3 (DHA acids were the polyunsaturated fatty acids most affected during refrigeration. Refrigeration for less than 5 days was found to be the best conditions for the preservation of the catfish.

  2. 75 FR 62109 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Avenue, Suite 1100, Tampa, FL 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive....--The Mackerel Management Committee will discuss the scoping document for King Mackerel Latent...

  3. Composición y análisis taxonómico de la íctiofauna del golfo de Tribugá, Pacífico norte de Colombia Composition and taxonomic analysis of the fish fauna in the Gulf of Tribugá, northern Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tobón-López

    2008-01-01

    consecutively throughout the sampling period. Therefore, the catch analysis was carried out using only the fish caught with these two techniques. The most abundant families were Carangidae (8.9%, Serranidae (6.3%, and Lutjanidae (4.2%. These families, along with Scombridae and Ophidiidae, contributed the most in number, biomass, commercial importance, and human consumption by the local communities. The top ten species captured during sampling were the skipjack tuna (Euthynnus lineatus, sierra mackerel (Scomberomorus sierra, Gulf Coney (Epinephelus acanthistius, Clark's brotula (Brotula clarkae, spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus, yellow snapper (Lutjanus argentiventris, almaco jack (Serióla rivoliana, Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus, green jack (Caranx caballus, and purse-eyed scad {Selar crumenophthalmus. The mocosa ruff, Schedophilus haedrichi (Centrolophidae, is reported for first time in the northern Colombian Pacific.

  4. Mercury in South Carolina fishes, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal

    2010-04-01

    The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has collected, processed, and analyzed fish tissue total mercury (Hg) since 1976. For this study, skin-on-filet data from 1993 to 2007 were examined to determine biotic, spatial and temporal trends in tissue Hg levels for SC fishes. Because of the relatively high number of tissue Hg values below the analytical detection limits interval censored regression and censored least absolute deviations were used to construct several models to characterize trends. Large pelagic, piscivorous fish species, such as bowfin (Amia calva Linnaeus 1766), had higher levels of tissue Hg than smaller omnivorous species. Estuarine species had relatively low levels of tissue Hg compared to freshwater species, while two large open ocean species, king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier 1829) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758), had higher tissue Hg readings. For a given fish species, length was an important predictor of tissue Hg with larger individuals having higher levels than smaller individuals. The USEPA Level III ecoregion and water body type from where the fishes were collected were important in predicting the levels of tissue Hg. The Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregion had fishes with the highest levels of tissue Hg, while the Piedmont and Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions had the lowest. For a given ecoregion, large reservoirs and regulated rivers had fish with lower levels of tissue Hg than unregulated rivers. For reservoirs, the size of the impoundment was a significant predictor of tissue mercury with small reservoirs having higher levels of tissue mercury than large reservoirs. Landuse and water chemistry accounted for differences seen in fish of various ecoregions and waterbody types. Sampling locations associated with a high percentage of wetland area had fish with high levels of tissue Hg. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between tissue Hg levels and water column

  5. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    as it resulted in low levels of peroxide value, volatiles, carbonyl compounds and protected against the loss of α-tocopherol and tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Water extracts was less efficient especially at higher concentrations, which might be due to lower phenolic content or due to the pro-oxidative nature...

  6. Hydrolysis of lipids in chub mackerel surimi using alkaline lipase%碱性脂肪酶酶解鲐碎肉脂肪的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉民; 沈莲清; 桑卫国; 董明敏; 黄晓春; 黄光荣

    2001-01-01

    采用扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum)PF868产生的碱性脂肪酶为酶源,酶解脱脂鲐碎肉,其最适条件为:32~34℃,pH 9.3,酶活浓度40 u/ml,碎肉的质量与酶液体积比为1g:5ml,脱脂时间50min.鲐碎肉的干基残脂率低于4.0%.

  7. Freshness assessment of mackerel fillets stored under different temperatures%不同温度下鲐鱼片鲜度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利格; 郝亚南; 黄健花

    2014-01-01

    以去皮鲐鱼片为研究对象,通过30、20、10和4℃下的保藏实验来研究其鲜度的生化变化.测定了挥发性盐基氮(TVBN)、三甲胺氮(TMAN),过氧化值(PV)、硫代巴比妥酸值(TBARS)及肌肉的pH值,发现其在各温度下的货架期分别约为11,15,25和96 h.TMAN和TBARS与TVBN的相关系数分别为0.928和0.846,这2种指标在试验温度下的腐败限量分别为12.8 mg/100 g鱼肉和12.5 mg MDA/kg鱼肉.PV和pH值也呈现一定的变化,但不适合作为鲜度或者腐败的有效指标.

  8. Production Process of Intensified Dried Jack Mackerel Floss%竹荚鱼强化鱼松的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕士川; 黄冬梅; 罗建平

    2003-01-01

    @@ 智利竹荚鱼隶属于硬骨鱼纲,鲈形目,鲹科,为中上层暖温性鱼类,主要分布于东太平洋的中部及南部,自然资源十分丰富.近几年来,智利竹荚鱼的捕捞量连年增长,已成为我国外海捕捞的主要经济鱼之一.

  9. Effect of grain splitting on biology and development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of grain splitting on biology and development of Callosobruchus Maculatus ... Data on oviposition, adult eclosion and weights of emergent adults were ... for C. maculatus at F1, F2 and F3 generations on spilt compared to whole grains.

  10. Die geschlechtsbestimmende Region des Platyfisches Xiphophorus maculatus auf den Geschlechtschromosomen X und Y: Molekulare Analyse der genomischen Struktur und molekulargenetische Untersuchung von Genkandidaten

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Mit über 24.000 Arten sind etwa die Hälfte aller heute lebenden Wirbeltiere Fische. Im Gegensatz zu Vögeln oder Säugetieren weisen Fische eine erstaunliche Vielfalt und Variabilität der Geschlechtsbestimmungsmechanismen auf. Sämtliche Formen von Zwittrigkeit sowie umweltbedingte und genetische Geschlechtsbestimmung sind beschrieben worden. Die molekularen Grundlagen der genetischen Geschlechtsbestimmung bei Fischen sind jedoch weitgehend unbekannt. Für einige Fischarten, wie etwa der Zebrafis...

  11. ESTUDO DA VIABILIDADE DO ÓLEO DE VÍSCERAS DE PEIXES MARINHOS (Seriola Dumerlii (ARABAIANA, Thunnus ssp (ATUM, Scomberomorus cavala (CAVALA e Carcharrhinus spp (CAÇÃO COMERCIALIZADOS EM ARACAJU-SE PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Crislan Bery

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O pescado e seus produtos são reconhecidamente importantes alternativas alimentares para a população humana, representam fontes de proteínas de alta qualidade e boa digestibilidade, lipídios, minerais, ácidos graxos e vitaminas lipossolúveis. A indústria de pescado representa um vasto potencial quanto ao volume de resíduo gerado, pois seus descartes podem ser transformados em produtos com aproveitamento mercadológico como exemplo disso as silagem, farinhas, óleos de peixe, biodiesel, produtos fermentados entre outros. Óleos provenientes de gordura animal e os usados para cocção de alimentos são utilizados como fonte de matéria prima alternativa para a produção de biocombustíveis, porém os óleos cuja origem vem dos resíduos orgânicos descartados por indústrias beneficiadoras de pescado estão sendo estudados como forma de reaproveitamento destes maximizando a utilização da matéria prima evitando desperdício e caminhando assim, para um desenvolvimento sustentável. Devido a falta de conhecimento sobre o potencial destes resíduos e a busca por matérias primas alternativas para melhorar a produção energética, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a viabilidade do óleo extraído a partir das vísceras de peixes marinho para produção de biodiesel. Analisou-se a caracterização das vísceras de peixes marinhos e análises para determinar os teores de acidez, iodo e umidade, a viscosidade cinemática, o índice de saponificação e a densidade do óleo. Observou-se que as vísceras de peixes marinho apresentaram alto teor lipídico e proteico e o óleo extraído das vísceras de peixe marinho é uma alternativa como matéria prima para a produção de biodiesel.Palavras-chave: vísceras, peixe marinho, óleo, biodiesel.

  12. 75 FR 29724 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery... Fish; AP Selection; SSC Selection; SEDAR Selection; Coastal Migratory Pelagics (Mackerel); Spiny... Mackerel Limited Access Privilege Program Advisory Panel, the Ad Hoc Reef Fish Limited Access...

  13. timating the abundance of pelagic fish in the Benguela system off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE ACOUSTIC TARGET STRENGTH OF. CAPE HORSE MACKEREL .... Estimated speed of sound (m s-1). 1 500. Absorption ..... because horse mackerel react strongly to light (Koike et al. 1991, Barange and ...

  14. 76 FR 81479 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Spanish Mackerel and Cobia AGENCY: National...: Notice of SEDAR Workshops for South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Spanish mackerel and cobia. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of Spanish mackerel and cobia will...

  15. RESTAURANT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Duozuo Japanese Restaurant Every year in Japan from August until early December mackerel pikes will come down from Hokkaido to the South Ocean of Japan. Since the mackerel pike’s laying season is in summer, most of the mackerel pikes will be fully grown by the autumn.

  16. Does heterospecific seminal fluid reduce fecundity in interspecific copulation between seed beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyogoku, Daisuke; Sota, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive interference through mating between related species can cause fitness reduction and affect population dynamics of the interacting species. In experimental matings between two seed beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus, C. maculatus females, but not C. chinensis females, suffer from significant loss of fecundity when conspecific mating is followed by heterospecific mating. We hypothesized that male traits associated with sexual conflict, which are often harmful to females, pleiotropically affect fitness of heterospecific females through interspecific mating. We examined the effect of ejaculate of C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females as the cause of the fecundity loss in C. maculatus females due to interspecific copulation. We found that frequent interspecific copulation occurred between C. maculatus females and C. chinensis males, but not between C. chinensis females and C. maculatus males, resulting in frequent interspecific ejaculate transfer from C. chinensis males to C. maculatus females. However, injection of the extract from C. chinensis male reproductive organs into C. maculatus females did not significantly affect C. maculatus fecundity compared with saline injection, indicating that the effect of the heterospecific ejaculate transfer on fecundity is negligible. We suggest that other harmful male traits such as genital spines of C. chinensis males are mainly responsible for the fecundity reduction in C. maculatus females that have experienced interspecific mating.

  17. Notes on the Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas in the lagoon region of Cananéia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sadowsky

    1971-12-01

    tamanhos oscilaram ent re 768-812 mm. O comprimento do menor jovem livre encontrado foi de 697 mm, sendo que jovens de presumivelmente 9 a 12 meses têm de 98 a 112 cm; entre 21 e 24 meses alcançam 124 a 128 cm, ou seja, os tamanhos que apresentam quando emigram para mar aberto. Não ficou confirmado o fenômeno da inibição alimentar nas fêmeas capturadas, já observado em genetrizes da mesma espécie durante o período de parição no delta do Mississippi. O conteúdo estomacal apresentou, por ordem decrescente de abundância: Arius spixii (13; Chloroscombrus chrysurus (7; A. grandicassus (6; A. barbus (4; Felichtys marinus (3; Genidens genide ns (2; Chanophorus tajacica (2; Carcharhinus porosus (2; Conodon nobilis, Caranx crysos, scomberomorus maculatus, Sphyrna tiburo, Rhinoptera brasiliensis, Dasyatis americana, Diapterus rhombeus (1, além de cerca de 25/30 exemplares de Callinectes sp.

  18. Factors controlling the quality and safety of fish using mackerel (Scomber scombrus) shelf-life model in the context of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures for The Gambian fisheries.

    OpenAIRE

    Banja, Bamba A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/769 on 06.20.2017 by CS (TIS) Food quality, including safety, is a major concern facing the food industry today. The effects of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in the fisheries sector of The Gambia including the factors affecting the safety and spoilage of fish were investigated. Effects of SPS measures are important impediments for exporting fish and fishery products originating from The Gambia to the international food commodity ...

  19. 电子鼻识别技术在鲐鱼鲜度评价中的应用研究%Application of electronic nose in freshness evaluation of mackerel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璇; 邓尚贵; 张宾; 林雪; 梁锐

    2013-01-01

    以新鲜鲐鱼为原料,采用感官评价与TVBN检测、组胺含量测定方法确定其新鲜度,建立新鲜度关键指标与PEN3电子鼻主成分与线性判别的关系式,以期实现鲐鱼新鲜度的电子鼻快速检测,为海水产品船上运输、码头验收以及工厂加工和市场销售的品质评价奠定理论基础.

  20. 黄海北部日本鲭繁殖生物学特征的年代际变化%Inter-decadal variation in the reproductive characteristics of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the northern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建生; 严利平; 胡芬

    2014-01-01

    根据1986年和2010年在黄海北部取样测定的日本鲭(Scomber japonicus)产卵群体基础生物学数据以及怀卵量计数结果,对其繁殖生物学特征的年代际变化进行了研究。结果表明,在日本鲭产卵群体基础生物学特征方面,1986年的叉长、体质量、纯体质量和性腺重这4项基本生物学指标的范围和平均值均明显大于2010年,年龄结构从1986年由1+~7+龄组成,2+龄和3+龄为优势组,改变为2010年由1+~3+龄组成,2+龄为优势组。在性腺成熟度组成和性腺指数(GSI)方面,2次采样均发现日本鲭雌鱼性腺成熟度以Ⅳ期和Ⅴ期为主;开始排卵前, GSI随性腺成熟度的增加而增加;相同叉长组而言,2010年平均GSI较1986年呈现增加趋势。相同叉长组的繁殖力分析表明,相对于1986年,2010年体质量相对繁殖力升高了11.93%,而绝对繁殖力则下降了18.45%。这些繁殖生物学特征的变化可能是由于日本鲭群体年龄结构简单化、个体小型化、生长速度加快等原因造成的。为了今后更好地保护并可持续利用日本鲭资源,在现有的围网休渔制度的基础上,建议在东黄海日本鲭各主要产卵场及其产卵期制定其他相应的保护措施,以限制其他捕捞网具对该物种产卵群体的过度捕捞。%We evaluated the changes in the reproductive traits of Scomber japonicus spawning stocks in the northern Yellow Sea between 1986 and 2010. The range and mean values of the four basic biological indicators (fork length, weight, net weight, and gonad weight) were significantly higher in 1986 than in 2010. In 1986, the age structure ranged from age 1+ to 7+and was dominated by age 2+-3+individuals. In 2010, the age range was reduced (1+-3+) and the dominant age was 2+. In 1986, the range in GSI was 3.43-21.87 (mean 11.63) and the mean GSI varied significantly among fish of different lengths. In 2010, the GSI ranged between 8.33 and 20.50 (mean 13.16) and there was little dif-ference in mean GSI among different length groups. In both years, the gonads of female fish were primarily at stagesⅣ and Ⅴ and the GSI increased with increase in gonad maturity before spawning. The mean GSI increased between 1986 and 2010 for the same sized fish. The absolute fecundity (F) was in the range of 7.5167×104-100.7746×104 grains (mean:50.2502×104±1.2615×104) and the most common value was between 40×104 and 70×104 grains in 1986. In 2010, the range was 23.4520×104-62.0805×104 grains (mean:40.7312×104±2.1458×104 grains) and the most common group was 30×104-50×104 grains. In 1986, the relative fecundity (r/L) was in the range of 269-2 519 grains/mm (mean: 1 467±33 grains/mm) with most fish being in the range 100-1 600 grains/mm). The relative fecundity r/W was in the range 303-1 552 grains (mean:1 041±21 grains/g) with most fish being in the range 900-1 300 grains/g). In 2010, the relative fecundity (r/L) was in the range of 798-1 864 grains/mm (mean:1 279±36 grains/mm) with most fish being in the range 900-1 300 grains/mm). The relative fecundity r/W was in the range 705-1 724 grains/g (mean: 1 170±31 grains/g) with most fish being in the range 1000-1 300 grains/g). Compared with 1986, the relative fecundity r/W in-creased by 11.93%in 2010, while the absolute fecundity decreased by 18.45%within the same fork length range. These changes in the reproductive characteristics may be caused by simplification of the age structure, individual miniaturization, or growth acceleration in Scomber japonicus stocks. To better protect and sustain Scomber japonicus resources, we suggest the fishery administrative department should consider additional protective measures at the primary spawning ground and during the spawning period to limit the over harvest of spawning stocks in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea.

  1. The reproductive biology of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in Wen-Tai fishing ground%温台渔场日本鲭的繁殖生物学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建生; 严利平; 胡芬; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    利用2012年春季在温台渔场对日本鲭(Scomber japonicus)繁殖群体连续6批取样的生物学测定数据,对其繁殖生物学特征进行了研究。结果表明,叉长340 mm以下群体中,雌雄比基本符合1∶1的性比关系;叉长340 mm以上群体中,雌鱼显著多于雄鱼(P 340 mm group. Variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) over time showed that the main breeding season lasted from mid-March to mid-April in this location. Female and male GSI values showed significant differences in the time periods, and the overall performance for females was higher than in males. We found the average feeding intensity to be greater in males than in females in the different gonadal stages. The liver index showed significant differences in the different female and male gonadal stages, with values for females higher than males. Absolute fecundity was 44 017–734 684 grains (mean ±SD, 173 867 ± 15 719 grains), while the dominant group was 10–30×104 grains (70.37%). Relative fe-cundity was 187–1403 grains/g (mean ± SD, 538 ± 31 grains/g), and the dominant group was 390–700 grains/g (66.67%). Egg size was 0.27–1.22 mm (mean ± SD, 0.86 ± 0.01 mm), while the dominant group ranged from 0.7 to 1.1 mm. The absolute fecundity of S. japonicus in the Wen-Tai fishing ground was found to be less than that of the northern Yellow Sea and higher than that of the Taiwan Strait. Relative fecundity was higher than historic levels, but the mean egg size was found to be lower than in the 1980s, and the minimum fork length of males and females at maturity ex-perienced a certain degree of reduction. This suggests that reproductive interventions (i.e., increasing relative fecundity, reducing egg sizes, and promoting early sexual maturity in the fish) are needed to cope with the high fishing intensity and environment stresses that had threaten Scomber japonicus reproductive stocks.

  2. Dactylogyridae (Platyhelminthes; Monogenoidea) de Serrasalmus maculatus e S. spilopleura (Characiformes, Serrasalminae) na Bacia Amazônica, Sub-bacias Mamoré e Iténez da Bolívia /

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, Leslie Mauren Córdova

    2008-01-01

    Orientador : Walter A. Boeger Dissertaçăo (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Cięncias Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Zoologia. Defesa: Curitiba, 2008 Inclui bibliografia Area de concentraçăo: Zoologia

  3. Influence of. gamma. -irradiation and ice storage on fat oxidation in three Indian fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadi, S.V.; Venugopal, V. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1991-01-01

    The influence of low-dose {gamma}-irradiation (up to 5 kGy) on fat oxidation in skin and flesh fractions of some commercially important fishes (Indian mackerel, white pomfret and seer) during ice storage was examined. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased in both control and irradiated fish particularly in mackerel and seer meat. In mackerel, the TBA values declined towards later part of storage. Pomfret skin, but not mackerel and seer skin, showed radiation-induced oxidation, which increased further during ice storage. (author).

  4. 75 FR 44226 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Ocean Planning Committee, its Squid, Mackerel, and Butterfish (SMB) Committee, and its Executive... Science Center's (NEFSC) Ecosystems Branch by Dr. Michael Fogerty. The SMB Committee will review Amendment...

  5. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin D, as do fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel. Many dietary supplements, like multivitamin supplements, contain vitamin D. Exercise Physical activity Everyone needs physical activity. ...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15651-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available J0-ahl-a-01-0-UI.r2 UI-E-EJ0 Homo sapiens c... 38 3.8 2 ( DQ108132 ) Aetomylaeus maculatus voucher BW-A272 c...ytochrome ... 46 3.8 1 ( DQ108131 ) Aetomylaeus maculatus voucher BW-A271 cytochrome ... 46 3.8 1 ( AL928980

  7. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners commissi

  8. 75 FR 14428 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Council (Council) and its Squid, Mackerel, and Butterfish (SMB), Joint Dogfish, Research Set- Aside (RSA..., April 15, 2010. On Tuesday, April 13, The Squid, Mackerel, and Butterfish (SMB) Committee will meet from... itself are: On Tuesday, April 13, The SMB Committee will review Amendment 11 public comments; select...

  9. Egg and larval distributions of seven fish species in north-east Atlantic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibaibarriaga, L.; Irigoien, X.; Santos, M.; Eltink, A.T.G.W.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of egg and larvae of mackerel, horse mackerel, sardine, hake, megrim, blue whiting and anchovy along the European Atlantic waters (south Portugal to Scotland) during 1998 is described. Time of the year, sea surface temperature and bottom depth are used to define the spawning habitat

  10. 50 CFR 679.7 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating as a tender vessel. (18) Pollock, Pacific Cod, and Atka Mackerel Directed Fishing and VMS. Operate... Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) and complies with the requirements in § 679.28(f). (19) Atka Mackerel HLA... any habitat protection area described in Tables 22, 23, and 26 of this part. (21) VMS on vessels...

  11. 50 CFR 622.30 - Fishing years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Spanish mackerel. The fishing year for the king and Spanish mackerel bag limits specified in § 622.39(c)(1) is January 1 through December 31. The following fishing years apply only for the king and Spanish.... (2) Gulf migratory group Spanish mackerel—April through March. (3) South Atlantic migratory...

  12. 78 FR 76595 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD034 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Data Webinar for Gulf of Mexico and South... King Mackerel. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic King Mackerel...

  13. 50 CFR 622.34 - Gulf EEZ seasonal and/or area closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Martin Luther King Jr. Federal holiday. The gillnet fishery also is closed during all subsequent weekends and observed Federal holidays, except for the first weekend following the Martin Luther King Jr... of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery. The gillnet fishery for Gulf group king mackerel...

  14. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners

  15. Local Wisdom of Smoked Fish Processing as Tourism Product in Situbondo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Junianingsih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine and fisheries resources in Situbondo Regency were potential to supports seafood processing, e.g. traditional smoked processing of mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis Cantor based on local wisdom. This research was aimed to assess and analyzes: the processing of smoked mackerel tuna based on local wisdom, public perception towards the processing of smoked mackerel tuna, and the quality of smoked mackerel tuna. The research carried out on January to April 2014, in Jangkar Village, Situbondo regency. The study included depth interview from key persons with questionnaire and organoleptic test. The public perception on smoked mackerel tuna was taken by questionnaire from 85 respondents, whereas the quality of smoked mackerel tuna was analyzed with laboratory proximate test. Result of this research showed that smoked mackerel tuna processing used traditional smoking instrument and fuel material. The smoking stall used several banana midrib stem above the furnace that made of cement and bricks, while the fuel use coconut coir which created the typical flavors of the smoked mackerel tuna. The average organoleptic value of the smoked mackerel tuna appearance is 7.89 (intact, clean, brown, very shiny specific type, flavors of 8.24 (less fragrant, smoked enough, without additional disturbing odor, taste of 8.41 (delicious, savory, texture of 7.40 (solid, compact, fairly dry, tight inter-flesh tissue, and colour of 7.20 (attractive, specific, shiny brown colour type. Public perception showed that the community knowledge on smoked mackerel tuna processing is good, creates good flavors of smoked mackerel tuna and favored by the community, thus also encourage the community to support the conservation of this traditional smoked processing. Lab analysis showed that the proximate value of 0.99% carbohydrates, 29.59% protein, 1.14% fat, 2.89% mineral, 1.88% ash, and 63.4% water. Processing of smoked mackerel tuna as tourism product of Situbondo Regency is

  16. Sifat kualitatif dan kuantitatif kuskus di Pulau Moor Kabupaten Nabire Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyantono Supriyantono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reserch on cuscus diversity at Moor island was carried out on November to December 2002. The aim of the research was to know qualitative and quntitative traits, feed and mating behaviour, anatomy of digestion tract and anatomy reproduction organ. Method of case study was used in the research. We found two species of cuscus at Moor island which were Phalanger orientalis and Spilocuscus maculatus. Generally, S. maculatus is bigger than P. orientalis. Both of them can be distinguished easily. Digestion tract of S. maculatus is better than P. orientalis. The form of reproduction organ of those cuscus is very specific and no differ each other.

  17. Protectant, insecticidal and antimicrobial potentials of Dalbergia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... agent for the cowpea pest, Callosobruchus maculatus. ... significantly reduced crop damage, oviposition and larval development without affecting the viability of ... been drawn to pollution of the environment by chemical.

  18. Description of the immature stages of four species of Macrodactylini (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neita-Moreno, J C; Morón, M A; Zuluaga-Correa, C A

    2012-04-01

    The third instar of the genera Ceraspis, Clavipalpus, Isonychus and Manopus (Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) are described for the first time. Descriptions are based on the larvae of Ceraspis innotata (Blanchard), Clavipalpus ursinus Blanchard, Isonychus maculatus Waterhouse and Manopus biguttatus Laporte. The pupae of C. ursinus, I. maculatus and M. biguttatus are also described. A key to the larvae of nine genera of Macrodactylini and a list of the species with immature descriptions are provided.

  19. Functional groups of fish assemblages and their major species in the Bohai Sea%渤海鱼类群落功能群及其主要种类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 李忠义; 金显仕

    2012-01-01

    ,omnivores, benthivores, shrimp predators, shrimp/fish predators, piscivores and generalist predators. In China coastal seas, the trophic structure of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea was similar and they belong to a large marine ecosystems, so variations in their fisheries resources relate closely with each other. Although according to the biomass, zooplantivores, omnivores and shrimp/fish predators were all major functional groups in August and October, there were some remarkable seasonal differences between two months. There were seven functional groups in August and six functional groups in October. The most important is that the proportion of each functional group was different. In August,zooplanktivores functional group accounted for larger proportion, but coming into October, the proportion of zooplanktivores functional group substantially declined,and the proportion of omnivores, piscivores and generalist predators functional groups increased. Fish assemblages at different ontogenetic phases was the major reason causing those differences. Since most marine species in the Bohai Sea are migratory species, which come into the Bohai Sea in spring and leave in late autumn, the further study on the difference of functional groups should take into account seasonal migration of fish assemblages. The results also showed that there were 5 major species: small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius, gizzard-shad Clupanodon punctatus, silver pomfret and half-fin anchovy Setipinna taty in August,small yellow croaker,rednose anchovy Thrissa kammalensis, silver pomfret, gizzard-shad and half-fin anchovy in October, respectively. According to their diet composition, Coscinodiscus sp. , Calanus sinicus, Euphausia pacifica, Acanthomysis longirostris, Acetes chinensis,Maeruran larva, Alpheus japonicus, Chaeturichthys hexanema, small yellow croaker, gastropoda and bivalvia were main prey species in the Bohai Sea, but now, anchovy and crab are not the main prey

  20. Before You're Pregnant - Methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain fish, including swordfish , tilefish , king mackerel , and shark . Eating these fish can be harmful to your ... Some fish and shellfish contain higher levels of mercury that may harm an unborn baby or young ...

  1. Tips for Pregnant Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high risk of falling • Do not eat tilefish, shark, swordfish, and king mackerel or injury. since they have high levels of mercury. Learn about other nutrition assistance programs: http: / / www. ...

  2. HealthLines for Pregnancy …healthy eating, exercising, and 10 more handy sources of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beverage. Fish that may have high levels of mercury (a substance that can build up in fish and harm an unborn baby). Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish during pregnancy. Eat ...

  3. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to avoid fish that are high in mercury, namely, shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish. When you do eat fish, it’s important to eat varieties that contain less mercury, such as canned light tuna, shrimp, salmon, pollock, ...

  4. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0002, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  5. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9903, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  6. Faune française de l’Atlantique. Requins .1. Hexanchiformes & Lamniformes (Craniata : Elasmobranchii)

    OpenAIRE

    Quero, Jean-claude; Spitz, Jerome; Leaute, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    French Atlantic fauna. Sharks .1. Hexanchiformes & Lamniformes (Craniata : Elasmobranchii). The fauna of cow sharks (2 species), frilled sharks (1 species) and mackerel sharks (7 species) from the French Atlantic fauna is given.

  7. The World According to Malthus and Volterra: The Mathematical Theory of the Struggle for Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Constantine

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the mathematical model presented by Vito Volterra to describe the dynamics of population density. Discusses the predator prey relationship, presents an computer simulated model from marine life involving sharks and mackerels, and discusses ecological chaos. (MDH)

  8. 76 FR 30920 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... its Squid, Mackerel, Butterfish (SMB) Committee will hold public meetings. DATES: The meetings will be... The SMB Committee will meet as a Committee of the Whole to develop 2012 quota specifications and...

  9. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0201, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  10. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0101, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  11. Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables, which contain important vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin E. Eat foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as cold water fish (salmon, mackerel, and herring), flaxseed, rapeseed (canola) oil, soybeans, ...

  12. Vegetarian diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from these foods: Fatty fish, such as sardines, salmon, and mackerel (this only applies to pescetarians and semi-vegetarians) Egg yolks Foods that are fortified with vitamin D, such as orange juice, cow's milk, soymilk, ...

  13. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon. Some types of fish may contain high levels ... cholesterol. However, liver is rich in iron and vitamins. A small serving (3 ounces) is OK about ...

  14. Osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These include foods that are naturally rich in vitamin D, such as oily fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines) and egg yolks. Also look for foods that are fortified with vitamin D, such as cereal, bread, milk and yogurt. ...

  15. 50 CFR 648.21 - Procedures for determining initial annual amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES... (Monitoring Committee) shall meet annually to develop and recommend the following specifications for...: (A) Total world export potential of mackerel producing countries. (B) Total world import demand...

  16. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0302, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  17. 77 FR 51771 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel and Cobia AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE...

  18. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. Eyabi Eyabi G. D ... smoke process technology, packaging and storage ... Materials and Methods. 1. Samples of ..... some additives for improving preservation and quality of traditionally ...

  19. Global scombrid life history dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; MOSQUEIRA SANCHEZ IAGO; Freire, Juan; FERRER-JORDÁ E.; Dulvy, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The scombrids (Family Scombridae), commonly known as tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels, and mackerels, play an important role as predators and prey in coastal and oceanic marine ecosystems, and sustain some of the most important fisheries in the world. Knowledge of their basic biology and life history traits, such as growth, age and maturity, is fundamental to sustainably manage these species, and maintain their critical role in marine ecosystems. Given their economic and socia...

  20. 冷海水保藏下鲐鱼(Pneumatophorus japonicus)菌相变化规律及优势腐败菌的分离鉴定%Microflora Composition Variation in Mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicas) Stored in Refrigerated Seawater, and Isolation and Identification of the Dominant Spoilage Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振霄; 周聃; 冯俊丽; 金仁耀; 戴志远

    2016-01-01

    以冷海水保鲜的鲐鱼为研究对象,通过选择性生培养基和16S rDNA序列分析法探究其在冷海水保鲜过程中的菌相变化,确定了鲐鱼在冷海水保鲜条件下的优势腐败菌,并通过MEGA5.2软件构建了贮藏末期代表菌株的系统发育树.结果表明:冷海水保鲜鲐鱼样品在贮藏初期(第0d)的微生物比较复杂,优势种群是假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.)和嗜冷菌属(Psychrobacter sp.),还有少量的类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus sp.)、希瓦氏菌属(Shewanella sp.)、蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)、枯草芽孢杆菌属(Brevibacterium sp.);随着贮藏时间的延长,鲐鱼样品中的菌相逐渐变的单一,假单胞菌属迅速下降,希瓦氏菌属迅速增加;贮藏末期希瓦氏菌属和肠杆菌属(Enterobacter sp.)的比例迅速增加,其中希瓦氏菌属呈上升趋势且到贮藏后期数量占绝对优势,被确定为鲐鱼冷海水保鲜条件下的优势腐败菌.

  1. Extracción, Caracterización Parcial y Termoestabilidad de la Enzima Transglutaminasa en Surimi, en Músculo Blanco de Jurel y en Miofibrillas de Carne de Vacuno Extraction, Partial Characterization and Thermostability of Transglutaminase of Surimi and Jack Mackerel White Muscle and for Myofibrils of Bovine Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia M Curotto; Marta L Dondero; Cristián J Muñoz; Lorena A Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la presencia de transglutaminasa en los extractos de surimi, músculo blanco de jurel (Trachurus murphyi) y en miofibrillas de carne de vacuno. Esto, con el fin de evaluar su termoestabilidad y los parámetros cinéticos más relevantes para proyectar la utilización de estos tejidos en la industria de nuevos productos alimentarios. Las actividades de transglutaminasa fueron 4.7 x 10-3, 13.0 x 10-3 y 53.0 x 10-3 UI/g tejido para surimi, músculo blan...

  2. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya, NG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Fishing and Marketing of White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1817 in Ivory Coast. The artisanal fisheries in Ivory Coast is not well developed. It however comes in complement of the products of the industrial trawler and pelagic fisheries to satisfy the needs for the rural populations. Thanks to inexpensive machines and materials, artisanal fishermen exploit the demersal resources in not very deep water of the littoral of Ivory Coast. Their interest is on white Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus, fish living on the rocky bottom, easily accessible to the machines of fishing because of its facility to sell when they come back from the sea in spite of the highest prices they propose to the wholesalers and half wholesalers.

  3. Identification of transcriptome SNPs between Xiphophorus lines and species for assessing allele specific gene expression within F1 interspecies hybrids☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldroth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathon R; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, X. maculatus and X. couchianus, and their F1 interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ≈ 70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ≈ 5–10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6,524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F1 interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the insilico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F1 interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression. PMID:21466860

  4. Identification of transcriptome SNPs between Xiphophorus lines and species for assessing allele specific gene expression within F₁ interspecies hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldorth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathan; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B

    2012-01-01

    Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, Xiphophorus maculatus and Xiphophorus couchianus, and their F(1) interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ≈70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ≈5-10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F(1) interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the in silico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F(1) interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression.

  5. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHIL DOBIE

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

  7. Winge's sex-linked color patterns and SDL in the guppy: genes or gene complexes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Poecilia reticulata, different phenotypes appear due to dominance, codominance, poligeny, or some demonstrated interallelic interactions. Recent(both molecular and classical investigations suggest a mechanism of expression of several different loci in a single color pattern, resulting in high numbers of possible color pattern phenotypes. The color pattern seems to be determined by complex interactions of many genes (at the same locus or not, located on the same chromosome or not, under variable environmental conditions. For example, the Maculatus color pattern is due to the presence of  both Maculatus red and Maculatus black elements. On their turn, having in view the latest definitions of  the gene, both Maculatus red and Maculatus black could have a composite nature, too. Sexdetermination in the guppy is studied since the 1920s. The deepest mechanism of sex determination is not clear yet, but classical studies of Winge early in the past century and recent molecular studies revealed a possible composite nature of the so called master sex determining gene, located at SDL of the Y chromosome.

  8. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath

    2017-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  9. Typical Monoterpenes as Insecticides and Repellents against Stored Grain Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen L. Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Five monoterpenes naturally occurring in essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and repellent activities against the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The monoterpenes were highly efficient as inducers of mortality or repellency against both insect species. They were more efficient in their fumigant activity against C. maculatus than against S. zeamais, while this profile of action was inverted when considering the repellent activities. Eugenol was one the most effective fumigants against both insects and one the most effective repellent against C. maculatus, while citronellal and geranial were one the most effective repellents against S. zeamais. Functional and positional isomerism of the monoterpenes pairs appears to exert little or no influence on theirs effects, especially in case of repellency. The validation of the insecticidal/repellent efficacy of isolated monoterpenes may permit a more advantageous, rapid, economic and optimized approach to the identification of promising oils for commercial formulations when combined with ethnobotanical strategies.

  10. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  11. Role of the raw composition of pelagic fish muscle on the development of lipid oxidation and rancidity during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Rodrigo; Pazos, Manuel; Medina, Isabel

    2011-06-08

    The muscle composition of a pelagic fish species, Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), has been studied to determine the relationship with its susceptibility to develop lipid oxidation during chilled storage. For such an aim, the initial concentrations of the major components (water, total lipids, protein, and PUFAs) and minor pro-oxidant and antioxidant components (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, hemoglobin, total iron, LMW-iron, copper, and zinc) of different batches of mackerel were characterized. For the study, several batches of mackerel were caught during the spring and summer periods. The different batches were subjected to chilled storage, and the onset of lipid oxidation was statistically related with the initial muscle composition. Results showed significant compositional differences among the mackerel lots, especially for the muscle lipid content (2.83-9.50%). In a first step, a Pearson correlation test was used to check the influence of each component on the progress of lipid oxidation. Results showed a significant relationship between shelf life and water and total lipid contents. Multiple regression was performed to reveal the contribution of each component to the susceptibility to lipid oxidation. The model obtained combines the content of PUFAs, total iron, hemoglobin, and ascorbic acid. An accurate prediction of shelf life in terms of rancidity was achieved by the model created (R(2) = 0.9975). These results establish that the levels of endogenous pro-oxidants and antioxidants present in fish muscle together with the polyunsaturated lipids are relevant factors affecting the shelf life of mackerel muscle.

  12. Contribución al estudio cariológico del género Cistus L

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Anta, María Ángeles; Gallego Martín, Francisca

    1985-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo se realiza el recuento cromosómico de seis especies del género Cistus L. en un total de siete poblaciones. Se confirma el número cromosómico de C. albidus (2n = 18), C. psilosepalus (2n = 18), C. salyifolius (2n = 18), C. populifolius (2n = 18) y C. ladanifer var. maculatus (2n =18), siendo primer recuento absoluto para C. ladanifer var. albiflorus (n = 9, 2n = 18). Damos por primera vez el número cromosómico de C. psilosepalus y C. ladanifer var. maculatus en mate...

  13. A NEW SPECIES AND A NEW RECORD OF THE GENUS TOMOCERUS NICOLET (COLLEMBOLA, TOMOCERIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国鳞姚属一新种及一新纪录种记述(弹尾目,鳞(虫兆)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元; 梁爱萍; 黄复生

    2007-01-01

    A new species and a new record of the genus Tomocerus Nicolet are described from China. The new species, Tomocerus (Tomocerus) maculatus sp. nov. is different from other species in the genus in the arrangement of proximal dental spines and color pattern on antennae, head and body.%记述弹尾目Collembola鳞姚科Tomoceridae鳞姚属Tomocerus 1新种,即斑点鳞姚Tomocerus (Tomocerus) maculatus sp.nov.和1新纪录种,即巴地鳞Tomocerus (Tomocerus) asoka Yosii et Ashraf,1965.新种模式标本保存于中国科学院动物研究所.

  14. Analysis of genetic variability in three species of Pimelodidae (Ostariophysi - Siluriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. de Almeida

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of three Pimelodidae species, Pimelodus maculatus, Iheringichthys labrosus, and Pinirampus pirinampu, collected at one site in the Tibagi River, was comparatively analyzed using protein data for six systems which code 15 loci in liver, muscle, and heart. The proportion of polymorphic loci ( for P. maculatus, I. labrosus, and P. pirinampu was 13.33, 20, and 6.67%, respectively, and mean heterozigosity was 6, 8.3, and 4.3%. The genetic identity value (I was 0.32 between P. maculatus and I. labrosus, 0.37 between P. maculatus and P. pirinampu, and 0.58 between I. labrosus and P. pirinampu. This value suggests that these two latter species are congeneric. However, morphological characteristics place these species in distinct genera.A variabilidade genética de 3 espécies da família Pimelodidae, Pimelodus maculatus, Iheringichthys labrosus e Pinirampus pirinampu, coletadas em um ponto do rio Tibagi, foi analisada comparativamente utilizando dados protéicos de 6 sistemas que codificam 15 locos em fígado, músculo e coração. A proporção de locos polimórficos ( para P. maculatus, I. labrosus e P. pirinampu foi de 13,33, 20 e 6,67%, respectivamente, e a heterozigosidade média foi de 6, 8,3 e 4,3%. A identidade genética (I foi de 0,32 entre P. maculatus e I. labrosus, 0,37 entre P. maculatus e P. pirinampu e 0,58 entre I. labrosus e P. pirinampu. O valor de I (0,58 encontrado entre I. labrosus e P. pirinampu sugere que estas são espécies congenéricas. No entanto, as características morfológicas colocam estas espécies em gêneros distintos. Os resultados obtidos nesse estudo podem ser úteis para um melhor conhecimento de espécies de Pimelodidae. Elas também reforçam a necessidade da preservação do rio Tibagi (Paraná - Brasil através de uma análise cuidadosa no caso de construção de hidroelétricas.

  15. Etude comparée de la pêche des thonidés mineurs par les chaluts doubles et les pirogues dans la zone économique exclusive (ZEE ivoirienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, CD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey Compared of the Fishing of Minor Tuna by the Double Dragnets and the Dugouts in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of the Ivory Coast. The both units of peaches (double dragnets and dugouts that practice in Ivory Coast have captured 168,833.3 tons of minor tuna. Six species have been met in the landings of the dragnets pelagic and Scomberomorus tritor (79% was the dominant of all (Sarda sarda, Auxis thazard, Euthynnus alletteratus, Scomber japonicus and Acanthocybium solandri. On the other hand, the level of the dugouts, Auxis thazard (58% and Euthynnus alletteratus (40% were abounding. The big sizes have been captured by the contraptions netting nets, and the small sizes, by the dragnets pelagic. At the species it is the opposite that is observed itself. The Acanthocybium solandri effort of fishing was pronounced during the cold periods with elevated captures and many varieties of species, the catch per unit effort remained weak. During all the year, the species captured massively in cold season were Euthynnus alletteratus, Auxis thazard, Acanthocybium solandri, Scomber japonicus and Sarda sarda, exploited by the dugouts; while the one in hot season was Scomberomorus tritor captured by the double dragnets.

  16. Direct assessment of anchovy by the PELGAS05 acoustic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Masse, Jacques; Beillois, Pierre; Duhamel, Erwan

    2005-01-01

    An acoustic survey was carried out in the bay of Biscay from May 3rd to June 1st on board the French research vessel Thalassa. The objective of PELGAS05 survey was to study the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay. The target species were mainly anchovy and sardine and were considered in a multi-specific context. The results have to be used during ICES working groups in charge of the assessment of sardine, anchovy, mackerel and horse mackerel and in the frame of t...

  17. The rise and fall of the NE Atlantic blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Egan, Afra; Fässler, Sascha M. M;

    2012-01-01

    The Northeast Atlantic blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) stock has undergone striking changes in abundance in the last 15 years. The stock increased dramatically in the late 1990s due to a succession of eight unusually strong year classes and dropped again equally dramatically after 2005 when...... are reviewed that may explain these observed changes, with two major candidate hypotheses being identified. One hypothesis suggests that the large mackerel (Scomber scombrus) stock in this region may feed on the pre-recruits of blue whiting, with the spatial overlap between blue whiting and mackerel being...

  18. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  19. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  20. Vorläufige Mitteilung über neue Fische von Lombok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1911-01-01

    Herr Dr. J. ELBERT, Leiter der Sunda-Expedition des Frankfurter Vereins für Geographie, hat von Lombok eine Sammlung Fische mitgebracht, wobei sich zwei neue Arten und zwei neue Varietäten befinden. Es sind folgende: Barbus maculatus (Kuhl & v. Hasselt) Cuv. & Val., v. hagenii, var. n. Zu Ehren des

  1. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf p

  2. Sex differences in the genetic architecture of lifespan in a seed beetle: extreme inbreeding extends male lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Maklakov, Alexei A.; Meisner, Katrine;

    2009-01-01

    -specific responses to inbreeding to study the genetic architecture of lifespan and mortality rates in Callosobruchus maculatus, a seed beetle that shows sexual dimorphism in lifespan. Two independent assays revealed opposing sex-specific responses to inbreeding. The combined data set showed that inbred males live...

  3. Statistical properties of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in one bird and three lizard species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Manley, GA; Gallo, L; Pavusa, A; Taschenberger, G

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were recorded in the barn owl Tyto alba guttata (five ears), and in three lizard species (Callopistes maculatus, one ear; Varanus exanthematicus, seven ears; Gerrhonotus leiocephalus, one ear). The barn owl ears emitted one or two emission frequencies; the lizard

  4. Characterization of gonadotropic cells during continuous and seasonal spermatogenesis of two freshwater fish species: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Borella, Maria Inês

    2017-02-01

    This work describes gonadotropic (GtH) cells and their morphological and immunohistochemical changes during the spermatogenic cycle of Serrasalmus maculatus (continuous spermatogenesis) and Pimelodus maculatus (seasonal spermatogenesis). GtH cells, widely distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, were characterized as round-shaped cells with eccentric nucleus, and cytoplasm with basophilic secretory granules and a variable number of vacuoles for both species. Immunohistochemistry against β-follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and β-luteinizing hormone (Lh) in adjacent sections showed two separated GtH-producing cell populations, and a third population where both GtHs are expressed in the same cell for both species. In the seasonal spermatogenesis of P. maculatus, GtH cells seemed to be more abundant during developing and spawning capable phases. In contrast, no cyclic changes were detected in the continuous spermatogenesis of S. maculatus, except for the strong immunoreaction for Fsh and Lh in males with intense spermiogenesis. We conclude that changes reported here might reflect the type of spermatogenic cycle (seasonal or continuous) which are under different regulatory mechanisms (environmental and internal cues) controlling the reproduction in these species.

  5. New species and records of Goeldichironomus Fittkau, 1965 from Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amora, Gizelle; Hamada, Neusa; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-12-22

    One new species named Goeldichironomus adhaerens sp. n. is described from urban area in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon, based on male adult, pupa and larva. New records of G. neopictus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. maculatus Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, G. pictus Reiss and G. fluctuans Reiss are also provided.

  6. Toxicity of two plant powders as biopesticides in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-02-28

    Feb 28, 2015 ... management of Callosobruchus maculatus F. on two stored grain legumes. 7900. Toxicity of two ... development of pest resistance, toxic residue problems .... ambrosioides powder is the most toxic product (Tables 5 and 6). .... Post Harvest News ... Innovative Pest Management, Pergamon Press,. Oxford ...

  7. Estolomimus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Desmiphorini: novas espécies e chave Estolomimus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Desmiphorini: new species and key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    Full Text Available New species described from Brazil: Estolomimus maculatus (Minas Gerais and São Paulo, E. transversus (Espírito Santo, E. lichenophorus (São Paulo, and from Bolivia: E. abjunctus (Beni. A key to the species is added.

  8. Statistical properties of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in one bird and three lizard species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Manley, GA; Gallo, L; Pavusa, A; Taschenberger, G

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were recorded in the barn owl Tyto alba guttata (five ears), and in three lizard species (Callopistes maculatus, one ear; Varanus exanthematicus, seven ears; Gerrhonotus leiocephalus, one ear). The barn owl ears emitted one or two emission frequencies; the lizard ea

  9. Nuevos datos sobre los hongos hipogeos de España. VIII. Pyrenogaster pityophilus, segunda cita mundial.

    OpenAIRE

    Calonge, F. D.; García, F.; Juste, P.; J. C. Santos

    1998-01-01

    [EN] Nineteen species of hypogeous fungi collected in Spain are mentioned or described here. Among them it is important to notice that Pyrenogaster pityophiluS represents the second world record, and Elaphomyces maculatus and Genea thaxterii are second record for Spain. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology, and chorology are also added.

  10. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  11. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  12. 76 FR 4854 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... as monitored stocks (jack mackerel, northern anchovy, and market squid). During public meetings each... sardine are landed with other CPS so as to minimize the targeting of Pacific sardine. In the event that an... greatly on market forces within the fishery, and on the regional availability of the resource to...

  13. 76 FR 38650 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    .../wcm.html . EIS No. 20110200, Final Supplement, TVA, TN, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2, License... Habitat; Establish a Mackerel Recreational Allocation; Establish a Cap to Limit the At-Sea Processing of.../ Accountability Measures Amendment for the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council's Red Drum, Reef Fish, Shrimp...

  14. 77 FR 73005 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... current estimate of stock biomass. The harvest control rule in the CPS FMP is HG = [(Biomass-Cutoff... control rules in the FMP. The specific harvest control rule is applied to the current stock biomass... to conserve and manage the Pacific mackerel stock off the U.S. West Coast. DATES: Comments must be...

  15. Alternate Boost Vehicle (ABV) Verification Tests. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in parentheses are based on a reference temperature of 25°C and a reference pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury (1,013.2 millibar); ppm in this...jack mackerel, and squid), groundfish (including species of rockfish, shark , and cod), and highly migratory fish (tunas, marlin, and swordfish

  16. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a week, but avoid eating fish with high mercury levels. Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish, and limit albacore tuna to 6 ounces a week. If you eat fish caught in local waters, check for advisories about mercury or other pollutants. If no information is available, ...

  17. 78 FR 19216 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    .... Special Accommodations The meeting is physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign... areas for inclusion in Amendment 16 to the Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan... address the need for a refined set of deep sea coral protection area options for inclusion in Amendment...

  18. Target Tracking and Interception by Aggressive Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    targets can hinder, prevent or endanger attacks to the centrally-located targets. Figure 15. Percentage of strikes (totalling 100%) to each of the...adjusted, 53  to minimize the drag that is produced by the medium through which they move. For example, 54  sharks , tuna and mackerel possess fusiform shapes

  19. Incidence of Larval Anisakiosis in Ocean Fish Sold Through Network of Supermarket Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted on a sample of 33 ocean fish of consumption, mackerel and herring uneviscerated and frosen, packed in plastic bags, different weights and purchased from supermarket chain stores, concerning the incidence and intensity of parasitism by larvae of Anisakis sp. to gut and visceral level, lesion picture caused and also some morphological measurements, reveals an incidence of anisakiasis of 60.0% to 72.2% in mackerel and respectively in herring. Regarding the infestation intensity of Anisakis larvae sp., infestations dominate weakly the mackerel (44.4%, followed by medium (33.3% and massive (22.0%. In contrast to the herring are dominant the medium infestations (46.1%, followed by massive (30.7% and low infestations (23.1%.Table of lesion caused by larval stages in gut and visceral level is characterized by intestinal congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and hemoragico – necrotic and the presence of larval cystic foci on serous of gut, kidneys, liver and gonads. Morphological investigations carried out on a sample of 20 larvae, collected from herring and mackerel, regarding biometric aspects, cuticular and of color, body size variables highlights from 13.0 mm / 0.6 mm minimum to 27.0 / 0.6 mm maximum, with an average of 20.0 mm / 0.5 mm, comparable to those presented in the speciality literature.

  20. 50 CFR Table 32 to Part 679 - Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool 32 Table 32... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 32 Table 32 to Part 679— Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool Amendment 80 species Management area Amendment 80 initial QS pool in units Atka mackerel BS/541542 543 Σ Highest Five Years...

  1. Nourish Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acids is fatty fish (for example sardines, tuna, salmon, mackerel, and herring). Try to eat this type of fish once or twice a week.Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking vitamins or supplements. Depending on your overall health and ...

  2. High Doses of Vitamin D Fail to Cut Cancer Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supplements, she said. Few foods naturally contain vitamin D: fatty fish -- including salmon, mackerel and tuna -- and fish liver oil are the richest sources. In the United States, milk is fortified with vitamin D, as are many breakfast cereals. The trial ...

  3. How a Healthy Diet Helps You Breastfeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you live. Instead, you should look to get vitamin D from foods such as salmon, mackerel, fortified milk or orange juice, and yogurt. Some ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin D. You can get vitamin D from supplements, ...

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the foods you eat. Foods with natural vitamin D include: • Certain fish: salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna • Cod liver oil • Shiitake mushrooms • Egg yolks Foods that often have added vitamin D include: • Dairy products • Orange juice • Infant formula • ...

  5. 75 FR 27990 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... multi-disciplinary study looking at adaptation to climate change in a human-natural coupled system. The...Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Mid-Atlantic... recent Transboundary Resource Assessment Committee's (TRAC) review of the status of Atlantic mackerel. 10...

  6. 76 FR 45516 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Avenue, Suite 1100, Tampa, FL 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive... Selection; Joint Mackerel, Reef Fish and Red Drum; Artificial Reef; Data Collection; Budget/Personnel; and... permits (EFPs), if any; Final Actions on Reef Fish Amendment 32, the Generic Annual Catch...

  7. KONTRIBUSI INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN HASIL PERIKANAN TRADISIONAL TERHADAP PENDAPATAN NELAYAN PENGOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernik Yuliana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional fish processing industries in Muara Angke Jakarta have been involving many labor from the local fishermen or others. This study describes the contributions of many small industry to the labor incomes based on every small industry profit distribution. Survey method had been applied to collect the data. The population are all small traditional fish processing industries in Muara Angke. The samples are chosen based on their product, either salty fish or smoked fish. “Hayami method” was applied to calculate the added value of each small industry. The results of this study shows that salty squid has the highest value added (Rp2167,61/kg and highest profits (Rp2072,61/kg, Indian mackerel smoked fish gives the highest contributions to labor incomes (Rp663,36/kg. Sardinella salty fish gives the highest profit level, followed by salty squid and salty mackerel scad. Salty stingray and salty Indian mackerel gives high value for labor return. In addition, salty sardinella, salty squid, and salty “lesi” fish have high added value ratio. Salty stingray gives the highest other input contribution, followed by smoked Indian mackerel.

  8. 75 FR 1745 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of... for actively managed species (Pacific sardine and Pacific mackerel) are based on formulas applied to... ``Assessment of Pacific Sardine Stock for U.S. Management in 2010'' (see ADDRESSES). The formula in the CPS...

  9. Game theory and fish wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Thøgersen, Thomas Talund

    2015-01-01

    in 2010 and that the EU, Norway and the Faroe Islands reached a bargaining solution in 2014 cannot be explained by simple cooperative game theory. However, actual behavior during the mackerel crisis can be explained by opportunity costs, including alternative fishing possibilities and regulations, rather...

  10. 78 FR 48852 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... use of vessel monitoring systems (VMS), as well as the submission of daily VMS catch reports, for...; Require a 6-hr pre-landing notification via VMS in order to land more than 20,000 lb (9.07 mt) of mackerel... Act. Based on DOC's advice, there is no current legal mechanism to allow cost-sharing of at-sea costs...

  11. In Silico Design of Smart Binders to Anthrax PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    34GRAMM-X public web server for protein-protein docking," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 34, pp. 310-314, 2006. [3] A. Saladin, et al., "PTools: an...Online]. [13] H. M. Berman, et al., "The Protein Data Bank," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 28, pp. 235-242, 1999. [14] J. A. D. MacKerell, et al

  12. 78 FR 30866 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Mackerel) Schedule and Terms of Reference (TOR); SEDAR 32 (Gray Triggerfish and Blueline Tilefish) and SEDAR 36 (Snowy Grouper) TOR review; and participants for SEDAR 38 and SEDAR 36. Note: There will be an... SEDAR Research Plan. The Council is scheduled to approve the following: SEDAR 38 Schedule and TOR;...

  13. [Determination of histamine content in canned fish products determined by the colorimetry method of Hardy and Smith].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, B; Grochowska, A; Sciezyńska, H; Górecka, K; Fonberg-Broczek, M

    1992-01-01

    The content of histamine in 79 samples of imported canned fish products (sardines, mackerel) was determined. Histamine was assayed by colorimetric method of Hardy and Smith. In 18% of tested products (sardines) levels of histamine were exceeded 20 mg/100 of product. Usefulness of this method in routine quantitative determination of histamine content in canned fish products was documented.

  14. Impact of quality parameters on the recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fish using methanol-hydrochloric acid solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nicole L; Pivarnik, Lori F; Ellis, P Christopher; Lee, Chong M

    2011-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) extraction by AOAC Official Method 996.07 has resulted in low amine recoveries in fresh fish tissue. Addition of 25% 0.4 M HCl to the 75% methanol-water extraction solvent resulted in higher recoveries of putrescine and cadaverine. Average putrescine recovery increased from 55 to 92% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 92 to 98% in mackerel; and from 83 to 107% in processed mackerel. Average cadaverine recovery increased from 57 to 95% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 91 to 97% in mackerel; and from 92 to 108% in processed mackerel. Fish stored on ice for 12 days also showed differences between background concentrations determined with the two solvents. However, the values decreased with storage time, indicating that degradation of the protein matrix may cause more comparable measurements between the two solvents. However, consistently higher putrescine and cadaverine measurements were determined using MeOH-HCl. Although significant differences in the extraction of amines from the high-fat fish tissue were not seen between MeOH and MeOH-HCl, it would be ideal to have one solvent for biogenic amine extraction. This study confirms that MeOH-HCl is a better solvent for complete extraction and recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fresh and processed fish tissues.

  15. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    DCj,i is the average fraction of i in the diet of j (in terms of mass), ... per unit biomass (Q/B), assimilation efficiency, diet composition ..... imum biomass necessary to sustain the food require- ments for .... species may benefit from energy made available when another fish .... pelagic fish, and horse mackerel, which supplement.

  16. 77 FR 11065 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...: The SEDAR 28 assessments of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic stocks of Spanish mackerel and cobia... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB022 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  17. 78 FR 68817 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine... 38 stock assessment of South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico King Mackerel: A Data Workshop; an... stock assessment and input data. Participants for SEDAR Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico...

  18. 77 FR 70149 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... 28 Gulf of Mexico Spanish mackerel and cobia assessment Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC328 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  19. 76 FR 77491 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    .... SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessments of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic stocks of Spanish mackerel and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA863 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  20. 77 FR 43049 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish mackerel and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  1. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  2. 75 FR 59645 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... populations. The primary concern is preventing the transmission of disease from the large numbers of African... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) is a law that was passed to prevent... horse mackerel has replaced sardines. (5) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that avian cholera...

  3. 78 FR 15707 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Management Council will convene a meeting of the Standing, Special Mackerel and Ecosystem Scientific and... Integrated Ecosystems Assessment (IEA) project being conducted by the Southeast Fisheries Science Center. The... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC548 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...

  4. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be accomplished through written reviews because delays in completing the assessments prevented their consideration at the SEDAR 28 Review Workshop. This workshop is being held by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council to consider recommendations from the written reviews and develop recommendations for the......

  5. 76 FR 20959 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Pacific mackerel stock assessment for 2011, in order to inform fisheries management decisions for the 2011... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA366 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  6. Histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Victor E; Lescano, Andres G; Huamán, Alfredo A; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L

    2009-05-01

    Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of > 500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had > 10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (> 1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of > 10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru.

  7. Histamine Levels in Fish from Markets in Lima, Perú†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Victor E.; Lescano, Andres G.; Huamán, Alfredo A.; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of >500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had >10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (>1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman’s rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of >10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru. PMID:19517744

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with -amylase inhibitor gene for insect resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ignacimuthu; S Prakash

    2006-09-01

    Chickpea is the world’s third most important pulse crop and India produces 75% of the world’s supply. Chickpea seeds are attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis which cause extensive damage. The -amylase inhibitor gene isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was introduced into chickpea cultivar K850 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 288 kanamycin resistant plants were regenerated. Only 0.3% of these were true transformants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of 4.9 kb -amylase inhibitor gene in the transformed plants. Western blot confirmed the presence of -amylase inhibitor protein. The results of bioassay study revealed a significant reduction in the survival rate of bruchid weevil C. maculatus reared on transgenic chickpea seeds. All the transgenic plants exhibited a segregation ratio of 3:1.

  9. Taphonomic marks on pig tissue due to cadaveric Coleoptera activity under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study taphonomic marks that cadaveric coleopteran can produce under controlled conditions. To evaluate this, pig trotters were initially exposed to adults of Dermestes maculatus De Geer at 21 ± 5°C and a 12:12-h day/night cycle. Observations were made and photographs taken every 4-5 days for 9 months. When feeding and reproducing, D. maculatus produced, in both adult and larvae stages, different types of marks such as holes, striations, scratches, and pits in several kinds of tissue such as integumental, connective, and muscular, in both their fresh and dried stages. Bite marks were also evident. The results in this study provide not only taphonomic but also biological and forensic information. This is the first time that this kind of experiment has been performed. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  11. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF MUSTARD ESSENTIAL OIL TO INSECT-PESTS OF STORED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALBERTO HIPÓLITO SOUSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative toxicity of the mustard (Brassica rapa L. essential oil (MEO on young and old larvae, pupae, and adults of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus was determined using concen- tration-response bioassays. The respiration rate of adults was measured to determine its influence on its toxic- ity. Different developmental stages of both species differed significantly in their response to MEO, with the adults being much more susceptible than the immature stages. Although adult mortality did not differ between species, the adult respiration rate of C. maculatus was significantly higher than that of S. zeamais. Thus, the toxicity oil for adults was not influenced by natural respiration rate of species investigated.

  12. Efficient Transmission of an Introduced Pathogen Via an Ancient Insect-Fungus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, A.; Roques, A.; Colombari, F.; Frigimelica, G.; Guido, M.

    In Cupressus sempervirens the association between seed insects and tree pathogens has resulted in optimal exploitation of the cones. A fungus-infected cone can be inhabited by the nymphs of a true seed bug (Orsillus maculatus), the adults of which may carry a heavy spore load at emergence. Cones are infected when eggs are laid within the cone, most frequently via the emergence holes of a seed wasp (Megastigmus wachtli). This symbiotic association evolved with the nonaggressive fungus Pestalotiopsis funerea within the natural range of the cypress. When the aggressive cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) was introduced into Europe, it was transmitted by O. maculatus to cones usually colonized by Pestalotiopsis funerea, with disastrous consequences for the regeneration and survival of C. sempervirens in the entire Mediterranean area.

  13. Project INOVEMAR: Innovation in Sea Produce Processment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alberta Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Following information conveyed by Docapesca, the less valued species captured in the region are different mackerel species, Atlantic horse mackerel, pout, octopus and mullet. Mackerel and Atlantic horse mackerel, due to their high subcutaneous fat were used for smoking and for the production of canned smoked fillets and patés, with different sauces.The smoking process included: washing fresh fish, 30 minutes immersion in a 80º brine, followed by dripping and drying for 48h. Smoking was carried out at 70ºC during 3h, with a final stage at 90ºC. Several paté formulations were developed with mackerel and atlantic horse mackerel, with different types and quantities of ingredients and flavourings to obtain different products. Special attention was paid to the amounts of thickeners and emulsifiers to attain a pleasant spread ability. All preparations were sterilized for 15 minutes at 121ºC. A sensory panel with 10 judges and a consumer panel with 59 consumers were used to test the developed products. The 59 consumers (17-25 years of age classified smoked products as moderately pleasant. 82% of the consumers tested expressed willingness to purchase the product. In what concerns patés, sensory judges as well as consumers rated the majority of products as very good in the several parameters under evaluation, indication that there is a great potential for these type of commodities. Several fish species are being studied for pre-cooking conservation. In all the cases studied, typical Portuguese cuisine is being used, followed by rapid chilling and packing with modified atmospheres. Preparations, preservation and subsequent consumption are being carried out at the school's canteen. The results obtained until now show that low commercial valued species can be used with success, providing some culinary expertise is added. This is a very important aspect since, transferring this technology to industry, may lead to the development of new products and help an easy flow of

  14. Environmental Assessment of the Relocation of a Weather Training Facility to Keesler Air Force Base, Biloxi, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-15

    conger R Hippocampus erectus** Lined seahorse C Hippocampus zosterae Dwarf seahorse U Histrio histrio Sargassumf ish R Hybognathus hayi Cypress minnow U...Odontoceti - Toothed whales Family Physeteridae - Sperm whales Koala breviceps - Pygmy sperm whale Kogia simus - Dwarf sperm whale Family Ziphiidae...Decapterus punctatus Round scad R Diplectcum bivittatum Dwarf sand perch R Dormitator maculatus Fat sleeper C Corosoma cepedianum Gizzard shad U Dorosona

  15. First record of an epibiont protozoan Epistylis sp. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia attached to Ergasilus chelangulatus (Ergasilidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK. Azevedo

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we described the first record of an epibiont protozoan Epistylis sp. Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia attached to Ergasilus chelangulatus Thatcher and Brasil-Sato, 2008, parasite of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 in Brazil, with electron microscope observations. Fish were collected in Veados River, state of São Paulo and the crustacean Ergasilus chelangulatus being registered for the first time in this river, expanding its geographical distribution in Brazil.

  16. Mode of Action for Natural Products Isolated From Essential Oils of Two Trees Is Different From Available Mosquito Adulticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    chemicals currently used in mosquito control. KEY WORDS mode of action, mosquitoes, nookatone, thymoquinone, carvacrol Commercial insecticides used in...food (Tetra Holding, Blacksburg, VA). Pupae produced in a single day were separated from larvae in cohorts of 600 and put into 35- by 35- by 35-cm...ofAedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatusSay, andAnopheles quadri- maculatus Say to 19 pesticides with different modes of action. J. Med. Entomol. 45: 82Ð87

  17. Descriptions of three new species of Strattis Pascoe, 1883 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae) from the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Salam Rita; Ray, D C; Ramamurthy, V V

    2016-03-02

    The cryptorhynchine genus Strattis Pascoe originally described from Sri Lanka is recorded from India with the descriptions of three new species: S. pascoei sp. nov., S. maculatus sp. nov., and S. srilankaiensis sp. nov. from the Indian subcontinent. Strattis biguttatus is designated as type species for the genus. A key to species is provided. The character of a presumable stridulatory structure between the meta-femur and the first abdominal ventrite is discussed.

  18. Cortisol release in response to UVB exposure in Xiphophorus fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Adam J; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by an assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during an experimental treatment and UVB exposure in Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B, Xiphophorus couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on the cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32kJ/m(2)) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in the cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino Xiphophorus hellerii were exposed to UVB (32kJ/m(2)). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in the cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumor induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes.

  19. Breeding Food Legumes for Resistance to Storage Insect Pests: Potential and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Storage insect pests cause significant losses of food legumes particularly in the Tropics and the Sub-tropics. The most important species of storage insect pests of food legumes include Callosobruchus chinensis , C. maculatus , C. analis , Acanthoscelides obtectus , Bruchus incarnatus , B. rufimanus , B. dentipes , B. quinqueguttatus , B. emarginatus , B. ervi , B. lentis and B. pisorum . Effective post-harvest insect pest control measures should constitute part of the overall crop husbandry ...

  20. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ML. Martins; Marchiori,N.; Roumbedakis,K.; F Lami

    2012-01-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2)...